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1

Observer Study Involving Laser-Digitized versus CCD-Digitized Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared laser- and CCD-digitized images for perceived image quality differences in a radiologist-observer study. Films of 50 two- and three-view studies (ankles, chests, c-spines, shoulders) were digitized on calibrated laser (Kodak Lumisys 75) and CCD (VIDAR SIERRA Plus) digitizers. Six radiologists independently compared digitized images on twin high-resolution monochrome monitors. Matching images were randomly presented on left\\/right monitors to

Kenneth W. Clark; William B. Dawson; Edward Muka; Thomas K. Pilgram; G. James Blaine

2002-01-01

2

A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

1987-05-01

3

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

4

Evaluation of an adjusted chi-square statistic as applied to observational studies involving clustered binary data.  

PubMed

A simple adjustment to the Pearson chi-square test has been proposed for comparing proportions estimated from clustered binary observations. However, the assumptions needed to assure the validity of this test have not yet been thoroughly addressed. These assumptions will hold for experimental comparisons, but could be violated for some observational comparisons. In this paper we investigate the conditions under which the adjusted chi-square statistic is valid and examine its performance when these assumptions are violated. We also introduce some alternative test statistics that do not require these assumptions. The test statistics considered are then compared through simulation and an example presented based on real data. The simulation study shows that the adjusted chi-square statistic generally produces empirical type I errors close to nominal under the assumption of a common intracluster correlation coefficient. Even if the intracluster correlations are different, the adjusted chi-square statistic performs well when the groups have equal numbers of clusters. PMID:11439427

Jung, S H; Ahn, C; Donner, A

2001-07-30

5

Clinical studies involving probiotics  

PubMed Central

Researchers from a diverse array of scientific disciplines have focused and continue to focus on opportunities and areas for responsible clinical research involving the possible beneficial health effects of “probiotics.” Investigators and researchers should be aware that not all clinical research involving probiotics reasonably falls within the requirements of the “investigational new drug” (IND) rubric administered and enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In determining whether an IND application is required before a clinical study may lawfully commence, investigators and researchers as well as institutional review boards should consider the regulatory classification, e.g., “drug,” “new drug,” “food,” “food additive,” “dietary supplement,” etc. that applies to the substance under investigation. A potential probiotic product can fall along a continuum of regulatory classifications, each having implications on the nature and degree of regulatory requirements for clinical research and, ultimately, for claim substantiation and market access.

Degnan, Fred H.

2012-01-01

6

Explanatory Observational Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of the art in observational studies is discussed, with emphasis on explanatory research--studies of program effectiveness in which an attempt is made to explain the reasons for the results as well as describing the results. In addition to the collection of data and presentation of statistical facts, the explanatory study involves the…

Cooley, William W.

7

Anion induced formation of supramolecular associations involving lone pair-? and anion-? interactions in Co(II) malonate complexes: experimental observations, Hirshfeld surface analyses and DFT studies.  

PubMed

Three Co(II)-malonate complexes, namely, (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2) (1), (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (2), and (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](PF(6))(2) (3) [C(5)H(7)N(2) = protonated 2-aminopyridine, C(3)H(4)O(4) = malonic acid, NO(3)(-) = nitrate, ClO(4)(-) = perchlorate, PF(6)(-) = hexafluorophosphate], have been synthesized from purely aqueous media, and their crystal structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. A thorough analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions in 1-3, which are crucial in building supramolecular architectures. When these complexes are structurally compared with their previously reported analogous Ni(II) or Mg(II) compounds, a very interesting feature regarding the role of counteranions has emerged. This phenomenon can be best described as anion-induced formation of extended supramolecular networks of the type lone pair-?/?-?/?-anion-?/?-lone pair and lone pair-?/?-?/?-anion involving various weak forces like lone pair-?, ?-?, and anion-? interactions. The strength of these ? contacts has been estimated using DFT calculations (M06/6-31+G*), and the formation energy of the supramolecular networks has been also evaluated. The influence of the anion (NO(3)(-), ClO(4)(-), and PF(6)(-)) on the total interaction energy of the assembly is also studied. PMID:22356090

Manna, Prankrishna; Seth, Saikat Kumar; Das, Amrita; Hemming, Joanna; Prendergast, Richard; Helliwell, Madeleine; Choudhury, Somnath Ray; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

2012-03-19

8

Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2011-01-01

9

Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

10

40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Observational research not involving greater than minimal...OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children...Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA...

2013-07-01

11

Observed Emotional Involvement and Overinvolvement in Families of Patients With Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have examined the construct validity of the criticism component of expressed emotion, but little work has been done on clarifying the emotional overinvolvement (EOI) construct. In a sample of 115 recently episodic patients with bipolar disorder, the authors of the present study examined the construct validity of an observational coding system for both appropriate and inappropriate emotional involvement

Steffany J. Fredman; Donald H. Baucom; David J. Miklowitz; Susan E. Stanton

2008-01-01

12

Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

Kaplan, Daniel

2013-01-01

13

Neural mechanisms involved in mental imagery and observation of gait.  

PubMed

Brain activity during observation and imagery of gait was investigated. Sixteen subjects were scanned with a 3-Tesla MRI scanner while viewing six types of video clips: observation of gait movement (GO) from the third-person perspective, observation of stepping movement, observation of standing posture, "virtual walking" (VW) that was observation of visual scenes mimicking the visual afferent during walking, and the scrambled version of the GO and VW stimuli. In the VW condition, moving scenes provided a virtual visual environment in which subjects easily imagined as if they were actually walking from the first-person perspective. A behavioral experiment revealed a correlation of cadence during actual walking with that during imaginary walking under the influence of the VW stimuli, indicating that a gait planning mechanism was shared by actual walking and gait imagery. The VW condition activated the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), supplementary motor area/cingulate motor area (SMA/CMA), parahippocampal gyrus, and subcortical nuclei. The GO stimuli yielded activation of the SMA, PMd, inferior frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, the conjunction null test of GO and VW revealed common activity in the SMA/CMA and PMd, which were reportedly active during actual gait movement, in addition to visual areas. Detailed analyses of activity during stepping or standing observation supported the specificity of the SMA and PMd to GO. These findings suggest that motor planning centers of gait, including the SMA and PMd, are activated during both imagination (first-person perspective) and observation (third-person perspective) of gait behaviors. PMID:18450480

Iseki, Kazumi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Shinozaki, Jun; Nankaku, Manabu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

2008-07-01

14

Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

2012-01-01

15

Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

2011-01-01

16

Missed opportunity for standardized diagnosis and treatment among adult Tuberculosis patients in hospitals involved in Public-Private Mix for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course strategy in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The engagement of hospitals in Public-Private Mix (PPM) for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) strategy has increased rapidly internationally - including in Indonesia. In view of the rapid global scaling-up of hospital engagement, we aimed to estimate the proportion of outpatient adult Tuberculosis patients who received standardized diagnosis and treatment at outpatients units of hospitals involved in the PPM-DOTS strategy. Methods A cross-sectional study using morbidity reports for outpatients, laboratory registers and Tuberculosis patient registers from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005. By quota sampling, 62 hospitals were selected. Post-stratification analysis was conducted to estimate the proportion of Tuberculosis cases receiving standardized management according to the DOTS strategy. Result Nineteen to 53% of Tuberculosis cases and 4-18% of sputum smear positive Tuberculosis cases in hospitals that participated in the PPM-DOTS strategy were not treated with standardized diagnosis and treatment as in DOTS. Conclusion This study found that a substantial proportion of TB patients cared for at PPM-DOTS hospitals are not managed under the DOTS strategy. This represents a missed opportunity for standardized diagnoses and treatment. A combination of strong individual commitment of health professionals, organizational supports, leadership, and relevant policy in hospital and National Tuberculosis Programme may be required to strengthen DOTS implementation in hospitals.

2010-01-01

17

Observed emotional involvement and overinvolvement in families of patients with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the construct validity of the criticism component of expressed emotion, but little work has been done on clarifying the emotional overinvolvement (EOI) construct. In a sample of 115 recently episodic patients with bipolar disorder, the authors of the present study examined the construct validity of an observational coding system for both appropriate and inappropriate emotional involvement that permitted separate ratings for relatives' intrusiveness, self-sacrificing behaviors, and distress related to the patient's well-being. Findings support the measure's reliability and convergent validity and are moderately supportive of the measure's discriminant validity. Results also suggest that Camberwell Family Interview (C. E. Vaughn & J. P. Leff, 1976) EOI ratings do not discriminate among the different dimensions of the emotional involvement construct (or their appropriateness or inappropriateness) as revealed in laboratory-based interactions. The findings suggest that clinicians working with such families might consider differentiating among the various ways in which family members are involved with the patient and helping them learn to judge under what circumstances such involvement is appropriate and inappropriate. PMID:18266534

Fredman, Steffany J; Baucom, Donald H; Miklowitz, David J; Stanton, Susan E

2008-02-01

18

Observational Studies and Experiments Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn the difference between observational studies and experiments, with emphasis on the importance of cause-and-effect relationships. The activity will also familiarize students with key terms such as factors, treatments, retrospective and prospective studies, etc. This is an easy to follow lesson plan for those teaching a course in statistics.

2009-07-21

19

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Observational research involving greater than minimal...OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children...Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA...

2013-07-01

21

Developmental study of similarity judgments involving dimensions.  

PubMed

In order to examine the nature of dimensional processing in children, kindergarten and third grade children were asked to make similarity judgments for unidimensional sets of stimuli differing in color (hue), size, and shape, respectively. Age differences were generally confined to the color set. The judgments of the older children in their age group than were the younger children's. The frequency of good-fitting scaling solutions was also higher for the older children. The processing of color in a relational manner thus seems to develop more slowly than relational processing of size or shape. Results from any task which depends on or is facilitated by relational processing could be altered by the dimensions used. The methods developed in the paper also provide an alternate method of studying seriation . PMID:917719

Fahrmeier, E D; Medin, D L

1977-10-01

22

Assessing observational studies of medical treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. METHODS: To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies

Arthur Hartz; Suzanne Bentler; Mary Charlton; Douglas Lanska; Yogita Butani; G Mustafa Soomro; Kjell Benson

2005-01-01

23

Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.  

PubMed

Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical complaints made by European travelers about their stay in areas outside Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia) was conducted. Air travelers returning from these areas between July 15 and August 16, 1992, were interviewed upon arrival at Brussels airport by means of a standardized questionnaire written up in lay language. As shown in Table 1, the total number of complaints in the adult group (>= 15 years of age, n = 5373) was 4919 and 446 in the pediatric group (n = 818). With fever as an exception, there were fewer complaints in children. Only approximately 50% of the travelers did not suffer PMID:9815353

Meuris

1995-03-01

24

Observational study of terrestrial eigenvibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive analysis has been made of analog and digital recordings of eigenvibration ground motion obtained following four great earthquakes; August 1976 (Philippines), August 1977 (Indonesia), September 1979 (West Irian), and December 1979 (Colombia). The time series (ranging in length from ˜28 to ˜140 h) are assumed to be linear combinations of damped harmonics in the presence of noise. Tables are calculated from values of the four parameters: ?, used in describing eigenvibrations, period of oscillation, amplitude, damping factor Q, and phase together with their statistical uncertainties (53 spheroidal modes, 0S 4to0S 48, and 13 torsional modes, 0T 8to0T 45). The estimation procedures are by the methods of complex demodulation and non-linear regression that specifically incorporate into the basic model the decaying aspect of the oscillations. These methods, extended to simultaneous estimations of groups of modes, help to eliminate measurement error and measurement bias from estimations of ?. The result is that overtone modes very near in frequency to fundamental modes can, under certain conditions, be resolved through a non-linear regression technique, although parameter uncertainties are underestimated in general. Of the time series analyzed, 17 were from a northern California regional network of ultra-long period seismographs at Berkeley (three components), Jamestown (vertical component), and Whiskeytown (vertical component) following the four listed earthquakes. The other 7 time series were recorded digitally by the worldwide IDA network following the 1977 Indonesian earthquake. Weighted regional and worldwide averages were made for period and Q of each eigenvibration mode. From the theoretical viewpoint, comparisons of measured period, Q, amplitude, and phase for all modes analyzed led to five conclusions. First, there are no detectable systematic shifts in period, Q, or phase of eigenvibrations within a region whose dimensions are less than a wavelength. Second, though not conclusive, there may be slight systematic shifts in period (<0.65 s) and relative amplitudes within the California regional network due to different source positions and mechanisms. Differences in Q values are not statistically significant. Third, even though differences in period obtained worldwide were as great as 1.33 s (?0.33%), differences between Q values (as great as 20%) for the same mode were not significant. The conclusion is that the damping characteristics of singlet eigenfunctions are not observed to be significantly different. Fourth, the assumption that a multiplet nS l behaves as a single oscillation is valid from at least 0S 7 through 0S 30. Fifth, no systematic pattern emerged for the shift of eigenperiod as a function of order / or posit on the Earth.

Hansen, Roger A.

1982-03-01

25

Calibrating sensitivity analyses to observed covariates in observational studies.  

PubMed

In medical sciences, statistical analyses based on observational studies are common phenomena. One peril of drawing inferences about the effect of a treatment on subjects using observational studies is the lack of randomized assignment of subjects to the treatment. After adjusting for measured pretreatment covariates, perhaps by matching, a sensitivity analysis examines the impact of an unobserved covariate, u, in an observational study. One type of sensitivity analysis uses two sensitivity parameters to measure the degree of departure of an observational study from randomized assignment. One sensitivity parameter relates u to treatment and the other relates u to response. For subject matter experts, it may be difficult to specify plausible ranges of values for the sensitivity parameters on their absolute scales. We propose an approach that calibrates the values of the sensitivity parameters to the observed covariates and is more interpretable to subject matter experts. We will illustrate our method using data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and blood lead levels. PMID:24328711

Hsu, Jesse Y; Small, Dylan S

2013-12-01

26

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

27

Involvement of the superior temporal cortex in action execution and action observation.  

PubMed

The role of the superior temporal sulcus (STs) in action execution and action observation remains unsettled. In an attempt to shed more light on the matter, we used the quantitative method of (14)C-deoxyglucose to reveal changes in activity, in the cortex of STs and adjacent inferior and superior temporal convexities of monkeys, elicited by reaching-to-grasp in the light or in the dark and by observation of the same action executed by an external agent. We found that observation of reaching-to-grasp activated the components of the superior temporal polysensory area [STP; including temporo-parieto-occipital association area (TPO), PGa, and IPa], the motion complex [including medial superior temporal area (MST), fundus of superior temporal area (FST), and dorsal and ventral parts of the middle temporal area (MTd and MTv, respectively)], and area TS2. A significant part of most of these activations was associated with observation of the goal-directed action, and a smaller part with the perception of arm-motion. Execution of reaching-to-grasp in the light-activated areas TS2, STP partially and marginally, and MT compared with the fixation but not to the arm-motion control. Consequently, MT-activation is associated with the arm-motion and not with the purposeful action. Finally, reaching-to-grasp in complete darkness activated all components of the motion complex. Conclusively, lack of visibility of our own actions involves the motion complex, whereas observation of others' actions engages area STP and the motion complex. Our previous and present findings together suggest that sensory effects are interweaved with motor commands in integrated action codes, and observation of an action or its execution in complete darkness triggers the retrieval of the visual representation of the action. PMID:24990920

Kilintari, Marina; Raos, Vassilis; Savaki, Helen E

2014-07-01

28

Guideline development from an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is unknown whether data from observational studies can assist guideline developers in areas where scientific evidence is lacking. The purpose of this study is to develop a local clinical guideline for prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism based on observational study results. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors performed a classification tree analysis on original data from a cross-sectional study of

J. Labarere; J. L. Bosson

2007-01-01

29

Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

30

Observation of bubble-involving spontaneous gas dissolution in superheated Al alloy melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a direct visualization of spontaneous gas dissolution in Al-7.7 mass% Ca eutectic alloy melt during superheating using high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray imaging. A bubble-involving gas dissolution process was observed, which can be understood within the framework of adsorption-diffusion-dissolution mechanism. The heterogenous nucleation and combined effect of hydrogen diffusivity and solubility results in the growth of individual bubbles in a stochastic way with Gaussian distribution. This also applies to the behavior of group bubbles in early stage, while which in final stage can be treated as reverse Ostwald ripening dominated by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner diffusion mechanism when pure diffusive condition is satisfied.

Zhang, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, W. Q.; Zhang, W.; Yu, J. D.; Fu, Y. N.; Li, J. G.

2013-10-01

31

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

1998-01-01

32

What Observational Studies Can Offer Decision Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies, for example cohort and case-control studies in which patients are allocated treatment on a non-random basis, are thought by some investigators to be flawed. This view results from the fact that, unlike experimental methods (randomized controlled trials; RCTs), the results of such observational studies are vulnerable to confounding. However, this view assumes that satisfactory adjustment of differences in

Nick Black

1999-01-01

33

Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

Kimball, Colette

2005-01-01

34

Molecular Simulation Studies of Proteins Involved in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution describes two recent computational studies related to proteins involved in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The first focuses on the interplay between dopamine and alpha-synuclein (AS), which plays a central role in PD (unpublished results). The second deals with the protein DJ-1, whose mutations are present in patients suffering from familiar PD [1]. Computational methods are used to investigate the

Paolo Carloni

2007-01-01

35

Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

Shaffer, T. L.; Johnson, D. H.

2008-01-01

36

[Involvement of Polish enterprises in workplace health promotion. Trends observed in years 1998-2001].  

PubMed

The author presents voluntary activities aimed at improving the workers' health in medium-sized and large enterprises in Poland, as well as the dynamic of changes in this area. The data were collected from enterprises chosen at random in 1998 (147 enterprises), 2000 (755) and 2001 (215). At present, over 60% of enterprises declare that they do more for their workers' health than it is required by legal regulations. Since 1998, the number of such declarations has been constantly growing. It is observed that the larger enterprise and the better economic situation, the more frequent health promotion activities. Two areas of activities are most commonly carried out: (1) medical services, e.g. vaccinations, extra diagnostic examinations and therapeutical services; and (2) investments in the work environment, e.g. ergonomics, improvement of interior designs. Unfortunately, promotion of healthy lifestyles, e.g. non-smoking campaigns or stress management are definitely less frequent. Although a growing number of enterprises becomes involved in health promotion, the range of their activities is diminishing. The programs aimed at promoting health conductive behaviors among workers are in particular given up. As far as smoking cessation is considered, the enterprises disseminate materials on the adverse effects of smoking or related ill-health and punish smokers for breaking smoking bans instead of helping their workers and teach them how to quit smoking or support those who want to give up this habit. In the years 2000 and 2001, the educational and supporting activities decreased whereas the punitive policy was on the rise. PMID:12577801

Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

2002-01-01

37

A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

Stammer, Detlef

2003-01-01

38

Analytic Bounds on Causal Risk Differences in Directed Acyclic Graphs Involving Three Observed Binary Variables.  

