Science.gov

Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  2. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, in vivo and in vitro studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for study design, original purposes, sample size, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values. Results: In total, 4,331 non-duplicates articles were identified from electronic databases searches, of which 16 were eligible for full text searching. Data from the observational studies originate from Asian countries (50%; 8/16), South American countries (31.2%; 5/16), and Central America and the Caribbean countries (18.8%; 3/16). Case-control study was the type of design most common in researches reviewed. The 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification criteria were used in all studies included in this review. Conclusions: Based on published data found in peer-reviewed literature, oxidative and nitrosative stress are demonstrated by changes in plasma levels of nitric oxide, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers in patients with dengue infection. Additionally, elevated serum protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels appear to be associated with dengue disease severity.

  3. Emergency ambulance service involvement with residential care homes in the support of older people with dementia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Older people resident in care homes have a limited life expectancy and approximately two-thirds have limited mental capacity. Despite initiatives to reduce unplanned hospital admissions for this population, little is known about the involvement of emergency services in supporting residents in these settings. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study that tracked the involvement of emergency ambulance personnel in the support of older people with dementia, resident in care homes with no on-site nursing providing personal care only. 133 residents with dementia across 6 care homes in the East of England were tracked for a year. The paper examines the frequency and reasons for emergency ambulance call-outs, outcomes and factors associated with emergency ambulance service use. Results 56% of residents used ambulance services. Less than half (43%) of all call-outs resulted in an unscheduled admission to hospital. In addition to trauma following a following a fall in the home, results suggest that at least a reasonable proportion of ambulance contacts are for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. An emergency ambulance is not likely to be called for older rather than younger residents or for women more than men. Length of residence does not influence use of emergency ambulance services among older people with dementia. Contact with primary care services and admission route into the care home were both significantly associated with emergency ambulance service use. The odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from a relative’s home were 90% lower than the odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from their own home. Conclusions Emergency service involvement with this vulnerable population merits further examination. Future research on emergency ambulance service use by older people with dementia in care homes, should account for important contextual factors, namely, presence or absence of on-site nursing, GP involvement, and access to residents’ family, alongside resident health characteristics. PMID:25164581

  4. Observing Task and Ego Involvement in a Club Volleyball Setting 

    E-print Network

    Schwarzlose, Tori

    2013-04-30

    This study examined how task and ego involvement affected 12-and-under girls’ motivations to play competitive club volleyball. Participants included 25 girls under the age of 12, as well as 31 parents including those of the 25 girls. Parents...

  5. INVESTIGATOR CHECKLIST FOR STUDIES INVOLVING PRISONERS

    E-print Network

    Flann, Nicholas

    more prevalent in prisons than elsewhere; and research on social and psychological problemsINVESTIGATOR CHECKLIST FOR STUDIES INVOLVING PRISONERS DEFINITION OF "PRISONER" FOR THE APPLICATION OF SPECIAL PROTECTIONS Prisoner means any individual involuntarily confined or detained in a penal

  6. Environmental science and ecology involve studies

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    Environmental science and ecology involve studies of the biosphere, hydro- sphere, and lithosphere in environmental science is conducted on spatial scales varying from a single algal cell to the Earth as a whole's environmental scientists require investigation by an interdisciplinary team, including members from several

  7. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  8. Internal pilots for observational studies.

    PubMed

    Gurka, Matthew J; Coffey, Christopher S; Gurka, Kelly K

    2010-10-01

    Study planning often involves selecting an appropriate sample size. Power calculations require specifying an effect size and estimating "nuisance" parameters, e.g. the overall incidence of the outcome. For observational studies, an additional source of randomness must be estimated: the rate of the exposure. A poor estimate of any of these parameters will produce an erroneous sample size. Internal pilot (IP) designs reduce the risk of this error?-?leading to better resource utilization - by using revised estimates of the nuisance parameters at an interim stage to adjust the final sample size. In the clinical trials setting, where allocation to treatment groups is pre-determined, IP designs have been shown to achieve the targeted power without introducing substantial inflation of the type I error rate. It has not been demonstrated whether the same general conclusions hold in observational studies, where exposure-group membership cannot be controlled by the investigator. We extend the IP to observational settings. We demonstrate through simulations that implementing an IP, in which prevalence of the exposure can be re-estimated at an interim stage, helps ensure optimal power for observational research with little inflation of the type I error associated with the final data analysis. PMID:20857422

  9. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  10. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  11. A Futile Redox Cycle Involving Neuroglobin Observed at Physiological Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anyang; Brittain, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identifying the potential anti-apoptotic role of neuroglobin raise the question as to how cells might employ neuroglobin to avoid the apoptotic impact of acute hypoxia whilst also avoiding chronic enhancement of tumour formation. We show that under likely physiological conditions neuroglobin can take part in a futile redox cycle. Determination of the rate constants for each of the steps in the cycle allows us to mathematically model the steady state concentration of the active anti-apoptotic ferrous form of neuroglobin under various conditions. Under likely normal physiological conditions neuroglobin is shown to be present in the ferrous state at approximately 30% of its total cellular concentration. Under hypoxic conditions this rapidly rises to approximately 80%. Temporal analysis of this model indicates that the transition from low concentrations to high concentration of ferrous neuroglobin occurs on the seconds time scale. These findings indicate a potential control model for the anti-apoptotic activity of neuroglobin, under likely physiological conditions, whereby, in normoxic conditions, the anti-apoptotic activity of neuroglobin is maintained at a low level, whilst immediately a transition occurs to a hypoxic situation, as might arise during stroke, the anti-apoptotic activity is drastically increased. In this way the cell avoids unwanted increased oncogenic potential under normal conditions, but the rapid activation of neuroglobin provides anti-apoptotic protection in times of acute hypoxia. PMID:26305249

  12. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

  13. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  17. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  18. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

  20. MAXimising Involvement in MUltiMorbidity (MAXIMUM) in primary care: protocol for an observation and interview study of patients, GPs and other care providers to identify ways of reducing patient safety failures

    PubMed Central

    Daker-White, Gavin; Hays, Rebecca; Esmail, Aneez; Minor, Brian; Barlow, Wendy; Brown, Benjamin; Blakeman, Thomas; Bower, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increasing numbers of older people are living with multiple long-term health conditions but global healthcare systems and clinical guidelines have traditionally focused on the management of single conditions. Having two or more long-term conditions, or ‘multimorbidity’, is associated with a range of adverse consequences and poor outcomes and could put patients at increased risk of safety failures. Traditionally, most research into patient safety failures has explored hospital or inpatient settings. Much less is known about patient safety failures in primary care. Our core aims are to understand the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures, to explore the different ways in which patients and services respond (or fail to respond), and to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods and analysis We plan to undertake an applied ethnographic study of patients with multimorbidity. Patients’ interactions and environments, relevant to their healthcare, will be studied through observations, diary methods and semistructured interviews. A framework, based on previous studies, will be used to organise the collection and analysis of field notes, observations and other qualitative data. This framework includes the domains: access breakdowns, communication breakdowns, continuity of care errors, relationship breakdowns and technical errors. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee for Wales. An individual case study approach is likely to be most fruitful for exploring the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures. A longitudinal and multiperspective approach will allow for the constant comparison of patient, carer and healthcare worker expectations and experiences related to the provision, integration and management of complex care. This data will be used to explore ways of engaging patients and carers more in their own care using shared decision-making, patient empowerment or other relevant models. PMID:25138807

  1. Parent and Community Involvement in Education. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Barry; Anderson, Beckie; Billig, Shelley

    This study focused on parent, family, and community involvement in middle-grade education. It addressed three reform themes in the area of middle-grade school/family and community partnerships: (1) What are the larger and local environments within which parent, family, and community involvement operate? How do these contextual factors influence…

  2. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  3. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual...

  4. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual...

  5. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual...

  6. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual...

  7. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects...Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual...

  8. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  9. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  10. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  11. Carer involvement with drug services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: ‘Current levels of involvement’, ‘Use of the term carer’ and ‘Opportunities for change?’ Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term ‘carer’ was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the ‘same but different’ from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899

  12. The Political Involvement of Social Studies Teachers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Watt L.; And Others

    Attitudes toward and participation in politics by elementary and secondary school social studies teachers in Texas from 1976-1977 are discussed. Political involvement is interpreted to include voting, contributing time and/or money to a political party, running for political office, belonging to a teachers organization, watching news on…

  13. Observational Evidence for Involvement of Nitrate Radicals in Nighttime Oxidation of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mordechai; Tas, Eran; Obrist, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Moore, Christopher; Gabay, Maor; Luria, Menachem

    2015-12-15

    In the atmosphere, reactive forms of mercury species can be produced by oxidation of the dominant gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). The oxidation of GEM is an important driver for deposition, but oxidation pathways currently are poorly constrained and likely differ among regions. In this study, continuous measurements of atmospheric nitrate radical (NO3) concentrations and mercury speciation (i.e., elemental and reactive, oxidized forms) were performed during a six week period in the urban air shed of Jerusalem, Israel during summer 2012, to investigate the potential nighttime contribution of nitrate radicals to oxidized mercury formation. Average nighttime concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were almost equivalent to daytime levels (25 pg m(-3) and 27 pg m(-3) respectively), in contrast to early morning and evening RGM levels which dropped to low levels (9 and 13 pg m(-3)). During daytime, the presence of RGM was increased when solar radiation exceeded 200 W m(-2), suggesting a photochemical process for daytime RGM formation. Ozone concentrations were largely unrelated to daytime RGM. Nighttime RGM concentrations were relatively high (with a maximum of 97 pg m(-3)) compared to nighttime levels in other urban regions. A strong correlation was observed between nighttime RGM concentrations and nitrate radical concentration (R(2) averaging 0.47), while correlations to other variables were weak (e.g., RH; R(2) = 0.35) or absent (e.g., ozone, wind speed and direction, pollution tracers such as CO or SO2). Detailed analyses suggest that advection processes or tropospheric influences were unlikely to explain the strong nighttime correlations between NO3 and RGM, although these processes may contribute to these relationships. Our observations suggest that NO3 radicals may play a role in RGM formation, possibly due to a direct chemical involvement in GEM oxidation. Since physical data, however, suggest that NO3 unlikely initiates GEM oxidation, NO3 may play a secondary role in GEM oxidation through the addition to an unstable Hg(I) radical species. PMID:26551088

  14. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Arthur; Bentler, Suzanne; Charlton, Mary; Lanska, Douglas; Butani, Yogita; Soomro, G Mustafa; Benson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment. PMID:16137327

  15. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  16. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  17. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  18. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  20. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  1. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    E-print Network

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  2. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  3. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  4. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  5. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  6. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  7. Inter-observer variation in methodologies involving the pubic symphysis, sternal ribs, and teeth.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Prince, Debra A; Berg, Gregory E

    2008-05-01

    For the skeletal age of a victim to be useful in victim identification, the methods on which it is based must be reliable, accurate, and the results easily duplicated. The ability of multiple investigators to duplicate results is an interesting and complex issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate how consistently multiple investigators assign skeletal traits to rib, pubic symphyseal, or tooth "phases" and measure teeth. The skeletal data from identified individuals in Kosovo are used to test inter-observer variation for a variety of skeletal and dental aging techniques. Two hundred and ninety-six (n = 296) pubic symphyses were scored in the manners of the Todd's ten-phase system and the Suchey-Brooks six-phase system. Six hundred and twenty-two (n = 622) sternal rib ends were scored in the manner of I?can and co-author's nine-phase system. Four hundred and twelve (n = 412) single-rooted teeth were measured in the manner of Lamendin and colleagues and scored for the amount of tooth wear using Smith's nine-phase system. Repeat measures were taken by multiple observers. There appears to be a wide range of variation, even among experienced investigators in the assignment of phase or metric data. Inter-observer variation, investigated through Pearson's r correlation coefficients, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and paired samples t-tests demonstrate significant differences using all methods. How this variation affects the accuracy of age estimation is subject to further investigation, but what is clear is that even with collaboration among investigators to calibrate with one another, the repeatability of numerous aging methodologies is difficult to achieve. Through this investigation it appears the problem lies in the qualitative nature of broad descriptive phase categories, which contain multiple skeletal features and traits that are open to interpretation. PMID:18471202

  8. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

  9. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  10. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  11. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  12. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  13. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  15. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  16. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-11-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  17. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  18. Improving Parent Involvement Programs and Practice: A Qualitative Study of Parent Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy

    1997-01-01

    A focus-group study recently surveyed 111 parents concerning the type, frequency, and reason for their involvement in their children's education and major barriers and facilitators to such involvement. To improve parent participation, educators must clarify how and why parents can be involved, build on parent involvement at school programs, create…

  19. Embedding clinical interventions into observational studies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Anderson, Garnet; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Wm James; Krucoff, Mitchell; Kuller, Lewis H; Lewis, Cora E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Taylor, Herman; Treviño, Roberto P; Weintraub, William

    2016-01-01

    Novel approaches to observational studies and clinical trials could improve the cost-effectiveness and speed of translation of research. Hybrid designs that combine elements of clinical trials with observational registries or cohort studies should be considered as part of a long-term strategy to transform clinical trials and epidemiology, adapting to the opportunities of big data and the challenges of constrained budgets. Important considerations include study aims, timing, breadth and depth of the existing infrastructure that can be leveraged, participant burden, likely participation rate and available sample size in the cohort, required sample size for the trial, and investigator expertise. Community engagement and stakeholder (including study participants) support are essential for these efforts to succeed. PMID:26611435

  20. Observational Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.

    2015-07-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterization of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  1. Hippocampal involvement in recollection but not familiarity across time: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Boris; Gayk, Anna E; Schmid, Gebhard; Köster, Odo; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    For medial temporal lobe (MTL) involvement in memory formation, it is as yet unclear whether the MTL represents a single or dual (recollection/familiarity) memory system. A further controversial issue is whether or not the hippocampus is critical for the familiarity component of recognition memory. The present prospective fMRI study aimed to investigate changes of MTL involvement in recollection and familiarity at three time points following new learning: immediately after encoding, after 3 weeks and after 6 weeks. Significant hippocampal activation was observed for recollection relative to correct rejection responses at all three intervals. In addition, a decrease of signal changes in the perirhinal cortex was observed for the familiarity versus correct rejection contrasts. These findings support the idea that the MTL is a dual memory system. They also indicate a lasting hippocampal involvement in the recollection component of recognition memory and a decrease of perirhinal cortex activation associated with familiarity for time periods up to 6 weeks after new learning. PMID:17932973

  2. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  3. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  4. Surface studies of asteroids from earthbound observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, H. J.; Scaltriti, F.; Zappala, V.

    1980-04-01

    The angular diameter of minor planets under the best observation conditions of about one arcsec (seeing) at ground-based observatories usually is too small to be resolved for surface studies or diameter determinations with direct photographic or similar imaging methods. Nevertheless, the rough geometry and/or small-scale structures on the asteroid surfaces can be studied with light curve observations using high-precision photoelectric photometry and the fact that the rotation of an asteroid during a spin period is now determined for slightly more than 200 minor planets. For only a few selected asteroids (63 Ausonia, 88 Thisbe, 92 Undina, 110 Lydia, 118 Peitho, 128 Nemesis, 139 Juewa, 337 Devosa, and 599 Luisa) it is shown from details detected in the light curves, how observations of this type were carried out successfully. From the small scale features, rough linear extensions on the asteroid surface are obtained from differences in magnitude and time. Such observations will be more useful and important in the future with respect to the optimum selection of objects for a possible direct asteroid spacecraft mission.

  5. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies. PMID:24139690

  6. Case Studies Involving Displaced Workers' Transition to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lillian R.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is how community college transition programs and services accommodated students who experienced a major life transition event (job loss) using Schlosberg's (1984) Life Transition Model and the updated model with Anderson and Goodman (2006). Students' perceptions of transition programs and services were…

  7. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  9. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  10. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  11. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  12. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an…

  14. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  15. CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

  16. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  17. Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION relevant to the study of air pollution involving particulate matter and to setting particulate matter air

  18. Processes involved in reading imaging studies: workflow analysis and implications for workstation development.

    PubMed

    Gay, S B; Sobel, A H; Young, L Q; Dwyer, S J

    1997-02-01

    Software development for imaging workstations has lagged behind hardware availability. To guide development and to analyze work flow involved in interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies, we assessed the cognitive and physical processes. We observed the performance and interpretation of body computed tomography (CT) scans and recorded the events that occurred during this process. We studied work flow using a bottleneck analysis. Twenty-four of a total of 54 cases (44%) involved comparing the images with those of prior scans. Forty-seven of 54 scans (87%) were viewed using windows other than soft tissue, or compared with precontrast scans. In 46 cases (85%), the interpretation stopped to return to a previous level for review. Measurement of lesions was performed in 24 of 54 (44%) cases, and in 15 (63%) of these cases, measurements were taken of lesions on old studies for comparison. Interpretation was interrupted in 14 of 54 cases (26%) by referring clinicians desiring consultation. The work flow analysis showed film folder retrieval by the film room to be the bottleneck for interpretation by film. For picture archiving and communication system (PACS) reading, the CT examination itself proved to be the bottleneck. We conclude that workstations for CT interpretation should facilitate movement within scans, comparison with prior examinations, and measuring lesions on these scans. Workstation design should consider means of optimizing time currently not used between interpretation sessions, minimizing interruptions and providing more automated functions currently requiring physician interaction. PMID:9147527

  19. Process involved in reading imaging studies: workflow analysis and implications for workstation development.

    PubMed

    Gay, Spencer B; Sobel, Amy H; Young, Linda Q; Dwyer, Samuel J

    2002-09-01

    Software development for imaging workstations has lagged behind hardware availability. To guide development and to analyze work flow involved in interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies, we assessed the cognitive and physical processes. We observed the performance and interpretation of body computed tomography (CT scans and recorded the events that occurred during this process. We studied work flow using a bottleneck analysis. Twenty-four ofa total of 54 cases (44%) involved comparing the images with those of prior scans. Forty-seven of 54 scans (87%) were viewed using windows other than soft tissue, or compared with precontrast scans. In 46 cases (85%), the interpretation stopped to return to a previous level for review. Measurement of lesions was performed in 24 of 54 (44%) cases, and in 15 (63%)of these cases, measurements were taken of lesions on old studies for comparison. Interpretation was interrupted in 14 of 54 cases (26%) by referring clinicians desiring consultation. The work flow analysis showed film folder retrieval by the film room to be the bottleneck for interpretation by film. For picture archiving and communication system (PACS) reading,the CT examination itself proved to be the bottleneck. We conclude that workstations for CT interpretation should facilitate movement within scans, comparison with prior examinations, and measuring lesions on these scans. Workstation design should consider means of optimizing time currently not used between interpretation sessions, minimizing interruptions and providing more automated functions currently requiring physician interaction. PMID:12641097

  20. Determinants of hemorrhagic infarcts. Histologic observations from experiments involving coronary occlusion, coronary reperfusion, and reocclusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Dorado, D.; Théroux, P.; Solares, J.; Alonso, J.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Elizaga, J.; Soriano, J.; Botas, J.; Munoz, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of intramyocardial hemorrhage was performed in 69 pigs submitted to various protocols of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. The study groups include 1) permanent occlusion; 2) reperfusion after periods of coronary occlusion of 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes; 3) reperfusion with diltiazem and with 4) methoxamine after a 60-minute occlusion period; and 5) permanent reocclusion after a 30-minute period of reperfusion. Red blood cell counts were directly assessed by visual examination of histologic slices of myocardium and in a subgroup of animals by counts of red blood cells labeled with 99m-technetium pertechnetate. Hemorrhage occurs in infarcts reperfused after a duration of 45 minutes or more of coronary occlusion and after a period of reperfusion maintained for at least 30 minutes. Red blood cell counts were maximal in the mid portions of transmural sections of the infarcts, with decreasing values toward epicardium and endocardium. Diltiazem decreased total red blood cell counts, whereas methoxamine increased it and also caused subendocardial hemorrhage. The most powerful predictors of the severity of hemorrhage after sustained reperfusion were infarct size and higher blood pressure. Images Figure 3 Figure 3 PMID:2386198

  1. The Effects of Student Involvement on Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Kelsey; McKee, Mallory; Brooks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pilot study discussed in this article investigates the perception of counselor education students' level of involvement and their satisfaction regarding their graduate program experience. It is believed, more involved students are more satisfied. Because there is limited existing data, this study seeks to ignite the conversation and future…

  2. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:25046131

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  4. A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake Payne, Ruthanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

  5. Ultrastructural study of renal involvement in two females with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Tosoni, A; Nebuloni, M; Zerbi, P; Vago, L; Comotti, C; Sessa, A

    2005-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare X-linked lipid storage disorder due to a deficient lysosomal a-galactosidase A (a-Gal) activity. In males with the classic form of the disease the enzymatic defect leads to progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GL) in different organs, mainly in the kidney, heart, and brain, causing severe multisystem failure. AFD is usually mild in heterozygous females, but severe cerebrovascular, renal, and cardiac manifestations have been rarely described. The aim of this study is to describe renal involvement of mild symptomatic female carriers by ultrastructural analysis focusing to microvascular lesions, considered to be one of the major causes of systemic disease in AFD. Resin-embedded renal biopsies from 2 sisters with isolated mild proteinuria and belonging to a family group with AFD were observed by light and electron microscopy. In spite of the mild clinical symptoms, diffuse GL storages were demonstrated in all types of glomerular cells and in interstitial endothelial cells. Moreover, platelets were frequently observed in glomerular vassels, a feature coherent with a possible role of prothrombotic state, and platelet activation, in early glomerular lesions. PMID:16036875

  6. Connection between psychosis, trauma and dissociation: an exploratory study involving patients in forensic mental health settings 

    E-print Network

    Austin, Jessica Ann

    2011-11-25

    Background: High levels of dissociation have been found in recent studies involving psychiatric inpatients. Proponents of the ‘dissociative psychoses’ have found that trauma-focused intervention strategies can improve ...

  7. A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school 

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Shantina Rayford

    2009-05-15

    This study examines school level differences on different dimensions of teacherrated parent involvement and school climate while adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, how certified, and number of years teaching. Two hundred ...

  8. Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Ortholan, Cecile; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Teissier, Eric; Cowen, Didier; Department of Radiation Therapy, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Center, Montpellier ; Salem, Nagi; Lemanski, Claire; Ellis, Steve; Resbeut, Michel; French Red Cross Center, Toulon

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to use of a BCT boost technique, as well as emphasizing the important of investigating the benefit of BCT boost in prospective randomized trials.

  9. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  10. Liver involvement in patients with brucellosis: results of the Marmara study.

    PubMed

    Ozturk-Engin, D; Erdem, H; Gencer, S; Kaya, S; Baran, A I; Batirel, A; Tekin, R; Celen, M K; Denk, A; Guler, S; Ulug, M; Turan, H; Pekok, A U; Mermut, G; Kaya, S; Tasbakan, M; Tulek, N; Cag, Y; Inan, A; Yalci, A; Ataman-Hatipoglu, C; Gonen, I; Dogan-Celik, A; Bozkurt, F; Gulsun, S; Sunnetcioglu, M; Guven, T; Duygu, F; Parlak, E; Sozen, H; Tosun, S; Demirdal, T; Guclu, E; Karabay, O; Uzun, N; Gunal, O; Diktas, H; Haykir-Solay, A; Erbay, A; Kader, C; Aydin, O; Erdem, A; Elaldi, N; Kadanali, A; Yulugkural, Z; Gorenek, L; Alt?ndis, M; Bolukcu, S; Agalar, C; Ormeci, N

    2014-07-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects the reticuloendothelial system. But, the extent of liver damage in due course of the disease is unclear. This study included 325 brucellosis patients with significant hepatobiliary involvement identified with microbiological analyses from 30 centers between 2000 and 2013. The patients with ?5 times of the upper limit of normal for aminotransferases, total bilirubin level ?2 mg/dl or local liver lesions were enrolled. Clinical hepatitis was detected in 284 patients (87.3 %) and cholestasis was detected in 215 (66.1 %) patients. Fatigue (91 %), fever (86 %), sweating (83 %), arthralgia (79 %), and lack of appetite (79 %) were the major symptoms. Laboratory tests showed anemia in 169 (52 %), thrombocytopenia in 117 (36 %), leukopenia in 81 (25 %), pancytopenia in 42 (13 %), and leukocytosis in 20 (6 %) patients. The most commonly used antibiotic combinations were doxycycline plus an aminoglycoside (n?=?73), doxycycline plus rifampicin (n?=?71), doxycycline plus rifampicin and an aminoglycoside (n?=?27). The duration of ALT normalization differed significantly in three treatment groups (p??0.05). During the follow-up, treatment failure occurred in four patients (1 %) and relapse was seen in three patients (0.9 %). Mortality was not observed. Hepatobiliary involvement in brucellosis has a benign course with suitable antibiotics and the use of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside regimen seems a better strategy in select patients. PMID:24557334

  11. [Chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: the Fibra study].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this article is to describe variations in the measurement of chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction with respect to memory, problem solving, social relationships, environment, health services and transportation. This is done according to gender, age and income. It analyzes correlations between social involvement and functional ability in independent community dwelling-elderly aged 65 and above. 2,472 seniors without cognitive deficit, from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian locations, were submitted to self-reported measurement concerning all variables, with the exception of grip strength and gait speed assessed by objective tests. Mean age was 72.2 ± 5.5 years and mean income was 3.9 ± 4.9 MW; 65.7% were women, who had more diseases, worse functional performance and greater social involvement than men; those aged 80 and above and the poorest participants had worse functional performance and less social involvement. Correlations were observed between functional ability and social involvement. Level of income was related to satisfaction concerning memory, problem solving, health and transport services. Health, functionality and satisfaction interact in old age, influencing patterns of activity and social involvement. PMID:24263862

  12. Observation of double charm production involving open charm in pp collisions at sqrt {s} = {7}{{TeV}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderson, J.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; de Bruyn, K.; Büchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chiapolini, N.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J.-C.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R. S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Keaveney, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y. M.; Knecht, M.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, L.; Gioi, L. Li; Lieng, M.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; von Loeben, J.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Mac Raighne, A.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Malde, S.; Mamunur, R. M. D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Massafferri, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Maynard, B.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; McNulty, R.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.

    2012-06-01

    The production of J/? mesons accompanied by open charm, and of pairs of open charm hadrons are observed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. Model independent measurements of absolute cross-sections are given together with ratios to the measured J/? and open charm cross-sections. The properties of these events are studied and compared to theoretical predictions.

  13. NMR studies of conformational states of proteins involved in biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ziqi

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are the most ancient and ubiquitous cofactors that exist throughout evolution. The most important biosynthetic system of the cluster in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the ISC system. Defects in this system can be lethal and have been associated with a number of human diseases. Previous works show that a number of proteins are involved in the [Fe-S] biosynthetic processes and the structural flexibility may play an important role. For example, it was shown that apo-IscU, the scaffold protein, from Escherichia coli populates two functionally important conformational states, one dynamically disordered (D-state) and the other more structured (S-state) (Kim et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2012c). To further investigate the characteristics and transition of the conformational states of proteins involved in this system, I performed extensive NMR studies. Here, I present the findings based on my studies of two important players of the ISC system, IscU and HscB. In this research, I find that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization might account for the slow step in the S-D interconversion of IscU. More specifically, P14 and P101 are trans in the S-state, but become cis in the D-state. In addition, I discover that IscU is very responsive to pH changes, and I postulate that this response is correlated to conserved histidine residues, H10 and H105. Moreover, my thermodynamic analyses reveal that the S-D equilibrium of IscU is also very sensitive to change in temperature, pressure, and amino acid sequence compared to other proteins. In the study, I also discovered a novel state of IscU, the unfolded U-state. I suspect that this state may serve as an intermediate of interconversion between IscU S-/D-states. Finally, I extended the effort to HscB, and find that it may possess more conformational flexibility than expected earlier. I postulate that this flexibility may be the cause of the line-broadening observed during interaction of HscB with IscU (Fuzery et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009) and HscA.

  14. Professional perspectives on service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Penny; Brooks, Helen; Fraser, Claire; Lovell, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Involving users/carers in mental health care-planning is central to international policy initiatives yet users frequently report feeling excluded from the care planning process. Rigorous explorations of mental health professionals’ experiences of care planning are lacking, limiting our understanding of this important translational gap. Objectives To explore professional perceptions of delivering collaborative mental health care-planning and involving service users and carers in their care. Design Qualitative interviews and focus groups with data combined and subjected to framework analysis. Setting UK secondary care mental health services. Participants 51 multi-disciplinary professionals involved in care planning and recruited via study advertisements. Results Emergent themes identified care-planning as a meaningful platform for user/carer involvement but revealed philosophical tensions between user involvement and professional accountability. Professionals emphasised their individual, relational skills as a core facilitator of involvement, highlighting some important deficiencies in conventional staff training programmes. Conclusions Although internationally accepted on philosophical grounds, user-involved care-planning is poorly defined and lacks effective implementation support. Its full realisation demands greater recognition of both the historical and contemporary contexts in which statutory mental healthcare occurs. PMID:26253574

  15. Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

  16. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

  17. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  18. A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

  19. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  20. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  1. Basement-involved thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics: case study Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of continental crust during continental collision by folding and thrusting follows three types of structural styles: (1) In a true thin-skinned style only cover rocks are involved. This style necessitates a detachment horizon (typically evaporites or shales), and the detachment is accompanied by internal shortened by imbricate thrusting and associated folding of the cover rocks. (2) In case of a thin-skinned basement-involved style thin slabs of crystalline basement rocks are involved and form the main body of the ensuing nappe stack. Nappe-internal deformation was largely controlled by Late Palaeozoic graben structures and Jurassic normal faults. (3) In a true thick-skinned style most of the crust is involved in the deformation. In some cases thrust faults may reach all the way down into the lower crust while in other cases large-scale shearing and folding affects the lower crust. In the Alps all three styles can be recognized. The Helvetic nappes and parts of the Penninic nappes formed by true thin-skinned tectonics. Basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics is typical for the Penninic nappes in the core of the orogen. In these units thrust faults are overprinted by large-scale folds, a process referred to as "post-nappe folding". A kinematic analysis reveals that the detachment of the cover units by thin-skinned tectonics occurred first and was followed by basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics, suggesting a top-down propagation. The incipient thrusting in the basement occurred under relatively low temperatures; prograde conditions then led to the ductile overprint indicated by "post-nappe folding". When considering the Alpine orogen as a whole it is clear that nappe formation propagated from the core towards the external part of the orogen. The thick-skinned style observed in the lower crust evolved seemingly independent from the upper crustal deformation and was responsible for much of the observed crustal thickening.

  2. A national study of male involvement among families in contact with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Few studies inform the frequency and type of adult male involvement in families in contact with child welfare, and even fewer explore how male involvement relates to child welfare outcomes. This study employed data from a sample of 3,978 families in contact with the U.S. child welfare system, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The nature of male involvement in these families and its relationship to (a) caseworkers' perception of children's risk for maltreatment rereport and (b) entry into out-of-home care were explored. Results indicate that most caregivers report male involvement, distinct types of male involvement are related to the likelihood of out-of-home care, and households that include nonparental adult males are perceived by caseworkers as relatively risky. No male involvement indicator tested, however, was related to maltreatment rereport. Implications include the need to appropriately assess, include, and engage adult male family members across diverse family systems. PMID:18984807

  3. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    PubMed Central

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

  4. Detecting host factors involved in virus infection by observing the clustering of infected cells in siRNA screening images

    PubMed Central

    Suratanee, Apichat; Rebhan, Ilka; Matula, Petr; Kumar, Anil; Kaderali, Lars; Rohr, Karl; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Detecting human proteins that are involved in virus entry and replication is facilitated by modern high-throughput RNAi screening technology. However, hit lists from different laboratories have shown only little consistency. This may be caused by not only experimental discrepancies, but also not fully explored possibilities of the data analysis. We wanted to improve reliability of such screens by combining a population analysis of infected cells with an established dye intensity readout. Results: Viral infection is mainly spread by cell–cell contacts and clustering of infected cells can be observed during spreading of the infection in situ and in vivo. We employed this clustering feature to define knockdowns which harm viral infection efficiency of human Hepatitis C Virus. Images of knocked down cells for 719 human kinase genes were analyzed with an established point pattern analysis method (Ripley's K-function) to detect knockdowns in which virally infected cells did not show any clustering and therefore were hindered to spread their infection to their neighboring cells. The results were compared with a statistical analysis using a common intensity readout of the GFP-expressing viruses and a luciferase-based secondary screen yielding five promising host factors which may suit as potential targets for drug therapy. Conclusion: We report of an alternative method for high-throughput imaging methods to detect host factors being relevant for the infection efficiency of viruses. The method is generic and has the potential to be used for a large variety of different viruses and treatments being screened by imaging techniques. Contact: r.eils@dkfz.de; r.koenig@dkfz.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20823335

  5. Studying Triggers for Interest and Engagement Using Observational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann; Bachrach, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then…

  6. The joint observation and study project for slowly rotating asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Muninonen, karri; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Yibo

    2015-08-01

    The study for the spin rates and shapes of asteroids provides us important information to understand asteroids' structure and their physical processes. For example, a single Maxwellian distribution of the spin rates of larger asteroids (e.g. larger than 50km in diameter) reflects they had undergone collison history; a more dispersed distribution of smaller asteroids may be associated with the affect of radiation pressure torques( Pravec& Harris2000). Therefore, larger samples of spin parameters are needed for understanding deeply the evolution of asteroids. Meanwhile, some special subsets of asteroids, such as the slow rotators which probably represent a different physical process for asteroids, can open other windows to understand asteroids. Here we focus on a subset of larger asteroids with spin rates around 1 or 0.5 revolution per day. For these asteroids, the same rotational phases are observed repeatly by a telescope in different time. Under such cases, some ambigous spin periods are guessed, and it is impossible to determine their shapes. For determining the accurate spin parameters and shapes of these asteroids, a collaboration among several countries was established in 2014. Till now, the joint observations for a few of slow rotators have been made by several different telescopes distributed in China, USA and Chile. As samples, here we present new jiont observations in 2014 and analysis results for asteroids (346) Hermentaria and (168) Sibylla.Considering reasonable shapes of asteroids, the spin parameters of the two asteroids are analyzed carefully. Firstly, the procedure of analysis involves the MCMC method to find the initial spin parameters, which is based on a triaxial ellipsoid shape and a Lommel-Seeliger surface scattering law(Muinonen et al.2014). Then, the fine spin parameters accompanying with uncertainties and convex shapes of the asteroids are derived using the light curve inversion method(Kaasalainen et al 2002) and virtual photometric method(wang2012).