PubMed

We apply a linear programming approach which uses the causal risk difference (RD(C)) as the objective function and provides minimum and maximum values that RD(C) can achieve under any set of linear constraints on the potential response type distribution. We consider two scenarios involving binary exposure X, covariate Z and outcome Y. In the first, Z is not affected by X, and is a potential confounder of the causal effect of X on Y. In the second, Z is affected by X and intermediate in the causal pathway between X and Y. For each scenario we consider various linear constraints corresponding to the presence or absence of arcs in the associated directed acyclic graph (DAG), monotonicity assumptions, and presence or absence of additive-scale interactions. We also estimate Z-stratum-specific bounds when Z is a potential effect measure modifier and bounds for both controlled and natural direct effects when Z is affected by X. In the absence of any additional constraints deriving from background knowledge, the well-known bounds on RDc are duplicated: -Pr(Y not equalX) studies. PMID:20161106

Kaufman, Sol; Kaufman, Jay S; Maclehose, Richard F

2009-10-01

39

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope

Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke

2008-01-01

40

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of

Erik von Elm; Douglas G Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J Pocock; Peter C Gøtzsche; Jan P Vandenbroucke

2007-01-01

41

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of

Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke

2007-01-01

42

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemi- ology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope

Stuart J Pocock

2007-01-01

43

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

2013-07-01

44

Diapause in tardigrades: a study of factors involved in encystment.  

PubMed

Stressful environmental conditions limit survival, growth and reproduction, or these conditions induce resting stages indicated as dormancy. Tardigrades represent one of the few animal phyla able to perform both forms of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Different forms of cryptobiosis (quiescence) are widespread and well studied, while little attention has been devoted to the adaptive meaning of encystment (diapause). Our goal was to determine the environmental factors and token stimuli involved in the encystment process of tardigrades. The eutardigrade Amphibolus volubilis, a species able to produce two types of cyst (type 1 and type 2), was considered. Laboratory experiments and long-term studies on cyst dynamics of a natural population were conducted. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that active tardigrades collected in April produced mainly type 2 cysts, whereas animals collected in November produced mainly type 1 cysts, indicating that the different responses are functions of the physiological state at the time they were collected. The dynamics of the two types of cyst show opposite seasonal trends: type 2 cysts are present only during the warm season and type 1 cysts are present during the cold season. Temperature represents the environmental factor involved in induction, maintenance and termination of the cyst. We also obtained evidence that A. volubilis is able to perform both diapause and cryptobiosis, even overlapping the two phenomena. The induction phase of tardigrade encystment can be compared to the induction phase of insect diapause, also indicating an involvement of endogenous factors in tardigrade encystment. As in insect diapause, tardigrade encystment can be considered a diapausing state controlled by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. PMID:18587124

Guidetti, Roberto; Boschini, Deborah; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

2008-07-01

45

A qualitative study of migraine involving patient researchers  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is poorly managed in primary care despite a high level of morbidity. The majority of sufferers use non-prescription medications and are reluctant to seek help but the reasons for this are not understood. Aim The aim of this study was to develop a research partnership between migraine sufferers and healthcare professionals to synthesise tacit and explicit knowledge in the area. Building upon this partnership, a further aim was to explore what it is to suffer with migraine from patients' perspectives in order to inform health service delivery. Design Qualitative interview study involving healthcare professionals and patient researchers. Setting A purposeful sample of eight migraine sufferers who had attended a local intermediate care headache clinic. Method A consensual qualitative approach. Results Migraine had a high and unrecognised impact on quality of life. ‘Handling the beast’ was a central metaphor that resonated with the experience of all sufferers who sought to control their problem in different ways. Three major themes were identified: making sense of their problem; actively doing something about it either through self-help or professional advice; being resigned to it. Conclusion Despite a significant impact on the quality of life of migraine sufferers and their families, their needs remain largely unmet. Useful insights can be obtained when patients and professionals work together in true partnership but the time and effort involved should not be underestimated. Further research is needed to identify why there are major deficiencies in delivering care in this common problem.

Belam, Judith; Harris, Gill; Kernick, David; Kline, Frances; Lindley, Krissy; McWatt, Jayne; Mitchell, Annie; Reinhold, Debbie

2005-01-01

46

Culture, Politics, and Schools in Rural Philippines: An Ethnographic Study of Teacher Community Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the life of rural Filipino teachers and assesses their role in civic or community improvement. The purpose is to locate the activist teachers and further to explain why certain people are more involved in the community. Two approaches are used: first, ethnographic material from informants and personal observations on the…

Foley, Douglas E.

47

A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

Chatterjee, Tapan K.

1990-01-01

48

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses,and of a study’s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemi- ology (STROBE) Initiative developed,recommendations,on what should,be included,in an accurate and,complete,report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three

Rothwell; Bhatia; Erik von Elm; Matthias Egger; Douglas G. Altman; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke

2007-01-01

49

Workplace Education Initiative: Case Studies and Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general observations and specific information in case studies of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on…

Astrein, Bruce; And Others

50

The Value of Observational Studies in Endocrinology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pantheon of information sources about what works in medicine and what does not, the place of honor goes to randomized\\u000a controlled clinical trials (RCTs). A particularly important aspect is the ability to neutralize, by random assignment of the\\u000a intervention, any unmeasured and unknown determinants of the disease outcome in the treated and untreated groups. Observational\\u000a studies do not

L. Joseph Melton III

51

Involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic (mdx) mouse skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

uchenne muscular dystrophy results from the lack of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the inner surface membrane, in skeletal muscle. The absence of dystrophin induces an abnormal increase of sarcolemmal calcium influx through cationic channels in adult skeletal muscle fibers from dystrophic ( mdx ) mice. We observed that the activity of these channels was increased after depletion of

Clarisse Vandebrouck; Dominique Martin; Monique Colson-Van Schoor; Huguette Debaix; Philippe Gailly

2002-01-01

52

The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

2005-01-01

53

Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

1975-01-01

54

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

55

Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, K. R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C. L.; Bourassa, M. A.; Dickinson, M. J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C. N.; Hennon, C. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Huffman, G. J.; Kossin, J. P.; Lee, H. -T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

2011-01-01

56

Patient involvement in medication safety in hospital: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Background Medication errors are common in hospital inpatients. While many interventions have been proposed to address these problems, few have been shown to have significant benefits. A complementary approach is to facilitate greater involvement of patients with their inpatient medication. However, there is relatively little research in this area and it is not known which interventions lead to improved healthcare outcomes. Work is therefore needed to investigate the roles that healthcare professionals and patients believe are appropriate for hospital inpatients to take relating to safety. Objective To explore the extent to which hospital inpatients reported that they engaged with medication safety-related behaviours, the extent to which they would like to, and the extent to which healthcare professionals reported that they would support such engagement. Setting An NHS hospital Trust in West London. Methods 100 Patients and healthcare professionals were recruited on ten wards within the Trust and invited to complete quantitative questionnaires. Data were analysed descriptively and exploratory comparisons made between different groups of respondents. Main outcome measures inpatient medication safety involvement scale and control preference scale for patient involvement in decision making. Results 100 patients (98 % response rate) and 104 healthcare professionals (59 % response rate) were recruited. The majority of patients and healthcare professionals were supportive of hospital inpatients being involved with their medication. However there was a significant gap between desire for patient involvement and what patients reported having experienced. Female patients and those under 65 wanted a significantly higher level of involvement than males and over 65s. Few associations were found between healthcare professionals' reported support for involvement and their profession or gender. However, pharmacists and nurses were significantly more likely to report supporting patients asking questions about their medicines and self administering their own medicines than doctors. Conclusion Healthcare professionals and patients desire a higher level of patient involvement with their medication while in hospital than patients currently report. Interventions need to be developed to bridge the gap between desired and actual patient involvement. PMID:24777838

Mohsin-Shaikh, Soomal; Garfield, Sara; Franklin, Bryony Dean

2014-06-01

57

Study of ENSO Using Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations within the last 1 to 1.5 decades indicate that the El Niño warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have peaked more often in the central Pacific than in the eastern Pacific. The advection of the eastern edge of western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) plays an important role modulating the SST in the central Pacific, and satellite observations provide high-resolution information to understand the dynamics in this area. The Aquarius satellite data resolves much more detailed structures of the salinity front (SF) along the eastern edge of WPWP than the in situ observations (i.e. Argo). Together with zonal currents from Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-Time product (OSCAR), we calculate the advection of the SF at the equator, which is important for three reasons: First, the advection of the SF affects formation the barrier layer (BL), which can further influence the behavior of ENSO. Second, the east-west SF migration is a prominent feature of ENSO variability. For example, during the 2011 La Niña, the salinity front was advected westward, resulting in much higher salinity in the western Pacific compared to the neutral year in 2012. Third, we can analyze how the ocean compensates for the large vertical net freshwater flux (~3 m yr-1) into the warm pool region using simple salt budget analysis. During the boreal fall, Aquarius reveals the strong SF in line with the north-south zonal bounds of the whole Pacific ITCZ rain band centered at about 8-10°N, which is also aligned with boundaries between the zonal equatorial current and counter current. At the same time, the thick barrier layers underneath the ITCZ are also observed. In this study, we apply the first two+ years (25 August 2011 - present) of Aquarius data to describe the correlations among the SF, surface currents, precipitation and the BL in the whole tropical Pacific basin, and discuss findings in the context of ENSO prediction and model comparisons.

Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G. S.

2013-12-01

58

Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium  

SciTech Connect

High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs: i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a reactor fleet made of a mixture of LWRs and HTRs. It is reasonable to assume that if HTRs are to be deployed on an industrial scale, they will co-exist during a long period of time with already existing LWRs. The present paper investigates the symbiotic behaviour of LWRs producing plutonium, and of HTRs burning it. (authors)

Bonin, B.; Greneche, D. [COGEMA, Direction de la Recherche et du Developpement (France); Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y. [CEA Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire (France)

2002-07-01

59

Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor reporting of research hampers assessment and makes it less useful. An international group of methodologists, researchers, and journal editors sets out guidelines to improve reports of observational studies

Erik von Elm; Douglas G Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J Pocock; Jan P Vandenbroucke

2007-01-01

60

Magnetisation reversal in cylindrical nickel nanobars involving magnetic vortex structure: A micromagnetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, Fast-Fourier-Transformed (3D-FFT) micromagnetic simulation was employed to study the magnetization reversal mechanisms in cylindrical nickel nanobars possessing magnetic vortices. Individual Ni nanobars of height 150–250nm with aspect ratio varying from 2.1 to 2.5 were considered, all of them supporting magnetic vortices domains. Magnetization reversal in these nanobars involves the vortex-creation–annihilation (VCA) mechanism with an inversion symmetry feature observed

Prabeer Barpanda

2011-01-01

61

[Evaluation of the DIABOBHU Observational Study].  

PubMed

Introduction: The authors present and analyze the outcome of DIABOBHU observational study. The work was carried out in Hungarian type 2 diabetic patients whose treatment was insufficient with oral antidiabetic agents. Aim: The safety and efficacy of glargine insulin added to oral antidiabetic therapy treatment was evaluated. Method: Between 2008 and 2011 3955 patients were enrolled. After proper education, patients titrated the insulin dosage under self-monitoring with the help of their attending physicians. During the 26-week study period 3 visits were included. The primary endpoint was the change of HbA1c. The secondary endpoints were fasting glucose levels, dose of insulin, body weight and body mass index, satisfaction of the patients with the treatment and the incidence of hypoglycemic events. Results: During the study mean HbA1c decreased from 8.94% to 7.31%. Most patients achieved the glycemic goals with very low frequency of hypoglycemia. The patients did not gain weight and were satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: The authors emphasize that this treatment based on an analogue basal insulin should be considered as an effective and safe therapy. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(23), 903-910. PMID:24880969

Gaál, Zsolt; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Bakó, Barnabás

2014-06-01

62

Laser Studies of Species Involved in Plasma Etching Processes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to investigate the chemistry of free radicals in a 13MHz parallel plate discharge in CF_4 and CF _4/O_2 mixtures, systems of industrial importance for the production of integrated circuit devices. The free radicals CF_2 and CF were detected, with the first rotationally resolved LIF excitation spectra of the CF radical reported. Lifetimes and branching ratios for fluorescence from the A ^2Sigma^+ v^ ' = 0 and 1 levels were determined. The latter indicate that the electronic transition dipole moment varies considerably with vibrational quantum number. The absolute concentrations of CF and CF_2 radicals in a 50mTorr 100W CF_4 plasma were determined to be 1.1 +/- 3 times 10^{12 } and 7 +/- 3 times 10^{12}cm ^{-3} respectively. The rotational temperature of the bath gas was less than 100K higher than ambient in a 200W 200mTorr plasma. The technique of time-resolved LIF, combined with modulation of the R.F. power supply, was developed to determine the radical reaction rate constants, and, when combined with the absolute concentration measurements, the rates of radical production. These studies indicated the importance of surface catalysed reactions for transient species produced in the discharge. A one-dimensional diffusion model was developed to interpret the temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the CF and CF_2 concentrations. At 50mTorr wall reaction was the major loss process for both radicals, and the sticking coefficients were determined. At 500mTorr both radicals were observed to undergo significant gas phase reactions. The results indicated that the radical production process was enhanced close to the powered electrode at both pressures. The chemistry of these radicals in a CF_4/O _2 plasma was also investigated. Both radicals were observed to have much greater reaction rates in a pure CF_4 plasma, and suggestions as to the reactions of importance in these systems are made. Similar temporally and spatially resolved studies of the remaining important species present in the plasma, notably CF_3 and atomic F and O, are necessary for a fuller understanding of the system.

Booth, Jean Paul

63

Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study

Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

2013-01-01

64

A cross sectional study of renal involvement in tuberous sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal disease is a frequent manifestation of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and yet little is known about its true prevalence or natural history. We reviewed the notes of 139 people with TSC, who had presented without renal symptoms, but who had been investigated by renal ultrasound. Information on the frequency, type, and symptomatology of renal involvement was retrieved. The prevalence of

J A Cook; K Oliver; R F Mueller; J Sampson

1996-01-01

65

Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Syndrome with Retro-Orbital Involvement: A Retrospective Study of Eight Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this retrospective study was to document the clinical findings and radiological features of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome with retro-orbital involvement. Methods We searched for ophthalmological patients who received orbital imaging at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between October 2003 and April 2010. Seventy-three patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome based on clinicoradiological features, with pathological confirmation of nonspecific inflammatory conditions in 47 patients. Eight patients (11%) had MRI or CT evidence of retro-orbital involvement. All 8 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome after biopsy of the orbital lesion. MR images were obtained for all 8 patients; 3 patients also had a contrast-enhanced CT scan. Results Seven out of 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement also had orbital apex lesions. Of the 65 patients without retro-orbital involvement, 19 had orbital apex lesions. The difference in the number of patients with orbital apex lesions between the two populations was significant (Fisher exact test P?=?.002). In all 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement, the inflammation spread through the superior orbital fissure. The retro-orbital lesions were isointense to grey matter on T1-weighted images, hypointense on T2-weighted images, and displayed uniform contrast enhancement; on contrast-enhanced CT scans, they were hyperdense relative to the contralateral mirror area and had radiological contours that were similar to those seen on MR images. The diffuse inflammation with marked sclerosis and hyalinization that we observed in the patients with retro-orbital involvement is consistent with the diagnosis of the sclerosing subtype of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome. All 8 patients also complained of mild to moderate periorbital pain (headache). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome, it is important to perform MRI and CT scans to identify possible retro-orbital involvement. Retro-orbital involvement is more frequent when the lesion is present in the orbital apex.

Li, Yumei; Lip, Gerald; Chong, Vincent; Yuan, Jianhua; Ding, Zhongxiang

2013-01-01

66

Observability studies of inertial navigation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work deals with an undamped three-channel inertial-navigation-system error model. It is shown that it is possible to fully observe, and thus estimate, all the states of the system. This is in contrast to a previous two-channel system, in which it was impossible to fully observe and estimate all the states of the system. The conclusions of the analysis are verified through covariance simulation, which yields identical results.

Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Goshen-Meskin, D.

1989-01-01

67

Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

Franchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

68

Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); and others

1996-01-11

69

Observation of new tunable ultraviolet radiation by four-wave mixing involving forbidden transitions in sodium vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four-wave mixing processes in sodium vapor have been observed in which the fourth wave is resonantly enhanced by the 4s-3s forbidden transition. Intense, tunable, coherent ultraviolet radiation has been observed near 383 and 388 nm with a tuning range of 50 and 20 A, respectively. The sodium atoms are pumped by a single laser beam with wavelength in the 597 nm region. The third infrared wave involved in the mixing processes comes from either an OPSE or an output from another 4-WM process which is generated in the same sodium medium by the excitation of the same pump wave. The conversion efficiency is estimated to be 8 x 10 to the -4th.

Wu, C. Y. R.; Chen, J. K.

1984-07-01

70

Susquehanna Communication-Participation Study. Selected Approaches to Public Involvement in Water Resources Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study represents an effort to introduce and evaluate selected approaches to public involvement in the Susquehanna River Basin study. The public involvement activities centered upon establishing a program of lined contacts between agency planners and l...

J. Frost J. W. Wenrich K. P. Warner S. W. Havlick T. E. Borton

1970-01-01

71

Experimental Land Observing Data System Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Prog...

J. L. Buckley H. Kraiman

1982-01-01

72

The Normal Transverse Mesocolon and Involvement of the Mesocolon in Acute Pancreatitis: An MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the MRI findings of the normal transverse mesocolon and the involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis (AP) as well as the relationship between the involvement of the mesocolon and the severity of AP. Materials and Methods Forty patients without pancreatic disorders were retrospectively analyzed to observe the normal transverse mesocolon using MRI; 210 patients with AP confirmed by clinical and laboratory tests were retrospectively analyzed using MRI to observe transverse-mesocolon involvement (TMI). The severity of TMI was recorded as zero points (no abnormalities and transverse-mesocolon vessel involvement), one point (linear and patchy signal in the transverse mesocolon) or two points (transverse-mesocolon effusion). The AP severity was graded by the MRI severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. The correlations of TMI with MRSI and APACHE-II were analyzed. Results In a normal transverse mesocolon, the display rates of the middle colic artery, the middle colic vein and the gastrocolic trunk on MRI were 95.0%, 82.5% and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 210 patients with AP, 130 patients (61.9%) had TMI. According to the TMI grading, 40%, 39% and 20% of the patients were graded at zero, one and two points, respectively. TMI was strongly correlated with the MRSI score (r?=?0.759, P?=?0.000) and the APACHE-II score (r?=?0.384, P?=?0.000). Conclusion MRI could be used to visualize transverse-mesocolon involvement. The severity of TMI could reflect that of AP in the clinical setting and imaging. TMI might be a supplementary indicator of the severity of AP.

Zhang, Xiao Ming; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Tang, Wei; Xiao, Bo

2014-01-01

73

Statistical analysis strategies for association studies involving rare variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled studies of rare variants but these methods will not be sufficient for their success as appropriate analytical methods are also

Vikas Bansal; Ondrej Libiger; Ali Torkamani; Nicholas J. Schork

2010-01-01

74

Human tracking studies involving an actively powered, augmented exoskeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

An actively powered, augmented, exoskeleton system is studied within a speed-accuracy performance task framework with human subjects. This system has a dual use in military applications as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders

D. W. Repperger; B. O. Hill; C. Hasser; M. Roark; C. A. Phillips

1996-01-01

75

Psychological factors involved in prurigo nodularis: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Emotional stresses and psychological disorders seem to be concurrent factors in some cases of prurigo nodularis (PN), a chronic skin condition with a difficult therapeutic approach. In order to improve the therapeutic strategies, we performed a psychometric study on 20 patients affected by generalized and histological proven PN. Specific questionnaires were employed to examine the hypotheses (General Health Questionnaire, State Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). The results show that symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with PN are more severe than in the control group and that some specific traits of personality are more frequently represented in such subjects. The results of our study represent a first attempt to analyze the psychological problems and the personality dimensions which seem to characterize PN patients. Such evidence supports the importance of a psychological approach in the clinical management of PN, which should always include psychological assessment and treatment together with the other therapeutic options. PMID:20666670

Dazzi, Carla; Erma, Daniela; Piccinno, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano; Caccialanza, Massimo

2011-08-01

76

Observational study of pool boiling under microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pool boiling experiments under microgravity were conducted, utilizing parabolic flight maneuvers with a CNES Caravelle 6R aircraft. The experimental apparatus taken aboard the aircraft was constructed to enable simultaneous recording, by a video camera, of the side view of vapor bubbles generated on Joule-heated titanium foil immersed in a pool of n-pentane liquid, and the color pattern exhibited by a liquid-crystal layer, which was plated on the backside of the foil. This apparatus successfully recorded observations of behaviors of vapor bubbles, at various liquid subcoolings (7-32 K) and heat fluxes (1.1-42 kW/sq m), and spatial color variation of the crystal layer, possibly reflecting microlayer dynamics beneath the individual bubbles. In spite of the great difference in size and population of the bubbles, between microgravity and terrestrial conditions, no more than a moderate difference was found in overall heat transfer between the two conditions.

Oka, Toshiharu; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kotaro; Mori, Yasuhiko H.; Nagashima, Akira

1992-05-01

77

Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

Var, R. E.

1976-01-01

78

Experimental land observing data system feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

1982-01-01

79

Globular Cluster Tidal Streams: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and of our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead as our primary method to use photometry to select blue

William L. Powell; A. Lauchner; R. Wilhelm; A. McWilliam

2006-01-01

80

CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions.

2014-01-01

81

Prognostic role of bowel involvement in optimally cytoreduced advanced ovarian cancer: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal debulking surgery is postulated to be useful in survival of ovarian cancer patients. Some studies highlighted the possible role of bowel surgery in this topic. We wanted to evaluate the role of bowel involvement in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent optimal cytoreduction. Methods Between 1997 and 2004, 301 patients with advanced epithelial cancer underwent surgery at Department of Gynecological Oncology of Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO) National Cancer Institute Aviano (PN) Italy. All underwent maximal surgical effort, including bowel and upper abdominal procedure, in order to achieve optimal debulking (R < 0.5 cm). PFS and OS were compared with residual disease, grading and surgical procedures. Results Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 244 patients (81.0%); R0 in 209 women (69.4.%) and R < 0.5 in 35 (11.6%). Bowel resection was performed in 116 patients (38.5%): recto-sigmoidectomy alone (69.8%), upper bowel resection only (14.7%) and both recto-sigmoidectomy and other bowel resection (15.5%). Pelvic peritonectomy and upper abdomen procedures were carried out in 202 (67.1%) and 82 (27.2%) patients respectively. Among the 284 patients available for follow-up, PFS and OS were significantly better in patients with R < 0.5. Among the 229 patients with optimal debulking (R < 0.5), 137 patients (59.8%) developed recurrent disease or progression. In the 229 R < 0.5 group, bowel involvement was associated with decreased PFS and OS in G1-2 patients whereas in G3 patients OS, but not PFS, was adversely affected. In the 199 patients with R0, PFS and OS were significantly better (p < 0.01) for G1-2 patients without bowel involvement whereas only significant OS (p < 0.05) was observed in G3 patients without bowel involvement versus G3 patients with bowel involvement. Conclusions Optimal cytoreduction (R < 0.5 cm and R0) is the most important prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. In the optimally cytoreduced (R < 0.5 and R0) patients, bowel involvement is associated with dismal prognosis for OS both in patients with G1-2 grading and in patients with G3 grading. Bowel involvement in G3 patients, carries instead the same risk of recurrence for PFS.

2014-01-01

82

The activity involvement of women and men in young and middle adulthood: A panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a secondary analyses of a 36?year panel study of 267 Euro?American women and men, this research examined gender differences in (a) the frequency of individuals’ involvement in discretionary or free?time activity in young and middle adulthood, (b) change in activity involvement between young and middle adulthood, and (c) predictors of activity involvement in young and middle adulthood. Activity involvement

Valeria J. Freysinger; Robert O. Ray

1994-01-01

83

Magnetisation reversal in cylindrical nickel nanobars involving magnetic vortex structure: A micromagnetic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, Fast-Fourier-Transformed (3D-FFT) micromagnetic simulation was employed to study the magnetization reversal mechanisms in cylindrical nickel nanobars possessing magnetic vortices. Individual Ni nanobars of height 150-250 nm with aspect ratio varying from 2.1 to 2.5 were considered, all of them supporting magnetic vortices domains. Magnetization reversal in these nanobars involves the vortex-creation-annihilation (VCA) mechanism with an inversion symmetry feature observed mid-way during reversal process. The effect of incidence angle of externally applied field on overall magnetization reversal process is examined in detail. The corresponding variations in coercivity, squareness, exchange energy and vortex parameters are described by the micromagnetic study that can shed insights for building practical Ni nanobars magnetic nanostructures/devices.

Barpanda, Prabeer

2011-03-01

84

Epidemiologic study to assess patient involvement in choice of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (PROSA Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The objective of the current study was to assess patient involvement in adjuvant chemotherapy choice, reasons for treatment\\u000a choice and satisfaction with the chosen treatment, given that improvement in breast cancer survival has been accompanied by\\u000a a greater demand for disease information from patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  An epidemiologic, prospective, multicentre study was conducted with patients aged over 18 diagnosed with

Ignasi Tusquets; Enrique Espinosa Arranz; Miguel Méndez; J. Miquel Gil; José Luis Guallar; Núria Perulero

2009-01-01

85

Statistical Study of Merging Galaxies: Theory and Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of...

T. K. Chatterjee

1990-01-01

86

ORIGINAL ARTICLES The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope

Erik von Elma; Douglas G. Altmanc; Matthias Eggera; Stuart J. Pocockd; Peter C. Gøtzschee; Jan P. Vandenbrouckef

87

The application of generalizability analysis to observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the social and behavioral sciences is relying more on records of behavior made by human observers in naturalistic settings. Guidelines for these types of observational studies have emphasized the need to provide information on reliability. In this article, we present generalizability theory as a method for designing, assessing, and improving the reliability of observational studies.

George A. Marcoulides

1989-01-01

88

Parent Involvement Training with Hispanic Parents: A Report from Tomas Rivera Elementary School. A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Parent Education at the University of North Texas conducted a case study based on parent involvement training sessions offered in the spring of 1997 at Tomas Rivera Elementary School, Denton, Texas. The study involved low income English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents whose children were considered high-risk students. The…

Jacobson, Arminta L.; Huffman, Jane B.; Rositas, Maria C.; de Corredor, Yamile Quintero

89

The Effects of Student Involvement on Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pilot study discussed in this article investigates the perception of counselor education students' level of involvement and their satisfaction regarding their graduate program experience. It is believed, more involved students are more satisfied. Because there is limited existing data, this study seeks to ignite the conversation and future…

Farley, Kelsey; McKee, Mallory; Brooks, Michael

2011-01-01

90

A light microscopic study of fibrosis involving muscle in oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a common pre-malignant condition of the mouth in arecanut chewers in Indian subcontinent. It is characterized by restriction in opening of the mouth, tongue protrusion, and cheek flexibility. Reports of muscle changes in OSF, using light microscopy are few. Incisional biopsy sections of thirty OSF patients were stained with Masson's Trichrome stain, to study the fibrosis involving the muscle. Wide spectrum of changes were observed where fibrosis was being evident sub-epithelially, not extending in to the muscle to cases where only a few remnants of muscle fibers were seen and the missing muscle bundle area being replaced by fibrous tissue. The probable mechanism by which these changes occur is discussed. PMID:16761704

Rooban, T; Saraswathi, T R; Al Zainab, Fatima H I; Devi, Uma; Eligabeth, Joshua; Ranganathan, K

2005-01-01

91

Proteomic studies of B16 lines: involvement of annexin A1 in melanoma dissemination.  

PubMed

To identify proteins involved in melanoma metastasis mechanisms, comparative proteomic studies were undertaken on B16F10 and B16Bl6 melanoma cell lines and their subsequent syngenic primary tumours as pulmonary metastases were present only in the mice bearing a B16Bl6 tumour. 2DE analyses followed by MALDI-TOF identification showed variations of 6 proteins in vitro and 13 proteins in vivo. Differential expressed proteins in tumours were related to energy production and storage. Two differentially expressed proteins which had not been previously associated to melanoma progression, annexin A1 (ANXA1) and creatine kinase B (CKB), were found both in cells and in tumours. To characterize ANXA1 involvement in melanoma B16 dissemination, we reduced ANXA1 protein level by siRNA and observed a significant decrease of B16Bl6 cell invasion through Matrigel coated chambers. We further demonstrated that the presence of several formyl peptide receptors (FPR1, FPRrs1 and 2) revealed by qRT-PCR, played a role in B16 invasion: incubation of B16Bl6 cells with the FPR agonist (fMLP) or antagonist (tBOC) enhanced or decreased Matrigel coated chamber invasion respectively, with a correlation of ANXA1 levels in both treatments. As ANXA1 could bind to FPRs, this should amplify invasion and enhance melanoma dissemination. PMID:18952200

Rondepierre, Fabien; Bouchon, Bernadette; Papon, Janine; Bonnet-Duquennoy, Mathilde; Kintossou, Roselyne; Moins, Nicole; Maublant, Jean; Madelmont, Jean C; D'Incan, Michel; Degoul, Françoise

2009-01-01

92

Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Field and Eruption Phenomena at Huairou Solar Observing Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the observational study of vector magnetic field and also the development of new optical instrumentations at Huairou Solar Observing Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. The presentations are following: 1.The synthetical analysis between photospheric vector magnetic field and the morphological configuration in solar atmosphere provides the essential information on the developments of magnetic energy in source regions of

Hongqi Zhang

2006-01-01

93

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2012-01-01

94

School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2009-01-01

95

Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

2011-01-01

96

A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

Blake Payne, Ruthanna

2010-01-01

97

The valuable contribution of observational studies to nephrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies on the effects of therapy (or other interventions), the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an almost unbeatable standard in clinical research. The value of RCTs leaves unabated the valuable contributions of observational studies to medicine. This paper discusses some limitations of RCTs providing examples where these are not possible, inappropriate, inadequate, or unnecessary. Thereafter, it focuses on observational

K J Jager; V S Stel; C Wanner; C Zoccali; F W Dekker

2007-01-01

98

Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. Methods After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only observational variables with p?studied, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute???500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass?>?45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p?=?0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy must be avoided during TURP procedures in the elderly.

2014-01-01

99

Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although interest in the links between religion and mental health has increased sharply in recent years, researchers remain far from a consensus regarding which aspects of religious involvement are germane to mental health, which mental health outcomes may be influenced by religious factors, and which mechanisms and\\/or models may account for these observed relationships. This article extends the literature in

Christopher G. Ellison; Jason D. Boardman; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

100

Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to use of a BCT boost technique, as well as emphasizing the important of investigating the benefit of BCT boost in prospective randomized trials.

Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence, E-mail: moureaul@ipc.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France); Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Teissier, Eric [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France)] [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France); Department of Radiation Therapy, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Center, Montpellier (France); Salem, Nagi [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Lemanski, Claire [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France)] [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France); Ellis, Steve [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)] [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France); Resbeut, Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)

2013-03-01

101

Toward a Career-Based Theory of Job Involvement: A Study of Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple regression analyses are used to determine the relative importance of 49 factors to job involvement in a study of 441 scientists and engineers. Of particular importance are career and personality factors. (Author)

McKelvey, Bill; Sekaran, Uma

1977-01-01

102

Observational and interventional study design types; an overview  

PubMed Central

The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs.

Thiese, Matthew S.

2014-01-01

103

GABAergic mechanisms involved in the vagally mediated heart rate response to muscle contraction as revealed by studies with benzodiazepines  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine if central GABA mechanisms are involved in the cardiac vagal withdrawal at the beginning\\u000a of exercise in man. We tested whether GABA-enhancing effects of a benzodiazepine could be observed in the HR change (R-R interval)\\u000a immediately following the onset of a brief (10s) isometric contraction (60 % maximum) of the biceps

Matthew R. Farmer; Hamish F. Ross; Saqib Chowdhary; Faisal Osman; Jonathan N. Townend; John H. Coote

2003-01-01

104

Liver involvement in patients with brucellosis: results of the Marmara study.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects the reticuloendothelial system. But, the extent of liver damage in due course of the disease is unclear. This study included 325 brucellosis patients with significant hepatobiliary involvement identified with microbiological analyses from 30 centers between 2000 and 2013. The patients with ?5 times of the upper limit of normal for aminotransferases, total bilirubin level ?2 mg/dl or local liver lesions were enrolled. Clinical hepatitis was detected in 284 patients (87.3 %) and cholestasis was detected in 215 (66.1 %) patients. Fatigue (91 %), fever (86 %), sweating (83 %), arthralgia (79 %), and lack of appetite (79 %) were the major symptoms. Laboratory tests showed anemia in 169 (52 %), thrombocytopenia in 117 (36 %), leukopenia in 81 (25 %), pancytopenia in 42 (13 %), and leukocytosis in 20 (6 %) patients. The most commonly used antibiotic combinations were doxycycline plus an aminoglycoside (n?=?73), doxycycline plus rifampicin (n?=?71), doxycycline plus rifampicin and an aminoglycoside (n?=?27). The duration of ALT normalization differed significantly in three treatment groups (p??0.05). During the follow-up, treatment failure occurred in four patients (1 %) and relapse was seen in three patients (0.9 %). Mortality was not observed. Hepatobiliary involvement in brucellosis has a benign course with suitable antibiotics and the use of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside regimen seems a better strategy in select patients. PMID:24557334

Ozturk-Engin, D; Erdem, H; Gencer, S; Kaya, S; Baran, A I; Batirel, A; Tekin, R; Celen, M K; Denk, A; Guler, S; Ulug, M; Turan, H; Pekok, A U; Mermut, G; Kaya, S; Tasbakan, M; Tulek, N; Cag, Y; Inan, A; Yalci, A; Ataman-Hatipoglu, C; Gonen, I; Dogan-Celik, A; Bozkurt, F; Gulsun, S; Sunnetcioglu, M; Guven, T; Duygu, F; Parlak, E; Sozen, H; Tosun, S; Demirdal, T; Guclu, E; Karabay, O; Uzun, N; Gunal, O; Diktas, H; Haykir-Solay, A; Erbay, A; Kader, C; Aydin, O; Erdem, A; Elaldi, N; Kadanali, A; Yulugkural, Z; Gorenek, L; Alt?ndis, M; Bolukcu, S; Agalar, C; Ormeci, N

2014-07-01

105

An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

Stevens, Joy

106

Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An Observation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which

LAURA R. GREEN; CAROL A. SELMAN; VINCENT RADKE; DANNY RIPLEY; JAMES C. MACK; DAVID W. REIMANN; TAMMI STIGGER; MICHELLE MOTSINGER; LISA BUSHNELL

2006-01-01

107

Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

Somerville, Richard C. J.

1997-01-01

108

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central arc...

A. Loew C. Funk C. C. Hennon C. D. Holmes C. L. Bain C. N. Helms G. Magnusdottir G. J. Huffman H. T. Lee J. P. Kossin K. R. Knapp M. A. Bourassa M. J. Dickinson S. Ansari

2012-01-01

109

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives o...

B. Weeks C. Rosenzweig C. Sakakibara C. C. Alexander C. V. Shadrin J. Waterhouse L. Johnson M. Vicarelli N. Bynum N. Oettle P. Neofotis T. Mustonen U. King

2010-01-01

110

TUTORIAL IN BIOSTATISTICS SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Multi-centre databases are making an increasing contribution to medical understanding. While the statist- ical handling of randomized experimental studies is well documented in the medical literature, the analysis of observational studies requires the addressing of additional important issues relating to the timing of entry to the study and the e?ect of potential explanatory variables not introduced until after that

KATE BULL; DAVID J. SPIEGELHALTER

1997-01-01

111

Study of possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of coumarin derivatives on neutrophil activity.  