  7. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

  8. Improving Parent Involvement Programs and Practice: A Qualitative Study of Teacher Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes 87 teachers' comments about parent involvement in a focus-group study. Participants shared their positive and negative experiences working with parents. Schools can help by creating time and support for teachers' efforts, providing ongoing professional support and training for creating effective home-school partnerships, revamping…

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  10. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  11. A Study of Lipscomb University Students' Internet Use and Involvement in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel Aarron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Lipscomb University students' Internet use and involvement in extracurricular activities. A survey of students at Lipscomb University was conducted. As confirmed by the data the research was able to determine that the type of extracurricular activity a student participates in most often is related to the…

  12. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  13. A Case Study of Parental Involvement in a Conversion from Transitional to Dual Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    A case study examined interactions between elementary school staff and 18 Mexican American parents during the school's conversion to a dual language program. Although parents were included in program planning, parental satisfaction and involvement declined with time. Analysis suggests that parents were alienated as educators' ideals were…

  14. A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes

    E-print Network

    Holmes, Chris

    A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes Plasmodium falciparum and the mosquito vector 1 Anopheles. Of particular interest is the molecular biology. This paper reports a statistical analysis of gene expression time profiles from mosquitoes which have been

  15. Morphological studies of the soft tissues involved in skeletal dissolution in the coral Fungia fungites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashiro, H.; Yamazato, K.

    1996-09-01

    Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study mechanisms involved in the separation of the disc from the stalk in juvenile Fungia fungites (Scleractinia, Fungiidae). Separation occurs because the skeleton is weakened by dissolution across a distinct plane at the junction of the stalk and disc. The tissue layer adjacent to the skeleton in the stalk was composed of typical, squamose, calicoblastic cells. In contrast, calicoblastic cells in the region of skeletal dissolution were tall and columnar. They contained many microvilli, abundant mitochondria and several different types of vesicles. It is assumed that these calicoblastic cells are actively involved in skeletal dissolution.

  16. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  17. IFN-? and TNF-? are involved during Alzheimer disease progression and correlate with nitric oxide production: a study in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Belkhelfa, Mourad; Rafa, Hayet; Medjeber, Oussama; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Behairi, Nassima; Abada-Bendib, Myriam; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Belarbi, Soreya; Masmoudi, Ahmed Nacer; Tazir, Meriem; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to a progressive and irreversible loss of mental functions. It is characterized by 3 stages according to the evolution and the severity of the symptoms. This disease is associated with an immune disorder, which appears with significant rise in the inflammatory cytokines and increased production of free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO). Our study aims to investigate interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) involvement in NO production, in vivo and ex vivo, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Algerian patients (n=25), according to the different stages of the disease (mild Alzheimer's, moderate Alzheimer's, and severe Alzheimer's) in comparison to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Interestingly, we observed that in vivo IFN-? and TNF-? levels assessed in patients with AD in mild and severe stages, respectively, are higher than those observed in patients with moderate stage and MCI. Our in vivo and ex vivo results show that NO production is related to the increased levels of IFN-? and TNF-?, in mild and severe stages of AD. Remarkably, significant IFN-? level is only detected in mild stage of AD. Our study suggests that NO production is IFN-? dependent both in MCI and mild Alzheimer's patients. Further, high levels of NO are associated with an elevation of TNF-? levels in severe stage of AD. Collectively, our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokine production seems, in part, to be involved in neurological deleterious effects observed during the development of AD through NO pathway. PMID:24831467

  18. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  19. Re-entry Women Involved in Women's Studies. Women's Studies Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Blanche Glassman

    This monograph is part of a series of reports focusing on women's studies in higher education. After summarizing the historical growth of continuing education for women and women's studies, this monograph describes the implementation of a study by the U.S. National Institute of Education on re-entry women and the field of women's studies.…

  20. A study to examine community involvement in major U.S.military base closures and realignments from 1988 to 2001 

    E-print Network

    Yahn, Nancy Stiles

    2005-11-01

    This study examines community involvement in major U.S. military base closures and realignments from 1988 to 2001. There were four waves of base closures during this time. They were in 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1995. Community involvement became...

  1. Surgery for endometrial cancers with suspected cervical involvement: is radical hysterectomy needed (a GOTIC study)?

    PubMed Central

    Takano, M; Ochi, H; Takei, Y; Miyamoto, M; Hasumi, Y; Kaneta, Y; Nakamura, K; Kurosaki, A; Satoh, T; Fujiwara, H; Nagao, S; Furuya, K; Yokota, H; Ito, K; Minegishi, T; Yoshikawa, H; Fujiwara, K; Suzuki, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radical hysterectomy is recommended for endometrial adenocarcinoma patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. However, the efficacy of operative procedure has not been confirmed. Methods: The patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma who had suspected gross cervical involvement and underwent hysterectomy between 1995 and 2009 at seven institutions were retrospectively analysed (Gynecologic Oncology Trial and Investigation Consortium of North Kanto: GOTIC-005). Primary endpoint was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and adverse effects. Results: A total of 300 patients who underwent primary surgery were identified: 74 cases with radical hysterectomy (RH), 112 patients with modified radical hysterectomy (mRH), and 114 cases with simple hysterectomy (SH). Median age was 47 years, and median duration of follow-up was 47 months. There were no significant differences of age, performance status, body mass index, stage distribution, and adjuvant therapy among three groups. Multi-regression analysis revealed that age, grade, peritoneal cytology status, and lymph node involvement were identified as prognostic factors for OS; however, type of hysterectomy was not selected as independent prognostic factor for local recurrence-free survival, PFS, and OS. Additionally, patients treated with RH had longer operative time, higher rates of blood transfusion and severe urinary tract dysfunction. Conclusion: Type of hysterectomy was not identified as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. Perioperative and late adverse events were more frequent in patients treated with RH. The present study could not find any survival benefit from RH for endometrial cancer patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. Surgical treatment in these patients should be further evaluated in prospective clinical studies. PMID:24002604

  2. Observation and Study of Interplanetary Scintillation with the Miyun Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Wu, J. H.

    We present the preliminary results of observation and study of interplanetry scintillation with the Miyun telescope at Beijing Astronomical Observatory. The properties of the telescope, observing parameters, and data reduction are described in this contribution. The telescope is used daily to trace some radio sources with time scale of several hours a day to measure the velocity variation of solar wind at a position which is relatively fixed to the Sun during each observation. Some observation examples and preliminary analysis are also given.

  3. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  4. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  5. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  6. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives. PMID:20331891

  7. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

  8. Prevalence of headache at the initial stage of stroke and its relation with site of vascular involvement: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Aghangar, Alijan; Bazoyar, Bahareh; Mortazavi, Roughayeh; Jalali, Moazzameh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the most common neurologic disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Headache is an initial presenting feature of ischemic stroke and sometimes precedes the development of stroke and thus, provides an opportunity for offering preventive measures. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of new onset headache with stroke. Methods: A total of 263 consecutive patients with stroke entered the study. Development of headache 24 have prior to admission lasting <3 days was considered the new onset headache. The intensity of headache was graded as mild, moderate and severe. Stroke was classified with respect to the localization of brain damage using magnetic resonance image (MRI). Chi-square test was applied for comparison of proportions. Results: One hundred thirty-nine males and one hundred twenty-four females with mean age of 76.4±10 (40-89) years were analyzed. Ischemic stroke involving anterior circulation was diagnosed in 210 (79%) patients and vertebrobasilar ischemia in the remaining population. Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease were observed in 36%, 52%, 38% and 42%, respectively. New onset headache was found in 49 (18.9%) patients in who 81.6% was mentioned as new onset. Six out of 9 patients with severe headache had involvement of posterior circulation, whereas in the remaining population, anterior circulation was involved. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate no association of new onset headache with stroke. There was only a trend for severe headache toward the involvement of vertebrobasilar ischemia. PMID:26644883

  9. Sustaining patient and public involvement in research: A case study of a research centre

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Hughes, Rhian; Blackburn, Steven; Ong, Bie Nio

    2013-01-01

    The literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of topics. However, one area of investigation that appears under developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper presents a case study of PPI development in one primary care research centre in England, and its approach to making this sustainable using documentary sources and material from a formal evaluation. We provide narrative accounts of the set-up, operation and main processes of PPI, and its perceived impact. PPI requires a long-term perspective with participation and trust growing over time, and both users and researchers learning what approaches work best. PPI is a complex interplay of clarity of purpose, defined roles and relationships, organised support (paid PPI staff) and a well-funded infrastructure. ‘Soft systems’ are equally important such as flexible and informal approaches to meetings, adapting timetables and environments to meet the needs of lay members and to create spaces for relationships to develop between researchers and lay members that are based on mutual trust and respect. This case study highlights that the right combination of ethos, flexible working practices, leadership, and secure funding goes a long way to embedding PPI beyond ad hoc involvement. This allows PPI in research to be integrated in the infrastructure and sustainable.

  10. Attributing Effects to Treatment in Matched Observational Studies

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Attributing Effects to Treatment in Matched Observational Studies Paul R. Rosenbaum An effect. Extending earlier results on attributable effects in unmatched groups, a method of exact randomization-crossover study of alcohol as a cause of injury, a cohort study of women who gave birth at home, and a study

  11. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  12. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Fast, Danya; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts. PMID:19405977

  13. A model study of factors involved in adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to meat.

    PubMed Central

    Piette, J P; Idziak, E S

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model meat surfaces (tendon slices). Adhesion was fast (less than 2.5 min) and was not suppressed by killing the cells with UV, gamma rays, or heat, indicating that physiological activity was not required. In various salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2), adhesion increased with increasing ionic strength up to 10 to 100 mM, suggesting that, at low ionic strengths, electrostatic interactions were involved in the adhesion process. At higher ionic strengths (greater than 10 to 100 mM) or in the presence of Al3+ ions, adhesion was sharply reduced. Selectively blocking of carboxyl or amino groups at the cell surface by chemical means did not affect adhesion. These groups are therefore not directly involved in an adhesive bond with tendon. Given a sufficient cell concentration (10(10) CFU.ml-1) in the adhesion medium, the surface of tendon was almost entirely covered with adherent bacteria. This suggests that if the adhesion is specific, the attachment sites on the tendon surface must be located within collagen or proteoglycan molecules. Images PMID:1444387

  14. Left Ventricular Involvement in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy – A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghannudi, Soraya El; Nghiem, Anthony; Germain, Philippe; Jeung, Mi-Young; Gangi, Afshin; Roy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies evaluated left ventricular (LV) involvement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency, clinical presentation, and pattern of LV involvement in ARVD/C (LV-ARVD/C). METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 202 patients referred between 2008 and 2012 to our institution, and we determined the presence or the absence of CMR criteria in the revised task force criteria 2010 for the diagnosis of ARVD/C. A total of 21 patients were diagnosed with ARVD/C according to the revised task force criteria 2010. All included patients had no previous history of myocarditis, acute coronary syndrome, or any other cardiac disease that could interfere with the interpretations of structural abnormalities. The LV involvement in ARVD/C was defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV; >95 mL/m2), LV ejection fraction (LVEF; <55%), LV late enhancement of gadolinium (LVLE) in a non-ischemic pattern, and LV wall motion abnormalities (WMAs). In the follow-up for the occurrence of cardiac death, ventricular tachycardia (VT) was obtained at a mean of 31 ± 20.6 months. RESULTS A total of 21 patients had ARVD/C. The median age was 48 (33–63) years. In all, 11 patients (52.4%) had LV-ARVD/C. The demographic characteristics of patients with or without LV were similar. There was a higher frequency of left bundle-branch block (LBBB) VT morphology in ARVD/C (P = 0.04). In CMR, regional WMAs of right ventricle (RV) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF; <45%) were strongly correlated with LV-WMAs (r = 0.72, P = 0.02, r = 0.75, P = 0.02, respectively). RV late enhancement of gadolinium (RVLE) was associated with LV-WMs and LVLE (r = 0.7, P = 0.03; r = 0.8, P = 0.006). LVLE was associated with LV-WMAs, LVEF, and LVEDV (r = 0.9, P = 0.001; r = 0.8, P = 0.001; r = 0.8, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION LV involvement in ARVD/C is common and frequently associated with moderate to severe right ventricular (RV) abnormalities. The impact of LV involvement in ARVD/C on the prognosis needs further investigations. PMID:25788837

  15. Hemoglobin aggregates studied under static and dynamic conditions involving the formation of nanobacteria-like structures.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jeramy L R; Jones, Riland L; Manning, Thomas J; Nienow, James; Phillips, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    Laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study hemoglobin in the aqueous phase. The impact that salts [NaCl, Ca?(PO?)?] and iron oxide nanoparticles have on the hemoglobin size are also studied. The first set of experiments examined hemoglobin aggregates in the aqueous phases in the presence of salts and nanoparticles. Aqueous phase samples were then dehydrated and examined using SEM. The resulting structures resemble those observed in nanobacteria studies conducted in other labs. This study demonstrates that aggregates of hemoglobin and various salts found in a physiological environment can produce structures that resemble nanobacteria. PMID:22750818

  16. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  17. Observations in UV band and problems of star formation studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, D.

    2008-12-01

    In this contibution I consider those aspects of the modern star formation theory, which can be substantiated with observations in UV band, paying special attention to early stages of molecular cloud formation and initial conditions for the chemical evolution of starless cores. I describe main results of available diffuse cloud observations in UV band as well a s prospective directions for future studies.

  18. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  19. An Observational Study of Social Processes in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    This observational study examined student and teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors in microcomputer classrooms in a high school where most of the students are Black, Hispanic, or Asian, and almost half of them are classified as economically disadvantaged. A total of 125 students in grades 9 to 12 were observed, with 47 students in marketing, 18…

  20. Muscle involvement in leprosy. Study of the anterior tibial muscle in 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Werneck, L C; Teive, H A; Scola, R H

    1999-09-01

    The involvement of skeletal striated muscle in leprosy is considered secondary due to peripheral neuropathy, but some studies point it to a primary muscle lesion. In order to investigate the muscle involvement in leprosy, we studied 40 patients (lepromatous 23, tuberculoid 13, borderline 2 and indeterminate 2). The motor nerve conduction of the peroneal nerves had a reduction of the velocity, decreased compound muscle action potential and sometimes absence of potentials. The electromyographic study of the anterior tibial muscle showed signs of recent and chronic denervation in 77.5% of the cases and no myopathic potentials. The anterior tibial muscle biopsy revealed denervation in 45% of the cases, interstitial inflammatory myopathy in 30% and mixed (myopathic and neuropathic) pattern in 12.5%. Acid fast bacillus was detected in 25% of the cases, always in the interstitial tissue. Inflammatory reaction was present in the interstitial space and in patients with the lepromatous type. The histological findings clearly defined the presence of the so-called "Leprous Interstitial Myositis" on the top of denervation signs. PMID:10751905

  1. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (?30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. PMID:24639900

  2. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  3. Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

  4. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

    1984-11-01

    The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

  5. The involvement of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in tinnitus: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom percept with a tone, hissing or buzzing sound in the absence of any objective physical sound source. Tinnitus is considered to be an auditory phantom phenomenon analogous to somatosensory phantom pain. Controllable versus uncontrollable pain is characterized by an increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and activation in the VLPFC correlating with perceived control over pain results in a decrease in subjective pain intensity. Depressed individuals show less activation than healthy controls in the left VLPFC in response to sad autobiographical scripts, and greater relative left prefrontal activation is related to a greater disposition to approach-related, positive affect with a greater ability to regulate negative affect. Based on the theory that non-pulsatile tinnitus can be considered the auditory analogue for deafferentation pain, we hypothesize that the left VLPFC might also be involved in control of tinnitus. We conducted a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study verifying whether modulating the left VLPFC by TMS can modulate the loudness of tinnitus. We studied 60 patients with chronic tinnitus of which 21 patients received in random order sham and 1-Hz stimulation, while 39 patients received in random order sham and 10-Hz stimulation. Our results show that 10-Hz stimulation can modulate tinnitus loudness, while 1-Hz stimulation does not seem to exert the same effect. Our findings give further support to the fact that non-auditory areas are involved in tinnitus. PMID:22782483

  6. 43 CFR 404.35 - Is there a different non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater...cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater...inhabitants? Yes. If the feasibility study involves a rural water...

  7. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  8. Involvement of AMPA receptors in posterior locomotor activity in the rabbit: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, A; Corio, M; Bouc, A M; Viala, D

    1998-02-01

    Although AMPA receptors are known to be widely involved in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission at the spinal level, very little is known about their role in modulating motor activity in mammals. In curarized decerebrate or spinalized rabbit preparations, fictive locomotion was monitored on hindlimb nerves after either activation or blockade of AMPA receptors. In decerebrate preparations, the administration of the antagonist, NBQX (3.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the agonist, AMPA (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) produced, in both cases, a depression of locomotor activities induced by stimulation of cutaneous afferents (evoked locomotor activity). This potent effect was transient with AMPA (recovery after 20 min) and followed by the occurrence of spontaneous locomotor sequences, while no recovery was observed with NBQX treatment. In spinal preparations where a continuous 'spontaneous' locomotor activity resulted from the pharmacological activation of noradrenergic descending pathways (nialamide-DOPA pretreatment), the same drugs injected at higher doses (5 mg/kg NBQX i.p. and 1 mg/kg AMPA i.v.) only weakly affected the frequency of 'spontaneous' and evoked locomotor bursts while they exerted inhibitory and facilitatory effects on the burst amplitude respectively. The results suggest that AMPA receptors are involved at spinal level: 1) in direct mediation of cutaneous afferent excitatory effects on the posterior locomotor generators (pLG); 2) in indirect mediation of a supraspinal descending inhibition controlling, likely presynaptically, the cutaneous afferent activation; and 3) in transmission to motoneurons of the output signals from the pLG. Finally, tight spinal interactions between potent descending noradrenergic pathways and spinal AMPA neurotransmission were disclosed. PMID:9638591

  9. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  10. Systematic review of genetic association studies involving histologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272

  11. Studies on Cu(II) ternary complexes involving an aminopenicillin drug and imidazole containing ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regupathy, Sthanumoorthy; Nair, Madhavan Sivasankaran

    2010-02-01

    Equilibrium studies on the ternary complex systems involving ampicillin (amp) as ligand (A) and imidazole containing ligands viz., imidazole (Him), benzimidazole (Hbim), histamine (Hist) and histidine (His) as ligands (B) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4) show the presence of CuABH, CuAB and CuAB 2. The proton in the CuABH species is attached to ligand A. In the ternary complexes the ligand, amp(A) binds the metal ion via amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atom. The CuAB (B = Hist/His)/CuAB 2 (B = Him/Hbim) species have also been isolated and the analytical data confirmed its formation. Non-electrolytic behavior and monomeric type of chelates have been assessed from their low conductance and magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and vibrational spectral results were interpreted to find the mode of binding of ligands to metal and geometry of the complexes. This is also supported by the g tensor values calculated from ESR spectra. The thermal behaviour of complexes were studied by TGA/DTA. The redox behavior of the complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage study of the complexes show higher activity for ternary complexes.

  12. A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

  13. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Behr, M; Thollon, L

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  14. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

  15. Father Involvement Program Effects on Fathers, Father Figures, and Their Head Start Children: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1999-01-01

    This study examined effects of participation in a Head Start-based father involvement intervention program. Findings suggested a positive association between high level participation in the intervention and increased father involvement at post- treatment. Children in the high participation group showed higher mathematics readiness change scores.…

  16. Interstellar dust: interfacing laboratory, theoretical and observational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will consider how our understanding of interstellar dust can only be advanced through a combination of laboratory, theoretical and observational studies, which provide the critical framework for advancing our understanding. I will summarise what we currently know, or think we know, about the physical and compositional properties of dust and their evolution in interstellar media. Along the way I will question the utility of astronomical dust analogues and show, based on data from the laboratory, theoretical studies and from astronomical observations, that some of our prior interpretations need to be subjected to a critical re-evaluation. I will present interstellar dust modelling from a new vantage point and review ideas on the interpretation of observations within the framework of this model and its predictions for dust evolution within and between interstellar media. Finally, I will summarise some of the current outstanding issues and what we would like to learn in the future.

  17. Involvement of prostaglandins in the down-regulation of allergic plasma leakage observed in rats undergoing pleural eosinophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira-Melo, C.; Singh, Y.; Cordeiro, R. S.; e Silva, P. M.; Martins, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Recent evidence has implicated eosinophils in the inhibition of allergen-induced rat pleurisy, but the mechanism of this negative modulation is not completely understood. This study was undertaken in order to define the potential role of prostaglandins in this phenomenon. 2. Wistar rats were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of a mixture of ovalbumin and AI(OH)3 and challenged with an intrapleural (i.pl.) injection of ovalbumin (12 micrograms/cavity) 14 days later. 3. Analysis of the pleural fluid effluent revealed a massive mast cell degranulation and plasma protein extravasation 4 h post-challenge. We confirmed that concurrently with selective pleural fluid eosinophilia caused by platelet-activating factor (PAF), the pleural cavity became hyporesponsive to allergen-induced protein exudation and to the parallel reduction in the number of intact mast cells. 4. These hyporesponsive animals presented a significant augmentation in the pleural effluent level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which increased with increasing numbers of eosinophils in the pleural cavity. Furthermore, pretreatment with either indomethacin or aspirin failed to modify allergen-induced exudation but reversed the exudatory hyporesponsiveness associated with eosinophil recruitment. 5. Allergic exudation was clearly down-regulated by the following pretreatments: (i) PGE2 (10 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.) plus rolipram (40 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.), (ii) misoprostol (200 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) or (iii) dibutyryl cyclic AMP (80 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.). 6. We conclude that prostaglandins may be implicated in the eosinophil-mediated inhibition of allergic pleurisy, probably acting via cyclic AMP signalling pathway activation. PMID:8864561

  18. Observational studies of transiting extrasolar planets (invited review)

    E-print Network

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterisation of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  19. Studies of the observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    The four related topics covered include: (1) distributions of total and upper atmospheric ozone and their time and space variations; (2) observed and theoretical models of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) ozone variation; (3) radiative processes in the upper atmosphere; and (4) relations between ozone and solar variations. The results of these studies are presented. They come from twenty-three published papers.

  20. Eect Modi...cation and Design Sensitivity in Observational Studies

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    ; observational study; sensitivity analysis; Stephenson's test; truncated product of P-values; U- statistic; Wilcoxon test 1 Address for correspondence: Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University by Corn...eld et al. (1959) in their discussion of heavy smoking as a cause of lung cancer, concluding

  1. RANDOMIZED EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES: CAUSAL INFERENCE IN STATISTICS

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    RANDOMIZED EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES: CAUSAL INFERENCE IN STATISTICS PAUL R. ROSENBAUM Roiniczych, Tom X, pp1-51. Reprinted in English in Statistical Science, 1990, 5, 463-480, with discussion., Lilienfeld, A., Shimkin, M., and Wynder, E. (1959). Smoking and lung cancer: Recent evidence and a discussion

  2. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  3. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  4. Special Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in

    E-print Network

    Clark, William R.

    under the most simple survey designs such as simple random sampling (SRS) and stratified random sampling surveys rely on probability sampling to choose sample units (e.g., small areas or individualsSpecial Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in Wildlife

  5. Study of white-light flares observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Min

    2009-02-01

    White-light flares are considered to be the most energetic flaring events that are observable in the optical broad-band continuum of the solar spectrum. They have not been commonly observed. Observations of white-light flares with sub-arcsecond resolution have been very rare. The continuous high resolution observations of Hinode provide a unique opportunity to systematically study the white-light flares with a spatial resolution around 0.2 arcsec. We surveyed all the flares above GOES magnitude C5.0 since the launch of Hinode in 2006 October. 13 of these kinds of flares were covered by the Hinode G-band observations. We analyzed the peak contrasts and equivalent areas (calculated via integrated excess emission contrast) of these flares as a function of the GOES X-ray flux, and found that the cut-off visibility is likely around M1 flares under the observing limit of Hinode. Many other observational and physical factors should affect the visibility of white-light flares; as the observing conditions are improved, smaller flares are likely to have detectable white-light emissions. We are cautious that this limiting visibility is an overestimate, because G-band observations contain emissions from the upper atmosphere. Among the 13 events analyzed, only the M8.7 flare of 2007 June 4 had near-simultaneous observations in both the G-band and the blue continuum. The blue continuum had a peak contrast of 94% vs. 175% in G-band for this event. The equivalent area in the blue continuum is an order of magnitude lower than that in the G-band. Very recently, Jess et al. studied a C2.0 flare with a peak contrast of 300% in the blue continuum. Compared to the events presented in this letter, that event is probably an unusual white-light flare: a very small kernel with a large contrast that can be detected in high resolution observations.

  6. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  7. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  8. An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

  9. Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study

    PubMed Central

    Airla, Nina; Zeitlin, Rainer; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Järvinen, Otso; Venermo, Maarit; Partio, Teemu; Saarinen, Jukka; Somppi, Taija; Suominen, VeliPekka; Virkkunen, Jyrki; Hautalahti, Juha; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kähönen, Mika; Mennander, Ari; Kytömäki, Leena; Soini, Juhani T.; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V–VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6) using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05), 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25). Conclusions This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds. PMID:22509262

  10. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-?B, p38 MAPK and PI3?K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  11. Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, João Claudio Gonçalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

  12. Isolation and expression studies of the ERD15 gene involved in drought-stressed responses.

    PubMed

    Shao, H H; Chen, S D; Zhang, K; Cao, Q H; Zhou, H; Ma, Q Q; He, B; Yuan, X H; Wang, Y; Chen, Y H; Yong, B

    2014-01-01

    The early response to the dehydration 15 (ERD15) gene is widely involved in the processes of signal transduction, programmed cell death, gene transcription, and stress tolerance in plants. In a previous study, the ERD15 gene was shown to be an important regulator of the abscisic acid response and salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway, acting as an important negative regulator of abscisic acid. The complete IbERD15 gene (accession No. KF723428) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The IbERD15 gene contains an open reading frame of 504 bp, encodes a peptide of 167 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 18.725 kDa. The transcript levels of the IbERD15 gene in a variety of tissues were examined by digital gene expression profiling. The roots of the sweet potato were treated by 3 degrees of polyethylene glycol, and the results indicate that the IbERD15 gene might play an important role in the defense response to drought stress. Moreover, the IbERD15 gene was successfully transformed into yeast cells for analysis of drought tolerance in transgenic yeast. PMID:25526205

  13. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  14. A prospective cohort study on minor accidents involving commuter cyclists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Int Panis, Luc; Thomas, Isabelle; Degraeuwe, Bart; Cumps, Elke; Aertsens, Joris; Torfs, Rudi; Meeusen, Romain

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into bicycle accidents. Bicycle accident data and weekly exposure data were prospectively collected for one year to calculate the incidence rate (IR) of bicycle accidents. An accident was included if it occurred during utilitarian cycling, resulting in an acute injury with corporal damage. If an accident occurred, a detailed questionnaire was filled out to collect detailed information about its circumstances and consequences. A sample of 1087 regular (?2 cycling trips to work a week) adult (40±10 years) cyclists was analyzed. Over the 1-year follow-up period, 20,107 weeks were covered, accumulating 1,474,978 cycled kilometers. Sixty-two participants were involved in 70 bicycle accidents, of which 68 were classified as 'minor'. The overall IR for the 70 accidents was 0.324 per 1000 trips (95% CI 0.248-0.400), 0.896 per 1000 h (95% CI 0.686-1.106) and 0.047 per 1000 km (95% CI 0.036-0.059) of exposure. Brussels-capital region is the region with the highest IR (0.086; 95% CI 0.054-0.118), with a significantly (P<0.05) higher IR compared to Flanders (0.037; 95% CI 0.025-0.050). Injuries were mainly caused by 'slipping' (35%) or 'collision with a car' (19%). The accidents caused abrasions (42%) and bruises (27%) to the lower (45%) and upper limbs (41%). Police, hospital emergency department or insurance companies were involved in only 7%, 10% and 30% of the cases, respectively. It is noteworthy that 37% of the participants indicated that they could have avoided the accident. In order to decrease the number of accidents, measures should be taken to keep cycling surfaces clean and decrease the number of obstacles on bicycle infrastructure. Roads and intersections need to be built so that the collisions between cars and bicycles are decreased to a minimum. Car drivers and cyclists should pay more attention towards each other. Underreporting of minor bicycle accidents in Belgium is confirmed, and is higher than expected. Reliable accident statistics, taking into account exposure, are needed to decide which road safety measures are the most effective. The 'safety in numbers' principle is also applicable for minor bicycle accidents. PMID:22269558

  15. Proteins Involved in Platelet Signaling Are Differentially Regulated in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Parguiña, Andrés; Grigorian-Shamajian, Lilian; Agra, Rosa M.; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Rosa, Isaac; Alonso, Jana; Viñuela-Roldán, Juan E.; Seoane, Ana; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; García, Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Background Platelets play a fundamental role in pathological events underlying acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Because platelets do not have a nucleus, proteomics constitutes an optimal approach to follow platelet molecular events associated with the onset of the acute episode. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed the first high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteome analysis of circulating platelets from patients with non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validations were by western blotting. Forty protein features (corresponding to 22 unique genes) were found to be differentially regulated between NSTE-ACS patients and matched controls with chronic ischemic cardiopathy. The number of differences decreased at day 5 (28) and 6 months after the acute event (5). Interestingly, a systems biology approach demonstrated that 16 of the 22 differentially regulated proteins identified are interconnected as part of a common network related to cell assembly and organization and cell morphology, processes very related to platelet activation. Indeed, 14 of those proteins are either signaling or cytoskeletal, and nine of them are known to participate in platelet activation by ?IIb?3 and/or GPVI receptors. Several of the proteins identified participate in platelet activation through post-translational modifications, as shown here for ILK, Src and Talin. Interestingly, the platelet-secreted glycoprotein SPARC was down-regulated in NSTE-ACS patients compared to stable controls, which is consistent with a secretion process from activated platelets. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides novel information on platelet proteome changes associated with platelet activation in NSTE-ACS, highlighting the presence of proteins involved in platelet signaling. This investigation paves the way for future studies in the search for novel platelet-related biomarkers and drug targets in ACS. PMID:20976234

  16. [Involved factors in stability of children's asthma. A study of 150 children in Mahdia].

    PubMed

    Boussoffara, Raoudha; Mechri, Amor; Knani, Jalel; Slama, Raoudha; Ben Salem, Neila; Tabka, Zouhair; Ben Salem, Kamel; Sfar, Habib; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar

    2003-03-01

    In order to reduce the mortality and morbidity by asthma in perpetual increasing, taking in charge of asthmatic child must be general (therapeutic and educative) with the intention to stabilize il cause of the lack of curing ait. The aim of our work was to determinate the factors in stability of asthma. Our study was retrospective, inducing 150 asthmatic children regularly observed since at least 6 months and more than 4 years old: 77 of them was judged stable and 73 unstable. Stable asthma concerned insignificatively children who are more than 8 year old, from urban areas, unexposed to tobacco living is sunny homes and when there is no associated factors like effort asthma and gastro-oesophagien reflux. Instability of asthma has been in significantly correlated with the initial severity and non adaption to treatment. PMID:12793070

  17. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  18. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  19. Study of the Histopathologic Characteristics and Surface Morphologies of Glottic Carcinomas With Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Li, Zenghong; Luo, Jie; Liao, Bing; Yang, Zhiyun; Liu, Qihong; Wang, Bin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-07-01

    This article explores the features and the role of the anterior vocal commissure (AVC) structure and the surface morphologies of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement to provide a reference for the selection of transoral carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery. A total of 31 cases of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 were included. All patients underwent electronic laryngoscopic examinations and computed tomography scans to determine the surface morphology. After surgery, the tumor specimens were resected integrally, and axial serial sections parallel to the plane of vocal cords were taken to explore the features and possible invasion paths of the glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement. The rates of involvement of the supraglottis and subglottis were 71.4% and 14.8%, respectively, via the AVC. The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral or bilateral vocal cords without involvement of the vocal muscle in the AVC region (IVM) or the cartilage was present in 15 cases (48.4%). The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral and bilateral vocal cords occurred in 16 cases (51.6%) with the IVM in 13 cases and the involvement of the intermediate lamina of the thyroid cartilage (ITC) in 8 cases. The involvement of the ITC was associated with the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region (P < 0.05). Among the pushing carcinomas, 15 of 21 (71.4%) presented with well-defined tumor mass, and 8 of 10 (80.0%) infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests that were often surrounded by fibrosis (P < 0.05). The AVC is an important path of invasion of subglottic in glottic carcinomas but less so for suparglottic. The Broyles' ligaments acted as a barrier against the spread of the tumors to the thyroid cartilage, but this role was obviously weaken by the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region. The infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests in fibrous tissue. When CO2 laser microsurgery is considered as a treatment option, these facts should be kept in mind. PMID:26200618

  20. Study of the Histopathologic Characteristics and Surface Morphologies of Glottic Carcinomas With Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Li, Zenghong; Luo, Jie; Liao, Bing; Yang, Zhiyun; Liu, Qihong; Wang, Bin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the features and the role of the anterior vocal commissure (AVC) structure and the surface morphologies of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement to provide a reference for the selection of transoral carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery. A total of 31 cases of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 were included. All patients underwent electronic laryngoscopic examinations and computed tomography scans to determine the surface morphology. After surgery, the tumor specimens were resected integrally, and axial serial sections parallel to the plane of vocal cords were taken to explore the features and possible invasion paths of the glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement. The rates of involvement of the supraglottis and subglottis were 71.4% and 14.8%, respectively, via the AVC. The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral or bilateral vocal cords without involvement of the vocal muscle in the AVC region (IVM) or the cartilage was present in 15 cases (48.4%). The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral and bilateral vocal cords occurred in 16 cases (51.6%) with the IVM in 13 cases and the involvement of the intermediate lamina of the thyroid cartilage (ITC) in 8 cases. The involvement of the ITC was associated with the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region (P?involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region. The infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests in fibrous tissue. When CO2 laser microsurgery is considered as a treatment option, these facts should be kept in mind. PMID:26200618

  1. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning. PMID:20105340

  2. The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Almas, K

    2001-01-01

    The popularity and availability of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) in the Asia, Middle East and Africa make them a commonly used oral hygiene tool in those societies. Salvador persica chewing stick called miswak is frequently used in Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial effects of miswak has been well documented. The aim of this study is to find our the effect of aqueous extracts of miswak on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in vitro. 25% aqueous extract of freshly prepared miswak solution was used for the study. Twelve human premolars teeth (6 healthy and 6 with periodontal disease) recently extracted for orthodontic and periodontal reasons were used. 24 SEM specimens were prepared and treated with miswak extract with different conditions e.g. soaking and burnishing with miswak extract. Soaking the healthy and periodontally diseased root dentine in miswak extract resulted in partial removal of smear layer and occlusion of dentinal tubules was observed in dentine specimens burnished with miswak solution. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of miswak on etched human dentine at higher concentrations. PMID:11808063

  3. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment…

  4. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  5. Clinical signs of ICU syndrome/delirium: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Granberg-Axèll, A; Bergbom, I; Lundberg, D

    2001-04-01

    Some clinical signs of the intensive care unit (ICU) syndrome/delirium are probably known, but there may be additional signs that can be observed during the care of ICU patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the clinical signs of the ICU syndrome in relation to patients' reactions and behaviour following the second day of their stay in an ICU. A total of 31 patients were observed during the weaning process and in the days following extubation. Informal dialogues between the patient and the observer, using parts of the questionnaire 'Organic Brain Syndrome Scale' were also carried out. The data was structured in a chronological order and consists of descriptions of patients' behaviour and reactions, together with events, occurrences and environmental circumstances. It was found that the patients showed a great variety of clinical signs that could be related to the ICU syndrome. Such signs were the quality, ability and divergence of speech; talking, movements, bodily position and facial expressions. Several patients also related unreal experiences only occasionally, while others experienced them during longer periods. The clinical signs did not seem to be separate phenomena but were inter-connected and part of a progression, and, therefore must be seen in the overall context and situation. Longer periods of observation and repeated interaction with patients are necessary in order to be aware of onset and clinical signs of the ICU syndrome. PMID:11817445

  6. Observation of a freezing drizzle episode: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, S.; Valero, F.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Gascón, E.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

    2014-11-01

    On 5 February 2012 an episode of freezing precipitation took place in the Guadarrama Mountains, at the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This precipitation affected high elevations, where temperatures remained below freezing because of snow cover that had accumulated from snowfall during the previous days. The case study was recorded by surface synoptic observations (SYNOP) at Navacerrada Pass meteorological observatory (belonging to the National Weather Service of Spain). To study winter cloud systems during the TEcoAgua project, a multichannel ground-based microwave radiometer (MMWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), and isothermal cloud chamber were installed in the study area, thus permitting the monitoring of the freezing precipitation event. Analysis using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and observations permitted the determination of factors that triggered the freezing precipitation event. Freezing drizzle was interspersed with the passage of a warm and cold front. During frontal passage, mid-level clouds inhibited the generation of freezing drizzle, with snowfall recorded in the study area. However, during the period between the two fronts, an absence of mid-level clouds permitted low-level orographic clouds to persist upwind of the mountain system, producing freezing drizzle at the surface. The decisive factors for the generation of freezing drizzle were high humidity at low levels, weak mesoscale updrafts caused by the topography, stability at mid levels, cloud-top temperatures warmer than - 15 °C, and low concentrations of ice nuclei.

  7. Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.

    PubMed

    Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-11-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein. PMID:23108613

  8. The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard. PMID:24755843

  9. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  10. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  11. Procedural elements involved in maintaining bioanalytical data integrity for good laboratory practices studies and regulated clinical studies.

    PubMed

    James, Christopher A; Hill, Howard M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes procedural elements involved in ensuring the integrity of bioanalytical data. These elements can be divided into 3 areas. First, there are those ensuring the integrity of the analyte until analysis, through correct sample collection, handling, shipment, and storage procedures. Incorrect procedures can lead to loss of analyte via instability, addition of analyte through contamination or instability of related metabolites, or changes in the matrix composition that may adversely affect the performance of the analytical method. Second, the integrity of the sample identity needs to be maintained to ensure that the final result reported relates to the individual sample that was taken. Possible sources of error include sample mixup or mislabeling, or errors in data handling. Finally, there is the overall integrity of the documentation that supports the analysis, and any prestudy validation of the method. This includes a wide range of information, from paper and electronic raw data, through standard operating procedures and analytical procedures and facility records, to study plans and final reports. These are critical to allow an auditor or regulatory body to reconstruct the study. PMID:17614354

  12. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by "online" self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures-known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding-demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

  13. Motor cortex involvement during choice reaction time: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in man.

    PubMed

    Romaiguère, P; Possamaï, C A; Hasbroucq, T

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation can delay simple reaction time; this happens when the stimulation is delivered during the reaction time and over the cortical area which commands the prime mover of the required response. Although it is agreed that magnetic stimulation could be a useful tool for studying information processing in man, we argue that, because of the use of simple reaction time, the results reported so far are difficult to interpret within this theoretical framework. In the present paper, three experiments are reported. Six subjects participated in experiment 1 in which magnetic stimulation was delivered, at different times, during choice reaction time. The effects of the magnetic stimulation of the cortical area involved in the response (induced current passing forward over the motor representation of the responding hand), were compared to the effects of an electrical stimulation of the median nerve (H-reflex). In a first control experiment (experiment 2a; 5 subjects), the coil was placed over the ipsilateral motor cortex (induced current passing backward over the motor representation of the non-responding hand) thus minimizing the probability to excite the same neural nets as in the first experiment. In a second control experiment (experiment 2b; 4 subjects), the coil was placed a few centimeters away from the subject's scalp thus ensuring no stimulation of any neural nets. The results show that: (1) the noise and the smarting of the skin associated with the coil discharge produce an intersensory facilitation thereby shortening reaction time (experiment 2a), (2) actually, the noise produced by the stimulation is sufficient to produce such a facilitatory effect (experiment 2b), (3) a stimulation over the area at the origin of the motor command causes a reaction time delay which counteracts this intersensory facilitation effect (experiment 1), (4) in this latter case, the closer the stimulation to the actual overt response, the longer the delay and (5) there is no trace of correlation between the amplitude of the motor evoked potential and the reaction time change. PMID:9175886

  14. Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

  15. Observation of interactive behavior increases corticospinal excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Mori, Hirotaka; Kushiro, Keisuke; Uehara, Shintaro

    2015-11-01

    In humans, observation of others' behaviors increases corticospinal excitability (CSE), which is interpreted in the contexts of motor resonance and the "mirror neuron system" (MNS). It has been suggested that observation of another individual's behavior manifests an embodied simulation of his/her mental state through the MNS. Thus, the MNS may involve understanding others' intentions of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions (i.e., social cognition), and may therefore exhibit a greater response when observing human-interactive behaviors that require a more varied and complex understanding of others. In the present study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the primary motor cortex of participants observing human-interactive behaviors between two individuals (c.f. one person reaching toward an object in another person's hand) and non-interactive individual behavior (c.f. one person reaching toward an object on a dish). We carefully controlled the kinematics of behaviors in these two conditions to exclude potential effects of MNS activity changes associated with kinematic differences between visual stimuli. Notably, motor evoked potentials, that reflect CSE, from the first dorsal interosseous muscle exhibited greater amplitude when the participants observed interactive behaviors than when they observed non-interactive behavior. These results provide neurophysiological evidence that the MNS is activated to a greater degree during observation of human-interactive behaviors that contain additional information about the individuals' mental states, supporting the view that the MNS plays a critical role in social cognition in humans. PMID:26432377

  16. Ten-year mortality study of the population involved in the Seveso incident in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Bertazzi, P.A.; Zocchetti, C.; Pesatori, A.C.; Guercilena, S.; Sanarico, M.; Radice, L.

    1989-06-01

    In 1976, an accidental explosion in a plant near Seveso, Italy, caused the contamination of a populated area by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The area was subdivided into three zones (A, B, and R) having decreasing mean levels of TCDD soil contamination. This study examines the mortality between 1976 and 1986 among the subjects, aged 20-74 years, who were resident in the area since the accident (n = 556 in zone A, n = 3,920 in zone B, n = 26,227 in zone R). Subjects' exposure was classified by residence. A referent cohort of 167,391 subjects who lived in the immediate surroundings was concurrently examined. Vital status ascertainment was successful for over 99% of the subjects. Increased mortality from cardiovascular causes was found; incident-related stressors were considered more relevant to increased mortality than was TCDD exposure. Mortality from several cancers was elevated. The increases in biliary cancer (females), brain cancer, and lymphatic and hemopoietic neoplasms (particularly leukemia in males) did not appear to result from chance, confounding, or information/comparison bias. However, no definite patterns related to exposure classification were apparent. Merely suggestive increases in soft tissue tumors and melanoma were also noted. Liver and breast cancer mortality tended to be below expectations. Interpretation is hampered by the short observation period, small number of deaths from certain causes, and poor exposure definition. Further research is in progress.

  17. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  18. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on…

  19. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with…

  20. A standard neuroscience technique involves record-ing the extracellular activity of single neurons to study

    E-print Network

    Lin, Kevin K.

    A standard neuroscience technique involves record- ing the extracellular activity of single neurons information about the functions of neurons in different areas2 , but it has the caveat that individual neurons stimuli are often averaged over several trials to reduce the effects of neuronal variability. However

  1. A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

  2. Using Technology to Enhance Research-Based Best Practices for Increasing Parental Involvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established guidelines pertaining to student achievement and included requirements regarding parental involvement and communication between the school and home. Various issues stand in the way of realizing the level of parental engagement desired by educators and ordered by NCLB. Parental participation…

  3. An observational study of salt fluxes in Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Chant, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    An observational study was conducted in Delaware Bay during the summer of 2011 aiming to quantify the different mechanisms driving the salt flux in this system. Seven moorings, equipped with bottom-mounted ADCPs and CT sensors at difference depths, were deployed across a section of the estuary. The total area-averaged and tidal-averaged salt flux was decomposed in three different contributions: the advective salt flux that represents the flux caused by river input and meteorological-induced flows, the steady shear dispersion that is the salt flux driven by the estuarine exchange flow, and the tidal oscillatory salt flux that is induced by the tidal currents. The advective salt flux dominated over the steady shear dispersion and tidal oscillatory salt flux, because it was driven mainly by changes in sea surface height associated with wind-driven setup and setdown. The steady shear dispersion was always positive and presented a spring/neap variability that was consistent with a two-layer exchange flow. On the other hand, the tidal oscillatory salt flux fluctuated between positive and negative values, but increased around a strong neap tide and decreased on the following spring tide. This variability is contrary to previous parameterizations, whereby the tidal salt flux is proportional to the amplitude of the tidal currents. The observational estimate was compared to a parameterization that relates tidal salt flux as proportional to tidal current amplitude and stratification. The observational estimate agreed with this new parameterization when the river discharge was relatively constant.

  4. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  5. An observational study of typhoon Imbudo in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingqing; Fu, Gang; Guo, Jingtian; Yang, Yuqiang; Duan, Yihong

    2005-10-01

    Typhoon Imbudo was a super-typhoon over the northwestern Pacific in 2003. It caused tremendous damage when it made landfalls in the Philippines and China. This paper documents observational analyses of Typhoon Imbudo during its landfall in China. All available observations are used to study its motion, intensity changes, convection, structure and precipitation. Best-track data indicate that Imbudo moved west-northwestward until 1800 UTC 23 July and then turned north-westward. FNL (final) analysis data show that the motion of Imbudo is dominated by changes of the subtropical high. At Imbudo’s mature stage, the minimum sea level pressure dropped to 910 hPa and the maximum sustained winds were as high as 67 m s-1, which is the intensity of a super-typhoon. The surface wind field exhibited asymmetric characteristics. Polar-orbiting satellite imagery also manifested convective asymmetry before Imbudo made landfall in China. Analyzed the vertical wind shear, it is shown that the convection has a downshear-left pattern. All kinds of precipitation data were used to identify the asymmetric characteristic of the rainfall associated with the Imbudo. The maximum rainfalls were located in the southern boundary area between Guangxi and Guangdong. However, the lack of in situ observations limited further analyses of this typhoon.

  6. How Safe Do Teenagers Behave on Facebook? An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13–18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  7. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  8. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more »gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  9. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal, gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.

  10. Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1992-02-01

    Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

  11. Systematic study of complete fusion suppression in reactions involving weakly bound nuclei at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bing; Diaz-Torres, Alexis; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions of reactions involving breakup are studied by using the empirical coupled-channel (ECC) model with breakup effects considered. An exponential function with two parameters is adopted to describe the prompt-breakup probability in the ECC model. These two parameters are fixed by fitting the measured prompt-breakup probability or the complete fusion cross sections. The suppression of complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier is studied by comparing the data with the predictions from the ECC model without the breakup channel considered. The results show that the suppression of complete fusion are roughly independent of the target for the reactions involving the same projectile.

  12. [Quality of the clinical reports: observational study in Sassari].

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Licheri, N; Ruiu, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the program of clinical risk management, and in particular in the phase of the "knowledge" of company reality, the work deals with the topic of the case history in Sassari' local health authority. A study is treated where, on a sample of about 400 cases history, four definite aspects are considered, in particular those that are regarded as the most important in the risk management and about medical responsability: 1) formal consent; 2) daily clinical allowance; 3) therapeutic card; 4) operating card. The results we got show the presence of a formal consent filled in correctly in 36 cases (9%), completed a daily allowance in 36 cases (9%), therapeutic card in 14 (3.5%) cases, operation card in 21 cases (19% su 116 surgical cases). These data, that have permitted to estimate the specific company reality as from pointed out critical states, show the necessity of working, with involvement of professional doctors, to build a history case model with clear and shared rules where you can clearly find the clinical path of a patient, where everything made is quoted and easily readable when necessary. PMID:20169826

  13. Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

  14. The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study

    SciTech Connect

    Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

    1983-06-01

    The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

  15. An observational study of radiation temperature inversions in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malingowski, Julie; Atkinson, David; Fochesatto, Javier; Cherry, Jessica; Stevens, Eric

    2014-03-01

    A series of high resolution radiosonde launches were conducted over seven case-study days spanning spring 2009 and fall/winter 2010 during clear and calm nights at Fairbanks, Alaska to evaluate the effects of solar radiation, snow covered surfaces and low-level winds on the formation and evolution of surface-based temperature inversions (SBI). Transition seasons were selected because strong nighttime radiation cooling allows well-defined inversions to form while sufficient daytime solar heating allows the observation of dissipation processes in the sub-arctic latitudes. During the fall/winter period, co-located Doppler phased array acoustic soundings (SODAR) were carried out. The height of the SBI retrieved by radiosonde and SODAR did not differ more than 50 m. However, the SODAR profiles display a much more complex structure in the atmospheric boundary layer. Observations during this experiment demonstrated that the formation of the SBI is initiated by a rapid cooling at the surface followed by a steady columnar cooling and subsequent growth of the SBI depth overnight.

  16. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  17. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  18. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeeck, Kirk A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

  19. An Aggregate Study of Single-Case Research Involving Aided AAC: Participant Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Mason, Rose A.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who cannot speak at all or not intelligibly are frequently taught to use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The majority of the research on the use of AAC with individuals with ASD has been single-case research studies. This investigation involved a meta-analysis of the…

  20. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  1. The Role of Leadership and Management in Six Southern Public Health Partnerships: A Study of Member Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Elisa S.; Taber, Shahnaz K.; Breslau, Erica S.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Li, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Research has led to greater understanding of what is needed to create and sustain well-functioning public health partnerships. However, a partnership's ability to foster an environment that encourages broad member involvement in discussions, decision making, and activities has received scant empirical attention. This study examined the…

  2. Whistleblowing: An integrative literature review of data-based studies involving nurses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Hickman, Louise D; Hutchinson, Marie; Andrew, Sharon; Smith, James; Potgieter, Ingrid; Cleary, Michelle; Peters, Kath

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Aim To summarise and critique the research literature about whistleblowing and nurses. Background Whistleblowing is identified as a crucial issue in maintenance of healthcare standards and nurses are frequently involved in whistleblowing events. Despite the importance of this issue, to our knowledge an evaluation of this body of the data-based literature has not been undertaken. Method An integrative literature review approach was used to summarise and critique the research literature. A comprehensive search of five databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Health Science: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Google, were searched using terms including: 'whistleblow*', 'nurs*'. In addition, relevant journals were examined, as well as reference lists of retrieved papers. Papers published during the years 2007-2013 were selected for inclusion. Findings Fifteen papers were identified, capturing data from nurses in seven countries. The findings in this review demonstrate a growing body of research for the nursing profession at large to engage and respond appropriately to issues involving suboptimal patient care or organisational wrongdoing. Conclusions Nursing plays a key role in maintaining practice standards and in reporting care that is unacceptable although the repercussions to nurses who raise concerns are insupportable. Overall, whistleblowing and how it influences the individual, their family, work colleagues, nursing practice and policy overall, requires further national and international research attention. PMID:25346267

  3. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  4. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  5. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  6. Home-Based Head Start and Family Involvement: An Exploratory Study of the Associations among Home Visiting Frequency and Family Involvement Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Since 1965, Head Start has stood as a model, two-generational program for promoting developmental competencies among children living in socioeconomic disadvantage for the US and international communities. The cornerstone of Head Start is the promotion of caregivers' involvement in their young children's development and early learning. In…

  7. A transcriptional study in mice with different ethanol-drinking profiles: possible involvement of the GABA(B) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Correia, Diego; Torres, Adriana Amorim; Boas, Gustavo Roberto Villas; Rueda, André Veloso Lima; Camarini, Rosana; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli; Brunialti-Godard, Ana Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ?-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptor agonists effectively reduce ethanol intake. The quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction of Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 mRNA from the prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum in mice exposed to an animal model of the addiction developed in our laboratory was performed to evaluate the involvement of the GABA(B) receptor in ethanol consumption. We used outbred, Swiss mice exposed to a three-bottle free-choice model (water, 5% v/v ethanol, and 10% v/v ethanol) that consisted of four phases: acquisition (AC), withdrawal (W), reexposure (RE), and quinine-adulteration (AD). Based on individual ethanol intake, the mice were classified into three groups: "addicted" (A group; preference for ethanol and persistent consumption during all phases), "heavy" (H group; preference for ethanol and a reduction in ethanol intake in the AD phase compared to AC phase), and "light" (L group; preference for water during all phases). In the prefrontal cortex in the A group, we found high Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels, with significantly higher Gabbr1 transcription levels compared with the C (ethanol-naive control mice), L, and H groups. In the hippocampus in the A group, Gabbr2 mRNA levels were significantly lower compared with the C, L, and H groups. In the striatum, we found a significant increase in Gabbr1 transcription levels compared with the C, L, and H groups. No differences in Gabbr1 or Gabbr2 transcription levels were observed in the hypothalamus among groups. In summary, Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels were altered in cerebral areas related to drug taking only in mice behaviorally classified as "addicted" drinkers, suggesting that these genes may contribute to high and persistent ethanol consumption. PMID:22579910

  8. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  9. Observational Study of Contracts Processing at 29 CTSA Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We measured contracts Final Negotiation (FN) and Full Execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of Master Agreements (MAs) and Previously Negotiated Terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p<0) and 22 days (p<0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p<.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study startup time by examining causes of variation and outliers. PMID:23919362

  10. An Observational Study of Pulsations in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Henson, Gary D.; Hillwig, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    We have been carrying out a long-term monitoring program to study the light variability in proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). PPNe are post-Asymptotic Giant Branch objects in transition between the AGB and PN phases in the evolution of low and intermediate-mass stars. As such, it is not surprising that they display pulsational variability. We have been carrying out photometric monitoring of 30 of these at the Valparaiso University campus observatory over the last 20 years, with the assistance of undergraduate students. The sample size has been enlarged over the past six years by observations made using telescopes in the SARA consortium at KPNO and CTIO. Periods have been determined for those of F-G spectral types. We have also enlarged the sample with PPNe from outside the Milky Way by determining periods of eight PPNe in the lower metalicity environment of the Magellanic Clouds. Periods for the entire sample range from 35 to 160 days. Some clear patterns have emerged, with those of higher temperature possessing shorter periods and smaller amplitudes, indicating a reduction in period and pulsation amplitude as the objects evolve. Radial velocity monitoring of several of the brightest of these has allowed us to document their changes in brightness, color, and size during a pulsation cycle. The results of this study will be presented. This research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (most recently AST 1413660), with additional student support from the Indiana Space Grant Consortium.

  11. Observational study of contracts processing at 29 CTSA sites.

    PubMed

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-08-01

    We measured contracts final negotiation (FN) and full execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of master agreements (MAs) and previously negotiated terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p < 0) and 22 days (p < 0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p < 0.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study start-up time by examining causes of variation and outliers. PMID:23919362

  12. Involving the patient to ask about hospital hand hygiene: a National Patient Safety Agency feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Pittet, D; Panesar, S S; Wilson, K; Longtin, Y; Morris, T; Allan, V; Storr, J; Cleary, K; Donaldson, L

    2011-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) affect at least 300,000 patients annually in the UK and represent a significant, yet largely preventable, burden to healthcare systems. Hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is the leading prevention measure, but compliance with good practice is generally low. The UK National Patient Safety Agency surveyed the public, inpatients, and HCWs, particularly frontline clinical staff and infection control nurses, in five acute care hospitals to determine whether they agreed that a greater level of involvement and engagement with patients would contribute to increased compliance with hand hygiene and reduce HAIs. Fifty-seven percent (302/530) of the public were unlikely to question doctors on the cleanliness of their hands as they assumed that they had already cleaned them. Forty-three percent (90/210) of inpatients considered that HCWs should know to clean their hands and trusted them to do so, and 20% (42/210) would not want HCWs to think that they were questioning their professional ability to do their job correctly. Most HCWs surveyed (178/254, 71%) said that HAI could be reduced to a greater or lesser degree if patients asked HCWs if they had cleaned their hands before touching them. Inviting patients to remind HCWs about hand hygiene through the provision of individual alcohol-based hand-rub containers and actively supporting an 'It's OK to ask' attitude were perceived as the most useful interventions by both patients and HCWs. However, further work is required to refute the myth among HCWs that patient involvement undermines the doctor- or HCW-patient relationship. PMID:21236515

  13. Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Children with Dengue by Serial Echocardiographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kirawittaya, Tawatchai; Yoon, In-Kyu; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Green, Sharone; Ennis, Francis A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Rothman, Alan L.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined. Methods and Principal findings We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty one dengue cases were enrolled. On the day of enrollment, dengue cases that already developed plasma leakage had lower cardiac index (2695 (127) vs 3188 (75) (L/min/m2), p = .003) and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (.413 (.021) vs .328 (.026), p = .021) and systemic vascular resistance (2478 (184) vs 1820 (133) (dynes·s/cm5), p = .005) compared to those without plasma leakage. Early diastolic wall motion of the left ventricle was decreased in dengue cases with plasma leakage compared to those without. Decreased left ventricular wall motility was more common in dengue patients compared to non-dengue cases particularly in cases with plasma leakage. Differences in cardiac function between DF and DHF were most pronounced around the time of plasma leakage. Cardiac dysfunction was transient and did not require treatment. Transient elevated troponin-T levels were more common in DHF cases compared to DF (14.5% vs 5%, p = 0.028). Conclusions Transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was common in children hospitalized with dengue and related to severity of plasma leakage. The functional abnormality spontaneously resolved without specific treatment. Cardiac structural changes including myocarditis were uncommon. PMID:26226658

  14. An observational study of driving distractions on urban roads in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the prevalence of driver engagement in secondary tasks and whether there were any differences by age and gender, as well as day of the week and time of the day. Two independent researchers observed 6578 drivers at nine randomly selected urban locations in Girona, Spain. Nearly 20% of the drivers observed were engaged in some type of secondary task, with the most common being: conversing with a passenger (11.1%), smoking (3.7%) and talking on a handheld mobile phone (1.3%). Surprisingly there were no differences by gender, but there were age-related differences with younger drivers being more frequently observed engaged in a number of different types of secondary tasks while driving (i.e. drinking, talking on a handheld mobile phone, and texting or keying numbers). Logistic regression showed that younger drivers, and to a lesser extent middle-age drivers, were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a technological distraction than older drivers. Conversely, non-technological distractions were significantly predicted by day of the week, time of the day and location. A substantial number of the drivers observed in this study were putting themselves at an increased risk of becoming involved in a crash by engaging in non-driving related tasks at the same time as driving. Furthermore, the higher crash rate among young drivers may be partially accounted for by their more frequent engagement in some types of secondary tasks while driving. PMID:25463939

  15. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

  16. A study involving mordenite, titanate nanotubes, perfluoroalkoxy polymers, and ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Shaneela

    Zeolites and molecular sieves are finding applications in many areas of catalysis due to appreciable acid activity, shape selectivity, and ion-exchange capacity, as they possess an unbalanced framework charge. For catalytic applications, zeolites become more valuable as the ratio of SiO2/Al2O 3 increases. Acid resistance and thermal stability of zeolite are both improved with increasing SiO2/Al2O3. This part of the thesis deals with the control of morphology focused on decreasing the crystal diameter of mordenite zeolite and to increase the SiO2/Al 2O3 ratio by changing synthesis conditions. A high SiO 2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR15) of mordenite was prepared in a very short reaction time. We studied the role of hydroxide in the crystallization of the mordenite as a structure director, nucleation time modifier, and crystallite aggregate enhancer. The formation of nano-aggregates of mordenites was greatly enhanced using a combination of alcohol additives and conventional heating. Mordenite nucleation was also increased without using alcohols when microwave heating was employed, but the alcohols further accelerated the nucleation process. The different heating techniques affected the morphology; microwave heating produced crystallites of ˜40 nm, while the conventional hydrothermal method formed larger size crystallites of ˜88 nm. We controlled the size and shape of the mordenite crystals because they have important implications in hydrocarbon conversion and separation processes. Mordenite synthesized showed jellyfish, acicular, flower, and wheat grain like structures. In the second part of this thesis, a phase transition was successfully achieved from TiO2 particles to titanate nanotubes by the breakage of Ti-O bonds and the creation of oxygen vacancies without using expensive precursors, high temperatures, high chemical concentrations of alkaline solutions, and long synthesis times. A combination of anatase nano-particles/titanate nano-tubes was synthesized using TiO2 (anatase) and a temperature of only 100°C. When TiO2 (P-25) was used with the same concentration of alkaline solution (1 molar NaOH), the same processing time of 12 hours, and a higher temperature at 110°C, only titanate nano-tubes were observed. The linkages of 'Ti-O' play a very important role in the structural features of different phases. Two crystalline phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) were synthesized as products in the case of TiO 2 (anatase) and one crystalline phase (monoclinic) for products of TiO 2 (P-25). The third part of the thesis concerns surface modification of hydrophobic fluoropolymers that have low surface energies and are very difficult to metallize. Surface modification was done to enhance surface roughness and hence to boost surface energy for metallization processes. We used low impact, environmentally friendly non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure to strip off F - ions and replace them with reactive unsaturated hydrocarbon functionalities such as CH=CH2 on the surface of a polymer. As these hydrocarbon functionalities are reactive with metals, they form composites that have good adhesion between layers of polymer. Due to surface modification, polymeric chains were broken by the loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.33) and the gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.17) using methane/argon plasmas. Methane/hydrogen/argon plasmas on the other hand produced extensive loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.07-0.33) and gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.08-0.16) that was far better than pristine PFA. The surface of PFA was modified by defluorination and oxidation. Further enhancement of COF and COO groups revealed that the surface was modified to a hydrophilic membrane that can further be easily hydrolyzed to COOH in the presence of atmospheric humidity. The last part of the thesis deals with ammonia borane which was studied as a potential source of hydrogen for fuel cells. We analyzed the viability of ammonia borane as a hydrogen carrier compound for fuel cell applications using a thermolysis method. Ammonia borane is an attractive source for hydrogen productio

  17. Periodontal Disease and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Deng, Ai-Ping; Li, Cheng; Xia, Ling-Yun; Niu, Yu-Ming; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association of periodontal disease (PD) with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and HNC risk. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and HNC risk published up to March 23, 2013. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results We obtained seven observational studies involving two cohort and six case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a significant association between PD and HNC risk (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.1.68 - 4.14; p < 0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroup analyses based on adjustment for covariates, study design, PD assessment, tumor site, and ethnicity also revealed a significant association. Conclusions Based on currently evidence, PD is probably a significant and independent risk factor of HNC. PMID:24194957

  18. Association between day of delivery and obstetric outcomes: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bottle, A; Aylin, P

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the association between day of delivery and measures of quality and safety of maternity services, particularly comparing weekend with weekday performance? Methods This observational study examined outcomes for maternal and neonatal records (1?332?835 deliveries and 1?349?599 births between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2012) within the nationwide administrative dataset for English National Health Service hospitals by day of the week. Groups were defined by day of admission (for maternal indicators) or delivery (for neonatal indicators) rather than by day of complication. Logistic regression was used to adjust for case mix factors including gestational age, birth weight, and maternal age. Staffing factors were also investigated using multilevel models to evaluate the association between outcomes and level of consultant presence. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality and—for both neonate and mother—infections, emergency readmissions, and injuries. Study answer and limitations Performance across four of the seven measures was significantly worse for women admitted, and babies born, at weekends. In particular, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.3 per 1000 babies delivered at weekends, 0.9 per 1000 higher than for weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.13). No consistent association between outcomes and staffing was identified, although trusts that complied with recommended levels of consultant presence had a perineal tear rate of 3.0% compared with 3.3% for non-compliant services (adjusted odds ratio 1.21, 1.00 to 1.45). Limitations of the analysis include the method of categorising performance temporally, which was mitigated by using a midweek reference day (Tuesday). Further research is needed to investigate possible bias from unmeasured confounders and explore the nature of the causal relationship. What this study adds This study provides an evaluation of the “weekend effect” in obstetric care, covering a range of outcomes. The results would suggest approximately 770 perinatal deaths and 470 maternal infections per year above what might be expected if performance was consistent across women admitted, and babies born, on different days of the week. Funding, competing interests, data sharing The research was partially funded by Dr Foster Intelligence and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre in partnership with the Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Healthcare Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London. WLP was supported by the National Audit Office. PMID:26602245

  19. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy

  20. Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

    This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals…

  1. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  2. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This study is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such studies.

  3. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  4. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  5. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: II: Too Observations of Transient LMXBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9045 provided funds for the research project 'TOO Observations of Transient LMxBs' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposal was Dr. M. Mendez (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/1/2000. The original proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. William S. Pauesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. The proposal was intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by making RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of two transient LMXBs, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, if the sources became sufficiently bright.