PubMed

To specify the site of action of the synthetic coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl) coumarin (HHC) and 7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl) dihydrocoumarin (HHDC), we evaluated their effects on extra- and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated human neutrophils. We studied also the effects of HHC and HHDC on possible molecular mechanisms which participate in the activation of NADPH oxidase, that is, on PKC activity, on phosphorylation of some PKC isoforms (?, ?II, and ?), and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40(phox). Without affecting cytotoxicity, both coumarines tested were effective inhibitors/scavengers of ROS produced by neutrophils on extracellular level. HHC markedly diminished oxidant production and also, intracellularly, decreased PKC activity and partly phosphorylation of PKC?, ?II. On the other hand, we did not observe any effect of coumarin derivatives on phosphorylation of PKC ? and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40(phox), which were suggested to be involved in the PMA-dependent intracellular activation process. In agreement with our previous findings, we assume that the different molecular structures of HHC and HHDC with their different physicochemical and free radical scavenging characteristics are responsible for their diverse effects on the parameters tested. PMID:24349608

Drábiková, Katarína; Pere?ko, Tomáš; Nosál', Radomír; Harmatha, Juraj; Smidrkal, Jan; Jan?inová, Viera

2013-01-01

112

Study of Possible Mechanisms Involved in the Inhibitory Effects of Coumarin Derivatives on Neutrophil Activity  

PubMed Central

To specify the site of action of the synthetic coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) coumarin (HHC) and 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) dihydrocoumarin (HHDC), we evaluated their effects on extra- and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated human neutrophils. We studied also the effects of HHC and HHDC on possible molecular mechanisms which participate in the activation of NADPH oxidase, that is, on PKC activity, on phosphorylation of some PKC isoforms (?, ?II, and ?), and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox. Without affecting cytotoxicity, both coumarines tested were effective inhibitors/scavengers of ROS produced by neutrophils on extracellular level. HHC markedly diminished oxidant production and also, intracellularly, decreased PKC activity and partly phosphorylation of PKC?, ?II. On the other hand, we did not observe any effect of coumarin derivatives on phosphorylation of PKC? and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox, which were suggested to be involved in the PMA-dependent intracellular activation process. In agreement with our previous findings, we assume that the different molecular structures of HHC and HHDC with their different physicochemical and free radical scavenging characteristics are responsible for their diverse effects on the parameters tested.

Drabikova, Katarina; Perecko, Tomas; Nosal', Radomir; Harmatha, Juraj; Smidrkal, Jan; Jancinova, Viera

2013-01-01

113

NMR studies of conformational states of proteins involved in biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are the most ancient and ubiquitous cofactors that exist throughout evolution. The most important biosynthetic system of the cluster in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the ISC system. Defects in this system can be lethal and have been associated with a number of human diseases. Previous works show that a number of proteins are involved in the [Fe-S] biosynthetic processes and the structural flexibility may play an important role. For example, it was shown that apo-IscU, the scaffold protein, from Escherichia coli populates two functionally important conformational states, one dynamically disordered (D-state) and the other more structured (S-state) (Kim et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2012c). To further investigate the characteristics and transition of the conformational states of proteins involved in this system, I performed extensive NMR studies. Here, I present the findings based on my studies of two important players of the ISC system, IscU and HscB. In this research, I find that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization might account for the slow step in the S-D interconversion of IscU. More specifically, P14 and P101 are trans in the S-state, but become cis in the D-state. In addition, I discover that IscU is very responsive to pH changes, and I postulate that this response is correlated to conserved histidine residues, H10 and H105. Moreover, my thermodynamic analyses reveal that the S-D equilibrium of IscU is also very sensitive to change in temperature, pressure, and amino acid sequence compared to other proteins. In the study, I also discovered a novel state of IscU, the unfolded U-state. I suspect that this state may serve as an intermediate of interconversion between IscU S-/D-states. Finally, I extended the effort to HscB, and find that it may possess more conformational flexibility than expected earlier. I postulate that this flexibility may be the cause of the line-broadening observed during interaction of HscB with IscU (Fuzery et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009) and HscA.

Dai, Ziqi

114

Qualitative study of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) involved in doctor-patient communication.  

PubMed

Background: Doctor-patient communication has far reaching influences on the overall well-being of the patients. Words are powerful tools in the doctor's armamentarium, having both healing as well as harming effects. Doctors need to be conscious about the choice of their words. This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) un-intentionally induced by the communication of surgeons and anesthetists through the course of various interventional procedures such as surgery, anesthesia, and crucial communication encounters with their patients. Methods: The study was carried out by the Department of Medical Education (DME), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad over six months period. All residents and faculty members serving at our institute in various surgical and anesthesia departments constituted the study population. A questionnaire was employed as the data collection tool. Results: Significant proportions of the doctor-patient communications under scrutiny entailed NP. It was more frequently observed in association with female gender of the involved professionals, residency status versus faculty position, and shorter professional experience (i.e. <5 years). Although the participants endorsed the fact that the choice of their words influenced the well-being of their patients, none of them were actually aware of the concept of NP. Conclusion: NP existed in the clinical practice of the surgeons and anesthetists during their communication with patients. It was more frequently found among females, residents and professionals with less than five years of working experience. There is need to create awareness among these professionals about the subtle negative messages conveyed by such communication and alert them that the nocebo effects have negative repercussions on the clinical outcomes of their patients. The professionals should be formally educated to avoid nocebo words and phrases. PMID:24987718

Ashraf, Bushra; Saaiq, Muhammad; Zaman, Khaleeq-Uz-

2014-06-01

115

Qualitative study of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) involved in doctor-patient communication  

PubMed Central

Background: Doctor-patient communication has far reaching influences on the overall well-being of the patients. Words are powerful tools in the doctor’s armamentarium, having both healing as well as harming effects. Doctors need to be conscious about the choice of their words. This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) un-intentionally induced by the communication of surgeons and anesthetists through the course of various interventional procedures such as surgery, anesthesia, and crucial communication encounters with their patients. Methods: The study was carried out by the Department of Medical Education (DME), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad over six months period. All residents and faculty members serving at our institute in various surgical and anesthesia departments constituted the study population. A questionnaire was employed as the data collection tool. Results: Significant proportions of the doctor-patient communications under scrutiny entailed NP. It was more frequently observed in association with female gender of the involved professionals, residency status versus faculty position, and shorter professional experience (i.e. <5 years). Although the participants endorsed the fact that the choice of their words influenced the well-being of their patients, none of them were actually aware of the concept of NP. Conclusion: NP existed in the clinical practice of the surgeons and anesthetists during their communication with patients. It was more frequently found among females, residents and professionals with less than five years of working experience. There is need to create awareness among these professionals about the subtle negative messages conveyed by such communication and alert them that the nocebo effects have negative repercussions on the clinical outcomes of their patients. The professionals should be formally educated to avoid nocebo words and phrases.

Ashraf, Bushra; Saaiq, Muhammad; Zaman, Khaleeq-Uz-

2014-01-01

116

Informed consent, participation in, and withdrawal from a population based cohort study involving genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Population based cohort studies involving genetic research have been initiated in several countries. However, research published to date provides little information on the willingness of the general population to participate in such studies. Furthermore, there is a need to discover the optimal methods for acquiring fully informed consent from the general population. We therefore examined the results of a

K Matsui; Y Kita; H Ueshima

2005-01-01

117

Families' Goals, School Involvement, and Children's Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study Thirteen Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…

Kyle, Diane W.

2011-01-01

118

Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale (FEICS): II. Reliability and Validity Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a report on a replication study of the reliability and validity of the Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale (FEICS). A sample of 928 people (a 63% return rate for 1,480 mailed questionnaires) participated in the study. The sample was drawn from patients in a Family Medicine practice. FEICS consists of 14 items: 7 items assess Perceived

Cleveland G. Shields; Peter Franks; Jeffrey J. Harp; Thomas L. Campbell; Susan H. McDaniel

1994-01-01

119

A CASE STUDY INVOLVING COMPETENCY TO STAND TRIAL: Incompetent Defendant, Incompetent Examiner, or Malingering by Proxy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study presents a forensic evaluation involving competency to stand trial. The assessment was in response to a defense expert's opinion that the accused was mentally retarded and therefore permanently incompetent to proceed. In addition to explaining the examination process used to reach findings that proved helpful to the court, the study examines several issues which significantly affected forensic

Louis B. Schlesinger

2003-01-01

120

Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

121

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes.

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2011-01-01

122

Simulation Studies of Communication Behavior under Stress: Concluding Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a study of cross-cultural interaction terminated in the second year of a projected five year research effort, enough data were gathered in the course of systematic laboratory observational research and in a pilot laboratory experimental study, to allow...

E. L. Quarantelli

1970-01-01

123

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;

Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith

2000-01-01

124

Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert.

Ackerman, Steven A.; Inoue, Toshiro

1994-01-01

125

Geospatial web services for limnological data: a case study of sensor observation service for ecological observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at designing and implementing a spatial data infrastructure for storing and sharing ecological data through geospatial web services. As case study, we concentrated on limnological data coming from the drainage basin of Lake Maggiore in the Northern of Italy. In order to establish the infrastructure, we started with two basic questions: (1) What type of data is the ecological dataset? (2) Which are the geospatial web services standards most suitable to store and share ecological data? In this paper we describe the possibilities for sharing ecological data using geospatial web services and the difficulties that can be encountered in this task. In order to test actual technological solutions, we use real data of a limnological published study.We concluded that limnological data can be considered observational data, composed by biological (species) data and environmental data, and it can be modeled using Observation and Measurement (O&M) specification. With the actual web service implementation the geospatial web services that could potentially be used to publish limnological data are Sensor Observation Services (SOS) and Web Feature Services (WFS). SOS holds the essential components to represent time series observations, while WFS is a simple model that requires profiling. Both, SOS and WFS are not perfectly suitable to publish biological data, so other alternatives must be considered, as linked data.

Arias Muñoz, C.; Oggioni, A.; Brovelli, M. A.

2014-04-01

126

Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.  

PubMed

In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. PMID:23357079

Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

2013-05-15

127

Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.  

PubMed

This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

2014-07-01

128

An Observational Study of Print Literacy in Canadian Preschool Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of print literacy in preschool classrooms. There were seven preschool teachers\\u000a working in central Canada who were observed over three sessions. The process of analytic induction was used to formulate categories\\u000a based on interviews, classroom observations and documents. The following categories were identified from the data: book engagement\\u000a and availability,

Jacqueline Lynch

2011-01-01

129

Evaluating the impact of database heterogeneity on observational study results.  

PubMed

Clinical studies that use observational databases to evaluate the effects of medical products have become commonplace. Such studies begin by selecting a particular database, a decision that published papers invariably report but do not discuss. Studies of the same issue in different databases, however, can and do generate different results, sometimes with strikingly different clinical implications. In this paper, we systematically study heterogeneity among databases, holding other study methods constant, by exploring relative risk estimates for 53 drug-outcome pairs and 2 widely used study designs (cohort studies and self-controlled case series) across 10 observational databases. When holding the study design constant, our analysis shows that estimated relative risks range from a statistically significant decreased risk to a statistically significant increased risk in 11 of 53 (21%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a cohort design and 19 of 53 (36%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a self-controlled case series design. This exceeds the proportion of pairs that were consistent across databases in both direction and statistical significance, which was 9 of 53 (17%) for cohort studies and 5 of 53 (9%) for self-controlled case series. Our findings show that clinical studies that use observational databases can be sensitive to the choice of database. More attention is needed to consider how the choice of data source may be affecting results. PMID:23648805

Madigan, David; Ryan, Patrick B; Schuemie, Martijn; Stang, Paul E; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Suchard, Marc A; DuMouchel, William; Berlin, Jesse A

2013-08-15

130

Intravenous immunoglobulins improve the function and ameliorate joint involvement in systemic sclerosis: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background In systemic sclerosis (SSc), joint involvement may reduce the functional capacity of the hands. Intravenous immunoglobulins have previously been shown to benefit patients with SSc. Aim To verify the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins on joint involvement and function in SSc. Patients and methods 7 women with SSc, 5 with limited and 2 with diffuse SSc, with a severe and refractory joint involvement were enrolled in the study. Methotrexate and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy did not ameliorate joint symptoms. Hence, intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was prescribed at a dosage of 2?g/kg body weight during 4?days/month for six consecutive courses. The presence of joint tenderness and swelling, and articular deformities (due to primary joint involvement and not due to skin and subcutaneous changes) were evaluated. Before and after 6?months of treatment, patients were subjected to (1) Ritchie Index (RI) evaluation of joint involvement; (2) Dreiser Algo?Functional Index (IAFD) evaluation of hand joint function; (3) pain visual analogue scale (VAS) to measure joint pain; (4) Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to evaluate the limitations in everyday living and physical disability; and (5) modified Rodnan Skin Score for skin involvement. Results After 6?months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy, joint pain and tenderness, measured with the VAS, decreased significantly (p<0.03), and hand function (IAFD) improved significantly (p<0.02), together with the quality of life (HAQ; p<0.03). All patients significantly improved, except for one. The skin score after 6?months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was significantly reduced (p<0.003). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that intravenous immunoglobulins may reduce joint pain and tenderness, with a significant recovery of joint function in patients with SSc with severe and refractory joint involvement. The cost of intravenous immunoglobulins might limit their use only to patients who failed disease?modifying antirheumatic drugs.

Nacci, F; Righi, A; Conforti, M L; Miniati, I; Fiori, G; Martinovic, D; Melchiorre, D; Sapir, T; Blank, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Pignone, A Moggi; Cerinic, M Matucci

2007-01-01

131

Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: III: TOO Observations of Atoll Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic studies of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by observing the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.

Paciesas, William S.

2002-01-01

132

Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. Aim To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. Methods We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C), cold(18°C) and interleaved(41°C+18°C?=?TGI) temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational (“unpleasantness”) and sensory-disciminatory (“pain-intensity”) dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected ?-level <0.05. Results The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral) thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness(rho?=?0.31). Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity has previously been observed during evoked cold-allodynia in patients with central neuropathic pain. Our results further the understanding of the supraspinal correlates of the TGI-phenomenon and pave the way for future inquiries into if and how it may relate to neuropathic pain.

Lindstedt, Fredrik; Johansson, Bo; Martinsen, Sofia; Kosek, Eva; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

2011-01-01

133

Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review studies of patterns of food intake, as assessed by diet index, factor analysis or cluster analysis, and their associations with body mass index or obesity (BMI\\/Ob).DESIGN: Systematic literature review MEDLINE search with crosscheck of references.STUDIES: Thirty observational studies relating food intake patterns to anthropometric information were identified and reviewed. Food intake patterns were defined using a diet

P Togo; M Osler; TIA Sørensen; BL Heitmann

2001-01-01

134

Simulations in the Learning Cycle: A Case Study Involving "Exploring the Nardoo."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involved students using simulation software in all phases of the learning cycle. Research on the use of simulations in science education has shown that the simulations can be used effectively in preinstructional and exploratory activities. Preinstructional and exploratory activities elicit and challenge students' alternative…

Dwyer, William M.; Lopez, Valesca E.

135

Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

2009-01-01

136

American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

137

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

Kathleen E Kiernan

2005-01-01

138

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

KATHLEEN KIERNAN

2006-01-01

139

Study of Ionizing Collisions Involving Excited States in a Potassium-Rubidium Mixture at Thermal Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study concerns mainly ionizing collisions involving excited states in a saturated mixture of K-Rb vapors, at thermal energy. The experimental method consists into continuous resonant two steps laser excitation of the atoms (n less than or equal to 10...

M. T. Djerad

1987-01-01

140

Safe Voluntary Exit Plans for Gang Involved Youth in Rhode Island: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted with the intent of understanding safe exit plans for gang involved youth. There is limited literature around the existence of exit planning in the State of Rhode Island. Three interviews were conducted with four local stakeholders in the Rhode Island community. These interviews revealed that at risk youth can be safely guided out of gang life

Patricia Foley

2011-01-01

141

A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

2010-01-01

142

Student Involvement in Clubs and Organizations: An Exploratory Study at a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of student participation in campus organizations and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This exploratory study investigates the relationships between four student retention measures and student involvement in campus organizations. Chi-square analysis revealed significant…

Derby, Dustin C.

2006-01-01

143

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of

Leslie London; David Coggon; Angelo Moretto; Peter Westerholm; Martin F Wilks; Claudio Colosio

2010-01-01

144

Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. Involving them in the development of the assessment plan is also crucial to optimize their influence and impact on HTA research. The project objectives are: 1) setting up interventions to promote patient participation in three stages of the HTA process: identification of HTA topics, prioritization, and development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized; and 2) assessing the impact of patient participation on the relevance of the topics suggested, the prioritization process, and the assessment plan from the point of view of patients and other groups involved in HTA. Methods Patients and their representatives living in the catchment area of the HTA Roundtable of Université Laval’s Integrated University Health Network (covering six health regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada) will be involved in the following HTA activities: 1) identification of potential HTA topics in the field of cancer; 2) revision of vignettes developed to inform the prioritization of topics; 3) participation in deliberation sessions for prioritizing HTA topics; and 4) development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized. The research team will coordinate the implementation of these activities and will evaluate the process and outcomes of patient involvement through semi-structured interviews with representatives of the different stakeholder groups, structured observations, and document analysis, mainly involving the comparison of votes and topics suggested by various stakeholder groups. Discussion This project is designed as an integrated approach to knowledge translation and will be conducted through a close collaboration between researchers and knowledge users at all stages of the project. In response to the needs expressed by HTA producers, the knowledge produced will be directly useful in guiding practices regarding patient involvement in the early phases of HTA.

2014-01-01

145

Identifying the What, Why, and How of an Observed Action: An fMRI Study of Mentalizing and Mechanizing during Action Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans commonly understand the unobservable mental states of others by observing their actions. Embodied simula- tion theories suggest that this ability may be based in areas of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system, yet neuroimaging studies that explicitly investigate the human ability to draw mental state inferences point to the involvement of a \\

Robert P. Spunt; Ajay B. Satpute; Matthew D. Lieberman

2011-01-01

146

Identifying the What, Why, and How of an Observed Action: An fMRI Study of Mentalizing and Mechanizing during Action Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans commonly understand the unobservable mental states of others by observing their actions. Embodied simulation theories suggest that this ability may be based in areas of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system, yet neuroimaging studies that explicitly investigate the human ability to draw mental state inferences point to the involvement of a \\

Robert P. Spunt; Ajay B. Satpute; Matthew D. Lieberman

2010-01-01

147

Morphological studies of the soft tissues involved in skeletal dissolution in the coral Fungia fungites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study mechanisms involved in the separation of the disc from the stalk in juvenile Fungia fungites (Scleractinia, Fungiidae). Separation occurs because the skeleton is weakened by dissolution across a distinct plane at the junction of the stalk and disc. The tissue layer adjacent to the skeleton in the stalk was composed of typical, squamose, calicoblastic cells. In contrast, calicoblastic cells in the region of skeletal dissolution were tall and columnar. They contained many microvilli, abundant mitochondria and several different types of vesicles. It is assumed that these calicoblastic cells are actively involved in skeletal dissolution.

Yamashiro, H.; Yamazato, K.

1996-09-01

148

Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. A study of autopsy cases.  

PubMed

A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578

Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1997-02-01

149

High-resolution observations of rainfall: Potential for scaling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delft University has developed a new scanning Doppler-polarimetric radar with the particular aim to enable observations at high spatial resolution (a minimum of 3 meter) and high sensitivity. The radar is located on the top of 200 meter high meteorological observation tower at CESAR Observatory. The radar is capable of measuring fog, drizzle and heavier rain. Approximately 50 days per year the radar is located inside low-level water clouds, which enables interesting measurements of the horizontal structures of such clouds. With its high resolution new observational studies of the scaling properties of rainfall structures become possible. The presentation will discuss the radar capabilities and its application to the study of rainfall structures.

Ventura Figueras, J.; Russchenberg, H.

2009-04-01

150

Guidelines to Evaluate Human Observational Studies for Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective: We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these

Jelle Vlaanderen; Roel Vermeulen; Dick Heederik; Hans Kromhout

2008-01-01

151

An observational study of accretion processes in T Tauri stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is a detailed observational study of the accretion processes in T Tauri stars (TTS). The interaction between the central star, the circumstellar disk and the magnetic field gives rise to a wide range of features in the spectra of TTS. The current picture of TTS is based on rather simple models assuming that accretion is a homogeneous and

Henricus Cornelis Stempels

2003-01-01

152

Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Mortality: Prospective Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. Design: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class

George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; David Blane; Charles Gillis; Victor Hawthorne

1997-01-01

153

Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

1994-01-01

154

A statistical study of ion frictional heating observed by EISCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a statistical survey of F-region ion frictional heating are presented, a survey which is based on over 4000 h of common programme observations taken by the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar facility. The criterion adopted in this study for the identification of ion frictional heating was that defined by McCrea et al., requiring an enhancement in the

J. A. Davies; M. Lester; I. W. McCrea

1997-01-01

155

How Families Select Television Programs: A Mass-Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of study using mass observation and survey data to determine who is responsible for selection of television programs at home, how program selection processes occur, and how roles of family position and family communication patterns influence these activities. Research methodology and dominant selectors of television programs are…

Lull, James

1982-01-01

156

Observational Epidemiologic Studies of Nutrition and Cancer: The Next Generation (with Better Observation)  

PubMed Central

It would be of enormous public health importance if diet and physical activity—both modifiable behavioral factors--were causally related to cancer. Nevertheless, the nutritional epidemiology of cancer remains problematic, in part because of persistent concerns that standard questionnaires measure diet and physical activity with too much error. We present a new strategy for addressing this measurement error problem. First, as background, we note that food frequency and physical activity questionnaires require respondents to report ‘typical’ diet or activity over the previous year or longer. Multiple 24-hour recalls (24HR), based on reporting only the previous day’s behavior, offer potential cognitive advantages over the questionnaires, and biomarker evidence suggests the 24HR is more accurate than the food frequency questionnaire. The expense involved in administering multiple 24HRs in large epidemiologic studies, however, has up to now been prohibitive. In that context, we suggest that internet-based 24HRs, for both diet and physical activity, represent a practical and cost-effective approach for incorporating multiple recalls in large epidemiologic studies. We discuss 1) recent efforts to develop such internet-based instruments and their accompanying software support systems; 2) ongoing studies to evaluate the feasibility of using these new instruments in cohort studies; 3) additional investigations to gauge the accuracy of the internet-based recalls vis-à-vis standard instruments and biomarkers; and 4) new statistical approaches for combining the new instruments with standard assessment tools and biomarkers The incorporation of internet-based 24HRs into large epidemiologic studies may help advance our understanding of the nutritional determinants of cancer.

Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F.; Moore, Steven; Park, Yikyung; Potischman, Nancy; Thompson, Frances E.; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Kipnis, Victor

2009-01-01

157

Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2013-02-01

158

Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

1987-01-01

159

A large-scale study of bone marrow involvement in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

This study was designed to identify variables that can predict bone marrow involvement (BMI) in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and to analyze the benefit of bilateral over unilateral bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB). From 1982 to 2000, BMB had been performed at diagnosis in 1161 patients with HL who had been followed from the institutions participating in the Piemonte Hodgkin's Disease Registry. Six hundred and sixteen patients (53%) had received bilateral BMB, and the remaining 545 patients (47%) received unilateral BMB. The relationships between BMB results and other clinical features were retrospectively studied with both univariate and multivariate analyses. Ninety-two patients (8%) showed BMI: 51 of them were staged with bilateral and 41 with unilateral BMB. Among the 92 patients with BMI, a second extranodal involvement was present in only 25 patients (27%). In multivariate analysis, the 5 independent factors that predicted for BMI were B symptoms, infradiaphragmatic involvement, mixed cellularity (MC) and lymphocyte depleted (LD) histology, involvement of > or = 4 lymphatic areas, and liver involvement. The probability of BMI according to the presence of these variables was distributed as follows: 0.3%, 2.5%, 7.6%, and 27% in patients positive for 0, 1, 2, and > or = 3 factors, respectively. Among 51 patients staged with bilateral BMB, BMI was shown in both specimens in 33 cases (65%), whereas the positivity was limited to only 1 of the 2 specimens in the remaining 18 cases (35%). A score based on 5 variables can predict the probability of BMI, and BMB could be avoided in patients with a score of 0 and a probability of BMI of < 0.5%. When BMB is needed, the superiority of bilateral over unilateral biopsy is suggested. PMID:15245608

Levis, Alessandro; Pietrasanta, Daniela; Godio, Laura; Vitolo, Umberto; Ciravegna, Giorgio; Di Vito, Francesco; Gavarotti, Paolo; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Orsucci, Lorella; Raviolo, Ermanno; Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Salvi, Flavia; Tonso, Anna; Aglietta, Massimo; Boccadoro, Mario; Gallamini, Andrea; Saglio, Giuseppe; Scassa, Enzo; Gallo, Eugenio

2004-06-01

160

[Muscular involvement in the course of AIDS. Anatomo-clinical study of 17 cases].  

PubMed

We report 17 patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus, with muscle tissue involvement in different stages of the disease. Some patients are treated with azidothymidine (AZT). Others have no opportunistic infections. In all cases, there are some muscular symptoms such as progressive symetric and proximal muscular weakness with myalgias, elevated serum muscle enzymes, abnormal electromyogramma and very often a peripheral neuropathy. The muscle biopsy reveals the following features: rarely a focal muscular opportunistic infection in advanced stage of the disease is observed; a polymyositis is quite often the first clinical manifestation of the disease; a myopathy with mitochondrial involvement is observed in some of the AZT treated patients; some cachectic, under nourrished, bedridden patients present a type II muscle fiber atrophy. We conclude that a muscle biopsy could help us in our therapeutic planning directing us to a corticotherapy in the polymyositis, mitochondriopathies and wasting syndrome. Interruption alone of AZT or associated with a treatment by carnitine could allow remission of the muscular pathology. PMID:8720838

Butori, C; Desnuelle, C; Hofman, P; Paquis, V; Durant, J; Carles, M; Pesce, A; Michiels, J F

1995-01-01

161

Attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation – a study involving Baltic physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and describe attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation among a group of\\u000a Baltic physicians who are involved in this aspect of medical care. A total of 151 neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and neurologists\\u000a anonymously answered a questionnaire between February and March 1995. The majority of physicians said they would be willing\\u000a to donate their

M. Omnell Persson; P. Dmitriev; V. Shevelev; A. Zelvys; G. Hermerén; N. H. Persson

1998-01-01

162

Comparative study of the expression of proteins involved in the cell cycle in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative study of the expression of proteins involved in the cell cycle in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.BackgroundIn renal hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cell proliferation seems to play a key role in the progression of the disease. Therefore, G1\\/S transition, a main cell cycle regulatory step, could be deregulated in these patients.MethodsOne hundred and one parathyroid glands, taken from parathyroidectomies performed on 41 patients

José A Alcázar; Jose R. Polo; Juan C. Tardio; Javier Anguita; Juan C. Martinez-Montero; Rosa Jofré; Francisco J. Garcia-Criado; Javier Menárguez

2003-01-01

163

Performance study of a bridge involving sliding decks and pounded abutment during a violent earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on the sliding of bridge decks and pounding at abutment-backfill. It involves a multi-span concrete bridge supported on simple rubber bearings, subjected to longitudinal as well as vertical ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. To account for soil–structure interaction, the stiffness and strength constants of backfill soils are determined by relating the tilting

Ching-Jong Wang; Ming-Hsiang Shih

2007-01-01

164

Central nervous system involvement in Anderson-Fabry disease: a clinical and MRI retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations consist mainly of cerebrovascular events. Brain MRI results are often abnormal. Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe CNS involvement in a group of Italian patients with AFD. Methods: Clinical and brain MRI data of 43 patients

S Buechner; M Moretti; A P Burlina; G Cei; R Manara; R Ricci; R Mignani; R Parini; R Di Vito; G P Giordano; P Simonelli; G Siciliano; W Borsini

2008-01-01

165

Cat odour-induced anxiety—a study of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Recent evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid (EC) system in the regulation of anxiety.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of present work was to study the role of the EC system in cat odour-induced anxiety in rats. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were exposed to cat odour in home and motility cages. Exposure of rats to elevated zero-maze was used to

Silva Sütt; Sirli Raud; Tarmo Areda; Ain Reimets; Sulev Kõks; Eero Vasar

2008-01-01

166

Continuing Studies in Support of Ultraviolet Observations of Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was a one-year extension of an earlier Planetary Atmospheres program grant, covering the period 1 August 1996 through 30 September 1997. The grant was for supporting work to complement an active program observing planetary atmospheres with Earth-orbital telescopes, principally the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The recent concentration of this work has been on HST observations of Jupiter's upper atmosphere and aurora, but it has also included observations of Io, serendipitous observations of asteroids, and observations of the velocity structure in the interplanetary medium. The observations of Jupiter have been at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths, including imaging and spectroscopy of the auroral and airglow emissions. The most recent HST observations have been at the same time as in situ measurements made by the Galileo orbiter instruments, as reflected in the meeting presentations listed below. Concentrated efforts have been applied in this year to the following projects: The analysis of HST WFPC 2 images of Jupiter's aurora, including the Io footprint emissions. We have performed a comparative analysis of the lo footprint locations with two magnetic field models, studied the statistical properties of the apparent dawn auroral storms on Jupiter, and found various other repeated patterns in Jupiter's aurora. Analysis and modeling of airglow and auroral Ly alpha emission line profiles from Jupiter. This has included modeling the aurora] line profiles, including the energy degradation of precipitating charged particles and radiative transfer of the emerging emissions. Jupiter's auroral emission line profile is self-absorbed, since it is produced by an internal source, and the resulting emission with a deep central absorption from the overlying atmosphere permits modeling of the depth of the emissions, plus the motion of the emitting layer with respect to the overlying atmospheric column from the observed Doppler shift of the central absorption. By contrast the airglow emission line, which is dominated by resonant scattering of solar emission, has no central absorption, but displays rapid time variations and broad wings, indicative of a superthermal component (or corona) in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Modeling of the observed motions of the plumes produced after the impacts of the fragments of Comet S/L-9 with Jupiter in July 1994, from the HST WFPC 2 imaging series.

Clark, John

1997-01-01

167

Choice as an Alternative to Control in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized experiment, the investigator creates a clear and\\u000arelatively unambiguous comparison of treatment groups by exerting tight control\\u000aover the assignment of treatments to experimental subjects, ensuring that\\u000acomparable subjects receive alternative treatments. In an observational study,\\u000athe investigator lacks control of treatment assignments and must seek a clear\\u000acomparison in other ways. Care in the choice of

Paul R. Rosenbaum

1999-01-01

168

Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning.

2010-01-01

169

The new worlds observer: The astrophysics strategic mission concept study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, W.

2011-07-01

170

The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, W.; New Worlds Study Team

2010-10-01

171

The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, Webster; Kendrick, Stephen; Noecker, Charley; Bally, John; Demarines, Julia; Green, James; Oakley, Phillip; Shipley, Ann; Benson, Scott; Oleson, Steve; Content, David; Folta, Dave; Garrison, Sharon; Gendreau, Keith; Hartman, Kate; Howard, Joseph; Hyde, Tupper; Lakins, Darryl; Leitner, Jesse; Leviton, Douglas; Luquette, Rich; Oegerley, Bill; Richon, Karen; Roberge, Aki; Tompkins, Steve; Tveekrem, June; Woodgate, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Dailey, Dean; Decker, Kent; Dehmohseni, Reza; Gaugh, Brian; Glassman, Tiffany; Haney, Mickey; Hejal, Reem; Lillie, Charles; Lo, Amy; O'Conner, David; Oleas, Gina; Polidan, Ronald; Samuele, Rocco; Shields, Stephen; Shirvanian, James; Soohoo, David; Tinetti, Giovanna; Dorland, Bryan; Dudik, Rachel; Gaume, Ralph; Mason, Brian

2009-08-01

172

COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES OF COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES OBSERVED IN SNS  

SciTech Connect

During the commissioning and early operation of the Spallation Neutron Source, some physics shifts were set aside for high intensity stability studies. Under certain, especially contrived conditions, a number of beam instabilities were induced. These included both electron cloud and ring impedance driven phenomena. We are now applying both simple analytic models and the ORBIT Code to the description and simulation of these observed instabilities.

Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL; Danilov, Viatcheslav V [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Jain, Lalit K [University of Waterloo, Canada

2008-01-01

173

Observational and theoretical studies of rich clusters with multiple subcondensations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observational and theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies are investigated. The relationship between the properties of individual galaxies and their environment is examined. Perphaps the most remarkable physical result derived from these is the apparent substructure in redishift position space. The distribution of spiral galaxies is quite different from the distribution of the ellipticals. The velocity distribution for the spirals is also substantially broader than the distribution for the ellipticals.

Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

1984-01-01

174

Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation: a French multicentre observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM)—a common complication of kidney transplantation—is associated with increases in graft loss, morbidity and mortality. Methods. This is a purely observational study of 527 patients taking a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), based on data collected at a single routine visit 6-24 months after kidney transplantation. Diabetes was defined according to ADA\\/WHO guidelines. Results. The mean age of

Nassim Kamar; Christophe Mariat; Michel Delahousse; Jacques Dantal; Azmi Al Najjar; Elisabeth Cassuto; Nicole Lefrancois; Olivier Cointault; Guy Touchard; Florence Villemain

2007-01-01

175

Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

2003-01-01

176

Choice as an Alternative to Control in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In a randomized experiment, the investigator creates a clear and relatively unambiguous,comparison,of treatment,groups,by exerting tight control over the assignment of treatments to experimental subjects, ensuring,that comparable,subjects receive alternative,treatments. In an observational study, the investigator lacks control of treatment assign- ments,and must,seek a clear comparison,in other ways. Care in the choice of circumstances,in which the study,is conducted,can greatly,inuence the quality

Paul R. Rosenbaum

1999-01-01

177

Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production--Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses  

PubMed Central

Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil.

Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-01-01

178

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

179

A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health.

Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

180

A Study of Parent Involvement Issues of Disabled Students from the School Administrators and Regular Classroom Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to obtain experts' opinions on parent involvement issues of disabled students from the school administrators and regular classroom teachers. There were 39 experts consisted: (1) 8 researchers on parent involvement field; (2) 12 professors took on parent involvement subjects in university; (3) 3 school administrators and 15 regular cl assroom teachers; and (4) 1

Shu-Jou Sun

181

Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (P<0.001). When other factors known to be linked with teenage smoking were held constant, awareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required.

MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

2001-01-01

182

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

183

Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter) was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3%) eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%); screening for hypertension (81.8%), diabetes (76.0%) and dyslipidemia (56.9%); and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%); however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively). The main barriers to the provision of these services in current practice were lack of: time (86.1%), coordination with other health care professionals (61.1%), staff or resources (57.2%), financial compensation (50.8%), and clinical tools (45.5%). Conclusions Although community pharmacists think they should play a significant role in health promotion and prevention, they recognize a wide gap between their ideal and actual levels of involvement. The efficient integration of primary-care pharmacists and pharmacies into public health cannot be envisioned without addressing important organizational barriers.

2012-01-01

184

Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

2012-09-01

185

Pathway to psychiatric care in Japan: A multicenter observational study  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines pathways to psychiatric care in Japan using the same method as the collaborative study carried out in 1991 under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Methods Thirteen psychiatric facilities in Japan were involved. Of the 228 patients who contacted psychiatric facilities with any psychiatric illness, eighty four visiting psychiatric facilities for the first time were enrolled. Pathways to psychiatric care, delays from the onset of illness to treatment prior to reaching psychiatrists were surveyed. Results Thirty three patients (39.4%) directly accessed mental health professionals, 32 patients (38.1%) reached them via general hospital, and 13 patients (15.5%) via private practitioners. The patients who consulted mental health professionals as their first carers took a longer time before consulting psychiatrists than the patients who consulted non-mental health professionals as their first carers. The patients who presented somatic symptoms as their main problem experienced longer delay from the onset of illness to psychiatric care than the patients who complained about depressive or anxiety symptoms. Prior to the visit to mental health professionals, patients were rarely informed about their diagnosis and did not receive appropriate treatments from their physicians. Private practitioners were more likely to prescribe psychotropics than physicians in general hospitals, but were less likely to inform their patients of their diagnosis. Conclusion This first pathway to psychiatric care study in Japan demonstrated that referral pathway in Japan heavily relies on medical resources. The study indicates possible fields and gives indications, underlining the importance of improving skills and knowledge that will facilitate the recognition of psychiatric disorders presenting with somatic and depressive symptoms in the general health care system and by private practitioners.

Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Masamune-Koizumi, Yayoi; Otsuka, Kotaro; Tateno, Masaru; Okugawa, Gaku; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sato, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tonai, Eita; Yoshida, Kosuke; Mori, Takatoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Sato, Soichiro; Igimi, Hiroyasu; Waseda, Yoshibumi; Ueno, Takefumi; Morokuma, Ippei; Takahashi, Katsuyoshi; Sartorius, Norman

2008-01-01

186

In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work\\u000a with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly\\u000a catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies\\u000a in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp.

Hope A. Johnson; Bradley M. Tebo

2008-01-01

187

Transgenic Studies on the Involvement of Cytokinin and Gibberellin in Male Development  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops.

Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R. Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M.; Hanson, Doris D.; Malloy, Kathleen P.; Ness, Linda A.

2003-01-01

188

Hemoglobin aggregates studied under static and dynamic conditions involving the formation of nanobacteria-like structures.  