  6. Are Husbands Involving in Their Spouses’ Utilization of Maternal Care Services?: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Kyi Mar; Shibanuma, Akira; Oo, Nwe Nwe; Fillman, Toki Jennifer; Saw, Yu Mon; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands’ involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands’ involvement and their spouses’ utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods. Methods A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband’s involvement as well as their spouses’ utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8%) and postnatal care (68.5%). Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%), delivery place (83.6%), and money saving (81.7%) before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5%) and a safe delivery kit (21.1%). In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband’s involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services was found among spouses of husbands who accompanied them to antenatal visits (AOR 5.82, 95% CI, 3.34–10.15) and those who had a well birth plan (AOR 2.42, 95% CI, 1.34–4.39 for antenatal visit and AOR 2.88, 95% CI, 1.52–5.47 for postnatal visit). Conclusion The majority of husbands supported their spouses’ maternal care services use financially; however, they were less involved in birth preparedness and postnatal care. Exposure to maternal health education and their maternal health knowledge were main predictors of their involvement. Women were more likely to use maternal care services when their husbands company them for ANC visits and had a well-birth plan in advance. PMID:26641891

  7. Study: Among Street-Involved Youth, Women Twice as Likely to be Infected with Hepatitis C

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    crystal methamphetamine and heroin injection. Syringe sharing was associated with HCV acquisition among males only. "For all youth in the study, injection drug use ­ notably heroin and crystal meth ­ emerged

  8. Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of patients with chondrosarcoma of bone have an excellent overall survival after local therapy. However, in case of unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease the outcome is poor and limited treatment options exist. Therefore we conducted a survey of clinical phase I or II trials and retrospective studies that described systemic therapy for chondrosarcoma patients. Materials and methods Using PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, the Cochrane controlled trial register and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts a literature survey was conducted. From the identified items, data were collected by a systematic analysis. We limited our search to semi-recent studies published between 2000 and 2013 to include modern drugs, imaging techniques and disease evaluations. Results A total of 31 studies were found which met the criteria: 9 phase I trials, 11 phase II and 8 retrospective studies. In these studies 855 chondrosarcoma patients were reported. The tested drugs were mostly non-cytotoxic, either alone or in combination with another non-cytotoxic agent or chemotherapy. Currently two phase I trials, one phase IB/II trial and three phase II trials are enrolling chondrosarcoma patients. Conclusion Because chondrosarcoma of bone is an orphan disease it is difficult to conduct clinical trials. The meagre outcome data for locally advanced or metastatic patients indicate that new treatment options are needed. For the phase I trials it is difficult to draw conclusions because of the low numbers of chondrosarcoma patients enrolled, and at different dose levels. Some phase II trials show promising results which support further research. Retrospective studies are encouraged as they could add to the limited data available. Efforts to increase the number of studies for this orphan disease are urgently needed. PMID:25126409

  9. An Observational Study of Algol-Type Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Algol-Type binary systems are a subtype of binary systems. Their unique semi-detached structure leads to have abundant physical phenomena, including the dramatically distorted donor star, strong magnetic activities, various ways of mass transfer, the evolution stage quite different from that of single stars, and specific formation tracks. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental physics of light curves, as well as the models or programs used in the past. We show the influence of different parameters on the light curves, including the inclination, temperature, abundance, surface gravity, the third light, radius, orbital eccentricity, and the argument of periastron. Based on the current catalog of Algols, we investigate their statistic characteristics. We observe three Algols and analyze the data in detail. The results are as follows: (1)Our statistical analyses of Algols support the previous suggestion that most of the detached component stars are main sequence stars. The distribution of the mass ratio agrees to our calculated critical value of the mass ratio for Algols. We suggest that there could be a lower limit of the radius ratio. We also show that there are good correlations among the temperature, luminosity, radius, and the mass of the component stars. (2) The binary FG Gem is observed, and the data are analyzed. Based on the solutions of large combinations of the temperature and luminosity, we use a new age-comparing method to show that the FG Gem is a semi-detached system, and a new temperature-searching method to get a better estimate of the temperature of the detached component star. We suggest that a combination of the intermittent mass flow and the continuous magnetic braking can explain its orbital period change. (3) Taking the VV Vir as an example, we discuss some properties of the mass flow in a semi-detached binary. Some of them can reflect the common characteristics of the mass flows in the Algol systems, e.g., the radius of the mass flow is very small, so is its impact spot. If the mass transfer rate is high, the energy transfer rate can be comparable to the intrinsic luminosity of the detached component star. The position of the impact spot can be determined by the orbital period, mass ratio, and the dimensionless potential. The temperature of the impact spot is very high, and it can be directly reflected by the humps on the light curves. (4) We discover a rare Algol binary V753 Mon, which is just in the process of mass ratio inversion. The mass ratio of this binary is very close to one, and the key evolutional stage provides an important observational source for the theoretical studies of binary evolution. (5) We introduce the light curve models and the related physical factors, including the shape of the orbit, the shape of the stars, gravity brightening, atmosphere model, limb darkening, reflection effect, eclipse effect, the third body and its third light, dark spots and magnetic effect, hot spots, asteroseismology, atmospheric eclipse, and circumstellar matter. The light curve analysis programs are presented. We analyze the parameters and show the relevant results, including the orbital inclination, surface temperature, metal abundance, gravity acceleration, the third light, stellar radius (expressed by the surface potential), the eccentricity of the orbit, and anomaly.

  10. A Study of Student Teaching Using Direct Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Joan G.; Coker, Homer

    Thirty-three student teachers were observed in elementary school classrooms to determine if they manifested 16 interactive behaviors identified as desirable by college of education faculty. Teaching assistants used the Georgia Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness (GATE), an instrument which requires the observers to objectively record, but not…

  11. Application of micro-attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy in the forensic study of questioned documents involving red seal inks.

    PubMed

    Dirwono, Warnadi; Park, Jin Sook; Agustin-Camacho, M R; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2010-06-15

    Red seal inks from Korea (6), Japan (1) and China (6) were studied to investigate the feasibility of micro-attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy as a tool in the forensic study of questioned documents involving seal inks. The technique was able to differentiate red seal inks of similar colors and different manufacturers. Blind testing has shown that micro-ATR FTIR can identify the origin of the red seal inks with accuracy. Data gathered were converted to a database for future reference. Also, the technique was also successful in determining the sequence of heterogeneous line intersection from a personal seal and a ballpoint pen. The results show that micro-ATR FTIR can be a valuable non-destructive tool for the objective analysis of questioned documents involving different red seal inks. PMID:20413232

  12. Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Fadiga, L; Fogassi, L; Pavesi, G; Rizzolatti, G

    1995-06-01

    1. We stimulated the motor cortex of normal subjects (transcranial magnetic stimulation) while they 1) observed an experimenter grasping 3D-objects, 2) looked at the same 3D-objects, 3) observed an experimenter tracing geometrical figures in the air with his arm, and 4) detected the dimming of a light. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from hand muscles. 2. We found that MEPs significantly increased during the conditions in which subjects observed movements. The MEP pattern reflected the pattern of muscle activity recorded when the subjects executed the observed actions. 3. We conclude that in humans there is a system matching action observation and execution. This system resembles the one recently described in the monkey. PMID:7666169

  13. [Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

  14. GP treatment decisions for patients with depression: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Tony; King, Fiona; Albertella, Louise; Smith, Peter WF

    2005-01-01

    Background GPs are prescribing more antidepressants than previously, but not in accordance with guidelines. The reasons why they prescribe are not well understood. Aim To explore associations between GP treatment and severity of depression, patients' life difficulties, previous history of illness and treatment, and patient attitudes. Design Observational study in two phases, 3 years apart. Setting Seven practices in Southampton, UK. Method Adult attenders who consented were screened for depression in the waiting room. After the consultation, the 17 participating GPs completed questionnaires on the perceived presence and severity of depression, patients' life difficulties, previous problems and treatment, patient attitudes towards antidepressants, and their treatment decisions. Patients returned postal questionnaires on sociodemographics, life events, physical health, and attitudes towards antidepressants. Results Of 694 patients screened in the two phases, the GPs rated 101 (15%) as depressed, acknowledged depression in 44 cases (6%), and offered treatment in 27 (4%), including antidepressants in 14 (2%). Offers of antidepressants were more likely in both phases where the GPs rated the depression as moderate rather than mild, and where they perceived a positive patient attitude to antidepressants. However, GP ratings of severity did not agree well with the validated screening instrument, and their assessments of patients' attitudes to treatment were only moderately related to patients' self-reports. Conclusions In line with current guidelines, GPs base prescribing decisions on the perceived severity of depression, taking patients' preferences into account, but they do not accurately identify which patients are likely to benefit from treatment. Better ways to assess depression severity and patient attitudes towards antidepressants are needed in order to target treatment more appropriately. PMID:15826435

  15. An observational study of adults seeking emergency care in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lily D; Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Yore, Mackensie; Pirrotta, Elizabeth A; Woods, Joan; Somontha, Koy; Sovannra, Yim; Raman, Maya; Cornell, Erika; Grundmann, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics and chief complaints of adults seeking emergency care at two Cambodian provincial referral hospitals. Methods Adults aged 18 years or older who presented without an appointment at two public referral hospitals were enrolled in an observational study. Clinical and demographic data were collected and factors associated with hospital admission were identified. Patients were followed up 48 hours and 14 days after presentation. Findings In total, 1295 hospital presentations were documented. We were able to follow up 85% (1098) of patients at 48 hours and 77% (993) at 14 days. The patients’ mean age was 42 years and 64% (823) were females. Most arrived by motorbike (722) or taxi or tuk-tuk (312). Most common chief complaints were abdominal pain (36%; 468), respiratory problems (15%; 196) and headache (13%; 174). Of the 1050 patients with recorded vital signs, 280 had abnormal values, excluding temperature, on arrival. Performed diagnostic tests were recorded for 539 patients: 1.2% (15) of patients had electrocardiography and 14% (175) had diagnostic imaging. Subsequently, 783 (60%) patients were admitted and 166 of these underwent surgery. Significant predictors of admission included symptom onset within 3 days before presentation, abnormal vital signs and fever. By 14-day follow-up, 3.9% (39/993) of patients had died and 19% (192/993) remained functionally impaired. Conclusion In emergency admissions in two public hospitals in Cambodia, there is high admission-to-death ratio and limited application of diagnostic techniques. We identified ways to improve procedures, including better documentation of vital signs and increased use of diagnostic techniques. PMID:25883401

  16. An Action Research Study Involving Motivating Middle School Students' Learning through Online Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falter Thomas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I explored the motivation of middle school students participating in online literature circles facilitated by college students, compared to traditional face-to-face literature circles they previously utilized. Sixty-eight rural, middle school students from two English teachers' classrooms took part in two sets of online literature…

  17. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  18. Abstract--Metagenomic studies inherently involve sampling genetic information from an environment potentially contain-

    E-print Network

    Polikar, Robi

    communities in the human gut causing ailments such as obesity and Crohn's Disease [5]. The findings of such studies may not only elucidate the cause of the disease, but hopefully will lead to novel medical Microbiome Project has been commissioned by the National Institutes of Health to catalog the diversity

  19. Involvement and Empowerment of Minorities and Women in the Accrediting Process: Report of a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Howard L.; And Others

    The participation of minorities and women in the accrediting process was examined in a national study, based on the perspectives of the accrediting agencies, the member institutions, and active participants in the process. Accrediting agencies belonging to the Council on Postsecondary Accreditation provided names of colleges that conducted a…

  20. A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…

  1. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks. PMID:11680506

  2. Studies of the involvement of metal ions with several medicinal agents

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.

    1985-01-01

    NMR and CD studies indicate that Mg/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ are able to change the conformation of tetracycline in DMSO solution. This may affect the in vivo effect of tetracycline. Using /sup 23/Na NMR, the formation constant of NaLAS (LAS represents the anion of lasalocid A) was found to be 80 M/sup -1/ which is much smaller than that in less polar solvents. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements were made to study the binding sites of Gd/sup 3 +/ on Las in ChCl/sub 3/-DMF mixed solvent system. No intermediate conformation (between cyclic and open-chain) was found. LAS was found to be a good second-sphere ligand to inert transition-metal amines. NMR studies suggest that LAS is in cyclic conformation when bound to these metal amines. A new method for the synthesis of spin-labeled anticancer Pt(II) complexes was developed. It is very simple and gives high yield of pure spin-labeled Pt(II) complexes.

  3. Fractional gravity studies on the ISS of sensory mechanisms involved in phototropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie; Edelmann, Richard; Millar, Katherine

    The major goals of this research are (1) to better understand cellular mechanisms of pho-totropism in plants and (2) to determine the effects and influence of gravity on light perception in plants. Because of the interfering effect of the strong gravitropic response, microgravity conditions are needed to effectively study phototropism. Experiments performed on the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. We utilized the European Modular Cultivation Sys-tem (EMCS), which has environmental controls for plant growth as well as centrifuges for gravity treatments. TROPI-1 (for tropisms) was successfully performed on the ISS during late 2006. We obtained data on seedlings grown in microgravity and discovered a novel positive phototropic response to red light in hypocotyls of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, one problem encoun-tered during TROPI-1 was low seed germination due to long storage periods (8 months) in flight hardware. Thus, the originally proposed fractional gravity studies were not performed. TROPI-2 provides an opportunity to regain the results from these important fractional gravity experiments. TROPI-2 experiments will provide a better understanding of how plants integrate sensory input from multiple light and gravity perception systems. This information is important for growing plants on long-term space missions as part of life support systems. The fractional gravity studies contain 0.16g (Moon) and 0.38g (Mars) treatments, so information to be obtained is relevant to exploration objectives

  4. Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

  5. Astronomy and religion (1780-1915). Four case studies involving ideas of extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    The present essay discusses four examples of interactions, two from the eighteenth century and two from the nineteenth. All four cases concern the relations between religion and the astronomical claim that intelligent beings exist elsewhere in space. In each of these four cases religious claims influenced astronomy. Cases 3 and 4 share a feature not usually encountered in studies on the interactions of astronomy and religion in that they are instances where not just theistic belief but in fact core doctrines of a specific religion, Christianity, influenced astronomy. I begin by surveying the interactions between religion and the idea of extraterrestrial intelligent life in the early modern period.

  6. A correlation study involving a comparison of professional science teaching standards and student performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schum, Paul A.

    If international report cards were issued today, to all industrialized nations world wide, the United States would receive a "C" at best in mathematics and science. This is not simply a temporary or simple cause and effect circumstance that can easily be addressed. The disappointing truth is that this downward trend in mathematics and science mastery by American students has been occurring steadily for at least the last eight years of international testing, and that there are numerous and varied bases for this reality. In response to this crisis, The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and The National Research Council (NRC) each have proposed relatively consistent, but individual sets of professional science teaching standards, designed to improve science instruction in American schools. It is of extreme value to the scientific, educational community to know if any or all of these standards lead to improved student performance. This study investigates the correlation between six, specific teacher behaviors that are common to these national standards and which behaviors, if any, result in improved student performance, as demonstrated on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT Assessment. These standards focus classroom science teachers on professional development, leading toward student mastery of scientific interpretation, concept development, and constructive relationship building. Because all individual teachers interpret roles, expectations, and guiding philosophies from different lenses, effective professional practice may reflect consistency in rationale and methodology yet will be best evidenced by an examination of specific teaching techniques. In this study, these teaching techniques are evidenced by self-reported teacher awareness and adherence to these consensual standards. Assessment instruments vary widely, and the results of student performance often reflect the congruency of curricular methodology and explicit testing domains. Although the recent educational impetus for change is most notably governed numerically by test scores, the true goal of scientific literacy is in the application of logic. Therefore, the ultimate thematic analysis in this study attempts to relate both educational theory and practice with positive change at the classroom level. The data gathered in this study is insufficient in establishing a significant correlation between adherence to national science teaching standards and student performance on the ACT in Jefferson County, Kentucky, for either public or Catholic school students. However, with respect to mean student scores on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT, there is statistically significant evidence for superior performance of Catholic school students compared with that of public school students in this region.

  7. Study on tobacco components involved in the pyrolytic generation of selected smoke constituents.

    PubMed

    Torikai, K; Torikaiu, K; Uwano, Y; Nakamori, T; Tarora, W; Takahashi, H

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of various tobacco components to the generation of smoke constituents using a tobacco pyrolysis model. We analyzed the amounts of primary tobacco components (sugars, protein, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, inorganics etc.) in flue-cured and burley tobacco leaves. Each of the components was added to the tobacco leaves at the 0.5-fold and 1.0-fold amount naturally present in the leaves. The treated tobacco samples were pyrolyzed at 800 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere with an infrared image furnace, and the selected smoke constituents (benzo[a]pyrene, hydrogen cyanide, carbonyl compounds, aromatic amines, volatile organic compounds and phenolics) were quantitatively analyzed by several methods, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The contribution of each tobacco component to the generation of selected smoke constituents was estimated from a regression line determined by the three yields (no addition, 0.5-fold addition, and 1.0-fold addition). The results of this study can provide useful and comprehensive information on the relationship between tobacco components and selected smoke constituents during pyrolysis. PMID:15721203

  8. Nutrient Intake and Anemia Risk in the WHI Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanaway, Jeffrey; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Arendell, Leslie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Background Nutritional anemia among post-menopausal women is preventable; recent data on prevalence are limited. Objective To investigate the association between nutrient intakes and anemia prevalence, in relation to both incidence and persistence, in a longitudinal sample of post-menopausal women. We hypothesized that anemia prevalence, incidence and persistence would be greater among women reporting lower intake of B12, folate and iron. Design Prospective cohort analysis. Participants/setting Observational Cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative(WHI-OS) including 93,676 postmenopausal women, age 50 to 79 years, were recruited across the United States at 40 clinical study sites. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1998; data collection for these analyses continued through 2000. Main outcome measures Anemia was defined as a blood hemoglobin concentration of <12.0 mg/dL. Persistent anemia was defined as anemia present at each measurement time point. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire for iron, folate, B12, red meat and cold breakfast cereal; inadequacies were based on dietary reference intakes for women over age 50 years. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used to characterize the population demographics, anemia rates and diet. Unconditional logistic regression was used to investigate associations between diet and incident and persistent anemia. Associations are presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Anemia was identified in 3,979 women or 5.5% of the cohort. Inadequate intakes of multiple anemia-associated nutrients were less frequent in non-Hispanic whites (7.4%) than other race/ethnic groups (inadequacies demonstrated in 14.6 to 16.3% of sample). Age, body mass index and smoking were associated with anemia. Women with anemia reported lower intakes of energy, protein, folate, B12, iron, vitamin C and red meat. Multiple (more than a single nutrient) dietary deficiencies were associated with a 21% greater risk of persistent anemia (OR-1.21, 95% CI: 1.05–1.41) and three deficiencies resulted in a 44% increase in risk for persistent anemia (OR-1.44, 95% CI: 1.20–1.73). Conclusion Inadequate nutrient intake, a modifiable condition, is associated with greater risk for anemia in post-menopausal women participating in the WHI-OS. Efforts to identify and update incidence estimates for anemia-associated nutrient deficiencies in aging women should be undertaken. PMID:21443985

  9. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    PubMed

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC?? values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. PMID:21767949

  10. [Recommendations for Communication and Solicitation of Patients Potentially or Already Involved in Clinical Studies].

    PubMed

    Bilbault, Pascal; Beslay, Nathalie; Carton, Laurence; Duffet, Jean-Pierre; Gueniche, Audrey; Lang, Marie; Menuet, Dominique; Prunier, Hélène; Levy, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The active patient participation in clinical trials is key for a competitive clinical research. Given this, the Health Industry Physicians and Actors Association (AMIPS) has set up a working group to make communication recommendations towards patients. The group was made of patients, investigators and industry sponsors representatives. Efficacious communication is rarely obtained because it is not clear what is possible to do ethically and regulatory and because of technical and financial constraints. After having identified the expectations and limitations for every actor category, the group has summarized all types of communication, in a sort of tool box, before and during the whole of a study. The benefits and regulatory prerequisites such as the submission to the Ethical Committee and to the National Data Information and Freedom Commission (CNIL) as well as the practical feasibility are described for each tool. PMID:25679186

  11. Psychosocial pathways to childhood obesity: a pilot study involving a high risk preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Moore, Elizabeth S; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study adopts a systems theory perspective to explore associations between parent and child factors and children's body mass index (BMI). Forty mothers and their preschool-aged children (3-6years) who were eligible for Head Start were recruited. Measures included demographic risk, maternal depression, negative parenting, children's impulsivity, children's approach to eating, and BMI. Structural Equation Modeling supported a mediating model such that mothers who reported greater demographic risk and more depressive symptoms showed higher rates of negative parenting. In turn, more negative parenting predicted higher child impulsivity ratings, which were related to higher food approach scores. Finally, children who scored higher in food approach had higher BMIs. Tests of sub-models excluding any of the mediating variables indicated a significantly worse fit to the data in each case. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early-onset obesity in high-risk children. PMID:25098723

  12. Involved-Node and Involved-Field Volumetric Modulated Arc vs. Fixed Beam Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Female Patients With Early-Stage Supra-Diaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Comparative Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Damien C.; Peguret, Nicolas; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Cozzi, Luca

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: A comparative treatment planning study was performed to compare volumetric-modulated arc (RA) to conventional intensity modulated (IMRT) for involved-field (IFRT) and involved-node (INRT) radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for RA and IMRT. First, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OAR) dose deposition was assessed between the two modalities. Second, the OAR (lung, breast, heart, thyroid, and submandibular gland) dose-volume histograms were computed and compared for IFRT and INRT, respectively. Results: For IFRT and INRT, PTV coverage was equally homogeneous with both RA and IMRT. By and large, the OAR irradiation with IFRT planning was not significantly different between RA and IMRT. For INRT, doses computed for RA were, however, usually lower than those with IMRT, particularly so for the lung, breast, and thyroid. Regardless of RA and IMRT modalities, a significant 20-50% decrease of the OAR computed mean doses was observed with INRT when compared with IFRT (Breast D{sub Mean} 1.5 +- 1.1 vs. 2.6 +- 1.7 Gy, p < 0.01 and 1.6 +- 1.1 vs. 2.9 +- 1.9 Gy, p < 0.01 for RA and IMRT, respectively). Conclusions: RA and IMRT results in similar level of dose homogeneity. With INRT but not IFRT planning, the computed doses to the PTV and OAR were usually higher and lower with RA when compared to IMRT. Regardless of the treatment modality, INRT when compared with IFRT planning led to a significant decrease in OAR doses, particularly so for the breast and heart.

  13. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; ?(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

  14. CRISPR/Cas9 as Tool for Functional Study of Genes Involved in Preimplantation Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient gene-editing tool for genome modification of cells and organisms. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in pig embryos have not been studied in depth. Here, we aimed to remove porcine OCT4 function as a model case using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Injection of Cas9 and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) against OCT4 decreased the percentages of OCT4-positive embryos to 37–50% of total embryos, while ~100% of control embryos exhibited clear OCT4 immunostaining. We assessed the mutation status near the guide sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, and a portion of blastocysts (20% in exon 2 and 50% in exon 5) had insertions/deletions near protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs). Different target sites had frequent deletions, but different concentrations of sgRNA made no impact. OCT4 mRNA levels dramatically decreased at the 8-cell stage, and they were barely detectable in blastocysts, while mRNA levels of other genes, including NANOG, and CDX2 were not affected. In addition, the combination of two sgRNAs led to large-scale deletion (about 1.8 kb) in the same chromosome. Next, we injected an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) vector targeting the OCT4 exon with Cas9 and sgRNA to create a knockin. We confirmed eGFP fluorescence in blastocysts in the inner cell mass, and also checked the mutation status using PCR and DNA sequencing. A significant portion of blastocysts had eGFP sequence insertions near PAM sites. The CRISPR/CAS9 system provides a good tool for gene functional studies by deleting target genes in the pig. PMID:25775469

  15. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Sarah L.; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Rothberg, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers Design Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion Setting U.S. academic tertiary care hospital Participants Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists Methods A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and sub-themes. Results Twenty-one participants (9 women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasized time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilization (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (e.g. individual/ward), meso-level (e.g. institution) and macro-level (e.g., payor/public policy). Conclusions The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified. PMID:23748192

  16. Expression and Replication Studies to Identify New Candidate Genes Involved in Normal Hearing Function

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

  17. Study of physical and biological factors involved in the disruption of E. coli by hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation results in flow restriction in a flow system causing rapid pressure fluctuations and significant fluid forces. These can be harnessed to mediate microbial cell damage. Hydrodynamic cavitation was studied for the partial disruption of E. coli and selective release of specific proteins relative to the total soluble protein. The effects of the cavitation number, the number of passes, and the specific growth rate of E. coli on the release of periplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins were studied. At the optimum cavitation number of 0.17 for this experimental configuration, 48% of the total soluble protein, 88% of acid phosphatase, and 67% of beta-galactosidase were released by hydrodynamic cavitation in comparison with the maximum release attained using multiple passes through the French Press. The higher release of the acid phosphatase over the total soluble protein suggested preferred release of periplasmic compounds. This was supported by SDS-PAGE analysis. The absence of micronization of cell material resulting in the potential for ease of solid-liquid separation downstream of the cell disruption operation was confirmed by TEM microscopy. E. coli cells cultivated at a higher specific growth rate (0.36 h(-1)) were more easily disrupted than slower grown cells (0.11 h(-1)). The specific activity of the enzyme of interest released by hydrodynamic cavitation, defined as the units of enzyme in solution per milligram of total soluble protein, was greater than that obtained on release by the French Press, high-pressure homogenization, osmotic shock, and EDTA treatment. The selectivity offered indicates the potential of enzyme release by hydrodynamic cavitation to ease the purification in the subsequent downstream processing. PMID:16739979

  18. Both parietal lobes are involved in drawing: a functional MRI study and implications for constructional apraxia.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Sugishita, Morihiro

    2003-05-01

    In clinical studies, many researchers have reported that drawing can be disturbed by left or right unilateral parietal lobe damage (constructional apraxia). There seem to be two possible predictions about the cerebral laterality for drawing. The first is that drawing requires both parietal lobes, therefore, a lesion to either side can disrupt drawing. The second is that individuals can differ in laterality: some have only right or left activations, and some have bilateral. To test these predictions, we investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the cerebral activation whilst 17 right-handed healthy subjects performed a drawing task. The experiment consisted of two conditions: (1). naming an object in a presented picture and drawing it by using right index finger (DRAWING & NAMING); (2). naming an object in a presented picture (NAMING). We considered the brain regions that had greater activity in the DRAWING&NAMING condition than in the NAMING condition were the neural substrates of drawing. Individual analysis revealed that all subjects showed parietal activation bilaterally. We interpret that the results support the first prediction that both parietal lobes are required for drawing. By calculating the laterality indices of the individual parietal activations, it was found that there were more left dominant subjects than right dominant subjects (left, 12; right, 5). The results are inconsistent with previous studies on the incidence of constructional apraxia. In addition, we found activation in regions that were not previously reported in the literature of constructional apraxia: they are the ventral premotor area and posterior part of inferior temporal sulcus. PMID:12706214

  19. Fluid-melt interactions involving Cl-rich granites: Experimental study from 2 to 8 kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, James D.

    1992-02-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the system Na 2O-K 2O-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-H 2O-Cl 2O -1at 2, 4 kbar (800 and 1000°C) and 6, 8 kbar (800°C) to determine thermodynamic constraints on fluid-melt interaction and to determine the effects of pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) on Cl partitioning between aqueous fluid and subaluminous and peralkaline haplogranite melts. The Cl concentration of the run product glasses was determined by electron microprobe, and the H 2O concentration of some glasses was determined by ion microprobe. The Cl concentration of the aqueous fluid was computed by mass balance and was also analyzed by chloridometer for several runs; agreement between the two methods is within ±9 relative %. D Cl (wt% Cl in aqueous fluid/wt% Cl in granite melt) increases strongly with increasing P for P < 6 kbar, increasing concentrations of Cl in the system, and decreasing T. Previous work, however, indicates the effect of T on D Cl in F-bearing granites within this P-T range is opposite to that observed here. The experimental results indicate that the concentration of Cl in granitic melts may reach a maximum limiting value as Cl-rich magmas crystallize. Granitic systems exhibiting a maximum concentration of Cl in the melt must either contain crystalline alkali chlorides, molten alkali chlorides, or coexisting liquid plus vapor or the melt must contain the solubility limit for Cl. The experimental data suggest that at 2 kbar and 800°C a single, supercritical fluid is stable, if the fluid contains ?67 wt% NaCl and KCl. Conversely, at 2 kbar and 1000°C two immiscible phases (i.e., saline liquid and relatively alkali chloride-poor vapor) coexist with haplogranite melt if the combined liquid and vapor contain from approximately 10 to 55 wt% NaCl and KCl. Computed activities of H 2O in the experimental melts ( BURNHAM, 1981; NEKVASIL, 1986) constrain the activity of H 2O in the associated saline fluids at magmatic P and T. At 2 kbar and 800°C, H 2O behaves ideally with up to 10 mol% NaCl and KCl in the aqueous fluid. As the NaCl and KCl concentration of the aqueous fluid increases from 10 to 40 mol%, the activity of H 2O exhibits small but increasingly positive deviations from ideality. Application of experimental data to Cl-rich and F-poor, mineralizing granitic systems suggests that Cl will be most strongly enriched in ore fluids at relatively low temperature (between 800 and 1000°C) and relatively high pressure (for P < 6 kbar). The data also suggest that inasmuch as granitic systems contain a single aqueous fluid at T ? 800°C, 2 kbar, and with ?67 wt% NaCl and KCl in fluid, the deposition of ore minerals from such fluids cannot be a direct result of boiling.

  20. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. Studies with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk. PMID:9055712

  1. Pharyngeal cancer prevention: evidence from a case--control study involving 232 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Escribano Uzcudun, Ana; Rabanal Retolaza, Ignacio; García Grande, Antonio; Miralles Olivar, Lara; García García, Alfredo; González Barón, Manuel; Gavilán Bouzas, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for pharyngeal cancer and to propose 10 result-based preventive measures. It was a case-control study conducted in Madrid, Spain, with 232 consecutive patients diagnosed between January 1 1990 and December 31, 1995, sex- and age-matched with 232 control individuals with no oncological disease or history. By means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, seven different epidemiological areas were surveyed, namely: (1) sociodemographic variables, (2) familial all-site cancer history, (3) medical history, (4) lifestyle (habits), (5) diet, (6) occupational exposure, and (7) non-occupational exposure. Of the great number of factors within each epidemiological area, the following were found to be risk factors after adjustment for tobacco smoking and alcoholic beverage drinking: (1) tobacco smoking, (2) alcoholic beverage drinking, (3) low and low-middle socioeconomic background, (4) low educational level, (5) rural milieu, (6) working, or having worked, as a manual worker in agriculture, (7) working, or having worked as a manual worker in building industry, (8) having an upper aerodigestive tract cancer familial history, (9) having a medical history of alcholism, low weight/malnutrition, gastroesophageal reflux or chronic obstructive bronchopneumonia, (10) low dietary intake of fruit, fruit juice, uncooked vegetables, dietary fibre-containing foods, fish and milk and dairy products, (11) high dietary intake of meat and fried foods, (12) deficient oral and dental hygiene, (13) abuse of black coffee, (14) abuse of 'carajillo' (a typical Spanish drink composed of black coffee and flambéed brandy), (15) occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents and dust of different origins. On the basis of our results and those reported by other authors, we put forward 10 measures for the prevention of pharyngeal cancer. However, due to the small size of the nasopharyngeal cancer subsample (n = 35, 15.08 per cent), our results as well as the preventive measures are to considered as referring uniquely to oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. In addition, from descriptive statistical data inspection one can conclude that nasopharyngeal cancer is likely to bear risk factors different from those for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, thus nasopharyngeal cancer warrants specific epidemiological investigation with a sufficiently large patient sample. PMID:12238672

  2. An Examination of the Influence of No Child Left Behind on Parental Involvement Policies, Practices, and Programs in Oklahoma Public Schools: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Dana Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined superintendents' or designees' perceptions in light of NCLB (2002) and to understand parental involvement through the lens of Epstein's Framework of Parent Involvement (1992, 1995, 2002). The central problem was that despite parental involvement legislation, implementation and effectiveness of policies, and programs varies…

  3. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  4. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  5. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bisbing, Teagan A.; Olm, Christopher A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation. PMID:26089786

  6. Observations of the magnetospheric boundary layers. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    Results on magnetospheric boundary layers are reviewed, emphasizing their dynamical importance based on hot plasma observations, energetic particle signatures, heavy ion contributions and the effects of wave-particle interactions. Satellite plasma observations show that 1% to 2% of the oncoming solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere and is initially transported within the magnetospheric boundary layer. Some of this boundary layer plasma is entrained within the Earth's magnetotail where it can be accelerated. Tests are needed to determine the relative contributions of the primary acceleration processes whose effects are especially evident in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  7. Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

  8. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: are organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-09-01

    A high concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere when the exhaust cools and dilutes has hazardous health effects and it impairs the visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulfur content (FSC) fuel, under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested. Based on the measured gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrier-free heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between the GSA and a semi-volatile organic vapour combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur due to the similar organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) × 1012 cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had an opposite trend on the NUP formation, and the maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, the model predicted that the NUP formation ceased if the GSA concentration in the raw exhaust was less than 1010 cm-3, which was the case when biofuel was used.

  9. The Timing of Drug Funding Announcements Relative to Elections: A Case Study Involving Dementia Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S.; Gupta, Neeraj; Bell, Chaim M.; Rochon, Paula A.; Austin, Peter C.; Laupacis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Following initial regulatory approval of prescription drugs, many factors may influence insurers and health systems when they decide whether to add these drugs to their formularies. The role of political pressures on drug funding announcements has received relatively little attention, and elections represent an especially powerful form of political pressure. We examined the temporal relationship between decisions to add one class of drugs to publicly funded formularies in Canada's ten provinces and elections in these jurisdictions. Methods Dates of provincial formulary listings for cholinesterase inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, were compared to the dates of provincial elections. Medical journal articles, media reports, and proceedings from provincial legislatures were reviewed to assemble information on the chronology of events. We tested whether there was a statistically significant increase in the probability of drug funding announcements within the 60-day intervals preceding provincial elections. Results Decisions to fund the cholinesterase inhibitors were made over a nine-year span from 1999 to 2007 in the ten provinces. In four of ten provinces, the drugs were added to formularies in a time period closely preceding a provincial election (P?=?0.032); funding announcements in these provinces were made between 2 and 47 days prior to elections. Statements made in provincial legislatures highlight the key role of political pressures in these funding announcements. Conclusions Impending elections appeared to affect the timing of drug funding announcements in this case study. Despite an established structure for evidence-based decision-making, drug funding remains a complex process open to influence from many sources. Awareness of such influences is critical to maintain effective drug policy and public health decision-making. PMID:23460820

  10. Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n?=?15) and pre-model (n?=?65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n?=?15), the sham-point group (n?=?15), and the ST36 group (n?=?15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495

  11. Influence of goals on observation of actions: functional neuroimaging studies

    E-print Network

    of the superior temporal sulcus area, or pSTS) increased parametrically with the presence of a goal The posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus 28 Other regions 28 Chapter 2. Cognitive processes in ToM 30 Biological motion and the superior temporal sulcus 53 Attention effects 58 3.2.1 Action observation

  12. A study on diffuse source detection by HXMT scanning observation

    E-print Network

    Guan, Ju; Wu, Mei; Song, Li-Ming; Huo, Zhuo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) is a collimated scan X-ray satellite mainly devoted to a sensitive all-sky survey and pointed observations in 1-250 keV. We expect various diffuse sources to be detected in its scanning observations due to the large rigidity factor of the telescope. Diffuse source detection performance of HXMT scanning observation depends not only on the instrument but also on its data analysis method since images have to be reconstructed from HXMT observed data. In this paper, we introduce a multiscale maximum entropy (MSME) algorithm for HXMT image restoration and propose an improved method, ensemble multiscale maximum entropy (EMSME) method, to alleviate the problem of mode mixing exiting in MSME. Simulation have been performed on the detection of the diffuse source Cen A by HXMT in the all-sky survey mode. The results show that the MSME method is adapted to the deconvolution task of HXMT for diffuse source detection and the improved method could suppress noise and improve the cor...