PubMed

Laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study hemoglobin in the aqueous phase. The impact that salts [NaCl, Ca?(PO?)?] and iron oxide nanoparticles have on the hemoglobin size are also studied. The first set of experiments examined hemoglobin aggregates in the aqueous phases in the presence of salts and nanoparticles. Aqueous phase samples were then dehydrated and examined using SEM. The resulting structures resemble those observed in nanobacteria studies conducted in other labs. This study demonstrates that aggregates of hemoglobin and various salts found in a physiological environment can produce structures that resemble nanobacteria. PMID:22750818

Baum, Jeramy L R; Jones, Riland L; Manning, Thomas J; Nienow, James; Phillips, Dennis

2012-06-01

189

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

190

A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

2012-01-01

191

A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions.

Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

2012-01-01

192

Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male involvement during childbirth in rural Bangladesh. These findings have important implications for program planners, who should pursue culturally sensitive ways to involve husbands in maternal health interventions and assess the effectiveness of education strategies targeted at husbands.

2012-01-01

193

Computational and Observational Studies of Interstellar Thioformaldehyde Masers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) holds considerable promise because of the close relationship between the H2CS molecule and the well-studied formaldehyde (H2CO) molecule. In particular, the well-known J(Ka,Kc) = 1(1,0) to 1(1,1) transition of H2CO at 6 cm (4.8 GHz) has an analogous H2CS transition at 1046 MHz. However, the 1046-MHz line of H2CS has never been detected astronomically. We present here a summary of: (1) a computational investigation of H2CS level populations related to known H2CO 6-cm masers, and (2) an observational campaign of four isotopologues of H2CS. Maser emission from H2CO has been observed at 6 cm for which Boland and de Jong (1981) have developed a pump model. We have extended this model to H2CS and we present preliminary calculations for a 1046-MHz maser. We intend to develop a quantitative tool for interpreting H2CS observations toward Galactic and extragalactic locations of H2CO maser emission by constructing a radiative-transfer maser model for H2CS. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in a few Galactic sources via J>1 transitions. However, interpretation of these results has two outstanding problems: the H2CS/H2CO abundances do not agree with known sulfur-to-oxygen ratios nor do the J>1 populations have the expected Boltzmann relationship to the J=1 states. A detection of the 1046-MHz transition of H2CS with J=1 would alleviate many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of existing observational results. We describe our forthcoming experiment to search in a Galactic star-forming region for thermal and nonthermal emission and absorption from four thioformaldehyde isotopologues: H2(12C)(32S), H2(13C)(32S), H2(12C)(34S), and D2(12C)(32S). Taken together, both parts of this research effort will provide valuable and novel constraints on H2CS and H2CO. New observations of H2CS isotopologues will yield new measurements of deuterium-to-hydrogen and sulfur-to-oxygen ratios in star-forming environments. Also, the application of the H2CO maser pump model to H2CS will provide new insights on the rare and enigmatic H2CO masers in the Galaxy. This work is supported by Wittenberg University through the Physics Department and the Student Development Board.

Simpson, Lisa; Hoffman, I. M.

2013-06-01

194

Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.  

PubMed

Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

2012-09-01

195

Arctic Sea ice studies with passive microwave satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this research are: (1) to improve sea ice concentration determinations from passive microwave space observations; (2) to study the role of Arctic polynyas in the production of sea ice and the associated salinization of Arctic shelf water; and (3) to study large scale sea ice variability in the polar oceans. The strategy is to analyze existing data sets and data acquired from both the DMSP SSM/I and recently completed aircraft underflights. Special attention will be given the high resolution 85.5 GHz SSM/I channels for application to thin ice algorithms and processes studies. Analysis of aircraft and satellite data sets is expected to provide a basis for determining the potential of the SSM/I high frequency channels for improving sea ice algorithms and for investigating oceanic processes. Improved sea ice algorithms will aid the study of Arctic coastal polynyas which in turn will provide a better understanding of the role of these polynyas in maintaining the Arctic watermass structure. Analysis of satellite and archived meteorological data sets will provide improved estimates of annual, seasonal and shorter-term sea ice variability.

Cavalieri, D. J.

1988-01-01

196

Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15%) patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32%) had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35%) had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR) seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

2011-01-01

197

CNODES: the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies.  

PubMed

Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3)?for each question, a study team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are "blind" to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6)?analyses using multivariable methods are lodged centrally with a methods team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects studying acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in study populations totalling over 40 million. PMID:23687528

Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lelorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary

2012-01-01

198

On the number of observable species, observable reactions and observable fluxes in chemometric studies and the role of multichannel integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is assumed that preliminary experiments are performed to measure the absorbance of a liquid in a chemically reactive system. Further, given the exploratory nature of the study it is assumed that no further information is available concerning the species present nor the reactions occurring. The principle chemometric goals of such an exploratory experimental study can be stated as follows;

Marc Garland; Erik Visser; Peter Terwiesch; David W. T. Rippin

1997-01-01

199

Hydrogen bonding involving ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic esters and substituted phenols: an infrared spectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen-bonded complexes between phenol derivatives and methyl acrylate, methyl trans- crotonate and methyl trans-cinnamate were studied in carbon tetrachloride solution by infrared spectroscopy. Temperature variation studies were used to evaluate both formation constants and the enthalpies of complex formation. It is shown that the relative values of enthalpies associated with the hydrogen bonding process in the various systems studied depend on the substituent constants of both the ester and phenol substituents. In addition, it is also shown that the observed shifts in the carbonyl stretching frequency upon complexation can be correlated with ? H, thus providing a useful indirect way of measuring the strength of the hydrogen bond.

Faria, M. Dulce G.; Teixeira-Dias, J. J. C.; Fausto, R.

1991-12-01

200

An ambispective observational study in the safety and efficacy of posterior colporrhaphy with composite Vicryl-Prolene mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence to show that the use of surgical meshes reduces recurrence rates of hernia repair and anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of posterior colporrhaphy with mesh in patients with posterior vaginal prolapse. An ambispective observational study involving 90 patients was conducted with retrospective chart review and

Y. N. Lim; Ajay Rane; R. Muller

2005-01-01

201

Positive Facial Affect - An fMRI Study on the Involvement of Insula and Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala.

Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

202

The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard.

Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

2014-01-01

203

Analytic Studies of Local-Severe-Storm Observables by Satellites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial an...

P. Dergarabedian F. Fendell

1977-01-01

204

Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

Holman, Gordon D.

1992-01-01

205

Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

Saykally, Richard James

2003-01-01

206

Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

Hutchinson, M. G.

1988-12-01

207

Comparison of clustering algorithms on generalized propensity score in observational studies: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observational studies, unbalanced observed covariates between treatment groups often cause biased inferences on the estimation of treatment effects. Recently, generalized propensity score (GPS) has been proposed to overcome this problem; however, a practical technique to apply the GPS is lacking. This study demonstrates how clustering algorithms can be used to group similar subjects based on transformed GPS. We compare

Chunhao Tu; Shuo Jiao; Woon Yuen Koh

2012-01-01

208

Study of immune cells involved in the antitumor effect of kefir in a murine breast cancer model.  

PubMed

Administration of kefir and a kefir cell-free fraction (KF) to mice injected with breast tumor cells produced, locally in the mammary gland, different profiles of cells secreting cytokines. Here, the immune cell populations in mammary glands affected by the cyclic consumption of kefir or KF for 2 or 7 d were evaluated using a breast tumor model. Apoptosis was also assayed as another mechanism involved in tumor growth delay. The rate development of tumor cells, IgA(+) cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was monitored in mammary gland tissues. The number of Bcl-2(+) cells in the mammary gland was compared with the apoptosis observed in the tumor. Two-day cyclical administration of both products delayed tumor growth and increased the number of IgA(+) cells in the mammary gland. Changes in the balance between CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the mammary gland were observed in mice from the group fed KF cyclically for 2 d, such that the number of CD4+ cells increased when the number of CD8+ cells remained constant. Mice that received 2-d cyclic administration of KF showed significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells and decreases in Bcl-2(+) cells in the mammary gland, compared with the tumor control group. The present study allows a better understanding of the mechanisms (immune and nonimmune) involved in the antitumor effect observed in mice administered kefir or KF. The importance of nonmicrobial components released during milk fermentation to obtain the beneficial antitumor effects is also reported. PMID:17369232

de Moreno de Leblanc, A; Matar, C; Farnworth, E; Perdigón, G

2007-04-01

209

Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: II: Too Observations of Transient LMXBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Grant NAG 5-9045 provided funds for the research project 'TOO Observations of Transient LMxBs' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposal was Dr. M. Mendez (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/1/2000. The original proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. William S. Pauesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. The proposal was intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by making RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of two transient LMXBs, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, if the sources became sufficiently bright.

Paciesas, William S.

2002-01-01

210

Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them.

Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

2013-01-01

211

Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy. PMID:23995770

Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

2014-07-01

212

Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future research conducted within the MRC Clinical Trials Unit and beyond.

2012-01-01

213

Cell compatibility of fibrin sealants: in vitro study with cells involved in soft tissue repair.  

PubMed

Fibrin sealants can be used to support tissue regeneration or as vehicles for delivery of cells in tissue engineering. Differences in the composition of fibrin sealants, however, could determine the success of such applications. The results presented in this article show clear differences between Fibrin sealant A (FS A) clots and Fibrin sealant B (FS B) clots with respect to their compatibility with primary human cells involved in soft tissue repair. FS A clots, which are characterized by a physiological coarse fibrin structure, promoted attachment, spreading, and proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In contrast, FS B clots displaying a fine to medium clot structure failed to support spreading of all three cell types. Adhesion of keratinocytes was decreased on FS B clots compared to FS A clots after 3 h incubation, whereas number of attached fibroblasts and endothelial cells was initially comparable between the two fibrin sealants. However, all three cell types proliferated on FS A clots but no sustained proliferation was detected on FS B clots. We further demonstrate that the observed differences between FS A and B clots are partly based upon 1 M sodium chloride extractable constituents, like thrombin, and partly on nonextractable constituents or the fibrin structure. In conclusion, our in vitro results demonstrate that FS A clots serve as a provisional matrix that encourages adhesion and growth of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Therefore, FS A seems to be well suited for applications in tissue engineering. PMID:20624847

Macasev, Diana; Diorio, James P; Gugerell, Alfred; Goppelt, Andreas; Gulle, Heinz; Bittner, Michaela

2011-08-01

214

Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: Observational and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting observations of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, observations of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous studies indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new observations indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such method is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy was employed only at infrared wavelengths. The final phase of this dissertation work was to design, build and test a velocity modulation spectrometer which functions at millimeter/sub-mm wavelengths. This system was then used to measure the previously unknown pure rotational spectrum of SH+ (X3E- ).

Savage, Chandra Shannon

2004-11-01

215

Clinicians' gut feeling about serious infections in children: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the basis and added value of clinicians’ “gut feeling” that infections in children are more serious than suggested by clinical assessment. Design Observational study. Setting Primary care setting, Flanders, Belgium. Participants Consecutive series of 3890 children and young people aged 0-16 years presenting in primary care. Main outcome measures Presenting features, clinical assessment, doctors’ intuitive response at first contact with children in primary care, and any subsequent diagnosis of serious infection determined from hospital records. Results Of the 3369 children and young people assessed clinically as having a non-severe illness, six (0.2%) were subsequently admitted to hospital with a serious infection. Intuition that something was wrong despite the clinical assessment of non-severe illness substantially increased the risk of serious illness (likelihood ratio 25.5, 95% confidence interval 7.9 to 82.0) and acting on this gut feeling had the potential to prevent two of the six cases being missed (33%, 95% confidence interval 4.0% to 100%) at a cost of 44 false alarms (1.3%, 95% confidence interval 0.95% to 1.75%). The clinical features most strongly associated with gut feeling were the children’s overall response (drowsiness, no laughing), abnormal breathing, weight loss, and convulsions. The strongest contextual factor was the parents’ concern that the illness was different from their previous experience (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 12.3 to 107). Conclusions A gut feeling about the seriousness of illness in children is an instinctive response by clinicians to the concerns of the parents and the appearance of the children. It should trigger action such as seeking a second opinion or further investigations. The observed association between intuition and clinical markers of serious infection means that by reflecting on the genesis of their gut feeling, clinicians should be able to hone their clinical skills.

2012-01-01

216

A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

1981-01-01

217

DFT study of quercetin activated forms involved in antiradical, antioxidant, and prooxidant biological processes.  

PubMed

Quercetin, one of the most representative flavonoid compounds, is involved in antiradical, antioxidant, and prooxidant biological processes. Despite a constant increase of knowledge on both positive and negative activities of quercetin, it is unclear which activated form (quinone, semiquinone, or deprotonated) actually plays a role in each of these processes. Structural, electronic, and energetic characteristics of quercetin, as well as the influence of a copper ion on all of these parameters, are studied by means of quantum chemical electronic structure calculations. Introduction of thermodynamic cycles together with the role of coreactive compounds, such as reactive oxygen species, gives a glimpse of the most probable reaction schemes. Such a theoretical approach provides another hint to clarify which reaction is likely to occur within the broad range of quercetin biological activities. PMID:17263492

Fiorucci, Sébastien; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Cabrol-Bass, Daniel; Antonczak, Serge

2007-02-01

218

Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences. PMID:11949902

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2002-01-01

219

Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

2013-12-01

220

Energy intakes of ultraendurance cyclists during competition, an observational study.  

PubMed

Endurance events>10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous studies in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. This observational study included 18 cyclists in a 384-km cycle race. At race registration each cyclist's support crew was provided with a food diary for their cyclist. On completion of the race, cyclists were asked to recall their race food and drink intakes. All food and fluids were analyzed using a computer software package. Mean (SD) time to complete the race was 16 hr 21 min (2 hr 2 min). Mean (SD) energy intake was 18.7 (8.6) MJ, compared with an estimated energy requirement for the race of 25.5 (7.4) MJ. There was a significant negative relationship between energy intake and time taken to complete the race (p=.023, r²=-.283). Mean (SD) carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes were 52 (27), 15.84 (56.43), and 2.94 (7.25) g/hr, respectively. Only carbohydrate (p=.015, r²=-.563) and fat intake (p=.037, r²=-.494) were associated with time taken to complete the race. This study demonstrates the difficulties in meeting the high energy demands of ultraendurance cycling. The relationship between energy intake and performance suggests that reducing the energy deficit may be advantageous. Given the high carbohydrate intakes of these athletes, increasing energy intake from fat should be investigated as a means of decreasing energy deficits. PMID:22248496

Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L; Brown, Rachel C

2012-02-01

221

A Generalized Model to Estimate the Statistical Power in Mitochondrial Disease Studies Involving 2xk Tables  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation (i.e. haplogroups) has been analyzed in regards to a number of multifactorial diseases. The statistical power of a case-control study determines the a priori probability to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity between cases and controls. Methods/Principal Findings We critically review previous approaches to the estimation of the statistical power based on the restricted scenario where the number of cases equals the number of controls, and propose a methodology that broadens procedures to more general situations. We developed statistical procedures that consider different disease scenarios, variable sample sizes in cases and controls, and variable number of haplogroups and effect sizes. The results indicate that the statistical power of a particular study can improve substantially by increasing the number of controls with respect to cases. In the opposite direction, the power decreases substantially when testing a growing number of haplogroups. We developed mitPower (http://bioinformatics.cesga.es/mitpower/), a web-based interface that implements the new statistical procedures and allows for the computation of the a priori statistical power in variable scenarios of case-control study designs, or e.g. the number of controls needed to reach fixed effect sizes. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides with statistical procedures for the computation of statistical power in common as well as complex case-control study designs involving 2×k tables, with special application (but not exclusive) to mtDNA studies. In order to reach a wide range of researchers, we also provide a friendly web-based tool – mitPower – that can be used in both retrospective and prospective case-control disease studies.

Amigo, Jorge; Gonzalez-Manteiga, Wenceslao

2013-01-01

222

The Impact of Observational Learning and Electronic Word of Mouth on Consumer Purchase Decisions: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expertise and Consumer Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social media revolution has created a dynamic shift in the digital marketing landscape. The voice of influence is moving from traditional marketers towards consumers through online social interactions. In this study, we focus on two types of online social interactions, namely, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and observational learning (OL), and explore how they influence consumer purchase decisions. We

Christy M. K. Cheung; Bo Xiao; Ivy L. B. Liu

2012-01-01

223

An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers  

PubMed Central

To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

2010-01-01

224

An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.  

PubMed

To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

2010-01-01

225

Clinical and MRI study of brain stem and cerebellar involvement in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate the clinical and MRI features of brain stem and cerebellar lesions in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.?METHODS—A retrospective study of 66 consecutive Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis (42 women and 24 men) was done by reviewing the medical records and MRI films. Forty nine patients were diagnosed as having clinically definite multiple sclerosis and 17 patients as having clinically probable multiple sclerosis according to Poser's criteria. Prevalence rates of each brain stem and cerebellar manifestation and frequency and distribution of MRI lesions in these patients were studied.?RESULTS—Forty three patients (65%) had one or more infratentorial manifestations. Cranial nerves were clinically involved in 28 patients (42%), and most of the lesions were identified by MRI. Among them, manifestations of facial, trigeminal, and abducens nerves were relatively common. Cerebellar ataxia was found in 20 patients (30%). The MRI study showed that the lesions responsible for ataxia in these patients were mainly found in the cerebellar peduncles, but cerebellar hemispheric lesions were detected in only four patients (6.4%).?CONCLUSION—The low frequency (6.4%) of the cerebellar MRI lesions in these patients is in sharp contrast with the figures reported for white patients with multiple sclerosis (50%-90%). Racial and genetic differences may have an influence on the susceptibility of each part of the CNS to demyelination in multiple sclerosis.??

Nakashima, I.; Fujihara, K.; Okita, N.; Takase, S.; Itoyama, Y.

1999-01-01

226

The value of site-based observations complementary to naturalistic driving observations: a pilot study on the right turn manoeuvre.  