  13. Atomic Resolution Observation of a Size-Dependent Change in the Ripening Modes of Mass-Selected Au Nanoclusters Involved in CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kuo-Juei; Plant, Simon R; Ellis, Peter R; Brown, Christopher M; Bishop, Peter T; Palmer, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the ripening modes of supported metal nanoparticles used in heterogeneous catalysis can provide important insights into the mechanisms that lead to sintering. We report the observation of a crossover from Smoluchowski to Ostwald ripening, under realistic reaction conditions, for monomodal populations of precisely defined gold particles in the nanometer size range, as a function of decreasing particle size. We study the effects of the CO oxidation reaction on the size distributions and atomic structures of mass-selected Au561±13, Au923±20 and Au2057±45 clusters supported on amorphous carbon films. Under the same conditions, Au561±13 and Au923±20 clusters are found to exhibit Ostwald ripening, whereas Au2057±45 ripens through cluster diffusion and coalescence only (Smoluchowski ripening). The Ostwald ripening is not activated by thermal annealing or heating in O2 alone. PMID:26544914

  14. Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

  15. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying neural computations. PMID:26150782

  16. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying neural computations. PMID:26150782

  17. Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden R., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This publication features thirteen articles on community involvement. Several programs and individuals concerned with the role of the community in educational development and improvement are discussed. The main points made in all of the articles are: 1) research on community involvement appears limited, and 2) research "experts" are grass roots…

  18. Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G.

    1998-04-01

    A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

  19. Observations on ion track structure in semiconductors : a phenomenological study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selva, L. E.; Wallace, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    An ion track structure model at the nanometer scale is presented. The model is based on electrostatic principles and is supported by observed experimental results conducted on power MOSFETs. The model predicts the existence of a transient induced electric field following the passage of an energetic heavy ion. There are two segments to the field (a radial and an axial component). It is the interaction of this transient electric field with the local environment that can trigger a catastrophic failure.

  20. Observational Studies of the Formation and Evolution of Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Dense cores are the simplest star-forming sites. They represent the end point of the fragmentation hierarchy that characterizes molecular clouds, and they likely control the efficiency of star formation via their relatively low numbers. Recent continuum observations of entire molecular clouds show that dense cores often lie along large-scale filamentary structures, suggesting that the cores form by some type of fragmentation process in a close-to-cylindrical geometry. To understand the exact formation mechanism of cores, additional kinematic information is needed, and this requires observations made using molecular-line tracers of both the dense cores and their surrounding cloud material. In this talk, I will present some of the most recent efforts to clarify the kinematic structure of core-forming regions, like those in the nearby Taurus molecular cloud. These observations show that the filamentary structures seen in clouds are often more complex than suggested by the maps of continuum emission, and that consist of multiple fiber-like components having different velocities and sonic internal motions. These components likely arise from turbulent fragmentation of the large scale flows that generate the filamentary structures. While not all these fiber-like components further fragment to form dense cores, a small group does so, likely by gravitational instability, and produces characteristic chain-like groups of dense cores that further evolve toward star formation.

  1. Study of Cabibbo Suppressed Decays of the D$_{s}^{+}$ Charmed-Strange Meson involving a K$_{S}^{0}$

    E-print Network

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Castromonte, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; Frisullo, V; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Stenson, K; Tucker, R S; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Göbel, C; Otalora, J; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Luiggi, E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2008-01-01

    We study the decay of Ds meson into final states involving a Ks and report the discovery of Cabibbo suppressed decay modes Ds -> Kspi-pi+pi+ (179 +/- 36 events) and Ds -> Kspi+ (113 +/-26 events). The branching ratios for the new modes are Gamma(Ds -> Kspi-pi+pi+)/Gamma(Ds -> KsK-pi+pi+) = 0.18 +/- 0.04 +/- 0.05 and Gamma(Ds -> Kspi+)/Gamma(Ds -> KsK+) = 0.104 +/- 0.024 +/- 0.013.

  2. A comparative study between a high-gain interconnected observer and an adaptive observer applied to IM-based WECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naifar, Omar; Boukettaya, Ghada; Oualha, Abdelmajid; Ouali, Abderrazak

    2015-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of the potentialities of induction motor sensorless strategies in speed control applications. A comparison study is carried out between two observation approaches dedicated to speed control strategies of induction machine (IM)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) under parametric variations, such as: i) the adaptive observer approach, which is based on the speed adaptation law and ii) the interconnected observer, that offers robustness and stability of the system with reduced CPU time. The comparison study is achieved considering four performance criteria: stability, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine inductances, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine resistances, feasibility of the torque estimation. It has been found that the introduced interconnected observer exhibits a higher performance than the traditional adaptive one, with respect to the above-cited comparison criteria.

  3. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  4. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID:24348365

  5. Observation and studies of double J /? production at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present the observation of doubly produced J /? mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in p p ¯ collisions at ?{s }=1.96 TeV . The production cross section for both singly and doubly produced J /? mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1 fb-1 . For the first time, the double J /? production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section ?eff, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  6. Photometric Observational and Modelling Study on the Asteroid (26) Proserpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Zhao, H. B. Wang, X.

    2015-07-01

    We present new CCD observations of the asteroid (26) Proserpina carried out between 2011 December and 2012 February. A synodic period of (13.107± 0.002) h based upon the new observations is obtained. Using all available light curves, the spin vectors, period of rotation, and the shape model of the asteroid are determined with the convex inversion method. Further more, a Bootstrap method is applied to estimate the uncertainties of the spin parameters. We derive a pair of possible poles for (26) Proserpina, and believe that it has a retrograde rotation state. The poles are determined ?_1=90.8° ± 1.4°, ?_1=-53.1° ±3.2° ,and mirror solution of ?_2=259.3° ±2.2°,?_2=-62.0° ±2.0°. The spin period corresponding to the two poles is almost the same as (13.109777± 3.8× 10^{-6}) hours. For the asteroid, the convex shapes corresponding to the pairs of poles are mirror images of each other.

  7. Genes involved in the endoplasmic reticulum N-glycosylation pathway of the red microalga Porphyridium sp.: a bioinformatic study.

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2014-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

  8. Genes Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum N-Glycosylation Pathway of the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.: A Bioinformatic Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2014-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

  9. Parent Involvement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, ...

  10. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-03-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  11. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-01-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  12. Presentation of continuous outcomes in randomised trials: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterise the percentage of available outcome data being presented in reports of randomised clinical trials with continuous outcome measures, thereby determining the potential for incomplete reporting bias. Design Descriptive cross sectional study. Data sources A random sample of 200 randomised trials from issues of 20 medical journals in a variety of specialties during 2007–09. Main outcome measures For each paper’s best reported primary outcome, we calculated the fraction of data reported using explicit scoring rules. For example, a two arm trial with 100 patients per limb that reported 2 sample sizes, 2 means, and 2 standard deviations reported 6/200 data elements (1.5%), but if that paper included a scatterplot with 200 points it would score 200/200 (100%). We also assessed compliance with 2001 CONSORT items about the reporting of results. Results The median percentage of data reported for the best reported continuous outcome was 9% (interquartile range 3–26%) but only 3.5% (3–7%) when we adjusted studies to 100 patients per arm to control for varying study size; 17% of articles showed 100% of the data. Tables were the predominant means of presenting the most data (59% of articles), but papers that used figures reported a higher proportion of data. There was substantial heterogeneity among journals with respect to our primary outcome and CONSORT compliance. Limitations We studied continuous outcomes of randomised trials in higher impact journals. Results may not apply to categorical outcomes, other study designs, or other journals. Conclusions Trialists present only a small fraction of available data. This paucity of data may increase the potential for incomplete reporting bias, a failure to present all relevant information about a study’s findings. PMID:23249670

  13. Conditioning as a Technique for Studying the Sensory Systems Involved in Animal Orientation, Homing and Navigation ? a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Cordula V.; Davison, Michael; Walker, Michael M.

    Knowing what information, and from which sensory cues, is available to an animal regarding its position and direction of movement is vital for unravelling the mechanisms underlying animal navigation. Although considerable progress has been made with traditional field and laboratory techniques, these approaches generally do not provide direct control over the animal's motivation to display its sensory abilities. In contrast, psychologists have for many decades used conditioning as a reliable tool to study sensory perception as well as the mechanisms underlying learning. There has been growing interest in the use of conditioning techniques to investigate responses to stimuli that might be used in guiding movement over long distances. This review seeks to facilitate that development by providing a general introduction to conditioning and the considerations involved in designing robust conditioning experiments together with a perspective for its future use in studying sensory systems in migratory and homing species.

  14. Is patient education helpful in providing care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A qualitative study involving French nurses.

    PubMed

    Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie

    2013-09-01

    This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries. PMID:23480278

  15. Ectopic Germinal Centers and IgG4-Producing Plasmacytes Observed in Synovia of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients with Advanced Hip Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiugao; Xu, Xiangjin; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Zhiyong; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and the presence of IgG4-positive plasmacytes have been confirmed in chronic inflammatory sclerosing diseases. This study aims to investigate hip synovial tissues of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients for IgG4-positive plasma cells and ectopic lymphoid tissues with germinal centers (GCs). Methods. Synovial samples were collected from 7 AS patients who received total hip replacement and were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD20+ B-cells, CD3+ T-cells, CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and CD38+ plasma cells. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgG4), IgA, IgM, and complement components C3d and C4d in synovia were evaluated. Both synovial CD21+ FDCs and IgG4-producing plasmacytes were analyzed. Results. All seven patients had severe fibrosis. Massive infiltrations of lymphocytes were found in 5 out of 7 patients' synovia. Ectopic lymphoid tissues with CD21+ FDC networks and IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed coincidentally in two patients' synovia. Conclusion. The pathophysiological mechanism of AS patients' hip damage might be related to the coincidental presence of ectopic lymphoid tissue with FDCs network and IgG4-positive plasma cells identified here for the first time in AS patients' inflamed synovial tissue. PMID:25954311

  16. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  17. Thermodynamic and Experimental Study of the Energetic Cost Involved in the Capture of Carbon Dioxide by Aqueous Mixtures of Commonly Used Primary and Tertiary Amines.

    PubMed

    Arcis, Hugues; Coulier, Yohann; Coxam, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The capture of carbon dioxide with chemical solvents is one solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources and thus tackle climate change. Recent research has been focused on optimizing new kinds of advanced absorbents including aqueous amine blends, but critical downsides such as the large energetic cost involved with the industrial process remain. To address this issue, a better understanding of the energetic interactions existing in solution is necessary. In this paper, we report direct experimental measurements of the energy cost involved in the solvation of CO2 in two aqueous amine blends at different temperatures. The chemical solvents were designed as aqueous mixtures of commonly used primary and tertiary amines to study the influence of the different chemical properties inferred by the amine class. We have also applied a thermodynamic model to represent the energetic effects that take place in solution during CO2 dissolution in these mixtures, where all parameters were taken from previous studies focused on single amine absorbents. The noteworthy agreement observed with the reported experimental heats of absorption and with literature vapor liquid equilibrium properties confirmed the relevance of the underlying molecular mechanisms considered in our model, and suggest that this model would prove useful to investigate CO2 dissolution in other amine blends. PMID:26630087

  18. School Expectations for Parental Involvement and Student Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study of Middle Schools in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hui; Akiba, Motoko

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental…

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

  20. Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2005-01-01

    During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

  1. Experimental and Observational Data in the Study of Interlanguage Pragmatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford, Beverly S.; Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    A study compared (1) data on rejections of advice by native and non-native speakers collected from natural conversation with (2) data collected from a discourse completion task (DCT). Subjects were students in an academic advising session (13 native speakers, 11 non-native speakers of English) who responded to a DCT and students (18 native…

  2. Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…

  3. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different…

  4. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  5. Physician spending and subsequent risk of malpractice claims: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay; Seabury, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is a higher use of resources by physicians associated with a reduced risk of malpractice claims? Methods Using data on nearly all admissions to acute care hospitals in Florida during 2000-09 linked to malpractice history of the attending physician, this study investigated whether physicians in seven specialties with higher average hospital charges in a year were less likely to face an allegation of malpractice in the following year, adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, and diagnosis. To provide clinical context, the study focused on obstetrics, where the choice of caesarean deliveries are suggested to be influenced by defensive medicine, and whether obstetricians with higher adjusted caesarean rates in a year had fewer alleged malpractice incidents the following year. Study answer and limitations The data included 24?637 physicians, 154?725 physician years, and 18?352?391 hospital admissions; 4342 malpractice claims were made against physicians (2.8% per physician year). Across specialties, greater average spending by physicians was associated with reduced risk of incurring a malpractice claim. For example, among internists, the probability of experiencing an alleged malpractice incident in the following year ranged from 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 1.7%) in the bottom spending fifth ($19?725 (£12?800; €17?400) per hospital admission) to 0.3% (0.2% to 0.5%) in the top fifth ($39?379 per hospital admission). In six of the specialties, a greater use of resources was associated with statistically significantly lower subsequent rates of alleged malpractice incidents. A principal limitation of this study is that information on illness severity was lacking. It is also uncertain whether higher spending is defensively motivated. What this study adds Within specialty and after adjustment for patient characteristics, higher resource use by physicians is associated with fewer malpractice claims. Funding, competing interests, data sharing This study was supported by the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health (grant 1DP5OD017897-01 to ABJ) and National Institute of Aging (R37 AG036791 to JB). The authors have no competing interests or additional data to share. PMID:26538498

  6. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict drug-drug interactions involving inhibitory metabolite: a case study of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Mao, Jialin; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of drug-drug interaction (DDI) involving circulating inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs has recently drawn more attention from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. Here, using amiodarone (AMIO) as an example, we demonstrate the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to assess how a potential inhibitory metabolite can contribute to clinically significant DDIs. Amiodarone was reported to increase the exposure of simvastatin, dextromethorphan, and warfarin by 1.2- to 2-fold, which was not expected based on its weak inhibition observed in vitro. The major circulating metabolite, mono-desethyl-amiodarone (MDEA), was later identified to have a more potent inhibitory effect. Using a combined "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach, a PBPK model was built to successfully simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of AMIO and MDEA, particularly their accumulation in plasma and liver after a long-term treatment. The clinical AMIO DDIs were predicted using the verified PBPK model with incorporation of cytochrome P450 inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA. The closest prediction was obtained for CYP3A (simvastatin) DDI when the competitive inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA was considered, for CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan) DDI when the competitive inhibition from AMIO and the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from MDEA were incorporated, and for CYP2C9 (warfarin) DDI when the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from AMIO and the competitive inhibition from MDEA were considered. The PBPK model with the ability to simulate DDI by considering dynamic change and accumulation of inhibitor (parent and metabolite) concentration in plasma and liver provides advantages in understanding the possible mechanism of clinical DDIs involving inhibitory metabolites. PMID:25324279

  7. 10 years observation and rehabilitation of stroke disability. Longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska-Roszkowska, K; Jedynecki, A; Ziolkowski, W

    1975-01-01

    In the I State Home for Incurables in Lodz (Poland) 195 hemiplegia cases were observed over ten years. 140 women and 55 men. This comprised 8.2% and 17.8% of all ill females and males respectively. Causes of the lesion were vascular 187, trauma 4, neoplasm 4. Hemiparesis was in females most frequent between 60 and 80 years, in males between 50 and 80 years. Communication was absent or difficult in 126 cases (in 22 the cause was aphasia, in 104 dementia). Incontinence was noted in 77 cases, inability to walk (on admission) in 129. During the ten years under survey 135 died, 15 were discharged home, 26 females and 18 males were rehabilitated. Very good improvement in motor activity was obtained in 14 females (3 without kinesitherapy) and 7 males, indicating adequate walking and independence in activities of daily living after prolonged bedfastness. (average 2.5 years in males and 2.7 years in females). Altogether 88 patients improved from the locomotor angle. In cases with dementia, incontinence and severe aphasia prognosis in rehabilitation was found to be poor. PMID:1183816

  8. Dissection as Inquiry: Using the "Peanut Observation" Activity to Promote a Revised Paradigm of Dissection and Facilitate Student Involvement and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Penny L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the peanut observation activity to teach about the pros and cons of dissection. As an inquiry-based approach, dissection is one way to teach process skills. Lists the progression of the activity as observation, questioning and finding the answer, challenge, discussion, and further examination. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  9. Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

  10. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

  11. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  12. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  13. Observational Study and Parameterization of Aerosol-fog Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, C.; Su, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that human activities such as increased aerosols affect fog occurrence and properties significantly, and accurate numerical fog forecasting depends on, to a large extent, parameterization of fog microphysics and aerosol-fog interactions. Furthermore, fogs can be considered as clouds near the ground, and enjoy an advantage of permitting comprehensive long-term in-situ measurements that clouds do not. Knowledge learned from studying aerosol-fog interactions will provide useful insights into aerosol-cloud interactions. To serve the twofold objectives of understanding and improving parameterizations of aerosol-fog interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, this study examines the data collected from fogs, with a focus but not limited to the data collected in Beijing, China. Data examined include aerosol particle size distributions measured by a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X), fog droplet size distributions measured by a Fog Monitor (FM-120), Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), liquid water path measured by radiometers and visibility sensors, along with meteorological variables measured by a Tethered Balloon Sounding System (XLS-?) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS). The results will be compared with low-level clouds for similarities and differences between fogs and clouds.

  14. Can headache impair intellectual abilities in children? An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria; Pascotto, Antonio; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Gritti, Antonella; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache. Methods The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years) with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls) and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls). The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender. Results No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor analysis data showed that the children with migraine seemed to have lower perceptual organization than the children affected by tension-type headache. Conclusion To our knowledge, studies on cognitive functioning in children affected by headache in the interictal phase are scarce, and our results suggest a new perspective in understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of young patients affected by headaches. PMID:23139628

  15. Active Commuting to Elementary School and Adiposity: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth-grade adiposity. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (n=7938). Enrollment in kindergarten (1998–1999) was nationally representative of the United States and follow-up occurred in 2004. Kindergarten ACS was the main exposure variable and fifth-grade BMI z-score was the main outcome measure. Covariates included (1) neighborhood safety and BMI z-score in kindergarten and (2) demographics (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, single- vs. two-parent households, region of country, and urbanicity in fifth grade). Three interactions were included: school travel*neighborhood safety; school travel*BMI z-score (kindergarten); and school travel*socioeconomic status. Analysis of covariance accounted for the complex sampling design. Results: Kindergarten ACS was associated with lower BMI z-score in fifth grade. The interaction of school travel*neighborhood safety indicated that children from less-safe neighborhoods who did ACS in kindergarten had a lower fifth-grade BMI z-score (p<0.05) than their peers who did not do ACS in kindergarten (i.e., in terms of BMI, this difference was ?0.49?kg/m2 for children of average height in less-safe neighborhoods). Conclusion: Among children from less-safe neighborhoods, kindergarten ACS independently predicted lower BMI z-score in fifth grade among a national US cohort. Interventions and policies to increase ACS among young children, especially from unsafe neighborhoods, are warranted and should address parents' safety concerns. PMID:24443901

  16. An observational and theoretical study of Colorado lee cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1990-01-01

    A cyclogenesis event that occurred over Colorado in early March of 1981 is the focus of this study. Two features that seemed to play a role in storm initiation were a traveling upper troposphere disturbance associated with an undulation on the subtropical front and a warm-cored shallow surface trough that was guided along the eastern slope of the Rockies from Canada to Colorado. The arrival of the latter feature initiated a sudden shift of the surface flow from upslope to downslope on the eastern side of the continental divide. A time-dependent quasi-geostrophic model was used to study the interaction of the traveling short wave and a broad topographic surface ridge in the presence of a baroclinic mainly westerly background flow. Westerly and easterly background surface winds were used to determine whether the surface trough arrival had any influence on the vigor of lee cyclogenesis initiated by the upper troposphere short-wave trough. With surface westerlies rapid cyclogenesis occurred, while with surface easterlies little cyclogenesis was found to the east of the Rockies. Thus, the shallow surface trough's arrival seemed to be crucial to storm initiation. These findings were based on a linear model. It is shown, however, that the height of the Rockies necessitates the inclusion of finite amplitude effects associated with the lower boundary into the model.

  17. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    E-print Network

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  18. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  19. The Characterization, Expression and in Silico Studies on the SLC39A13 Gene; It's Involvement in Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Normawati Mohamad; Chong, Teoh Teow

    The zinc transporters superfamily is divided into four subfamilies, and SLC39A is one of the subfamilies. The SLC39A subfamily has 9 members. Based on our computer searchers, all 9 sequences each contain 8 transmembranes domains. Since it is related to the zinc transporters superfamily, the SLC39A subfamily may have the same function that is to transport zinc ion. This paper focus on SLC39A13 studies and using the recombinant technology with CHO cells, it is shown that the recombinant protein, pcDNA5/FRT/V5-His-TOPO®-SLC39A13, has 43kD molecular weight. A second study using immunofluorescence technique with MCF-7 cells, it is shown that the recombinant protein expresses intracellularly. Both studies demonstrate that SLC39A13 expresses in breast cancer cells line, therefore the gene has involvement in the development of breast cancer disease. In our computational studies which is divided into two; the homologous study and sequence analysis, both results are supporting our laboratory results. The homologous study using EMBL-EBI and UniProt tools concluded that SLC39A13 is a member to SLC39A subfamily and it is closely related to SLC39A7 member. Although the sequence analysis shows that the molecular weight of SLC39A13 is 38.35kD it is still comparable to our laboratory result. Separately, using Swiss-EMBnet tools, TMpred, has shown that SLC39A13 has 8 transmembranes domains similar to other family members of SLC39A subfamily. Another analysis using EMBL-EBI tools, PPsearch, shows that SLC39A13 has various protein motif such as the protein kinase C phospho, casein kinase II phospho, leucine zipper and ASN-glycosylation sites. These are the useful information that we need when we study its tertiary structure and simulation in the future.

  20. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ?25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ?7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ?18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ?3 mm without visible heart activity presenting after 70 days’ gestation (87/87 specificity: 100%, 95.8% to 100%). The following were indicative of miscarriage at a repeat scan: initial scan and repeat scan after seven days or more showing an embryo without visible heart activity (103/103 specificity: 100%, 96.5% to 100%), pregnancies without an embryo and mean gestational sac diameter <12 mm where the mean diameter has not doubled after 14 days or more (478/478 specificity: 100%, 99.2% to 100%), pregnancies without an embryo and mean gestational sac diameter ?12 mm showing no embryo heartbeat after seven days or more (150/150 specificity: 100%, 97.6% to 100%). Conclusions Recently changed cut-off values of gestational sac and embryo size defining miscarriage are appropriate and not too conservative but do not take into account gestational age. Guidance on timing between scans and expected findings on repeat scans are still too liberal. Protocols for miscarriage diagnosis should be reviewed to account for this evidence to avoid misdiagnosis and the risk of terminating viable pregnancies. PMID:26400869

  1. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow for health care personnel to screen for high-risk children and intervene before it is too late. Screening could also be done in the schools and organized after school activities. Parenting classes have been shown to be an effective intervention strategy by decreasing parental stress and potential for abuse, but there has been limited research done on this approach. Parenting classes can be part of the corrective actions for parents found to be neglectful or abusive, but parenting classes may also be useful as a preventative measure, being taught in schools or readily available in higher-risk communities. More research has to be done to better define child abuse and neglect so that it can be effectively addressed and treated. PMID:25398462

  2. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  3. Characterizing Suicide in Toronto: An Observational Study and Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Streiner, David L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether people who have died from suicide in a large epidemiologic sample form clusters based on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Method: We conducted a coroner’s chart review for 2886 people who died in Toronto, Ontario, from 1998 to 2010, and whose death was ruled as suicide by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. A cluster analysis using known suicide risk factors was performed to determine whether suicide deaths separate into distinct groups. Clusters were compared according to person- and suicide-specific factors. Results: Five clusters emerged. Cluster 1 had the highest proportion of females and nonviolent methods, and all had depression and a past suicide attempt. Cluster 2 had the highest proportion of people with a recent stressor and violent suicide methods, and all were married. Cluster 3 had mostly males between the ages of 20 and 64, and all had either experienced recent stressors, suffered from mental illness, or had a history of substance abuse. Cluster 4 had the youngest people and the highest proportion of deaths by jumping from height, few were married, and nearly one-half had bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Cluster 5 had all unmarried people with no prior suicide attempts, and were the least likely to have an identified mental illness and most likely to leave a suicide note. Conclusions: People who die from suicide assort into different patterns of demographic, clinical, and death-specific characteristics. Identifying and studying subgroups of suicides may advance our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of suicide and help to inform development of more targeted suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24444321

  4. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 ?g/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients. PMID:26093653

  5. Involvement of the Extrageniculate System in the Perception of Optical Illusions: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Kida, Hirotaka; Kizaki, Moeni; Sakuma, Haruno; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Research on the neural processing of optical illusions can provide clues for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Previous studies have shown that some visual areas contribute to the perception of optical illusions such as the Kanizsa triangle and Müller-Lyer figure; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of these and other optical illusions have not been clearly identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined which brain regions are active during the perception of optical illusions. For our study, we enrolled 18 participants. The illusory optical stimuli consisted of many kana letters, which are Japanese phonograms. During the shape task, participants stated aloud whether they perceived the shapes of two optical illusions as being the same or not. During the word task, participants read aloud the kana letters in the stimuli. A direct comparison between the shape and word tasks showed activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right pulvinar. It is well known that there are two visual pathways, the geniculate and extrageniculate systems, which belong to the higher-level and primary visual systems, respectively. The pulvinar belongs to the latter system, and the findings of the present study suggest that the extrageniculate system is involved in the cognitive processing of optical illusions. PMID:26083375

  6. Long-term outcome of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and severe hepatic involvement after orthotopic liver transplantation: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Ginon, Isabelle; Dumortier, Jérôme; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Finet, Gérard; Decullier, Evelyne; Marion, Denis; Plauchu, Henri; Boillot, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic involvement occurs in up to 74% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and is characterized by a spectrum of arteriovenous malformations. Three different types of intrahepatic shunting may be present: hepatic artery to hepatic veins, hepatic artery to portal vein, and portal vein to hepatic vein. Hepatic involvement in HHT may lead to biliary ischemia, portal hypertension, or high-output cardiac failure (HOCF). Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proposed as the only definitive curative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with hepatic involvement due to HHT after OLT with respect to mortality, cardiac and hepatic status, epistaxis, and quality of life. Patients with HHT and severe hepatic vascular malformations who underwent OLT in the Lyon Liver Transplant Unit (LLTU) from 1993 to 2007 were followed at the LLTU and the French Reference Center for HHT. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. There were 13 patients who fulfilled the entry criteria of the study (12 women and 1 man). The mean age at the time of OLT was 51.8 years (range = 33-65 years). Indications for OLT were cardiac failure (n = 9), biliary necrosis (n = 2), both cardiac failure and biliary necrosis (n = 1), and hemobilia (n = 1). The mean duration of follow-up was 109 months (range = 1-200 months). Twelve patients (92.3%) are still alive. For the 9 patients with HOCF, the mean cardiac index decreased from 5.4 L/minute/m(2) before OLT to 3.0 L/minute/m(2) after OLT. No severe hepatic complications were observed after OLT. Nine of the surviving patients (75%) experienced dramatic improvements in epistaxis and quality of life, including an ability to undertake more physical activity. In conclusion, OLT is an important therapeutic option for patients with HHT who have severe hepatic involvement. In the reported cohort, the mortality after OLT for this indication was low. PMID:20209594

  7. Ethical practice in internet research involving vulnerable people: lessons from a self-harm discussion forum study (SharpTalk).

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Siobhan; Jones, Ray; Smithson, Janet; Hewis, Elaine; Emmens, Tobit; Ford, Tamsin; Owens, Christabel

    2011-12-01

    The internet is widely used for health information and support, often by vulnerable people. Internet-based research raises both familiar and new ethical problems for researchers and ethics committees. While guidelines for internet-based research are available, it is unclear to what extent ethics committees use these. Experience of gaining research ethics approval for a UK study (SharpTalk), involving internet-based discussion groups with young people who self-harm and health professionals is described. During ethical review, unsurprisingly, concerns were raised about the vulnerability of potential participants. These were dominated by the issue of anonymity, which also affected participant safety and consent. These ethical problems are discussed, and our solutions, which included: participant usernames specific to the study, a closed website, private messaging facilities, a direct contact email to researchers, information about forum rules displayed on the website, a 'report' button for participants, links to online support, and a discussion room for forum moderators. This experience with SharpTalk suggests that an approach to ethics, which recognises the relational aspects of research with vulnerable people, is particularly useful for internet-based health research. The solutions presented here can act as guidance for researchers developing proposals and for ethics committees reviewing them. PMID:21947802

  8. Usage trends for memory and vitality-enhancing medicines: A pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of the Gujarat region

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna Samir; Goyal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pretested, validated questionnaire. Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included the questions regarding herbal MVEM used most commonly, percentage sale of herbal MVEM – sold with or without prescriptions – age group of patients and professional groups who used these drugs most commonly. Results: The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11–20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21–40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations. Conclusions: This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same. PMID:21170204

  9. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ming; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Kuno, Nario; Lisenfeld, Ute E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j

    2009-12-01

    We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

  10. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

  11. Enhancing the patient involvement in outcomes: a study protocol of personalised outcome measurement in the treatment of substance misuse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Involving patients in treatment is becoming increasingly popular in mental health [Sales & Alves: Personalized evaluation of psychological treatments: A review of tools and research designs, submitted]. However, in substance misuse treatment settings, the patient perspective about treatment tends to be overlooked. This has been cited as a key priority by Orford et al. [Addiction, 103: 875-885, 2008] who included patient feedback about treatment as one of ten areas requiring an urgent paradigm shift in addiction research and practice. This project will apply an innovative method to involve substance misuse patients in psychological therapies, by asking them to suggest topics to evaluate their treatment. These topics suggested by patients can be written as a list of personalised items, so-called as patient-generated outcome measures (PGOM). Despite its patient-friendly features, PGOM’s have never been used in this population, which is what this project aims to overcome. Methods/design This project is part of an International Exchange Platform on Personalising Addiction Treatment. Data will be collected in two phases (pre-post study and focus groups with patients) to explore the following: 1). How reliable and sensitive to change are PGOM’s and standardised measures in substance misuse treatment? 2). Do PGOM’s add relevant information to standardised measures? 3). What are the views of substance misuse patients about personalised outcome assessment? 4). Development of guidelines on using PGOM’s in this population Discussion This research will potentially demonstrate the diversity of personal problems among patients seeking substance misuse treatment, suggesting the relevance of PGOM as a method to personalise outcome measurement and, ultimately, guiding treatment provision. It is expected that, as in previous studies, PGOM’s will be perceived as helpful and patient-friendly tools, where patients may express their own concerns in a semi-structured setting. Similarly to other populations, we also expect PGOM’s to be reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical changes in substance misuse treatment, as well as more content informative than their standardised counterparts. If these results are achieved, we might hypothesize that PGOM’s are a potentially valid supplement to traditional standardised scales, by providing a closer insight to what motivates patients to participate in substance misuse treatment programmes. PMID:24341378

  12. A Mixed-Methods Case Study of Parent Involvement in an Urban High School Serving Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Andrew D.; Crea, Thomas M.; Medina, Jose; Degnan, Elizabeth; McRoy, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement in education has been associated with a number of positive outcomes for students. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors examine how role construction and self-efficacy (psychological motivators), invitations (contextual motivators), and life contexts influence a parent's decision to become involved within the context of…

  13. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  14. Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

    2007-01-01

    Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

  15. Rethinking Family-School Relations: A Critique of Parental Involvement in Schooling. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Maria Eulina P.

    This book addresses the complications and implications of parental involvement in education as a policy. It attempts to explain the origins, meanings, and effects of parental involvement as a requisite of schooling, and particularly as a policy solution for low achievement and even inequity in the American educational system. The four chapters…

  16. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education.…

  17. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  18. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had performed spirometry at least twice with interval of more than one year. The annual changes in spirometric indices of them were calculated. Results: The average age of study population was 55.7 years and 72% were male. Annual decline of FEV1 ? 40 ml/yr was observed among 48% exposed survivors. The mean annual decline of FEV1 among symptomatic exposed survivors with initial normal spirometry was 91 ml (95% CI: 52 ml to 130 ml) and this was more than the patients with initial obstructive pattern. Among fifty four patients with initial normal spirometry, ten patients (18.5%) developed obstructive and two patients (5%) developed restrictive lung function abnormalities during follow up spirometry. Conclusion: The exposed survivors with chronic respiratory symptoms had accelerated decline in lung function and they are at higher risk of developing obstructive lung function. PMID:23741089

  19. Motorcyclists violating hook-turn area at intersections in Taiwan: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Jiun-Jia; Chang, Jia-Lin; Kuo, Ming-Shin

    2013-10-01

    Research has suggested that the most typical and catastrophic automobile-motorcycle crash takes place when an automobile manoeuvres into the path of an oncoming motorcycle at intersection, which involves a motorist infringing upon the motorcycle's right of way (ROW). In Taiwan, motorcycles, on the other hand, are the one that has been observed to violate the ROW of approaching automobiles at intersections. Such a ROW-violation by left-turn motorcyclists in front of approaching traffic is a safety problem in terms of its frequency and accident consequence. Using high-definition video cameras to capture motorcycles' behaviours, the present study empirically analyses the determinants of motorcyclists violating the hook-turn area (HTA) that has been implemented in Taiwan to deter motorcyclists from violating the ROW of approaching vehicles. Mixed (random parameters) logit models are found to be superior in fitting the data to traditional binary logit models. Main findings include that there was an increased likelihood of HTA-violation at T/Y intersections, in rural areas, during non rush hours, when the riders were females, younger, when riders were travelling on mopeds or heavier motorcycles, when traffic volume was less, and when riders were with half-style helmets. Implications of the research findings, the concluding remarks, and recommendations for future research are finally provided. PMID:23743296

  20. Concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin, paclitaxel, etoposide) and involved-field radiotherapy in limited stage small cell lung cancer: a Dutch multicenter phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Baas, P; Belderbos, J S A; Senan, S; Kwa, H B; van Bochove, A; van Tinteren, H; Burgers, J A; van Meerbeeck, J P

    2006-01-01

    To improve the prognosis of limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) the addition of concurrent thoracic radiotherapy to a platinum-containing regimen is important. In the Netherlands, we initiated a multicenter, phase II study, of the combination of four cycles of carboplatin (AUC 5), paclitaxel (200?mg?m?2) and etoposide (2 × 50?mg orally for 5 days) combined with 45?Gy (daily fractions of 1.8?Gy). The radiation was given to the involved field and concurrently with the second and third chemotherapy cycle. Patients with a partial or complete response received prophylactic cranial irradiation to a dose of 30?Gy. From January 1999 to December 2001, 37 of the 38 patients with LS-SCLC entered were eligible for toxicity analysis and response. Grade 3 and 4 haematological toxicity occurred in 57% (21/37) with febrile neutropenia in 24% (9/37). There were no treatment-related deaths or other grade 4 toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities were oesophagitis (27%), radiation pneumonitis (6%), anorexia (14%), nausea (16%), dyspnea (19%) and lethargy (22%). The objective response rate was 92% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80–98%) with a median survival time of 19.5 months (95% CI 12.8–29.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rate was 70, 47 and 27%, respectively. In field local recurrences occurred in six patients. Distant metastases were observed in 19 patients of which 13 in the brain. This study indicates that combination chemotherapy with concurrent involved-field radiation therapy is an effective treatment for LS-SCLC. Despite PCI, the brain remained the most important site of recurrence. PMID:16465191

  1. Patient Safety Incidents During Overnight Polysomnography: A Five-Year Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Lam, Erek; Olson, Eric; Morgenthaler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Attended polysomnography (PSG) is a common procedure and is regarded as relatively safe. There have been few systematic evaluations of adverse events occurring during PSG. An understanding of the frequency and type of the adverse events during PSG should inform risk mitigation plans and the development of guidelines for sleep center accreditation. We aimed to identify, tabulate, and classify all adverse events that occurred during overnight PSG conducted at an accredited sleep center over a five-year period. Methods: All adverse events occurring from Jan 1, 2005, to Dec 31, 2010, at the Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic, were identified. Information was collated from calls made to emergency responders, to the adverse event reporting system, and events forwarded to the medical director. Results: A total of 36,141 PSGs were performed over the study duration. Fifty-eight adverse events occurred during the study period (1 event/623 PSGs). Most adverse events were cardiac in nature (17/58; 29.3%), a majority involving acute chest pain. Falls were the next most common (20.6%), followed by neurologic (8.6%), pulmonary (3.4%), and psychiatric (3.4%) events. The rest were classified as miscellaneous. There were no patient deaths during PSGs. The majority of patients experiencing an adverse event were transported to the emergency room (37/58; 63.79%). Of these, 15/37 (40.54%) were admitted to the hospital, and 3 required an ICU bed. Conclusion: Adverse events during a PSG were relatively uncommon. Previous emphasis on cardiac arrhythmias may be overstated, as chest pain and patient falls were commonest and resulted in hospitalization more often. Citation: Kolla BP; Lam E; Olson E; Morgenthaler T. Patient safety incidents during overnight polysomnography: a five-year observational cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1201-1205. PMID:24235904

  2. Mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer using high- and low-voltage pulses--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kanduser, Masa; Miklavcic, Damijan; Pavlin, Mojca

    2009-02-01

    Gene electrotransfer is an established method for gene delivery which uses high-voltage pulses to increase permeability of cell membrane and thus enables transfer of genes. Currently, majority of research is focused on improving in vivo transfection efficiency, while mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer are not completely understood. In this paper we analyze the mechanisms of gene electrotransfer by using combinations of high-voltage (HV) and low-voltage pulses (LV) in vitro. We applied different combinations of HV and LV pulses to CHO cells and determined the transfection efficiency. We obtained that short HV pulses alone were sufficient to deliver DNA into cells for optimal plasmid concentrations and that LV pulse did not increase transfection efficiency, in contrast to reported studies in vivo. However, for sub-optimal plasmid concentrations combining HV and LV pulses increased transfection rate. Our results suggest that low-voltage pulses increase transfection in conditions where plasmid concentration is low, typically in vivo where mobility of DNA is limited by the extracellular matrix. LV pulses provide additional electrophoretic force which drags DNA toward the cell membrane and consequently increase transfection efficiency, while for sufficiently high concentrations of the plasmid (usually used in vitro) electrophoretic LV pulses do not have an important role. PMID:18930698

  3. Accuracy Study of the Space-Time CE/SE Method for Computational Aeroacoustics Problems Involving Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element(CE/SE) method is used to study the sound-shock interaction problem. The order of accuracy of numerical schemes is investigated. The linear model problem.govemed by the 1-D scalar convection equation, sound-shock interaction problem governed by the 1-D Euler equations, and the 1-D shock-tube problem which involves moving shock waves and contact surfaces are solved to investigate the order of accuracy of numerical schemes. It is concluded that the accuracy of the CE/SE numerical scheme with designed 2nd-order accuracy becomes 1st order when a moving shock wave exists. However, the absolute error in the CE/SE solution downstream of the shock wave is on the same order as that obtained using a fourth-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. No special techniques are used for either high-frequency low-amplitude waves or shock waves.

  4. Thresholds of probable problematic gambling involvement for the German population: Results of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study.

    PubMed

    Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. PMID:26415065

  5. Study of the chemical mechanism involved in the formation of tungstite in benzyl alcohol by the advanced QEXAFS technique.

    PubMed

    Olliges-Stadler, Inga; Stötzel, Jan; Koziej, Dorota; Rossell, Marta D; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Frahm, Ronald; Niederberger, Markus

    2012-02-20

    Insight into the complex chemical mechanism for the formation of tungstite nanoparticles obtained by the reaction of tungsten hexachloride with benzyl alcohol is presented herein. The organic and inorganic species involved in the formation of the nanoparticles were studied by time-dependent gas chromatography and X-ray diffraction as well as by time-resolved in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Principal component analysis revealed two intermediates, which were identified as WCl(4) and WOCl(4) by using linear combination analysis. Quick-scanning extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy enabled the time-dependent evolution of the starting compound, the intermediates and the product to be monitored over the full reaction period. The reaction starts with fast chlorine substitution and partial reduction during the dissolution of the tungsten hexachloride in benzyl alcohol followed by the generation of intermediates with W=O double bonds and finally the construction of the W-O-W network of the tungstite structure. PMID:22249934

  6. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction. PMID:26149121

  7. Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly. PMID:20663129

  8. Campaign 9 of the $K2$ Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Calen B; Street, Rachel A; Bennett, David P; Hogg, David W; Poleski, R; Barclay, T; Barentsen, G; Howell, S B; Udalski, A; Szyma?ski, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Koz?owski, S; Wyrzykowski, ?; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszy?ski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M; Sumi, T; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Bachelet, E; Bramich, D A; Cassan, A; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Mao, S; Ranc, C; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Akeson, R; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Beichman, C A; Bozza, V; Bryden, G; Ciardi, D; Cole, A; Coutures, C; Dong, S; Foreman-Mackey, D; Fouqué, P; Gaudi, B S; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Jørgensen, U; Lang, D; Lineweaver, C; Marquette, J -B; Mogavero, Federico; Morales, J C; Nataf, D; Pogge, R W; Santerne, A; Shvartzvald, Y; Suzuki, D; Tamura, M; Tisserand, P; Wang, D; Zhu, W

    2016-01-01

    $K2$'s Campaign 9 ($K2$C9) will conduct a $\\sim$3.4 deg$^{2}$ survey toward the Galactic bulge from 7/April through 1/July of 2016 that will leverage the spatial separation between $K2$ and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax $\\pi_{\\rm E}$ for $\\gtrsim$120 microlensing events, including several planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this white paper we provide an overview of the $K2$C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of $K2$C9, and the array of ground-based resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues throug...

  9. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses) have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of which differ from the camera eye in the degree of complexity of the eye structures and neurons participating in the visual circuit. Therefore, genes expressed in the cephalopod eye after divergence from the common molluscan ancestor could be involved in eye evolution through association with the acquisition of new structural components. To clarify the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye, we applied comprehensive transcriptomic analysis and conducted developmental validation of candidate genes involved in coleoid cephalopod eye evolution. Results We compared gene expression in the eyes of 6 molluscan (3 cephalopod and 3 non-cephalopod) species and selected 5,707 genes as cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes on the basis of homology searches against 3 molluscan species without camera eyes. First, we confirmed the expression of these 5,707 genes in the cephalopod camera eye formation processes by developmental array analysis. Second, using molecular evolutionary (dN/dS) analysis to detect positive selection in the cephalopod lineage, we identified 156 of these genes in which functions appeared to have changed after the divergence of cephalopods from the molluscan ancestor and which contributed to structural and functional diversification. Third, we selected 1,571 genes, expressed in the camera eyes of both cephalopods and vertebrates, which could have independently acquired a function related to eye development at the expression level. Finally, as experimental validation, we identified three functionally novel cephalopod camera eye genes related to optic lobe formation in cephalopods by in situ hybridization analysis of embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition. PMID:21702923

  10. Partner homicide-suicide involving female homicide victims: a population-based study in North Carolina, 1988-1992.

    PubMed

    Morton, E; Runyan, C W; Moracco, K E; Butts, J

    1998-01-01

    Homicide-suicide is a form of fatal violence in which an individual commits homicide and subsequently kills him- or herself. One hundred and sixteen homicide-suicide events involving 119 female homicide victims in North Carolina from 1988-1992 were identified through state medical examiner files. Case files were reviewed retrospectively to identify event characteristics, precursors, and typologies. In 86% of cases the perpetrator was the current or former partner of the victim. During the study period, 24% of men who killed their female partners in North Carolina subsequently committed suicide and another 3% attempted suicide but survived. Victim separation from the perpetrator was the most prevalent precursor (41%), followed by a history of domestic violence (29%). In nearly half of the cases with a history of domestic violence, the victim had previously sought protection from the perpetrator in the form of an arrest warrant, restraining order, or intervention by a law enforcement officer. Children of the victim (and/or perpetrator) witnessed the homicide-suicide, were in the immediate vicinity, found their parents' bodies, or were killed, in 43% of cases. The prevalence of separation and domestic violence suggests several potential points of intervention, including stronger domestic violence legislation. Future research should place priority on assessing the impact of partner homicide-suicides on the families in which they occur. Such studies are essential for the informed development of preventive and therapeutic interventions for the families of both the victims and perpetrators of these fatal events. In addition, research focused on assisting men in coping with issues of control and separation is needed. PMID:9809390

  11. Involvement in Denitrification is Beneficial to the Biofilm Lifestyle of Comamonas testosteroni: A Mechanistic Study and Its Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichao; Shukal, Sudha; Mukherjee, Manisha; Cao, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Comamonas is one of the most abundant microorganisms in biofilm communities driving wastewater treatment. Little has been known about the role of this group of organisms and their biofilm mode of life. In this study, using Comamonas testosteroni as a model organism, we demonstrated the involvement of Comamonas biofilms in denitrification under bulk aerobic conditions and elucidated the influence of nitrate respiration on its biofilm lifestyle. Our results showed that C. testosteroni could use nitrate as the sole electron acceptor for anaerobic growth. Under bulk aerobic condition, biofilms of C. testosteroni were capable of reducing nitrate, and intriguingly, nitrate reduction significantly enhanced viability of the biofilm-cells and reduced cell detachment from the biofilms. Nitrate respiration was further shown to play an essential role in maintaining high cell viability in the biofilms. RNA-seq analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a higher level of bis(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) in cells respiring on nitrate than those grown aerobically (1.3 × 10(-4) fmol/cell vs 7.9 × 10(-6) fmol/cell; P < 0.01). C-di-GMP is one universal signaling molecule that regulates the biofilm mode of life, and a higher c-di-GMP concentration reduces cell detachment from biofilms. Taking these factors together, this study reveals that nitrate reduction occurs in mature biofilms of C. testosteroni under bulk aerobic conditions, and the respiratory reduction of nitrate is beneficial to the biofilm lifestyle by providing more metabolic energy to maintain high viability and a higher level of c-di-GMP to reduce cell detachment. PMID:26327221

  12. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions. PMID:23801355

  13. Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, Julia; Abo-Madyan, Yasser; Lohr, Frank; Stieler, Florian; Kriz, Jan; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Wenz, Frederik; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

  14. Combining modelling and mutagenesis studies of synaptic vesicle protein 2A to identify a series of residues involved in racetam binding.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiye; Anderson, Dina; Lynch, Berkley A; Castaigne, Jean-Gabriel; Foerch, Patrik; Lebon, Florence

    2011-10-01

    LEV (levetiracetam), an antiepileptic drug which possesses a unique profile in animal models of seizure and epilepsy, has as its unique binding site in brain, SV2A (synaptic vesicle protein 2A). Previous studies have used a chimaeric and site-specific mutagenesis approach to identify three residues in the putative tenth transmembrane helix of SV2A that, when mutated, alter binding of LEV and related racetam derivatives to SV2A. In the present paper, we report a combined modelling and mutagenesis study that successfully identifies another 11 residues in SV2A that appear to be involved in ligand binding. Sequence analysis and modelling of SV2A suggested residues equivalent to critical functional residues of other MFS (major facilitator superfamily) transporters. Alanine scanning of these and other SV2A residues resulted in the identification of residues affecting racetam binding, including Ile273 which differentiated between racetam analogues, when mutated to alanine. Integrating mutagenesis results with docking analysis led to the construction of a mutant in which six SV2A residues were replaced with corresponding SV2B residues. This mutant showed racetam ligand-binding affinity intermediate to the affinities observed for SV2A and SV2B. PMID:21936812

  15. 75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork... approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision OMB 0925- 0414. Need and Use of Information Collection: This...

  16. 78 FR 8152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork... approval. Proposed Collection: Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision OMB 0925-0414. Need and Use of Information Collection: This...

  17. Observational Child Study: An Empirical Analysis of Recent Trends and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    The analysis reported here examined the progress of observational child study from 1960 through 1975. Naturalistic observational studies were described as heuristic, highly realistic, relevant to important social problems and oriented toward significant theoretical issues. Fifteen journals encompassing child development, clinical and educational…

  18. Activities of a Medical Emergency Team: a prospective observational study of 795 calls.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C F; Psirides, A

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few papers have examined specific causes for Medical Emergency Team (MET) review and the assessment and management undertaken by the MET. The aim of our study was to describe the type of patients who require MET review, the reasons such reviews are requested and the subsequent immediate management of these patients. Our prospective single-centre observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in New Zealand between October 2012 and September 2013. Each trigger for MET review was assessed separately to allow analysis of the main associated underlying conditions and interventions. Seven hundred and ninety-five MET calls were generated for 630 patients. Mean patient age was 64 years. Sixty percent of all calls involved medical patients. There was a marked diurnal variation in the incidence of MET calls, with MET calls more likely during the daytime and evening compared to the night. The most common triggers for MET calls were an unresponsive or fitting patient (25.2%), tachycardia (24.2%), and an Early Warning Score of 8 or more (22.8%). Neurological causes (30.7%), cardiovascular failure (hypotension, pulmonary oedema) (26.7%), respiratory failure (22.6%), and sepsis (19.2%) were the most common underlying conditions. One of these top four conditions was present in nearly all patients (99.2%). The majority of MET calls were made for a relatively small number of underlying conditions and triggers, supporting the concept of 'MET syndromes'. The pattern of interventions is predictable from the triggering condition. This may guide education and training of ward staff to improve detection of deteriorating patients and prevent or pre-emptively manage causes of such deterioration prior to MET criteria being reached. The association between time of day and crisis recognition suggests the hospital system does not reliably detect deteriorating patients. This questions the adequacy of monitoring of deteriorating patients on hospital wards. PMID:26673587

  19. Hepatic FoxO1 Acetylation Is Involved in Oleanolic Acid-Induced Memory of Glycemic Control: Novel Findings from Study 2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Li, Songpei; Jo, Eunjung; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Tan, Minjia; Molero, Juan C.; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study (referred as Study 1) showed that the triterpenoid oleanolic acid (OA) was able to produce a sustained correction of hyperglycemia beyond treatment period in type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice with liver as a responsible site. To follow up the previous observations, the present study (referred as Study 2) investigated the possible role of acetylation of FoxO1 and associated events in this therapeutic memory by characterizing the pathways regulating the acetylation status during and post-OA treatments. OA treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, during OA treatment) reduced hyperglycemia in T2D mice by ?87% and this effect was largely (?70%) maintained even 4 weeks after the cessation of OA administration (post-OA treatment). During OA treatment, the acetylation and phosphorylation of FoxO1 were markedly increased (1.5 to 2.5-fold) while G6Pase expression was suppressed by ?80%. Consistent with this, OA treatment reversed pyruvate intolerance in high-fat fed mice. Histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) content was increased (>50%) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4 and 5 (not HDAC1) were reduced by 30–50%. The OA-induced changes in FoxO1, G6Pase, HAT1 and HDACs persisted during the post-OA treatment period when the increased phosphorylation of AMPK, SIRT1 content and reduced liver triglyceride had subsided. These results confirmed the ability of OA to control hyperglycemia far beyond treatment period in T2D mice. Most importantly, in the present study we demonstrated acetylation of FoxO1 in the liver is involved in OA-induced memory for the control of hyperglycemia. Our novel findings suggest that acetylation of the key regulatory proteins of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a plausible mechanism by the triterpenoid to achieve a sustained glycemic control for T2D. PMID:25222566

  20. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary feeding for the characterization of candidate tick protective antigens. While an effect on tick weight and oviposition was observed, the effect on pathogen levels was not evident probably due to high tick-to-tick variations among other factors. Nevertheless, these results together with previous results of RNA interference functional studies suggest that these proteins are good candidate vaccine antigens for the control of R. microplus infestations and infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina. PMID:24450836

  1. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens.

  2. Bilateral motor tasks involve more brain regions and higher neural activation than unilateral tasks: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jeremy W.; Eng, Janice J.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Movements that involve simultaneous coordination of muscles of the right and left lower limbs form a large part of our daily activities (e.g., standing, rising from a chair). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine which brain areas are used to control coordinated lower limb movements, specifically comparing regions that are activated during bilateral exertions to those performed unilaterally. Plantarflexor exertions were produced at a target force level of 15% of the participants’ maximum voluntary contraction, in three conditions, with their right (dominant) foot, with their left foot and with both feet simultaneously. A voxel-wise analysis determined which regions were active in the bilateral, but not in the unilateral conditions. In addition, a regions of interest (ROI) approach was used to determine differences in the percent signal change (PSC) between the conditions within motor areas. The voxel-wise analysis showed a large number of regions (cortical, subcortical and cerebellar) that were active during the bilateral condition, but not during either unilateral condition. The ROI analysis showed several motor regions with higher activation in the bilateral condition than unilateral conditions; further, the magnitude of bilateral PSC was more than the sum of the two unilateral conditions in several of these regions. We postulate that the greater levels of activation during bilateral exertions may arise from interhemispheric inhibition, as well as from the greater need for motor coordination (e.g., synchronizing the two limbs to activate together) and visual processing (e.g., monitoring of two visual stimuli). PMID:24770862

  3. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

  4. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research. PMID:25046751

  5. The genetic regulatory network centered on Pto-Wuschela and its targets involved in wood formation revealed by association studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wei, Zunzheng; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Wang, Qingshi; Quan, Mingyang; Song, Yuepeng; Xie, Jianbo; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression and can strongly affect phenotypes. However, few studies have examined TF variants and TF interactions with their targets in plants. Here, we used genetic association in 435 unrelated individuals of Populus tomentosa to explore the variants in Pto-Wuschela and its targets to decipher the genetic regulatory network of Pto-Wuschela. Our bioinformatics and co-expression analysis identified 53 genes with the motif TCACGTGA as putative targets of Pto-Wuschela. Single-marker association analysis showed that Pto-Wuschela was associated with wood properties, which is in agreement with the observation that it has higher expression in stem vascular tissues in Populus. Also, SNPs in the 53 targets were associated with growth or wood properties under additive or dominance effects, suggesting these genes and Pto-Wuschela may act in the same genetic pathways that affect variation in these quantitative traits. Epistasis analysis indicated that 75.5% of these genes directly or indirectly interacted Pto-Wuschela, revealing the coordinated genetic regulatory network formed by Pto-Wuschela and its targets. Thus, our study provides an alternative method for dissection of the interactions between a TF and its targets, which will strength our understanding of the regulatory roles of TFs in complex traits in plants. PMID:26549216

  6. Biochemical, Stabilization and Crystallization Studies on a Molecular Chaperone (PaoD) Involved in the Maturation of Molybdoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; Schwuchow, Viola; Rodrigues, David; Cabrita, Eurico J.; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João; Santos-Silva, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes require specific chaperones for folding and cofactor insertion. PaoD is the chaperone of the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC. It is the last gene in the paoABCD operon in Escherichia coli and its presence is crucial for obtaining mature enzyme. PaoD is an unstable, 35 kDa, protein. Our biochemical studies showed that it is a dimer in solution with a tendency to form large aggregates, especially after freezing/thawing cycles. In order to improve stability, PaoD was thawed in the presence of two ionic liquids [C4mim]Cl and [C2OHmim]PF6 and no protein precipitation was observed. This allowed protein concentration and crystallization using polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate as precipitating agents. Saturation transfer difference – nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) experiments have also been performed in order to investigate the effect of the ionic liquids in the stabilization process, showing a clear interaction between the acidic ring protons of the cation and, most likely, negatively charged residues at the protein surface. DLS assays also show a reduction of the overall size of the protein aggregates in presence of ionic liquids. Furthermore, cofactor binding studies on PaoD showed that the protein is able to discriminate between molybdenum and tungsten bound to the molybdenum cofactor, since only a Mo-MPT form of the cofactor remained bound to PaoD. PMID:24498065

  7. The genetic regulatory network centered on Pto-Wuschela and its targets involved in wood formation revealed by association studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wei, Zunzheng; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Wang, Qingshi; Quan, Mingyang; Song, Yuepeng; Xie, Jianbo; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression and can strongly affect phenotypes. However, few studies have examined TF variants and TF interactions with their targets in plants. Here, we used genetic association in 435 unrelated individuals of Populus tomentosa to explore the variants in Pto-Wuschela and its targets to decipher the genetic regulatory network of Pto-Wuschela. Our bioinformatics and co-expression analysis identified 53 genes with the motif TCACGTGA as putative targets of Pto-Wuschela. Single-marker association analysis showed that Pto-Wuschela was associated with wood properties, which is in agreement with the observation that it has higher expression in stem vascular tissues in Populus. Also, SNPs in the 53 targets were associated with growth or wood properties under additive or dominance effects, suggesting these genes and Pto-Wuschela may act in the same genetic pathways that affect variation in these quantitative traits. Epistasis analysis indicated that 75.5% of these genes directly or indirectly interacted Pto-Wuschela, revealing the coordinated genetic regulatory network formed by Pto-Wuschela and its targets. Thus, our study provides an alternative method for dissection of the interactions between a TF and its targets, which will strength our understanding of the regulatory roles of TFs in complex traits in plants. PMID:26549216

  8. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q-T; Huang, Q; Zhong, M; Wei, S-S; Luo, W; Li, F; Yu, Y-H

    2015-12-01

    Although several epidemiological studies reported that maternal chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had significantly increased risk of undergoing adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes, studies on the relationship between HCV infection and risk of preterm birth (PTB) have yielded inconclusive and inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between HCV infection and PTB. The electronic database was searched until 1 September 2014. Relevant studies reporting the association between HCV infection and the risk of PTB were included for further evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using revmen 5.3 and stata 10.0. Nine studies involving 4186698 participants and 5218 HCV infection cases were included. A significant association between HCV infection and PTB was observed (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.76, P < 0.001, fixed-effects model). Stratification according to maternal smoking/alcohol abuse, maternal drug abuse or coinfected with HBV and/or HIV matched groups still demonstrated that women with HCV infection had a high risk for PTB. Findings from our meta-analysis suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. In the future, pathophysiological studies are warranted to ascertain the causality and explore the possible biological mechanisms involved. PMID:26081198

  9. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    PubMed Central

    Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Methods In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity), patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). Results A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ?4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-G12 ?4; P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-reported adherence was low in most patients, with a strong positive association between self-reported adherence and psychiatrists’ assessment of treatment acceptance. Understanding factors associated with poor medication adherence may help physicians to better manage their patients, thereby improving outcomes. PMID:26396505

  10. Observed Changes in the Alertness and Communicative Involvement of Students with Multiple and Severe Disability Following In-Class Mentor Modelling for Staff in Segregated and General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, P.; Arthur-Kelly, M.; Bennett, D.; Neilands, J.; Colyvas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The improvement of engagement and involvement in communicative and socially centred exchanges for individuals with multiple and severe disability (MSD) presents complex and urgent challenges to educators. This paper reports the findings of an intervention study designed to enhance the interactive skills of students with MSD using an…

  11. Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin-Hai; Huang, Guang-Lei; Lin, Du-Ren; Wan, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Dong; Song, Ju-Kun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk. Methods PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Results Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96–1.15). Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk. PMID:26020536

  12. Growth of organic films on semiconductor surfaces: Fundamental reactivity studies and molecular layer deposition involving isocyanates and isothiocyanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loscutoff, Paul W.

    The continued pursuit of smaller device dimensions by the semiconductor industry has led to an increased interest in functional organic films. Organics have great potential as advanced materials, owing to the versatility of organic moieties and vast knowledge base of organic reactivity. In order to implement organic films into semiconductor devices, the inorganic/organic hybrid interfaces must be investigated, so that the reactivity at these pivotal features is well-known. In this work organic films are studied in two environments: the Ge(100)-2x1 surface and the SiO2 surface. The reconstructed Ge(100)-2x1 surface offers a well-defined substrate, ideal for fundamental reactivity studies. Organic reactants are deposited under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, allowing reactions between gas-phase organic molecules and the surface to be isolated and analyzed by in situ spectroscopic techniques. By use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) modeling, we investigate the reactivity of phenyl and tert-butyl isocyanate and isothiocyanate at the Ge(100)-2x1 surface. The isocyanate and isothiocyanate moieties are both highly reactive groups consisting of a cumulated double bond containing two heteroatoms, allowing for many potential products with the Ge surface. We find that dative bonding through the heteroatoms plays an important role in the surface reactions, functioning as either reaction intermediates or final products depending on the adsorbate. Various cycloaddition products are also observed at the surface, with prominent reactivity trends resulting from the differences in oxygen and sulfur reactivity. In order to study the practical implementation of organic films, molecular layer deposition (MLD) reactions are studied on the hydroxlyated SiO 2 surface. MLD is a layer-by-layer technique, where films are deposited one molecular unit at a time, allowing for film tailorability and composition control down to single molecule specificity. Coupling reactions between isocyanate and isothiocyanate moieties with amines to form polyurea and polythiourea films, respectively, are studied. The MLD films are analyzed by ex situ ellipsometry, IR spectroscopy, XPS, and DFT. A constant growth rate and monomer dose saturation is observed for both the urea and thiourea coupling chemistry, and chemical composition of the films agrees well with theoretical models. The ability to precisely control film composition is demonstrated through the deposition of polyurea blends, with a homogenous composition throughout the film, and polyurea laminates, with layers of distinct composition within the film. Organic films have shown promise as copper diffusion barrier layers, and the effectiveness of the MLD films as copper barrier layers is investigated through thermal stability, adhesion, and copper penetration measurements. The films demonstrate potential in this application, but further modification of the films is necessary to meet all the requirements necessary for barrier layer implementation. The thesis concludes with some perspectives on the future of organic films on semiconductors.

  13. Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-09-01

    We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1 fce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5 fce and f/fce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1 fce (in situ and mapped to equator). These very low frequency waves are observed both when the satellites are close to the equatorial plane and at higher magnetic latitudes. Poynting flux is consistent with generation at the equator. Wave amplitudes can be up to 20 to 40 mV/m and 2 to 4 nT. We conclude that conditions during moderate to large storms can excite unusually low frequency chorus, which is resonant with more energetic electrons than typical chorus, with critical implications for understanding radiation belt evolution.

  14. The study of enhanced earth observations on a satellite image chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Sang-Soon; Choi, Myungjin; Ra, Sung-Woong

    2011-10-01

    The Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) on the KOrea Multi-Propose SATellite (KOMPSAT)-2 was developed and launched as a main payload to provide a One(1) m panchromatic image and four(4) band four(4) m multi-spectral images at an altitude of 685 km covering a swath width of 15 km. These images, archived around the world, are a useful resource for space applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, surveillance, and national security. The image quality of KOMPSAT-2 depends upon its image chain, which is comprised of an on-board system in the satellite and a processing system at the ground station. Therefore, in this study we determine the factors that have a major impact on the image quality through an investigation of the entire image chain. Consequently, two methods, involving a compression algorithm and a deconvolution technique, were determined as having a significant influence on the KOMPSAT-2 image quality. The compression algorithm of KOMPSAT-2 is rate-controlled JPEG-like algorithm that controls the mismatch between the input and output data rate. The ability to control the input/output data rate may be useful during the operation of the satellite but can also lower the overall image quality. The deconvolution technique may increase the sharpness of images, but it can also amplify the image noise level. Therefore, we propose methods of wavelet-based compression and denoising as an alternative to currently existing algorithms. Satisfactory results were obtained through experimentation with these two algorithms, and they are expected to be successfully implemented into the future KOMPSAT series to yield high-quality images for enhanced earth observation.

  15. Perceived organizational support and job involvement in the Iranian health care system: A case study of emergency room nurses in general hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Etemadi, Manal; Hoseini, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Researchers believe that there are social exchanges between the employers and employees, because the employees would be interested in their organization and trust it based on how the organization values them and their welfare, comfort, and security. This belief is known as perceived organizational support that makes employees consider themselves as a part of their organization and have a commitment to it. The literature review is very limited in both variables in Iran and thus few studies also report the perceived organizational support and job involvement at the lower levels in our country. This research aimed at studying the levels of perceived organizational support and job involvement, relationship between this two, and the demographic factors relationship with both of them. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive analytical study conducted in 2012. The population included 123 emergency nurses in General Hospitals of Qom. Data were collected through Perceived Organizational Support and Job Involvement Questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS software, descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation and Chi-square test. Results: Both mean scores for perceived organizational support and job involvement were in average level, 146/12 and 35/38, respectively. There was a significant relationship between perceived organizational support and age, education, tenure, organizational position, and job shift. There was also a significant relationship between job involvement and age and education and finally between perceived organizational support and job involvement (P = 0/029). Discussion: The high correlation between perceived organizational support and job involvement indicates that the improvement of perceived organizational support are necessary through motivating the employees, showing interest in them, paying attention to them, respecting them, and providing development opportunity in the organization. These should be always considered by managers to improve job involvement PMID:25077151

  16. Possible involvement of XPA in repair of oxidative DNA damage deduced from analysis of damage, repair and genotype in a human population study.

    PubMed

    Dusinská, Mária; Dzupinková, Zuzana; Wsólová, Ladislava; Harrington, Vikki; Collins, Andrew R

    2006-05-01

    Participants in a study of occupational exposure to mineral fibres in Slovakia were analysed for the polymorphism 23A-->G in the DNA repair gene XPA. Of the 388 subjects, 239 were exposed to asbestos, stonewool or glass fibre; the rest were unexposed controls. Levels of DNA base alterations (oxidation and alkylation) in lymphocytes were measured using the comet assay with lesion-specific endonucleases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) DNA repair activity was measured, as incision activity of a lymphocyte extract on DNA containing the OGG1 substrate 8-oxoguanine. Presence of the A allele was associated with higher levels of DNA damage (sites sensitive to formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, endonuclease III or 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) as well as with higher activity of OGG1 repair enzyme. DNA base damage increased with age, showing highly significant correlations when the whole population or subgroups of the population were analysed. OGG1 repair activity also increased with age, but when analysed according to XPA genotype, the increase was observed only in those individuals with an A allele. Although XPA is known as a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced damage and bulky DNA adducts, it may also have a role in the repair of oxidized bases. PMID:16613913

  17. Disentangling molecular motions involved in the glass transition of a twist-bend nematic liquid crystal through dielectric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, D. O.; Sebastian, N.; de la Fuente, M. R.; Martínez-García, J. C.; Salud, J.; Pérez-Jubindo, M. A.; Diez-Berart, S.; Dunmur, D. A.; Luckhurst, G. R.