PubMed

Naturalistic driving studies are increasingly applied in different shapes and sizes. The European project PROLOGUE has investigated the value and feasibility of a large-scale naturalistic driving study in Europe. Within PROLOGUE several pilot studies have been conducted in different countries. The Dutch field trial investigated the value and feasibility of adding site-based observations to in-vehicle observations. In this trial, one intersection was equipped with cameras for site-based observation. Additionally eight cars were equipped of drivers crossing this intersection regularly. On this small scale, combining the two observation methods turned out to be technically feasible. It was possible to recognise the instrumented vehicles in the site-based video data, to match cases from the different observations and the speed measures from the separate studies appeared to be similar. The value of combining these two observation methods lies in the possibility to enrich the data from one study with complementary data from the other study. The study illustrated that each type of observation has its unique values. From in-vehicle data it is possible to look in detail at the driving behaviour of the participants over time and in different situations. The site-based study offers information about the position and speed of other road users surrounding the participant's vehicle, including vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians. Two values of adding site-based observations to in-vehicle observations were identified: to obtain more in depth understanding and to relate the behaviour of participants of the naturalistic driving study to behaviour of the full population of drivers (non-participants). For a future (large-scale) naturalistic driving study two research topics are identified that could benefit from these complementary observations: driving behaviour in relation to specific infrastructure and the interaction between drivers and vulnerable road users. PMID:23915473

van Nes, Nicole; Christoph, Michiel; Hoedemaeker, Marika; van der Horst, Richard A

2013-09-01

227

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the

C. Aubrecht; C. D. Elvidge; D. Ziskin; K. E. Baugh; B. Tuttle; E. Erwin; N. Kerle

2009-01-01

228

Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

Dasgupta, Pushan R.

2009-01-01

229

Nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer: Observation of combination bands of (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2 involving the torsion and antigeared bending modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra of the nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer in the region of the N2O ?1 fundamental band were observed in a supersonic slit-jet apparatus. The expansion gas was probed using radiation from a quantum cascade or a tunable diode laser, with both lasers employed in a rapid-scan signal averaging mode. Four bands were observed and analyzed: new combination bands involving the intermolecular conrotation of the monomers (Ag antigeared bend) for (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2, the previously reported torsional combination band for (14N2O)2 with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the same torsional combination band for (15N2O)2. The resulting frequencies for the intermolecular antigeared mode are 96.0926(1) and 95.4912(1) cm-1 for (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2, respectively. This is the third of the four intermolecular frequencies which has now been measured experimentally, the others being the out-of-plane torsion and the geared bend modes. Our experimental results are in good agreement with two recent high level ab initio theoretical calculations.

Rezaei, M.; Michaelian, K. H.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

2012-03-01

230

Observational Buoy Studies of Coastal Air-Sea Fluxes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advancements in measurement and analysis techniques have allowed air-sea fluxes to be measured directly from moving platforms at sea relatively easily. These advances should lead to improved surface flux parameterizations, and thus to improved coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. The Naval Postgraduate School has developed a `flux buoy' (FB) that directly measures air-sea fluxes, mean meteorological parameters, and one-dimensional and directional wave spectra. In this study, the FB instrumentation and data analysis techniques are described, and the data collected during two U.S. east coast buoy deployments are used to examine the impact of atmospheric and surface wave properties on air-sea momentum transfer in coastal ocean regions. Data obtained off Duck, North Carolina, clearly show that, for a given wind speed, neutral drag coefficients in offshore winds are higher than those in onshore winds. Offshore wind drag coefficients observed over the wind speed range from 5 to 21 m s1 were modeled equally well by a linear regression on wind speed, and a Charnock model with a constant of 0.016. Measurements from an FB deployment off Wallops Island, Virginia, show that neutral drag coefficients in onshore winds increase as the wind-wave direction differences increase, especially beyond ±60°.

Frederickson, Paul A.; Davidson, Kenneth L.

2003-02-01

231

Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This study is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such studies.

Koch, Steven E.

1995-01-01

232

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ?16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ?16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids.

2010-01-01

233

Heart involvement in systemic sclerosis: a combined echocardiographic and scintigraphic study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients without clinically evident heart disease for cardiac abnormalities. SSc patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls from the hospital staff underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of the left ventricle (LV) morphology and function and estimation of the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Patients further underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scintigraphy by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Thirty-seven patients were included (33 women, 19 with diffuse, and 18 with limited SSc). LV hypertrophy was more common in SSc patients than controls (24.3 vs 0 %, p?=?0.001). Impaired LV relaxation was found in 45.9 % of patients and 40.5 % controls (p?=?0.639). Excluding patients with arterial hypertension, LV hypertrophy was still found in 23.1 % and LV relaxation impairment in 38.5 %. PASP over 30 mmHg was found in 13 patients (35.1 %), 11 of whom had no history of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Of 35 patients who underwent SPECT, 21 patients (60 %) exhibited reversible LV perfusion defects. Their mean age was 51.8 years; four patients were younger than 40 years old and eight patients younger than 50 years. In all cases, ischemia was graded as mild or moderate and in a single case, graded as significant. Subclinical heart involvement is common in SSc patients even in the younger age groups. LV hypertrophy and impaired relaxation, raised PASP, and ischemia on MPI with SPECT are found in a significant proportion of SSc patients. Careful screening of SSc patients for potential heart involvement and consultation by a cardiologist may be of value. PMID:24847773

Papagoras, Charalampos; Achenbach, Kerstin; Tsifetaki, Niki; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Drosos, Alexandros A

2014-08-01

234

Arctic ocean study: Synthesis of model results and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model development and simulations represent a comprehensive synthesis of observations with advances in numerous disciplines (physics; mathematics; and atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and related sciences), enabling hypothesis testing via numerical experiments. For the Arctic Ocean, modeling has become one of the major instruments for understanding past conditions and explaining recently observed changes.In this context, the international Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

A. Proshutinsky; J. Yang; R. Krishfield; R. Gerdes; M. Karcher; F. Kauker; C. Koeberle; S. Hakkinen; W. Hibler; D. Holland; M. Maqueda; G. Holloway; E. Hunke; W. Maslowski; M. Steele; J. Zhang

2005-01-01

235

Investigating outcomes associated with medication use during pregnancy: a review of methodological challenges and observational study designs.  

PubMed

In the absence of randomised controlled trials, knowledge of outcomes associated with medication use during pregnancy is dependent on observational studies. Numerous observational study designs exist, with the decision on which is most appropriate depending on a number of factors, including the exposure and outcome under investigation and knowledge of key methodological issues. This review provides an overview of the key methodological issues involved in undertaking observational studies to investigate medication use during pregnancy, including selection bias, exposure and outcome classification, information bias, confounding and statistical analysis. This review also discusses observational study types used to investigate outcomes associated with medication use during pregnancy and summarises their relative strengths and weaknesses. Knowledge of the strengths, weaknesses and methodological issues associated with observational studies can assist clinicians in making assessments about the validity and applicability of results presented in order to provide the best recommendations to patients. PMID:22329969

Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Gilbert, Andrew L; Morrison, Janna L

2012-06-01

236

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

237

Effect of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces: A SEM study  

PubMed Central

Background: A surface smear layer consisting of organic and inorganic material is formed on the root surface following mechanical instrumentation and may inhibit the formation of new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. Modification of the tooth surface by root conditioning has resulted in improved connective tissue attachment and has advanced the goal of reconstructive periodontal treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on the instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces in vitro using a scanning electron microscope. Settings and Design: A total of 45 dentin samples obtained from 15 extracted, scaled, and root planed teeth were divided into three groups. Materials and Methods: The root conditioning agents were applied with cotton pellets using the Passive burnishing technique for 5 minutes. The samples were then examined by the scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows). For all quantitative variables means and standard deviations were calculated and compared. For more than two groups ANOVA was applied. For multiple comparisons post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction was used. Results: Upon statistical analysis the root conditioning agents used in this study were found to be effective in removing the smear layer, uncovering and widening the dentin tubules and unmasking the dentin collagen matrix. Conclusion: Tetracycline HCl was found to be the best root conditioner among the three agents used.

Chahal, Gurparkash Singh; Chhina, Kamalpreet; Chhabra, Vipin; Bhatnagar, Rakhi; Chahal, Amna

2014-01-01

238

General Practitioners involvement in enteral tube feeding at home: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Complex medical treatment is moving from hospital to primary care and General Practitioners (GPs) are increasingly asked to undertake new roles. There are now an estimated 19,500 patients being fed in the UK in the community on enteral tube feeding using a variety of different feeding tubes (Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), Jejunostomy, or nasogastric (NG). The majority of patients are over the age of 65 years when they had artificial feeding initiated and mainly because of dysphagia. The aim of this study was to explore GPs knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to enteral feeding in the community. Methods Semi-structured one-to-one interviews with a convenience sample of GPs in Northern Ireland. Results Twenty-three GPs in three health boards in Northern Ireland participated in the study. Most found dealing with enteral feeding to be a predominantly negative experience. They had little involvement in patient selection for the procedure and poor or no discharge information. GPs felt inadequately trained, there was poor communication between primary and secondary care and little support. There was anger and frustration among GPs about lack of resources (funding and training), and the perception that primary care was used as a dumping ground. Conclusion Moving complex medical treatment from secondary to primary care has major implications for GPs who should be included in the patient selection process, have adequate discharge information about their patients, be adequately resourced and have appropriate support and training.

Madigan, Sharon M; Fleming, Paul; McCann, Siobhan; Wright, Marion E; MacAuley, Domhnall

2007-01-01

239

Responsibility Study: Main Illicit Psychoactive Substances Among Car Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Crashes  

PubMed Central

In 1999, in France, before considering modifications in drug legislation, the government requested a study of the effect of illicit drugs on the risk of road crashes. It implemented a systematic screening of illicit drugs for all drivers involved in fatal crashes between October 2001 and September 2003. Within the European DRUID project, the study was restricted to car drivers. The project reported here is a responsibility analysis and, as such, it belongs to the framework of case-control studies; the outcome of interest is “being responsible for a fatal crash”. It was assessed with a method adapted from Robertson and Drummer. Cases are the 4,946 car drivers who are responsible for the crash; controls are the 1,986 car drivers selected from the non-responsible car drivers, in a way that makes the control group similar to the general driving population. The effect of cannabis on fatal crash responsibility is significant after adjustment for age, sex and alcohol: adjusted odds ratio is 1.89 [1.43–2.51]. The dose-response effect is significant (p=0.0001). For alcohol (?0.1 g/l), the adjusted odds ratio for responsibility is 8.39 [6.95–10.11]. No interaction was found between alcohol and cannabis. For amphetamine, cocaine and opiates, adjusted odds ratios were not significantly different from 1. However the statistical power is low. The study finds similar odds ratios for alcohol as previously published. For cannabis, the significant odds ratio together with the significant dose-response effect indicates a causal relationship between cannabis and road crashes. A multiplicative effect between cannabis and alcohol was noted.

Gadegbeku, Blandine; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard

2011-01-01

240

Peculiarities of plastic flow involving “deformation waves” observed during low-temperature tensile tests of highly irradiated 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper, it was shown that the expectation that neutron irradiation of low-nickel austenitic steels leads to a low saturation level of ductility is not always valid. At high dose ductility is observed first to decrease with dpa during room temperature testing and then under some conditions to increase at higher dose. This produces anomalously high deformation arising from a previously unrecognized mechanism that precludes sustained necking and produces a moving deformation front. It was earlier speculated that this behavior is a result of ?-martensite formation in the deforming region. New studies involving testing over -115 to +120 °C confirm that the ? ? ? transformation is involved with this deformation mechanism and is the cause of the recaptured ductility. When the irradiated alloy has not yet reached the dose threshold of wave initiation at room temperature a decrease in test temperature can induce wave generation, consistent with the known effect of temperature on martensite instability.

Gusev, M. N.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Garner, F. A.

2010-08-01

241

Teachers' and Pupils' Behavior in Large and Small Classes: A Systematic Observation Study of Pupils Aged 10 and 11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined class size effects on teacher-pupil interactions, pupil engagement, and pupil-pupil interaction. They extended previous research by recognizing the hierarchical nature of observation data and the possible influence of other variables. The study used a time sampling method involving 257 children (aged 10-11 years) in 16 small…

Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

2005-01-01

242

A study of parental involvement in pediatric hospital care: implications for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although it has become common practice for parents to stay with their sick child in hospital, most hospitals lack routines and staff guidelines for involving parents in care processes and decisions. Aim: To gain a deeper understanding of factors that influence parental involvement and to clarify the parental role in the hospital care of chronically ill children. Methods: Semistructured

Britt Marie Ygge; Judith E Arnetz

2004-01-01

243

An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

2010-01-01

244

Intravenous immunoglobulins improve the function and ameliorate joint involvement in systemic sclerosis: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In systemic sclerosis (SSc), joint involvement may reduce the functional capacity of the hands. Intravenous immunoglobulins have previously been shown to benefit patients with SSc.Aim: To verify the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins on joint involvement and function in SSc.Patients and methods: 7 women with SSc, 5 with limited and 2 with diffuse SSc, with a severe and refractory joint

F Nacci; A Righi; M L Conforti; I Miniati; G Fiori; D Martinovic; D Melchiorre; T Sapir; M Blank; Y Shoenfeld; A Moggi Pignone; M Matucci Cerinic

2007-01-01

245

Parenting Alliance as a Predictor of Father Involvement: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between parenting alliance, marital quality, and the amount of involvement fathers have in raising their young children was examined (N=89). Each parent's involvement (interaction, accessibility, responsibility) and perceptions of the parenting alliance and marital quality were measured. Self-report and interview data were…

McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.

1998-01-01

246

Parents, Principals, and Power: A Historical Case Study of "Managing" Parental Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarship on parent-principal relationships often ignores how some parental involvement can create challenges for school leaders. We analyze parent-principal relationships at an urban public K-8 school over a 30-year period, exploring how three different principals "managed" parental involvement. Our analysis reveals how these principals…

Horvat, Erin McNamara; Curci, Juliet DiLeo; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin

2010-01-01

247

Prevention of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B: An Observation Study  

PubMed Central

Background For mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the US Centers for Disease Control recommend immunoprophylaxis to decrease perinatal transmission; however, its effectiveness and risk factors for failure have not been well studied in community practice. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a contemporary immunoprophylaxis protocol. Design Observational study. Setting HBV perinatal immunoprophylaxis program within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health services delivery organization. Patients 4,446 infants born to 3,253 HBV positive mothers, between 1997-2010. Measurements Compliance with immunoprophylaxis, follow-up testing rates, maternal risk factors for HBV transmission and transmission rates. Results The infant infection rate was 0.75 per 100 births for 1997-2010 (Poisson 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.10)]. Rates were 3.37 per 100 (95% CI 2.08-5.14) for e-antigen positive mothers; and 0.04 (95% CI 0.001-0.24) for e-antigen negative mothers. Among mothers with viral load testing, the lowest level associated with transmission was 63,200,000 IU/ml. Infection rates per 100 were 3.61 (95% CI 0.75-10.56) among the 83 births to mothers with viral loads ?50,000,000 IU/mL and 0.00 among the 831 births to mothers with viral loads <50,000,000 IU/mL, regardless of e-antigen status. Limitations Testing for HBV immunity and infection was somewhat less complete in earlier years. Viral load testing was only consistently available starting in 2007. Conclusion Pre-natal HBV screening followed by post-natal prophylaxis is highly effective in preventing vertical transmission of HBV. A negative e-antigen status or a viral load of <50,000,000 IU/mL (90.9% of women tested) identifies women at extremely low risk of transmission after immunoprophylaxis who are unlikely to benefit from further interventions. Primary Funding Source Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Grant (CN-09LShla-01-H); National Institute of Health (K07CA166143-01A1 and KL2TR000143).

Kubo, Ai; Shlager, Lyle; Marks, Amy R.; Lakritz, Dena; Beaumont, Colette; Gabellini, Kim; Corley, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

248

Constant involvement of the Betz cells and pyramidal tract in multiple system atrophy: a clinicopathological study of seven autopsy cases.  

PubMed

We investigated clinicopathologically the pyramidal signs, including spasticity, hyperreflexia, and Babinski's sign, and the involvement of the pyramidal tract and primary motor cortex, in seven Japanese autopsy cases of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Pyramidal signs were observed in six (86%) of the seven autopsy cases. Hyperreflexia and Babinski's sign were each evident in five patients, but spasticity was observed in only one patient. Loss of Betz cells and presence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the primary motor cortex were noticed in all seven cases. Astrocytosis in the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex was noticed in five cases, but its presence was not related to the duration of the disease. Involvement of the pyramidal tract in the spinal cord, particularly of the small myelinated fibers, was observed in all seven cases, but no involvement of the pyramidal tract in the midbrain was evident in any of the six cases in which this structure was examined. In MSA, pyramidal signs were shown to be present more frequently than believed before, and the clinicopathological correlation between pyramidal signs and involvement of the pyramidal tract was obvious. Constant involvement of Betz cells in MSA has not been reported. Our clinicopathological findings may also make a contribution to the understanding of the clinicopathological hallmarks of MSA. PMID:10867796

Tsuchiya, K; Ozawa, E; Haga, C; Watabiki, S; Ikeda, M; Sano, M; Ooe, K; Taki, K; Ikeda, K

2000-06-01

249

Observations of Parent-Child Co-Shoppers in Supermarkets: Children’s Involvement in Food Selections, Parental Yielding, and Refusal Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and

Maureen O’Dougherty; Mary Story; Jamie Stang

2006-01-01

250

Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for substance-exposed infants. This paper describes services used by VIP-RI participants and child welfare outcomes. Methods Data collected during the first four years of VIP-RI were used to identify characteristics of program participants, services received, and child welfare outcomes: closed child welfare cases, reunification with biological mothers and identified infant permanent placements. Descriptive Results Medical and financial services were associated with positive child welfare outcomes. Medical services included family planning, pre- and post-natal care and HIV test counseling. Financial services included assistance with obtaining entitlement benefits and receiving tangible support such as food and clothing. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest services that address basic family needs were related to positive child welfare outcomes. The provision of basic services, such as health care and financial assistance through entitlement benefits and tangible donations, may help to establish a foundation so mothers can concentrate on recovery and parenting skills. Identification of services for perinatal substance users that are associated with more successful child welfare outcomes has implications for the child welfare system, treatment providers, courts and families.

2010-01-01

251

Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus  

PubMed Central

Background Pachysolen tannophilus is a non-conventional yeast, which can metabolize many of the carbon sources found in low cost feedstocks including glycerol and xylose. The xylose utilisation pathways have been extensively studied in this organism. However, the mechanism behind glycerol metabolism is poorly understood. Using the recently published genome sequence of P. tannophilus CBS4044, we searched for genes with functions in glycerol transport and metabolism by performing a BLAST search using the sequences of the relevant genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as queries. Results Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to unveil the expression patterns of these genes during growth of P. tannophilus on glycerol and glucose as sole carbon sources. The genes predicted to be involved in glycerol transport in P. tannophilus were expressed in S. cerevisiae to validate their function. The S. cerevisiae strains transformed with heterologous genes showed improved growth and glycerol consumption rates with glycerol as the sole carbon source. Conclusions P. tannophilus has characteristics relevant for a microbial cell factory to be applied in a biorefinery setting, i.e. its ability to utilise the carbon sources such as xylose and glycerol. However, the strain is not currently amenable to genetic modification and transformation. Heterologous expression of the glycerol transporters from P. tannophilus, which has a relatively high growth rate on glycerol, could be used as an approach for improving the efficiency of glycerol assimilation in other well characterized and applied cell factories such as S. cerevisiae.