    2012-07-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy spanning frequencies from 10-2 to 1.9 × 109 Hz has been used to study the molecular orientational dynamics of the glass-forming liquid crystal 1?,7?-bis (4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)heptane (CB7CB) over a wide temperature range of the twist-bend nematic phase. In such a mesophase two different relaxation processes have been observed, as expected theoretically, to contribute to the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity. For measurements on aligned samples, the processes contribute to the dielectric response to different extents depending on the orientation of the alignment axis (parallel or perpendicular) with respect to the probing electric field direction. The low-frequency relaxation mode (denoted by ?1) is attributed to a flip-flop motion of the dipolar groups parallel to the director. The high-frequency relaxation mode (denoted by ?2) is associated with precessional motions of the dipolar groups about the director. The ?1-and ?2-modes are predominant in the parallel and perpendicular alignments, respectively. Relaxation times for both modes in the different alignments have been obtained over a wide temperature range down to near the glass transition temperature. Different analytic functions used to characterize the temperature dependence of the relaxation times of the two modes are considered. Among them, the critical-like description via the dynamic scaling model seems to give not only quite good numerical fittings, but also provides a consistent physical picture of the orientational dynamics on approaching the glass transition.

  18. Family Involvement in the Education of Potential Drop-Out Children: A Comparative Study between Spain and Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Raquel-Amaya; Symeou, Loizos; Alvarez-Blanco, Lucia; Roussounidou, Eleni; Iglesias-Muniz, Jesus; Cao-Fernandez, Maria-Auxiliadora

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on family involvement in the education of teenagers at risk of dropping out from compulsory secondary school. A questionnaire was completed by 131 Spanish and Cypriot families with children at six schools--three in each country. The questionnaire investigated: (1) parental perceptions of their children's activities in their free…

  19. To examine how the dynamics of recall processes are affected by the control processes involved with search termination, to study

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Michael

    Objective To examine how the dynamics of recall processes are affected by the control processes of theoretical models of recall, and to develop new measures of cognitive ability that can be easily adapted involved in free recall, and how these retrieval dynamics inform the development of computational models

  20. Glycerol Dehydratation by the B12-Independent Enzyme May Not Involve the Migration of a Hydroxyl Group: A Computational Study

    E-print Network

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    Glycerol Dehydratation by the B12-Independent Enzyme May Not Involve the Migration of a Hydroxyl migration of the middle hydroxyl group to one of the two terminal positions of a molecule, as previously byproduct of the transestrification of plant oils and animal fats. Chemical methods used to date to convert

  1. Outcome predictors in autism spectrum disorders preschoolers undergoing treatment as usual: insights from an observational study using artificial neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Antonio; Muratori, Filippo; Buscema, Massimo; Calderoni, Sara; Grossi, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment as usual (TAU) for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) includes eclectic treatments usually available in the community and school inclusion with an individual support teacher. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have never been used to study the effects of treatment in ASDs. The Auto Contractive Map (Auto-CM) is a kind of ANN able to discover trends and associations among variables creating a semantic connectivity map. The matrix of connections, visualized through a minimum spanning tree filter, takes into account nonlinear associations among variables and captures connection schemes among clusters. Our aim is to use Auto-CM to recognize variables to discriminate between responders versus no responders at TAU. Methods A total of 56 preschoolers with ASDs were recruited at different sites in Italy. They were evaluated at T0 and after 6 months of treatment (T1). The children were referred to community providers for usual treatments. Results At T1, the severity of autism measured through the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule decreased in 62% of involved children (Response), whereas it was the same or worse in 37% of the children (No Response). The application of the Semeion ANNs overcomes the 85% of global accuracy (Sine Net almost reaching 90%). Consequently, some of the tested algorithms were able to find a good correlation between some variables and TAU outcome. The semantic connectivity map obtained with the application of the Auto-CM system showed results that clearly indicated that “Response” cases can be visually separated from the “No Response” cases. It was possible to visualize a response area characterized by “Parents Involvement high”. The resultant No Response area strongly connected with “Parents Involvement low”. Conclusion The ANN model used in this study seems to be a promising tool for the identification of the variables involved in the positive response to TAU in autism. PMID:26170671

  2. Exploring the Ethics of Observational Research: The Case of an HIV Study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Alison; Jackson, Ashley; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    Background Observational studies have generally been viewed as incurring minimal risk to participants, resulting in fewer ethical obligations for investigators than intervention studies. In 2004, the lead author (AN) carried out an observational study measuring sexual behavior and the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), among Tanzanian agricultural plantation residents (results reported elsewhere). This article uses an ethical lens to consider the consequences of the observational study and explore what, if any, effects it had on participants and their community. Methods Using a case study approach, we critically examine three core principles of research ethics—respect for persons/autonomy; beneficence/nonmaleficence; and distributive justice—as manifested in the 2004 observational study. We base our findings on three sources: discussions with plantation residents following presentations of observational research findings; in-depth interviews with key informants; and researcher observations. Results The observational research team was found to have ensured confidentiality and noncoercive recruitment. Ironically, maintenance of confidentiality and voluntary participation led some participants to doubt study results. Receiving HIV test results was important for participants and contributed to changing community norms about HIV testing. Conclusions Observational studies may act like de facto intervention studies and thus incur obligations similar to those of intervention studies. We found that ensuring respect for persons may have compromised the principles of beneficence and distributive justice. While in theory these three ethical principles have equal moral force, in practice, researchers may have to prioritize one over the others. Careful community engagement is necessary to promote well-considered ethical decisions. PMID:24069546

  3. Fostering shared decision making by occupational therapists and workers involved in accidents resulting in persistent musculoskeletal disorders: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background From many empirical and theoretical points of view, the implementation of shared decision making (SDM) in work rehabilitation for pain due to a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is justified but typically the SDM model applies to a one on one encounter between a healthcare provider and a patient and not to an interdisciplinary team. Objectives To adapt and implement an SDM program adapted to the realities of work rehabilitation for pain associated with a MSD. More specific objectives are to adapt an SDM program applicable to existing rehabilitation programs, and to evaluate the extent of implementation of the SDM program in four rehabilitation centres. Method For objective one, we will use a mixed perspective combining a theory-based development program/intervention and a user-based perspective. The users are the occupational therapists (OTs) and clinical coordinators. The strategies for developing an SDM program will include consulting the scientific literature and group consensus with clinicians-experts. A sample of convenience of eight OTs, four clinical coordinators and four psychologists all of whom have been working full-time in MSD rehabilitation for more than two years will be recruited from four collaborating rehabilitation centres. For objective two, using the same criteria as for objective one, we will first train eight OTs in SDM. Second, using a descriptive design, the extent to which the SDM program has been implemented will be assessed through observations of the SDM process. The observation data will be triangulated with the dyadic working alliance questionnaire, and findings from a final individual interview with each OT. A total of five patients per trained OT will be recruited, for a total of 40 patients. Patients will be eligible if they have a work-related disability for more than 12 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain and plan to start their work rehabilitation programs. Discussion This study will be the first evaluation of the program and it is expected that improvements will be made prior to a broader-scale implementation. The ultimate aim is to improve the quality of decision making, patients' quality of life, and reduce the duration of their work-related disability by improving the services offered during the rehabilitation process. PMID:21414207

  4. Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study Bin Yang a: Trojan asteroids Infrared observations Asteroids, surfaces a b s t r a c t With a total mass similar to the main asteroid belt, the jovian Trojan asteroids are a major feature in the Solar System. Based upon

  5. A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST

    E-print Network

    Bonnell, John W.

    A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST L 2002. [1] Black aurora was observed on 30 January 1998 in a narrow-field camera forty seconds before. Electron energy flux measured by FAST provided strong evidence that FAST passed over black aurora

  6. Epidemiology Commentary What can we really learn from observational studies? The need for empirical

    E-print Network

    Madigan, David

    Epidemiology Commentary What can we really learn from observational studies? The need for empirical on expanded secondary use of observational healthcare data and have thrust the field of epidemiology, open questions include: - Which statistical and epidemiological methods work best for different types

  7. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  8. Rethinking the Evaluation of Algorithm Animations as Learning Aids: An Observational Study

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    Rethinking the Evaluation of Algorithm Animations as Learning Aids: An Observational Study Colleen,stasko,ataylor@cc.gatech.edu Technical Report GIT-GVU-99-10 March 1999 Abstract A number of prior studies have found that using animation instruction. This article reports on a study in which animation is utilized in more of a homework" learning

  9. Model accuracy impact through rescaled observations in hydrological data assimilation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Crow, Wade T.; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2015-04-01

    Relative magnitudes of signal and noise in soil moisture datasets (e.g. satellite-, model-, station-based) feature significant variability. Optimality of the analysis when assimilating observations into the model depends on the degree that the differences between the signal variances of model and observations are minimized. Rescaling techniques that aim to reduce such differences in general only focus on matching certain statistics of the model and the observations while the impact of their relative accuracy over the optimality of the analysis remains unexplored. In this study the impacts of the relative accuracies of seasonality and anomaly components of modeled and observation-based soil moisture time series on optimality of assimilation analysis is investigated. Experiments using well-controlled synthetic and real datasets are performed. Experiments are performed by rescaling observations to model with varying aggressiveness: i) rescaling the entire observation time-series as one-piece or each month separately; ii) rescaling observation seasonality and anomaly components separately; iii) inserting model seasonality directly into observations while anomaly components are only rescaled. A simple Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) model is selected in both synthetic and real dataset experiments. Observations are assimilated into the API model using Kalman filter. Real dataset experiments use the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) product based on the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Aqua platform (AMSR-E) observations over four USDA-ARS watersheds, while ground-based observations collected over these watersheds are used for validation. Results show that it is favorable to rescale observations more aggressively to a model when the model is more accurate (higher signal to noise ratio than the observations), while rescaling the observations strongly to the model degrades the analysis if the observations are more skillful.

  10. Observational and evolutionary studies of neutron star X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jinrong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we present our observational and evolutionary studies of neutron stars in X-ray binary systems. A variety of topics are discussed, which are all related by a single scientific theme, namely, helping to set ...

  11. The Observation and Study of ELP V5-120 Conformational Changes 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Qian

    2012-10-24

    and secondary/tertiary structure formation. In this thesis, the collapse process of ELP was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In DSC thermal cycling, a clear conformational transition was observed. Also, a transiently stable state of ELP V5...

  12. Tuning redox potentials of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt complexes: an experimental and theoretical study involving solvent and ligand effects.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C Moyses; Doherty, Mark D; Konezny, Steven J; Luca, Oana R; Usyatinsky, Alex; Grade, Hans; Lobkovsky, Emil; Soloveichik, Grigorii L; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S

    2012-03-28

    The structure and electrochemical properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine Co(II) complexes (NNN)CoX(2) and [(NNN)(2)Co][PF(6)](2) (NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(4-R-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine, with R = CN, CF(3), H, CH(3), OCH(3), N(CH(3))(2); NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(2,6-(iPr)(2)-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine and X = Cl, Br) were studied using a combination of electrochemical and theoretical methods. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and DFT/B3LYP calculations suggest that in solution (NNN)CoCl(2) complexes exist in equilibrium with disproportionation products [(NNN)(2)Co](2+) [CoCl(4)](2-) with the position of the equilibrium heavily influenced by both the solvent polarity and the steric and electronic properties of the bis(imino)pyridine ligands. In strong polar solvents (e.g., CH(3)CN or H(2)O) or with electron donating substituents (R = OCH(3) or N(CH(3))(2)) the equilibrium is shifted and only oxidation of the charged products [(NNN)(2)Co](2+) and [CoCl(4)](2-) is observed. Conversely, in nonpolar organic solvents such as CH(2)Cl(2) or with electron withdrawing substituents (R = CN or CF(3)), disproportionation is suppressed and oxidation of the (NNN)CoCl(2) complexes leads to 18e(-) Co(III) complexes stabilized by coordination of a solvent moiety. In addition, the [(NNN)(2)Co][PF(6)](2) complexes exhibit reversible Co(II/III) oxidation potentials that are strongly dependent on the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the N-aryl substituents, spanning nearly 750 mV in acetonitrile. The resulting insight on the regulation of redox properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes should be particularly valuable to tune suitable conditions for reactivity. PMID:22318461

  13. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Inhibition Is Associated With Reduced Risk Against Febrile Malaria in a Longitudinal Cohort Study Involving Ghanaian Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W.; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K.; Dziegiel, Morten H.; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Christiansen, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Theisen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The antibody-dependent respiratory burst and opsonic phagocytosis assays have been associated with protection against malaria; however, other mechanisms may also be involved. The antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay is yet to be correlated with protection in longitudinal cohort studies (LCS). We investigated the relationship between ADCI activity of immunoglobulin G before malaria season and risk of malaria in a LCS involving Ghanaian children. High ADCI activity was significantly associated with reduced risk against malaria. Findings here suggest a potential usefulness of the ADCI assay as a correlate of protection to guide malaria vaccine studies. PMID:26380342

  14. Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in a somatotopic manner: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Buccino, G; Binkofski, F; Fink, G R; Fadiga, L; Fogassi, L; Gallese, V; Seitz, R J; Zilles, K; Rizzolatti, G; Freund, H J

    2001-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize brain areas that were active during the observation of actions made by another individual. Object- and non-object-related actions made with different effectors (mouth, hand and foot) were presented. Observation of both object- and non-object-related actions determined a somatotopically organized activation of premotor cortex. The somatotopic pattern was similar to that of the classical motor cortex homunculus. During the observation of object-related actions, an activation, also somatotopically organized, was additionally found in the posterior parietal lobe. Thus, when individuals observe an action, an internal replica of that action is automatically generated in their premotor cortex. In the case of object-related actions, a further object-related analysis is performed in the parietal lobe, as if the subjects were indeed using those objects. These results bring the previous concept of an action observation/execution matching system (mirror system) into a broader perspective: this system is not restricted to the ventral premotor cortex, but involves several somatotopically organized motor circuits. PMID:11168545

  15. Ionospheric photoelectrons at Venus: Case studies and first observation in the tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, S. M. E.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.; Fedorov, A.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of photoelectrons in ionospheres, including that of unmagnetised Venus, can be inferred from their characteristic spectral peaks in the electron energy spectrum. The electrons within the peaks are created by the photoionisation of neutrals in the upper atmosphere by the solar HeII 30.4 nm line. Here, we present some case studies of photoelectron spectra observed by the ASPERA-4 instrument aboard Venus Express with corresponding ion data. In the first case study, we observe photoelectron peaks in the sunlit ionosphere, indicating relatively local production. In the second case study, we observe broadened peaks in the sunlit ionosphere near the terminator, which indicate scattering processes between a more remote production region and the observation point. In the third case study, we present the first observation of ionospheric photoelectrons in the induced magnetotail of Venus, which we suggest is due to the spacecraft being located at that time on a magnetic field line connected to the dayside ionosphere at lower altitudes. Simultaneously, low energy ions are observed moving away from Venus. In common with observations at Mars and at Titan, these imply a possible role for the relatively energetic electrons in producing an ambipolar electric field which enhances ion escape.

  16. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions The contribution of the PIRg supported a successful recruitment process that exceeded response rates of other studies in care homes. It safeguarded residents during the conduct of research on a sensitive topic and helped in validating the interview data gathered by the researchers through the discussion groups facilitated by the PIRg. There were power differentials that persisted and affected PIRg participation. The study has showed the value of developing job descriptions and a more formal means of setting out respective expectations. Future research may wish to elicit the views of focal participants in such studies about the mediation of research by public involvement in research. PMID:22112207

  17. Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies of Carbon-to-Metal Hydrogen Atom Transfer Involving Os-Centered Radicals: Evidence for Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowska-Androlojc, Anna; Grills, David C.; Zhang, Jie; Bullock, R. Morris; Miyazawa, Akira; Kawanishi, Yuji; Fujita, Etsuko

    2014-03-05

    We have investigated the kinetics of novel carbon-to-metal hydrogen atom transfer reactions, in which homolytic cleavage of a C-H bond is accomplished by a single metal-centered radical. Studies by means of time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements revealed efficient hydrogen atom transfer from xanthene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 1,4-cyclohexadiene to Cp(CO)2Os• and (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2Os• radicals, formed by photoinduced homolysis of the corresponding osmium dimers. The rate constants for hydrogen abstraction from these hydrocarbons were found to be in the range 1.54 × 105 M 1 s 1 -1.73 × 107 M 1 s-1 at 25 °C. For the first time, kinetic isotope effects for carbon-to-metal hydrogen atom transfer were determined. Large primary kinetic isotope effects of 13.4 ± 1.0 and 16.6 ± 1.4 were observed for the hydrogen abstraction from xanthene to form Cp(CO)2OsH and (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2OsH, respectively, at 25 °C. Temperature-dependent measurements of the kinetic isotope effects over a 60 -C temperature range were carried out to obtain the difference in activation energies and the pre-exponential factor ratio. For hydrogen atom transfer from xanthene to (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2Os•, the (ED - EH) = 3.25 ± 0.20 kcal/mol and AH/AD = 0.056 ± 0.018 values are greater than the semi-classical limits and thus suggest a quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism. The work at BNL was carried out under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. RMB also thanks the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Applying Pleck's Model of Paternal Involvement to the Study of Preschool Attachment Quality: A Proof of Concept Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Dunn, Thomas; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Underwood, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Recent re-conceptualisation of paternal involvement (Pleck, J. H. (2010). Paternal involvement: Revised conceptualization and theoretical linkages with child outcomes. In M. Lamb (Ed.), "The role of the father in child development" (5th ed., pp. 67-107). London: Wiley), while proving fruitful, has yet to be applied to investigations into…

  19. Multiple growth events, processes and fluid sources involved in diamond genesis: A micro-analytical study of sulphide-bearing diamonds from Finsch mine, RSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Pearson, D. G.; Stern, R. A.; Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-one sulphide inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Finsch mine, South Africa, were analysed for nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope compositions by microbeam methods. On the basis of sulphide Ni contents, one diamond is of peridotitic affinity, the rest belongs to the eclogitic suite. FTIR analyses show nitrogen abundances and aggregation states from 21 to 1093 at.ppm and 0% to 83% IaB, statistically indistinguishable from previous results for Finsch eclogitic silicate inclusion-bearing diamonds (Appleyard et al., 2004) but significantly higher than observed before for diamonds of the peridotitic suite (Deines et al., 1989). Detailed analyses revealed marked variations in nitrogen characteristics within individual diamonds, demonstrating a complex mantle residence, consistent with multiple episodes of diamond growth over time. Linked to the growth stratigraphy of the diamond, SIMS micro-analyses show variations in ?13C from -8.90‰ to -2.80‰ with a mean value of -5.54 ± 1.80‰ (1 standard deviation), closely overlapping the typical worldwide value. The C-isotopic variability within individual diamonds ranges up to 3.26‰. SIMS based nitrogen abundances are 3-2221 at.ppm with heterogeneous distribution within individual diamond. From the ?13C-[N] co-variations within individual diamonds, three major processes of diamond growth for sulphide inclusion-bearing samples at Finsch are proposed. (1) Some diamonds were precipitated during a single event of open system isotopic fractionation, in fluids that varied from oxidised (carbonatitic) to reduced (CH4-rich). In this growth scenario, nitrogen is either compatible or incompatible during diamond growth. (2) Other diamonds show abrupt ?13C-[N] changes indicative of diamond growth involving mixing of several fluid sources. (3) Some diamonds grow from a combination of the two previous processes. The models are consistent with metasomatic diamond growth involving single and multiple fluid sources. Multiple growth stages for individual diamonds may have taken place over extended time periods, and which have important implications for diamond dating studies.

  20. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  1. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  2. Teacher Perception of Ethnic and Linguistic Minority Parental Involvement and its Relationship to Children's Language and Literacy Learning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss-Keeler, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    A year-long ethnographic study of a British multiethnic primary school examined the influence of teacher perception of Pakistani parent involvement and interest in their children's education on teacher expectation of the children's language and literacy achievement. Findings showed that teachers misinterpreted cultural differences in parents'…

  3. Using TPCK as a Lens to Study the Practices of Math and Science Teachers Involved in a Year-Long Technology Integration Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Liu, Feng; Rodriguez, Prisca; Frey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways teachers enact technological, pedagogical and content practices in math and science lessons and to document the change with teachers involved in a year-long technology integration initiative. Six hundred seventy-two lessons were analyzed in this research using Technological, Pedagogical Content…

  4. A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. "Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Todd H.

    An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in…

  5. Disentangling self- and fairness-related neural mechanisms involved in the ultimatum game: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Raffaella I.; Fink, Gereon R.

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) are commonly assumed to reflect negative emotional arousal mediated by the anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex. We aimed to disentangle those neural mechanisms associated with direct personal involvement (‘I have been treated unfairly’) from those associated with fairness considerations, such as the wish to discourage unfair behavior or social norm violations (‘this person has been treated unfairly’). For this purpose, we used fMRI and asked participants to play the UG as responders either for themselves (myself) or on behalf of another person (third party). Unfair offers were equally often rejected in both conditions. Neuroimaging data revealed a dissociation between the medial prefrontal cortex, specifically associated with rejections in the myself condition, thus confirming its role in self-related emotional responses, and the left anterior insula, associated with rejections in both myself and third-party conditions, suggesting a role in promoting fair behavior also toward third parties. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrate of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to direct emotional involvement of the self from those implicated in pure fairness considerations. PMID:22287263

  6. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support. PMID:24215167

  7. Pain as social representation: a study with Italian health professionals involved in the 'Hospital and District without Pain' project.

    PubMed

    Nencini, Alessio; Sarrica, Mauro; Cancian, Renata; Contarello, Alberta

    2015-12-01

    Pain is a complex issue with many different aspects concerning both sensorial and emotional experience. In recent years, the Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) network has been encouraging a new vision in health structures, with the aim of reducing any form of pain wherever possible. Following the social representation approach, we explore the concept of 'pain' as it is continuously redefined, constructed and shared among health professionals involved in an HPH project named 'Hospital and District without Pain'. Three hundred and eighty-three professionals (doctors, nurses and local general practitioners referring to the hospital of Rovigo, Italy) were involved in a free association task with the aim of exploring the social representation of pain. Contents were further investigated by means of four focus group discussions. Results suggest that the representation of pain is strongly connected to medical knowledge and to functional aspects of the health practice. Other forms of pain-more relational, psychological or emotional-which do not fall within the aetiopathogenetic system of diagnosis, cannot be managed with the traditional tools of the health practice, and are not perceived to be handled with the professionals' competence. Results will be discussed in relation to general health promotion principles and to a specific initiative on the issue of pain carried out by the HPH-Veneto network. PMID:24829318

  8. Stronger instruments via integer programming in an observational study of late preterm birth outcomes

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Stronger instruments via integer programming in an observational study of late preterm birth the methods in our on-going study of outcomes of late-preterm births in California, that is, births of 34 to 36 weeks of gestation. Would lengthening the time in the hospital for such births reduce

  9. Using Mixed Integer Programming for Matching in an Observational Study of Kidney Failure after

    E-print Network

    Using Mixed Integer Programming for Matching in an Observational Study of Kidney Failure after-control study of acute kidney injury after surgery among Medicare patients illustrates these features in detail: Motivating Example; Review of Matching; Outline 1.1 Motivating example: obesity and acute kidney injuries

  10. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  11. Junior High Classroom Organization Study. Observer Training Manual. R&D Rep. No. 6102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.

    This manual was used to train observers for the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, a research project developed to delineate specific effective teacher behaviors. During the training sessions, the following topics were discussed: 1) preliminary results from a previously conducted Third-Grade Classroom Organization Study; 2) concepts and…

  12. A Naturalistic Observational Study of Informal Segregation: Seating Patterns in Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jennifer; Durrheim, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the removal of legislated racial segregation, a number of observational studies in South Africa and elsewhere have shown that "informal," nonlegislated segregation persists in spaces of everyday interaction. Most of these have been case studies of segregation at single sites. The authors seek to quantify segregation in a sample of…

  13. Using and Experiencing the Academic Library: A Multisite Observational Study of Space and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Francine; Swabey, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how students are using academic library spaces and the role these spaces are playing in the campus community. Data were collected on five campuses (two community colleges, two undergraduate universities, and one technical institute) via observational seating sweeps and questionnaires. The study found remarkably similar usage…

  14. Adverse reactions following routine anticholinergic eye drops in a paediatric population: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van Minderhout, Helena M; Joosse, Maurits V; Grootendorst, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the presence, nature and relationship to age, sex, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) of adverse reactions following routine cycloplegic eye drops in children. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Ophthalmology outpatient clinic Dutch metropolitan hospital; February, March and April 2009. Participants Children aged 3–14-year-old children receiving two drops of cyclopentolate 1% (C+C) or one drop of cyclopentolate 1% and one drop of tropicamide 1% (C+T). Patients were categorised by age (3–6, 7–10 and 11–14?years), sex, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) (low, normal or high). Outcome measures Rate and nature of adverse reactions reported at 45?min following treatment. Crude and adjusted ORs for reporting an adverse reaction using stepwise regression analysis with BMI, age, ethnicity and sex. Results 912 of 915 eligible patients participated (99.7%). Adverse reactions were reported for C+C in 10.3% and in C+T in 4.8% (42/408 and 24/504, p=0.002), respectively. Central effects were present in 95% in C+C and in 92% in C+T. Compared to C+T, an increased risk was present in C+C (crude OR 2.3 (1.4 to 3.9), p=0.002). Forward adjustment showed BMI to be an influencing factor in treatment (OR 3.1 (1.7 to 5.6), p<0.001). In a multivariate model, a dose of cyclopentolate remained associated with adverse reactions. Analysis per BMI and regime and age category and regime, indicated associations with low BMI (OR C+C 21.4 (6.7 to 67.96), p<0.001, respectively, C+T 5.2 (2.1 to 12.8), p<0.001) and young age (OR C+C 8.1 (2.7 to 24.8), p<0.001). Conclusions Adverse reactions were common and almost exclusively involved the central nervous system. Both presence and severity were associated with repeated instillation of cyclopentolate 1%, low BMI and young age. In specific paediatric populations, a single dose of cyclopentolate must be considered. Vital function monitoring facilities are advisable. Adjustment of guidelines is recommended. PMID:26700273

  15. Electrochemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases - an observational study of its effects on the electrocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a combined treatment in which high voltage electroporation (EP) pulses are used to facilitate the uptake of a chemotherapeutic drug into tumor cells, thus increasing antitumor effectiveness of the drug. The effect of ECT of deep-seated tumors located close to the heart on functioning of the heart has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigate the effects of intra-abdominal ECT of colorectal liver metastases on functioning of the heart during the early post-operative care period. Methods For ECT high voltage EP pulses with amplitudes of up to 3000 V and 30 A were delivered in synchronization with electrical activity of the heart. Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) signals were obtained from 10 patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with ECT. ECG was recorded during the periods of 24 hours before and after the surgical procedure involving ECT. Four-hour long night-time ECG segments from both periods exhibiting the highest level of signal stationarity were analyzed and compared. Changes in several ECG and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were evaluated. Results No major heart rhythm changes (i.e., induction of extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation) or pathological morphological changes (i.e., ST segment changes) indicating myocardial ischemia were found. However, we found several minor statistically significant but clinically irrelevant changes in HRV parameters after ECT procedures: a decrease in median values of the mean NN interval, a decrease in the low-frequency and in the normalized low-frequency component, and an increase in the normalized high-frequency component. Conclusions Only minor effects of intra-abdominal ECT treatment on functioning of the heart were found. They were expressed as statistically significant but clinically irrelevant changes in heart rate and long-term HRV parameters and were as such not life-threatening to the patients. The nature of these changes is such that they can be attributed to the known effects of the drugs given to the patients in the post-operative care. Further investigation is still warranted to unambiguously resolve whether ECT with high voltage EP pulses applied in immediate vicinity of the heart is responsible for the observed effects. PMID:26356120

  16. A Preclinical Model of Inflammatory Breast Cancer to Study the Involvement of CXCR4 and ACKR3 in the Metastatic Process

    PubMed Central

    Wurth, Roberto; Tarn, Kevin; Jernigan, Danielle; Fernandez, Sandra V.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Fatatis, Alessandro; Meucci, Olimpia

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive and invasive tumor, accounting for 2.5% of all breast cancer cases, and characterized by rapid progression, regional and distant metastases, younger age of onset, and lower overall survival. Presently, there are no effective therapies against IBC and a paucity of model systems. Our aim was to develop a clinically relevant IBC model that would allow investigations on the role of chemokine receptors in IBC metastasis. Primary cultures of tumor cells were isolated from pleural exudates of an IBC patient and grown as spheres or monolayers. We developed a human xenograft model where patient-derived IBC cells, stably transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing fluorescent and bioluminescent markers, were inoculated directly into the left ventricle of mice. Our in vivo data show that these IBC cells (FC-IBC02A) are able to seed and proliferate into various organs, including brain, lungs, lymph nodes, and bone, closely replicating the metastatic spread observed in IBC patients. Moreover, cells were able to generate tumors when grafted in the mammary fat pad of mice. RT-PCR and microscopy studies revealed expression of both CXCR4 and ACKR3 receptors in FC-IBC02A cells. Furthermore, CXCL12 (the endogenous chemokine ligand of these receptors) induced transendothelial migration of these cells and stimulated signaling pathways involved in cell survival and migration - an effect reduced by CXCR4 or ACKR3 antagonists. This new model can be used to develop chemokine-based pharmacological approaches against the IBC metastatic process. This work also provides the first evidence of ACKR3 expression in IBC cells. PMID:26500026

  17. A Preclinical Model of Inflammatory Breast Cancer to Study the Involvement of CXCR4 and ACKR3 in the Metastatic Process.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Roberto; Tarn, Kevin; Jernigan, Danielle; Fernandez, Sandra V; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Fatatis, Alessandro; Meucci, Olimpia

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive and invasive tumor, accounting for 2.5% of all breast cancer cases, and characterized by rapid progression, regional and distant metastases, younger age of onset, and lower overall survival. Presently, there are no effective therapies against IBC and a paucity of model systems. Our aim was to develop a clinically relevant IBC model that would allow investigations on the role of chemokine receptors in IBC metastasis. Primary cultures of tumor cells were isolated from pleural exudates of an IBC patient and grown as spheres or monolayers. We developed a human xenograft model where patient-derived IBC cells, stably transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing fluorescent and bioluminescent markers, were inoculated directly into the left ventricle of mice. Our in vivo data show that these IBC cells (FC-IBC02A) are able to seed and proliferate into various organs, including brain, lungs, lymph nodes, and bone, closely replicating the metastatic spread observed in IBC patients. Moreover, cells were able to generate tumors when grafted in the mammary fat pad of mice. RT-PCR and microscopy studies revealed expression of both CXCR4 and ACKR3 receptors in FC-IBC02A cells. Furthermore, CXCL12 (the endogenous chemokine ligand of these receptors) induced transendothelial migration of these cells and stimulated signaling pathways involved in cell survival and migration - an effect reduced by CXCR4 or ACKR3 antagonists. This new model can be used to develop chemokine-based pharmacological approaches against the IBC metastatic process. This work also provides the first evidence of ACKR3 expression in IBC cells. PMID:26500026

  18. Studies on the involvement of lysosomes in estrogen action, I. Isolation and enzymatic properties of pig endometrial lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, W; Truitt, A J; Jungblut, P W

    1978-04-01

    Pig endometrium cells, collected by curettage and homogenized in an all-glass Potter Elvehjem homogenizer, gave a considerably higher yield of intact mitochondria and lysosomes than homogenates of whole uterus obtained with the Ultraturrax or the Parr bomb. After homogenization of the cells and subfractionation in the presence of Mg2, mitochondria and lysosomes equilibrated at the same modal density in isopycnic centrifugation. Homogenization and subfractionation in buffers devoid of divalent cations and containing EDTA resulted in a decrease in the buoyant density of mitochondria, allowing for a separation from lysosomes. The pH optima and the specific activities of two mitochondrial enzymes and eight hydrolyases used as marker enzymes were determined. The morphological characteristics of fractions were established by electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate an involvement of lysosomes in steroid metabolism rather than in steroid and receptor translocation into the nucleus. PMID:25838

  19. Study of the involvement of research ethics committees in the constitution and use of biobanks in France.

    PubMed

    Moutel, Grégoire; De Montgolfier, Sandrine; Duchange, Nathalie; Sharara, Lama; Beaumont, Catherine; Hervé, Christian

    2004-03-01

    Concerns are emerging about the protection of individuals who take part in genetic research involving biobanks. We used several items of a questionnaire sent to 48 French research ethics committees (RECs) to investigate the means by which they evaluate the constitution and use of biobanks, and the elements on which conclusions were based. Most RECs felt they should evaluate the constitution of biobanks in protocols, but not all did so in practice. Harmonization of the competence of RECs for evaluating biobanks is required, particularly concerning information, consent, the duration of sample conservation and the communication of research results. Our results, together with those of others, demonstrate the need to develop rules and guidelines based on common ethical approaches, particularly in the European environment. PMID:15167708

  20. Coordination and management of multicenter clinical studies in trauma: Experience from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613

  1. Physical Interactions Involving Preschoolers and Kindergartners in a Childcare Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Bethany; Chavajay, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    This naturalistic observational study described the similarities and differences in physical interactions involving preschoolers and kindergartners within the context of a US childcare facility. It examined patterns of touch involving the children across center and circle activities within the course of their day. Results indicated that…

  2. Coparenting and Father Involvement in Married and Unmarried Coresident Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2011-01-01

    Children can benefit from involved fathers and cooperative parents, a benefit which may be particularly important to the growing population of children born to unmarried parents. This study observes father involvement and coparenting in 5,407 married and unmarried cohabiting couples with a 2-year-old child in the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  3. The Axelbaum Lab (EECE) involves many areas of nanotechnology that are related to nanomedicine. They study combustion-generated nanoaerosols. The materials they study

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    The Axelbaum Lab (EECE) involves many areas of nanotechnology that are related to nanomedicine are possible. Also, the Lab has been engaged in the commercialization of nanotechnology. Their laboratory

  4. Blending Model Results With Observations in the SBC/SMB Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Ohashi, K.

    2002-12-01

    The 1993-1999 Santa Barbara ­V Santa Maria Basin (SBC/SMB) circulation study, conducted by the Center for Coastal Study of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, represents a major research effort towards designing a coastal ocean observing system (COOS). During the 6-year period, at any time there were always about a dozen current meter and temperature moorings maintained in the study area. The moored measurements have continuous spatial and temporal coverage and are most trustworthy (compared to, say, shipboard observation and remote sensing), and thus are ideally suited as the ­\\x9Dabsolute­Ý reference in describing ocean states. On the other hand, the mooring observations are point measurements, and it is unlikely that the moored data alone will ever have adequate spatial resolution in a COOS. There is need for complementary data. Coastal circulation models could play a crucial role in filling this gap. Examples of using coastal ocean models in the SBC/SMB study to obtain ocean state estimation will be presented. A coastal ocean model typically is driven by the atmospheric forcing (which must be specified over the entire model domain) and the mass and momentum exchange across ­\\x9Dopen­Ý boundaries. In this study the atmospheric forcing is derived from a dozen met buoy observations plus numerous coastal weather stations collected during the SBC/SMB study. The need to specify open-ocean water mass exchange is circumvented by assimilating the moored temperature data. The possibility of impinging open-ocean eddy, however, is ruled out. Two research issues are addressed. First, an attempt is made to blend the model results with moored velocity observations. Second, the impact of data assimilation on model results is examined. These two issues, one dealing with the initialization in ocean forecasts and nowcasts and the other with the sampling design, are fundamental to any COOS. The comprehensive SBC/SMB study affords an excellent opportunity for a COOS feasibility study.

  5. Designing premarket observational comparative studies using existing data as controls: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yue, Lilly Q; Lu, Nelson; Xu, Yunling

    2014-01-01

    Due to the special nature of medical device clinical studies, observational (nonrandomized) comparative studies play important roles in the premarket safety/effectiveness evaluation of medical devices. While historical data collected in earlier investigational device exemption studies of a previously approved medical device have been used to form control groups in comparative studies, high-quality registry data are emerging to provide opportunities for the premarket evaluation of new devices. However, in such studies, various biases could be introduced in every stage and aspect of study and may compromise the objectivity of study design and validity of study results. In this article, challenges and opportunities in the design of such studies using propensity score methodology are discussed from regulatory perspectives. PMID:25013971

  6. Differing perspectives of sputum and its expectoration: a qualitative study involving patients with cystic fibrosis and physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Tierney, S; Riley, D; Jones, A M; Webb, A K; Horne, M

    2011-05-01

    Sputum specimens are frequently requested from individuals with chronic suppurative conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF). For a proportion of people, expectorating sputum can be difficult. Our goal was to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to expectorating sputum from the perspective of those with CF and physiotherapists involved in their care. Eighteen interviews were conducted with people who have CF and three focus groups with physiotherapists. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using a framework approach. Variation emerged in perceptions between physiotherapists and people with CF in terms of sputum's impact on everyday life and the importance of its role in managing the condition. These differences were reflected in the following themes: (1) seepage of bodily boundaries, (2) discrediting nature of sputum, (3) embodied representation of chronic illness, and (4) non-production as a decisional balance. Differing views between participants could have arisen from the personal nature of sputum for people with CF, whilst physiotherapists may see sputum specimens as a necessary part of holistic management of this condition. Education could assist individuals in overcoming some of the barriers associated with expectorating, but physiotherapists may have to individualise the collection of sputum, recognising not everyone will be at ease with this procedure. PMID:20946069

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on heat transfer involving solidification and meltdown, for application in the analysis of reactor meltdown accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Pessanha, J.A.O.

    1988-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of two phenomena dealing with heat transfer when change of phase is involved. The two phenomena being analyzed are related to nuclear reactor core meltdown accident analysis. Namely, the solidification of small droplets as they relocate over solid surfaces and the melting of solid walls due to the interaction with inclined impinging jets. The model describing the solidification of the droplets was obtained by combining a refined integral solution for the energy equation with the moving contact line solution (used to evaluate the droplet's velocity). The results of calculations performed using the model have been compared against experimental data. Thus comparison proved that the model was able to accurately describe the freezing process of the small droplets. The model has been implemented in the APRIL.MOD2 computer code. The model describing the melting of solid walls due to the heat transferred from inclined impinging jets was obtained by solving the momentum and energy equations for the jet as well as the molten layer. The small thickness approximation was used in order to obtain an analytical solution. Results form this model have also been compared against experimental data proving the correctness of the present modeling concept.

  8. Latino Families and Parental Involvement: A Case Study of Home Literature Conversations in a Primary Bilingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study describes and interprets the dialogue between Latino parents and their children during home literature conversations. The participating students were enrolled in my first and second grade classroom in East Los Angeles, California. I was guided by the following research questions in this qualitative teacher research study:…

  9. Protection Orders Protect against Assault and Injury: A Longitudinal Study of Police-Involved Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Catherine L.; Rhodes, Karin V.; Wiley, James A.; Fink, Jeffrey; Overholt, Scott; Dichter, Melissa E.; Marcus, Steven C.; Cerulli, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of protection orders (POs) in reducing assault and injury-related outcomes using a matched comparison group and tracking outcomes over time. This study was a retrospective review of police, emergency department, family court, and prosecutor administrative records for a cohort of…

  10. The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

  11. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  12. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort

    study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health

    and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

  13. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies. PMID:24159351

  14. Consistent and reproducible outcomes of blastocyst biopsy and aneuploidy screening across different biopsy practitioners: a multicentre study involving 2586 embryo biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Cimadomo, Danilo; Maggiulli, Roberta; Patassini, Cristina; Dusi, Ludovica; Sanges, Federica; Buffo, Laura; Venturella, Roberta; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is blastocyst biopsy and quantitative real-time PCR based comprehensive chromosome screening a consistent and reproducible approach across different biopsy practitioners? SUMMARY ANSWER The blastocyst biopsy approach provides highly consistent and reproducible laboratory and clinical outcomes across multiple practitioners from different IVF centres when all of the embryologists received identical training and use similar equipment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Recently there has been a trend towards trophectoderm (TE) biopsy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the reproducibility that can be obtained from multiple biopsy practitioners in different IVF centres in relation also to blastocysts of different morphology. Although it has been demonstrated that biopsy at the blastocyst stage has no impact on embryo viability, it remains a possibility that less experienced individual biopsy practitioners or laboratories performing TE biopsy may affect certain outcomes. We investigated whether TE biopsy practitioners can have an impact on the quality of the genetic test and the subsequent clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This longitudinal cohort study, between April 2013 and December 2014, involved 2586 consecutive blastocyst biopsies performed at three different IVF centres and the analysis of 494 single frozen euploid embryo transfer cycles (FEET). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Seven biopsy practitioners performed the blastocyst biopsies in the study period and quantitative PCR was used for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The same practitioner performed both the biopsy and tubing procedures for each blastocyst they biopsied. To investigate the quality of the biopsied samples, the diagnostic rate, sample-specific concurrence and the cell number retrieved in the biopsy were evaluated for each biopsy operator. Clinical outcomes following FEET cycles were stratified by biopsy operator and compared. Cellularity of the biopsy sample was also correlated with clinical outcomes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The seven practitioners performed 2586 biopsies, five in centre IVF-1 and one in each of the other two IVF centres (IVF-2 and IVF-3). Overall, 2437 out of 2586 (94.2%) blastocyst biopsies resulted in a conclusive diagnosis, 119 (4.6%) showed a nonconcurrent result and 30 (1.2%) failed to amplify, suggesting the absence of TE cells in the test tube or presence of degenerated/lysed cells only. Among the samples producing a conclusive diagnosis, a mean concurrence value of 0.253 (95% CI = 0.250–0.257) was observed. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors showed no differences in the diagnosis rate and in the concurrence of the genetic analysis between different biopsy practitioners. An overall mean number of 7.32 cells (95% CI = 6.82–7.81; range 2–15) were predicted from all biopsies. Higher cellularity was significantly associated with a better quality of the CCS diagnosis (P < 0.01) and with the conclusive diagnosis rate, with nonconcurrent samples showing significantly lower numbers of cells (2.1; 95% CI=1.5–2.7) compared with samples resulting in a conclusive diagnosis (mean cells number 7.5; 95% CI = 7.1–7.9, P < 0.01). However, no differences were recorded between different biopsy practitioners regarding cellularity of the biopsy. Finally, logistic analysis showed no impact of the biopsy practitioners on the observed ongoing rates of implantation, biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriage after the FEET cycles. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data come from a restricted set of laboratories where all of the embryologists received identical training and use identical equipment. A single TE biopsy method and CCS technology was used and these data particularly apply to PGS programmes using blastocyst biopsy without zona opening at the cleavage stage and using qPCR-based CCS. To make firm conclusions on the po

  15. A real-time locating system observes physician time-motion patterns during walk-rounds: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Walk-rounds, a common component of medical education, usually consist of a combination of teaching outside the patient room as well as in the presence of the patient, known as bedside teaching. The proportion of time dedicated to bedside teaching has been declining despite research demonstrating its benefits. Increasing complexities of patient care and perceived impediments to workflow are cited as reasons for this declining use. Research using real-time locating systems (RTLS) has been purported to improve workflow through monitoring of patients and equipment. We used RTLS technology to observe and track patterns of movement of attending physicians during a mandatory once-weekly medical teaching team patient care rounding session endorsed as a walk-rounds format. Methods During a project to assess the efficacy of RTLS technology to track equipment and patients in a clinical setting, we conducted a small-scale pilot study to observe attending physician walk-round patterns during a mandatory once-weekly team rounding session. A consecutive sample of attending physicians on the unit was targeted, eight agreed to participate. Data collected using the RTLS were pictorially represented as linked points overlaying a floor plan of the unit to represent each physician’s motion through time. Visual analysis of time-motion was independently performed by two researchers and disagreement resolved through consensus. Rounding events were described as a sequence of approximate proportions of time engaged within or outside patient rooms. Results The patient care rounds varied in duration from 60 to 425 minutes. Median duration of rounds within patient rooms was approximately 33% of total time (range approximately 20-50%). Three general time-motion rounding patterns were observed: a first pattern that predominantly involved rounding in ward hallways and little time in patient rooms; a second pattern that predominantly involved time in a ward conference room; and a third balanced pattern characterized by equal proportions of time in patient rooms and in ward hallways. Conclusions Observation using RTLS technology identified distinct time-motion rounding patterns that hint at differing rounding styles across physicians. Future studies using this technology could examine how the division of time during walk-rounds impacts outcomes such as patient satisfaction, learner satisfaction, and physician workflow. PMID:24568589

  16. A study of new particle formation and growth involving biogenic and trace gas species measured during ACE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Rodney J.; McMurry, Peter H.; Tanner, David J.; Eisele, Fred L. Eisele, Fred L.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Schillawski, Richard D.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    1998-07-01

    Measurements are presented of ambient nanoparticle distributions (2.7 to 10 nm diameter) in regions of high biogenic emissions encountered during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1), November 15 to December 14, 1995. Large numbers of newly formed nanoparticles were observed directly downwind of penguin colonies on Macquarie Island (54.5thinsp{degree}S, 159.0thinsp{degree}W). In these regions, nanoparticle concentrations were also correlated with sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4(g)}) gas concentrations. The measurements show that biogenic species, possibly ammonia (NH{sub 3}), either by itself or with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, nucleated to form new particles at rates much higher than bimolecular H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O nucleation. Nanoparticle distributions evolved as air was advected away from the island showing clear evidence of growth of the newly formed particles. Observed growth rates were in the range of 2 to 5 nmthinsph{sup {minus}1} and were about a factor of 4 to 17 times higher than the growth by condensing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4(g)} and associated water. The cause for fast growth of the newly formed particles is unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  17. A multicenter study for analgesia involving fenoprofen, propoxyphene [alone or in combination] with placebo and aspirin controls in postpartum pain.

    PubMed

    Gruber, C M; Bauer, R O; Bettigole, J B; Lash, A F; McDonald, J S

    1979-01-01

    One investigator at each of 4 institutions followed the requirements of a core protocol designed to evaluate propoxyphene napsylate (50, 100 and 150 mg), fenoprofen calcium (200, 400 and 600 mg) and their combination (50/200, 100/400 and 150/600 mg) in patients reporting postpartum pain. Placebo and aspirin (650 mg) were included as control medications. Analyses were based on subgrouping which isolated individually the interactions between medications and the following factors: dose-observation criteria, the investigator-observer-institution differences, the intensity of pain at the time the medication was given, and postepisiotomy-wound compared to uterine-cramp pain. Each of these factors influenced the absolute scores for analgesia significantly, but had no significant influence on the relative rankings of the medications. The analgesia scores for individual patients in each subgroup were transformed to ridits and then pooled. A linear increase in effectiveness occurred in response to increasing doses of propoxyphene, fenoprofen, and their combination in this dose range. The dose responses were essentially parallel. The combination was more effective than either drug alone. PMID:290726

  18. PPB | What is involved

    Cancer.gov

    The Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study ‹an observational clinical research study‹is enrolling children with PPB and their families. Families who join the study will be asked to complete questionnaires about medical history, give permission for the study team to obtain medical records, and give a blood specimen.

  19. Measuring Involvement with Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Glen J.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A study applied research concepts from consumer product involvement to test a model for research on involvement with social issues. Issue involvement was defined as the state or level of perceived importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus (issue) within a specific situation. Attitudes on four social issues--abortion, pornography, the…

  20. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes.All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6?±?10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0?±?12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed.Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS.Lower-extremity vein thrombosis associated with BS, when compared to LEVT due to other causes, had distinctive demographic and ultrasonographic characteristics, and had clinically a more severe disease course. PMID:26554787

  1. Recent pre-diagnostic aspirin use, lymph node involvement and 5-year mortality in women with stage I-III breast cancer: a nationwide population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Thomas I; Flahavan, Evelyn M; Sharp, Linda; Bennett, Kathleen; Visvanathan, Kala

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node-positive breast tumors are more likely to express COX-2 than node-negative tumors. In preclinical studies, COX2 inhibition prevents breast tumor spread to lymph-nodes. Therefore, we examined the association between recent (1 year) pre-diagnostic use of aspirin (COX1/COX2 inhibitor), lymph node involvement at breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific mortality. Women with stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed from 2001-2006 (N=2,796) were identified from Ireland's National Cancer Registry. This data was linked to prescription-refill and mammographic-screening databases. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for associations between pre-diagnostic aspirin use and lymph node-positive status at diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for associations between pre- and post-diagnostic aspirin use and 5-year mortality, stratified by lymph-node status. Women with pre-diagnostic aspirin use were statistically significantly less likely to present with a lymph node-positive tumor than non-users (RR=0.89, 95%CI 0.81-0.97), particularly those with larger (P-interaction=0.036), PR-negative (P-interaction<0.001) or ER-negative (P-interaction=0.056) tumors. The magnitude of this association increased with dose (P-trend<0.01) and dosing-intensity (P-trend<0.001) and was similar in women with or without screen-detected tumors (P-interaction=0.70). Pre-diagnostic aspirin use was associated with lower 5-year breast cancer-specific mortality among women with lymph node-negative tumors (HR=0.55 95%CI 0.33-0.92), but not node-positive tumors (HR=0.91 95%CI 0.37-1.22). Tests for effect-modification were, however, not statistically significant (P-interaction=0.087). Post-diagnostic aspirin use was not associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=0.99 95%CI 0.68-1.45). Our findings indicate recent pre-diagnostic aspirin use is protective against lymph node-positive breast cancer. This is a plausible explanation for reductions in breast cancer mortality reported in observational studies of aspirin use. PMID:25085874

  2. Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m², not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  3. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment.

    PubMed

    Babut, M; Miege, C; Villeneuve, B; Abarnou, A; Duchemin, J; Marchand, P; Narbonne, J F

    2009-12-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. PMID:19616351

  4. CONTAM 02 Observations in Rivers and Urban Streams: Merced River Net Daily Metabolism Studies

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    CONTAM 02 Observations in Rivers and Urban Streams: Merced River Net Daily Metabolism Studies Team This project is part of the ongoing CENS investigation into whole stream metabolism (or net daily metabolism human land management activities and stream metabolism. Specific Objectives Continuing last years work

  5. 78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... women, namely, coronary heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures... Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 0020, the National Institutes... Observational Study. Revision- OMB No. 0925-0414, Expiration Date: 07/31/2013. National Heart, Lung, and...

  6. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  7. A Look at High School Students and Computers: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digranes, Jo Lynn Autry

    A participant observation study was conducted to address socialization, cultural, and values questions related to high school students' interactions with microcomputers. Specific issues addressed included: (1) student social patterns in microcomputer interactions; (2) cultural and sex differences in microcomputer interactions; and (3) student…

  8. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  9. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  10. OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF MANTLE PLUMEMID-OCEAN RIDGE

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF MANTLE PLUME­MID-OCEAN RIDGE INTERACTION G 2003; published 20 November 2003. [1] Hot spot­mid-ocean ridge interactions cause many of the largest mid-ocean ridges. Composi- tional anomalies are seen in trace element and isotope ratios, while

  11. Statistical study of observed and intrinsic durations among BATSE and Swift/BAT GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouni, H.; Guessoum, N.; Azzam, W. J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2015-05-01

    Studies of BATSE bursts (Kouveliotou et al. 1993) have resulted in the widespread adoption of a two-group categorization: long bursts (those with durations ?2 seconds) and short bursts (those with durations ?2 seconds). This categorization, one must recall, used the observed T 90 time durations for bursts (during which 90 % of a burst's fluence is measured).

  12. An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book Andreas Dünser1 , Eva books. Children aged between 6 and 7 read and interacted with one of two story books aimed at early literacy education. The books pages were augmented using animated virtual 3D characters, sound

  13. Far plasma wake of Titan from the RPWS observations: A case study

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Far plasma wake of Titan from the RPWS observations: A case study R. Modolo,1 J.-E. Wahlund,1 R; revised 15 August 2007; accepted 10 September 2007; published 18 October 2007. [1] The Titan's plasma wake onboard the Cassini spacecraft during one Titan flyby on December 26, 2005. The Langmuir Probe

  14. Success and Failure in Helping SMEs. A Three-Year Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewardson, Dave; Coleman, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year observational study of a project to help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) conducted by a British university highlighted initial contacts and working methods that were effective. Results identified why some SMEs do not make full use of facilities offered and reasons for overall success. (Contains 13 references.) (JOW)

  15. High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study Keywords: Io Remote sensing Instruments a b s t r a c t We present modeled images of Io at a variety objectives that could be achieved from missions engaged in long range remote-sensing of Io during

  16. Comparison of sunshine records and synoptic cloud observations: a case study for Ireland

    E-print Network

    Bago, Enric Palle

    Comparison of sunshine records and synoptic cloud observations: a case study for Ireland E. Pallee-annual variability of sunshine duration and synoptic cloud data for three sites in Ireland. Our results suggest that. It is concluded that sunshine measurements are likely to provide the most reliable indicators of long term trends

  17. Synoptic scale study of the Arctic polar vortex's influence on the middle atmosphere, 1, Observations

    E-print Network

    Duck, Thomas J.

    Synoptic scale study of the Arctic polar vortex's influence on the middle atmosphere, 1-latitude middle atmosphere taken at three Arctic sites over similar time periods in midwinter. The four reported of the vortex is observed, it is noted that regional middle atmospheric Arctic temperatures can change by tens

  18. BIO-OPTICAL PROFILING FLOATS AS NEW OBSERVATIONAL TOOLS FOR BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND ECOSYSTEM STUDIES: POTENTIAL SYNERGIES

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    BIO-OPTICAL PROFILING FLOATS AS NEW OBSERVATIONAL TOOLS FOR BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND ECOSYSTEM STUDIES. In parallel with their emergence, the field of miniature, low power bio-optical and biogeochemical sensors is rapidly evolving. Over recent years, the bio-geochemical and bio-optical community has begun to benefit

  19. Scaling Process Studies and Observations in the Arctic for Improved Climate Predictability

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Susan

    Scaling Process Studies and Observations in the Arctic for Improved Climate Predictability Cathy Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project is to improve climate prediction through process understanding of permafrost degradation and its impact on topography and thermal conditions and how these changes control

  20. Event-by-event study of neutron observables in spontaneous and thermal fission

    E-print Network

    R. Vogt; J. Randrup

    2011-09-17

    The event-by-event fission model FREYA is extended to spontaneous fission of actinides and a variety of neutron observables are studied for spontaneous fission and fission induced by thermal neutrons with a view towards possible applications for detection of special nuclear materials.

  1. An Observational Study of Intermediate Band Students' Self-Regulated Practice Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter; Prichard, Stephanie; Sorbo, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate intermediate musicians' self-regulated practice behaviors. Thirty sixth- through eighth-grade students were observed practicing band repertoire individually for 20 min. Practice sessions were coded according to practice frame frequency and duration, length of musical passage selected, most prominent…

  2. Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius

    E-print Network

    Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius other species including Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monop- terygius (Fig. I), of the greenling family (Hexagrammidae). Although less abundant than other species, Atka mackerel are nonetheless an im- portant resource

  3. EPA observational studies of children's respiratory health in the Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has suggested that long-term exposures to mobile-source emissions might be associated with the development of allergies and asthma in children. Between 2004 and 2007, EPA scientists successfully conducted nested observational studies of children aged 7-12 years ...

  4. Estimating Allee Dynamics before They Can Be Observed: Polar Bears as a Case Study

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    Estimating Allee Dynamics before They Can Be Observed: Polar Bears as a Case Study Pe´ter K. Molna using polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and estimate their expected low-density growth by linking a mating the models to the overharvested low-density polar bear population of Viscount Melville Sound, Canada, shows

  5. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-01-01

    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident. PMID:25324526

  6. Assessment of Electrochemical Concepts: A Comparative Study Involving Senior High-School Students in Indonesia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahayu, Sri; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Kita, Masakazu; Ibnu, Suhadi

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study investigated Indonesian and Japanese senior high-school students' understanding of electrochemistry concepts. Sample: The questionnaire was administered to 244 Indonesian and 189 Japanese public senior high-school students. Design and methods: An 18-item multiple-choice questionnaire relating to five conceptual…

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Teacher Attractiveness on Undergraduates' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Sexual Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.; Wilson, Amy K.; Finch, Lanjericha V.; Scruggs, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether the attractiveness of a teacher affected perceptions of teacher sexual misconduct. Respondents (120 female and 108 male undergraduates) read scenarios depicting teacher sexual misconduct varied by gender dyad (male teacher-female student and female teacher-male student) and two levels of attractiveness (very attractive…

  8. Action at an Attentional Distance: A Study of Children's Reasoning about Causes and Effects Involving Spatial and Attentional Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2015-01-01

    Spatial discontinuity between causes and effects is a feature of many scientific concepts, particularly those in the environmental and ecological sciences. Causes can be spatially separated from their effects by great distances. Action at a distance, the idea that causes and effects can be separated in physical space, is a well-studied concept in…

  9. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  10. Inelastic electron scattering study of metallic oxidation: Synergistic effects involving electrons during the low temperature oxidation of Ni(111)

    E-print Network

    Sibener, Steven

    that an electron beam can stimulate nickel oxide growth at all incident electron energies examined, spanning of simultaneously monitoring oxide growth and characterizing the chemical nature of the oxygen/ nickel interface of this interface. The oxidation of nickel surfaces has long been the subject of intensive study, with important

  11. Involving School Children in the Establishment of a Long-Term Plant Biodiversity Study of an Urban Green Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Sylvia; Bombaugh, Ruth; Mal, Tarun K.

    2006-01-01

    The decrease in urban green spaces limits the opportunities for adults and children to experience nature and learn about the environment. Yet, it is only when children experience nature in the outdoors that they can learn best to love it and strive to preserve it. As such, the need to include biodiversity studies in the curriculum becomes a…

  12. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  13. Apprenticeship 2000: A Model for Community College Collaboration with Business and Industry. Results of a National Study Involving Three Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    Business is recognizing that the associate degree is a necessity in high technology fields. Innovative practices link businesses with community colleges, allowing apprentices to gain basic job skills and a higher education. A research study explored three industries and their relationship with community colleges: automotive, construction, and…

  14. Childhood Intelligence Predicts Voter Turnout, Voting Preferences, and Political Involvement in Adulthood: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the association between measured intelligence and how people participate in democratic processes. In the 1970 British Cohort Study, we examined the association between childhood intelligence and, at age 34: whether and how people voted in the 2001 UK general election; how they intended to vote; and whether they had taken part…

  15. Pi2 Pulsations Observed by Van Allen Probes: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Kim, K. H.; Kwon, H. J.; Lee, D. H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The plasmaspheric virtual resonance model has been proposed as one of the source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Few studies have used simultaneous multipoint observations in space to examine the spatial structure of Pi2 pulsations both inside and outside the plasmasphere. In this study we show multipoint observations for Pi2 pulsations using the Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A and RBSP-B). We focus on the two events that occurred between 1700 and 2000 UT on March 12, 2013, which were simultaneously observed by Van Allen Probes and Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) station in South Korea. By using plasma density measurements, we determined that during this time RBSP-A was located outside the plasmasphere and RBSP-B was located inside it. We found that the poloidal, radial (?Bx) and compressional (?Bz), magnetic field components, and the azimuthal (Ey) electric field component observed by both RBSP-A and RBSP-B have a high correlation with the H component at BOH for both events. The ?Bx and ?Bz oscillations at both RBSP-A and RBSP-B are nearly out of phase with ground Pi2. The Ey -H cross phases at RBSP-A outside the plasmapause and RBSP-B inside the plasmapause are nearly in quadrature for the first Pi2 event. These observations indicate that the Pi2 pulsations exist outside the plasmasphere with a radially standing signature which supports the plasmaspheric virtual resonance model.

  16. Epidemiology, quality and reporting characteristics of meta-analyses of observational studies published in Chinese journals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe-wen; Cheng, Juan; Liu, Zhuan; Ma, Ji-chun; Li, Jin-long; Wang, Jing; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and reporting characteristics as well as the methodological quality of meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies published in Chinese journals. Methods 5 Chinese databases were searched for MAs of observational studies published from January 1978 to May 2014. Data were extracted into Excel spreadsheets, and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklists were used to assess reporting characteristics and methodological quality, respectively. Results A total of 607 MAs were included. Only 52.2% of the MAs assessed the quality of the included primary studies, and the retrieval information was not comprehensive in more than half (85.8%) of the MAs. In addition, 50 (8.2%) MAs did not search any Chinese databases, while 126 (20.8%) studies did not search any English databases. Approximately 41.2% of the MAs did not describe the statistical methods in sufficient details, and most (95.5%) MAs did not report on conflicts of interest. However, compared with the before publication of the MOOSE Checklist, the quality of reporting improved significantly for 20 subitems after publication of the MOOSE Checklist, and 7 items of the included MAs demonstrated significant improvement after publication of the AMSTAR Checklist (p<0.05). Conclusions Although many MAs of observational studies have been published in Chinese journals, the reporting quality is questionable. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the use of reporting guidelines and methodological tools in China; we recommend that Chinese journals adopt the MOOSE and AMSTAR criteria. PMID:26644119

  17. Genome-wide association study of survival from sepsis due to pneumonia: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Gordon, Anthony C; Hutton, Paula; Steffens, Michael; Nuamah, Rosamond; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Parks, Tom; Chapman, Stephen J; Davenport, Emma E; Elliott, Katherine S; Bion, Julian; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F; Caulfield, Mark J; Mein, Charles; Bloos, Frank; Bobek, Ilona; Cotogni, Paolo; Sramek, Vladimir; Sarapuu, Silver; Kobilay, Makbule; Ranieri, V Marco; Rello, Jordi; Sirgo, Gonzalo; Weiss, Yoram G; Russwurm, Stefan; Schneider, E Marion; Reinhart, Konrad; Holloway, Paul A H; Knight, Julian C; Garrard, Chris S; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R; Stüber, Frank; Hill, Adrian V S; Hinds, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sepsis continues to be a major cause of death, disability, and health-care expenditure worldwide. Despite evidence suggesting that host genetics can influence sepsis outcomes, no specific loci have yet been convincingly replicated. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence sepsis survival. Methods We did a genome-wide association study in three independent cohorts of white adult patients admitted to intensive care units with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock (as defined by the International Consensus Criteria) due to pneumonia or intra-abdominal infection (cohorts 1–3, n=2534 patients). The primary outcome was 28 day survival. Results for the cohort of patients with sepsis due to pneumonia were combined in a meta-analysis of 1553 patients from all three cohorts, of whom 359 died within 28 days of admission to the intensive-care unit. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a further 538 white patients with sepsis due to pneumonia (cohort 4), of whom 106 died. Findings In the genome-wide meta-analysis of three independent pneumonia cohorts (cohorts 1–3), common variants in the FER gene were strongly associated with survival (p=9·7?×?10?8). Further genotyping of the top associated SNP (rs4957796) in the additional cohort (cohort 4) resulted in a combined p value of 5·6?×?10?8 (odds ratio 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69). In a time-to-event analysis, each allele reduced the mortality over 28 days by 44% (hazard ratio for death 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69; likelihood ratio test p=3·4 × 10?9, after adjustment for age and stratification by cohort). Mortality was 9·5% in patients carrying the CC genotype, 15·2% in those carrying the TC genotype, and 25·3% in those carrying the TT genotype. No significant genetic associations were identified when patients with sepsis due to pneumonia and intra-abdominal infection were combined. Interpretation We have identified common variants in the FER gene that associate with a reduced risk of death from sepsis due to pneumonia. The FER gene and associated molecular pathways are potential novel targets for therapy or prevention and candidates for the development of biomarkers for risk stratification. Funding European Commission and the Wellcome Trust. PMID:25533491

  18. Preliminary Climate Uncertainty Quantification Study on Model-Observation Test Beds at Earth Systems Grid Federation Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Stephan, E.; Elsethagen, T.; Meng, D.; Riihimaki, L. D.; McFarlane, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the science of quantitative characterization and reduction of uncertainties in applications. It determines how likely certain outcomes are if some aspects of the system are not exactly known. UQ studies such as the atmosphere datasets greatly increased in size and complexity because they now comprise of additional complex iterative steps, involve numerous simulation runs and can consist of additional analytical products such as charts, reports, and visualizations to explain levels of uncertainty. These new requirements greatly expand the need for metadata support beyond the NetCDF convention and vocabulary and as a result an additional formal data provenance ontology is required to provide a historical explanation of the origin of the dataset that include references between the explanations and components within the dataset. This work shares a climate observation data UQ science use case and illustrates how to reduce climate observation data uncertainty and use a linked science application called Provenance Environment (ProvEn) to enable and facilitate scientific teams to publish, share, link, and discover knowledge about the UQ research results. UQ results include terascale datasets that are published to an Earth Systems Grid Federation (ESGF) repository. Uncertainty exists in observation data sets, which is due to sensor data process (such as time averaging), sensor failure in extreme weather conditions, and sensor manufacture error etc. To reduce the uncertainty in the observation data sets, a method based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was proposed to recover the missing values in observation data. Several large principal components (PCs) of data with missing values are computed based on available values using an iterative method. The computed PCs can approximate the true PCs with high accuracy given a condition of missing values is met; the iterative method greatly improve the computational efficiency in computing PCs. Moreover, noise removal is done at the same time during the process of computing missing values by using only several large PCs. The uncertainty quantification is done through statistical analysis of the distribution of different PCs. To record above UQ process, and provide an explanation on the uncertainty before and after the UQ process on the observation data sets, additional data provenance ontology, such as ProvEn, is necessary. In this study, we demonstrate how to reduce observation data uncertainty on climate model-observation test beds and using ProvEn to record the UQ process on ESGF. ProvEn demonstrates how a scientific team conducting UQ studies can discover dataset links using its domain knowledgebase, allowing them to better understand and convey the UQ study research objectives, the experimental protocol used, the resulting dataset lineage, related analytical findings, ancillary literature citations, along with the social network of scientists associated with the study. Climate scientists will not only benefit from understanding a particular dataset within a knowledge context, but also benefit from the cross reference of knowledge among the numerous UQ studies being stored in ESGF.

  19. Incidence of adverse events in an integrated US healthcare system: a retrospective observational study of 82,784 surgical hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many health care facilities have developed electronic reporting systems for identifying and reporting adverse events (AEs), so that measures can be taken to improve patient safety. Although several studies have examined AEs in surgical settings, there has not previously been a systematic assessment of the variations in adverse event rates among different types of surgery, nor an identification of the particular types of AEs that are most common within each surgical category. Additionally, this study will identify the AE severity level associated with each of the AE category types. Methods This retrospective observational study was conducted at three Midwestern hospitals that are part of a large integrated healthcare system. Data from 2006 through 2009 were analyzed to determine the rates of reported adverse events (per 1,000 hospitalizations involving a surgical procedure) for 96 categories of surgery as classified according to the ICD-9-CM procedural coding system. Univariate and bivariate summary statistics were compiled for AEs by type, severity, and patient age. Results During the four-year study period, there was a total of 82,784 distinct hospitalizations involving at least one surgical procedure at these three hospitals. At least one adverse event was reported at 5,368 (6.5%) of those hospitalizations. The mean rate of AEs among all surgical procedure groups was 82.8 AEs per 1,000 hospitalizations. Adverse event rates varied widely among surgical categories with a high of 556.7 AEs per 1,000 hospitalizations for operations on the heart and pericardium. The most common type of adverse event involved care management, followed by medication events and events related to invasive procedures. Conclusions Detecting variations in AEs among surgical categories can be useful for surgeons and for hospital quality assurance personnel. Documenting the specific AE incidence rates among the most common types of surgical categories, and determining AE severity and age distributions within surgical categories will enable officials to better identify specific patient safety needs and develop appropriately targeted interventions for improvement. PMID:24932219

  20. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-?, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403