2013-01-01

252

Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the opportunities and preceded Plan in just 21.8%. Certain communication elements were occasionally absent. For example, SBAR's Recommendation and admission note information about the patient's Past Medical History were absent from 22 (55.0%) and 20 (50.0%), respectively, of patient handovers. Conclusions Clinical handover practice of faculty-level critical care physicians did not conform to any of the three predefined structuring schemes. Further research is needed to examine whether alternative approaches to handover communication can be identified and to identify features of high-quality handover communication.

2012-01-01

253

Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-?B, p38 MAPK and PI3?K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117.

MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

2014-01-01

254

An Exploration of Perceptual and Cognitive Processes Involved in Piano Study with Implications for Learning Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptual and cognitive processes involved in learning to play the piano are examined as sources of confusion and problems which might be encountered by the young learning disabled piano student. The paper is reported to be based on personal observations during private piano instruction, published and unpublished literature, and a summer…

Gilles, Dorothy Cordes

255

Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

Dittmer, P. H.

1977-01-01

256

Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. Studies with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk.

Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

1997-01-01

257

Aircraft Crashworthiness Studies: Findings in Accidents Involving an Aerial Application Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft crashworthiness features are presented, as others have done, in terms of packaging principles. Modern aerial application aircraft are recognized as being the most crashworthy in the civil aviation fleet. Eighteen accidents involving an aerial app...

W. R. Kirkham J. M. Simpson T. F. Wallace P. M. Grape

1980-01-01

258

Studying the Impact of Parental Involvement on College Student Development: A Review and Agenda for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although parental involvement in higher education has received significant attention on college campuses and by the media,\\u000a this topic has received scarce consideration in the empirical literature on college student development. The chapter begins\\u000a with a review of theoretical concepts and methodologies used in research on parental involvement in higher education. Next,\\u000a the chapter reviews relevant findings from this body

Linda J. Sax; Katherine Lynk Wartman

259

Marital Interaction of Agoraphobic Women: A Controlled, Behavioral Observation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Married couples with a female agoraphobic spouse (n = 22) were compared with demographically similar community control couples (n = 21) on self-report and observational measures of marital interaction. Consistent with hypotheses, husbands of agoraphobic women were more critical of their wives than were control husbands, and clinical couples were less likely to engage in positive problem solution than control

Dianne L. Chambless; James A. Fauerbach; Frank J. Floyd; Kimberly A. Wilson; Anna L. Remen; Babette Renneberg

2002-01-01

260

Communication during induction of paediatric anaesthesia: an observational study.  

PubMed

We aimed to identify and categorise advanced communication skills used by experienced consultant paediatric anaesthetists to facilitate the induction of paediatric anaesthesia. The communication techniques were both verbal and non-verbal. Communications with potentially negative effects were also noted. Eighty-three inductions were observed over a three-month period. The 12 anaesthetists observed were all senior consultants at a tertiary referral paediatric centre. The mean age of patients was 6.1 years SD+/-4.8. There were 53 males (63.9%) and 30 females (36.1%). A first anaesthetic was administered to 43 patients (56%) and sedative premedication to six (8%). Inhalational inductions were observed in 59 patients (71%). The remainder received an intravenous induction. Anaesthesia was induced in the operating room on 68 occasions (82%), in the induction room on 11 (13%) and in the radiology department on 4(5%). The most common communication techniques used were: voice change in 60 (72%); distraction in 49 (59%); direct commands in 39 (47%); repetition in 34 (41%); imagery in 21 (25%) and focused attention 21 (25%). Other techniques used were seeding of ideas, utilisation, non-verbal cues, double-binds, story-telling, indirect suggestion, dissociation and reversed effect. Sabotage by parents or staff such as inadvertent negative suggestions, was observed on 14 occasions (17%). Paediatric anaesthetists utilise a wide range of communication techniques in a highly flexible manner when inducing anaesthesia in children. Many of these communications can be characterised as hypnotherapeutic. Our observations suggest that formal structured training in communication skills and further research is warranted. PMID:18361008

Carlyle, A V; Ching, P C; Cyna, A M

2008-03-01

261

Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

1977-01-01

262

A knowledge synthesis of patient and public involvement in clinical practice guidelines: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Failure to reconcile patient preferences and values as well as social norms with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommendations may hamper their implementation in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients and public involvement programs (PPIP) in CPGs development and implementation. This study aims at identifying what it is about PPIP that works, in which contexts are PPIP most likely to be effective, and how are PPIP assumed to lead to better CPGs development and implementation. Methods and design A knowledge synthesis will be conducted in four phases. In phase one, literature on PPIP in CPGs development will be searched through bibliographic databases. A call for bibliographic references and unpublished reports will also be sent via the mailing lists of relevant organizations. Eligible publications will include original qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods study designs reporting on a PPIP pertaining to CPGs development or implementation. They will also include documents produced by CPGs organizations to describe their PPIP. In phase two, grounded in the program's logic model, two independent reviewers will extract data to collect information on the principal components and activities of PPIP, the resources needed, the contexts in which PPIP were developed and tested, and the assumptions underlying PPIP. Quality assessment will be made for all retained publications. Our literature search will be complemented with interviews of key informants drawn from of a purposive sample of CPGs developers and patient/public representatives. In phase three, we will synthesize evidence from both the publications and interviews data using template content analysis to organize the identified components in a meaningful framework of PPIP theories. During a face-to-face workshop, findings will be validated with different stakeholder and a final toolkit for CPGs developers will be refined. Discussion The proposed research project will be among the first to explore the PPIP in CPGs development and implementation based on a wide range of publications and key informants interviews. It is anticipated that the results generated by the proposed study will significantly contribute to the improvement of the reconciliation of CPGs with patient preferences and values as well as with social norms.

Legare, France; Boivin, Antoine; Weijden, Trudy van der; Packenham, Christine; Tapp, Sylvie; Burgers, Jako

2009-01-01

263

An observational study of post-asymptotic-giant-branch stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present an LTE model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type postasymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars. With initial masses ? 9M?, post-AGB stars form an important group of evolved stars and provide a unique opportunity to study stellar evolution almost on a human time-scale. Post-AGB stars have spectral types ranging from K to B and luminosities between 103 and 104L?. These objects ended their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution phase with a period of strong mass loss (10-7 - 10-4M? yr-1) and have been evolving from cooler to hotter temperatures at almost constant luminosity on a timescale of ˜ 104yr. B-type pAGB stars span a wide range in effective temperature (10 000 - 30 000K). Their expected surface gravities (log g ) and effective temperatures ( Teff ) coincide with those of B stars evolving from the main sequence. Therefore systematic observational analyses are required to distinguish these two groups. Furthermore, p! ost-AGB stars may be divided into four distinct groups based on their chemical composition. In this thesis, groups I and II represent post-AGB stars which are very metal deficient with C/O ? 1 and metal poor with C/O<1, when compared with the Sun, respectively. The question is whether hot pAGB stars belong to either of these four groups. Three further objectives included: 1. to discover whether post-AGB star have helium-normal or helium-rich photospheres. 2. the detection and measurement of s-process element abundances (e.g. Sr, Y, Ba, Hf). 3. to determine whether they show any anomaly in phosphorus abundance such as that seen in the extreme helium stars (EHes). High-resolution ´echelle spectra of several post-AGB stars were obtained at the AAT in 1999 and 2005 in order to study chemical composition, rotation velocities and other fundamental properties. Echelle spectra present many difficulties for data reduction, including the problems of order rectification and merging. To address these problems we developed an ´echelle spectrum reduction package, known as TIGER. These spectra were analyzed using model atmospheres and synthetic spectra computed with the Armagh LTE stellar atmospheres software. The semiautomated spectral fitting package SFIT was used to measure the stellar surface parameters and composition. The results show that Teff of the programme stars are in the range 15 000 - 25 000 K and log g are in the range 2.5 - 3.0. In addition to being metal-poor stars, they show mostly C/O<1. Several of our programme stars, namely HD119608, LSS4331, LSS5112, and LB3116 confirm this. The majority of hot post-AGB stars can be identified with the group II, metal-poor and C-deficient post-AGB stars. The model atmosphere parameters, LTE element abundances and estimated distance obtained here support the idea that programme stars are in true post-AGB stars. We detected helium enrichment in the post-AGB stars Hen3-1428 and LSS4331. We did not detect any evidence of s-process elements, primarily because of the high Teff of our targets. Our results do not show overabundance in phosphorus for any hot pAGB stars. Since we used the same atomic data and methods, we conclude that the enhancement of phosphorus previously found in some EHe stars is real. We studied stellar wind signatures for the post-AGB star LSIV-12 111. Emission line equivalent widths for Balmer lines show changes between two different epochs. Hen3-1428 and LSIV-12 111 show blue shifted absorption lines. A stellar wind is clearly present in both stars. We compared variability of a group of post-AGB and a group EHe stars using archival photometry. We did not detect variability in EHe stars. We detected variability in five post-AGB stars. Large variations in HR4049, HD213985, and HD52961 appear to be related to the binary period.

Sahin, T.

2008-05-01

264

Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment.

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2012-01-01

265

Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst  

SciTech Connect

A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

1998-04-01

266

A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.  

PubMed

Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. PMID:23354394

Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

2013-05-01

267

Observations on ion track structure in semiconductors : a phenomenological study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion track structure model at the nanometer scale is presented. The model is based on electrostatic principles and is supported by observed experimental results conducted on power MOSFETs. The model predicts the existence of a transient induced electric field following the passage of an energetic heavy ion. There are two segments to the field (a radial and an axial component). It is the interaction of this transient electric field with the local environment that can trigger a catastrophic failure.

Selva, L. E.; Wallace, R. E.

2001-01-01

268

Spectroscopic studies applied to UVIS observations of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan's atmosphere is mainly made of N2 with several percents of CH4. Other minor species, numerous hydrocarbons and nitriles, are also present as products of a complex chemistry ini-tiated by several energy sources (e.g. solar UV photons, Saturn's magnetosphere electrons). With the Cassini-Huygens mission, and in particular from UVIS observations for the high at-mosphere, we have already learned a lot about Titan's chemical composition and atmospheric profiles. However, the interpretations still need new determination of some absorption cross sec-tions. Then, with the aim to analyse UVIS observations, we have determined low temperature VUV high resolution spectra for organic comounds. These experiments have been carried out using VUV synchrotron facilities (BESSY II in Germany and SOLEIL in France). The most recent results concerning hydrocarbons like C4H2 and C6H2, and nitriles like HCN, HC3N, HC5N, C2N2, and C4N2 will be presented. Those experimental data are then used to analyse stellar occultation by Titan's atmosphere observed by UVIS in order to retrieve the abundance of those species or upper limits in case of non detection. Latest results in this field will also be shown.

Yves, Benilan; Capalbo, Fernando; Sebbar, Et Touhami Es; Fray, Nicolas; Jolly, Antoine; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Schwell, Martin

269

Endometrial stromal sarcoma involving the urinary bladder: a study of 6 cases.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) involving the urinary bladder is very rare, with no prior series reported. We identified 6 cases of low-grade ESS involving the bladder at our institution (1998 to 2013), 5 of them consults. The median age at bladder involvement was 60 years (range, 44 to 77 y). One patient presented with bladder involvement at initial diagnosis of ESS. The remaining 5 cases with bladder involvement presented 7 to 30 years (mean 18 y) after a known diagnosis of ESS (n=2) or after a remote history of hysterectomy with an uncertain diagnosis (n=3). The location of bladder involvement included dome (n=1), trigone (n=2), diffuse (n=1), and unknown (n=2). Two cases demonstrated worm-like infiltrating tumor nests classic of low-grade ESS with little stromal reaction with retraction artifact mimicking vascular invasion. One case originating from the ovary showed focal glandular differentiation in the bladder, resembling endometriosis. Two cases had abundant keloidal collagen formation, arranged haphazardly or in a sunburst pattern. One case showed primitive cells infiltrating entirely hyalinized stroma, after chemotherapy given for a misdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. CD31 was negative in all cases, except for 1 case with obvious large vessel invasion. The differential diagnosis included a large nested variant of urothelial carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, synovial sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and endometriosis. CD10 was strongly positive in 5 cases, and 1 case had very focal, moderate staining. Estrogen receptor showed strong and diffuse staining in all 6 cases. Progesterone receptor showed moderate to strong staining in 5 cases and focal staining in 1 case. One case showed PAX8 expression, and 2 cases showed p16 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. CD56 showed weak to strong staining in 4 cases. Two cases had diffuse synaptophysin, and 1 case had focal p63 positivity. GATA-3, CD34, and CD99 were negative in all cases. The Ki-67 index was 1% to 10% (mean 4%). The mitotic count was 0 to 3/10 HPF (mean <1/10 HPF). Two patients had metastases to pelvic lymph nodes, and 1 had possible lung metastasis. Three patients were treated with Megace and 1 with Arimidex after surgery. Follow-up averaged 19 years (0 to 33 y) after the initial diagnosis of ESS or hysterectomy and 3.5 years (0 to 11 y) after bladder surgery. ESS involving the bladder is extremely rare with a very long interval from onset to bladder involvement. In female patients, low-grade spindle cell lesions involving the bladder should include ESS in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24705317

Tian, Wei; Latour, Mathieu; Epstein, Jonathan I

2014-07-01

270

Studying the System-Level Involvement of MicroRNAs in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD. Result We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD. Conclusion Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD.

Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Roy, Debjani

2014-01-01

271

Premature graduation of children in child restraint systems: an observational study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) in Flanders (Belgium). Observations were conducted at a random sample of primary school and recreation areas. In total 1376 children were observed. A logistic regression model was constructed in order to determine the variables involved. The parameter-estimates of this model have shown that children are more often restrained when the driver buckles up, the ride takes less than 1h, the children are younger, the children sit in the front seat of the car, a recreational area is the destination of the trip and there are less than five children in the car. Also premature graduation to CRS was analysed. More than half of the children are not appropriately restrained, according to their age, weight or height. Improper shoulder belt use (putting the shoulder belt behind the back or under the arm) was observed in 8.99% of the children being restrained with high back booster seats, in 32.73% of the children being restrained with backless booster seats and finally in 19.07% of the children being restrained with seat belts. The risk of incorrectly using the shoulder belt increases when children are prematurely graduated in a CRS. The results are discussed in the light of other studies on this matter. PMID:17854572

Vesentini, Lara; Willems, Bert

2007-09-01

272

Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.  

PubMed

Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein. PMID:23108613

Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

2012-11-01

273

Computational Estimation in the Primary School: A Single Case Study of One Teacher's Involvement in a Professional Learning Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the initial analysis of a study of a professional learning intervention. Using a case study design it was possible to describe one teacher's involvement in this research. The study revealed how the teacher's beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge of computational estimation was altered as a result of participating in the…

Mildenhall, Paula; Hackling, Mark; Swan, Paul

2010-01-01

274

Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

2014-03-01

275

Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities  

SciTech Connect

Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

1991-01-01

276

Study of decays with first observation of and  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for charmless three-body decays of B 0 and mesons with a meson in the final state is performed using the pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the LHCb experiment. Branching fractions of the decay modes ( h (') = ?, K), relative to the well measured decay, are obtained. First observation of the decay modes and and confirmation of the decay are reported. The following relative branching fraction measurements or limits are obtained [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Cowie, E.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.

2013-10-01

277

Quantitative Study of Solar Farside Observations to Predict Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of sunspots on the far side of the Sun have been obtained for several years with SOHO/MDI and recently with GONG observations. E.g. http://soi.stanford.edu/data/full_farside/. We have examined the predictive usefulness of far-side images of regions within a few days of the East limb by comparing the far-side images with subsequent magnetograms. We developed a quantitative measure of success based on the frequency of true positives and false alarms. We can detect about 75% of strong magnetic regions with a false alarm rate of less than 20%.

Buder, I.; Scherrer, P. H.

2006-12-01

278

Disfluency in Tourette syndrome: observational study in three cases.  

PubMed

It is often stated that stuttering is a common speech disorder in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). It has also been suggested, however, that the fluency failures observed in people with TS do not completely conform to the classic pattern of stuttering. The present paper describes the results of an analysis of the speech patterns of three individuals with TS. A picture emerged that bears some resemblance to stuttering, cluttering, and palilalia but that is also different from each of these disfluency types. PMID:15557774

Van Borsel, J; Goethals, L; Vanryckeghem, M

2004-01-01

279

Modeling, Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Lunar Photoelectron Sheath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon, lacking an atmosphere and a global magnetic field, is directly exposed to both solar ultraviolet radiation and a variety of ambient plasmas. On the lunar dayside, a photoelectron sheath develops and the surface typically charges positively since the photoemission current is at least an order-of-magnitude greater than any ambient current. This sheath dominates the nearsurface plasma environment and controls the charging, levitation and transport of micron-sized dust grains. In this thesis, we first model the lunar near-surface plasma environment via a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The sheath potential, electric field and plasma densities are presented over a wide range of plasma parameters. Additionally, the charging and transport of micron- and submicron sized dust grains is modeled via a test-particle approach in an attempt to explain Apolloera observations of lunar dust dynamics. Secondly, we present a comparison of the particle-in-cell results with theoretical, kinetic derivations of the lunar photoelectron sheath. We extend previous theories to include the presence of a kappa-distribution for the solar wind electrons. Finally, we present a comparison of in-situ measurements of the lunar photoelectron sheet in the terrestrial plasma sheet by the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer with particle-in-cell simulations to confirm the presence of non-monotonic sheath potentials above the Moon. Future work in all three sections, (simulation, theory and observation) is presented as a guide for continuing research.

Poppe, Andrew Reinhold

2011-08-01

280

Direct observation, study, and control of molecular superrotors.  

PubMed

Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N=95 in oxygen and N=60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored. PMID:24702361

Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery

2014-03-21

281

An observational and numerical study of extragalactic radio sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Very Large Array is used to make radio continuum observations of a sample of 12 distant (z = 1) high luminosity 3CR galaxies. Images with arcsecond resolution are produced at wavelength 20 and 6 cm. The total and polarized intensity images are used to create maps of the fractional polarization, depolarization, rotation measure, and spectral index distributions. Additional arcsecond resolution observations at wavelength 2 cm, higher resolution wavelength 6 and 2 cm maps, and optical R band continuum and emission-line images of (OII) wavelength 3727 are presented for 3C337. Suggestive evidence for dynamically significant interactions between the emission-line gas and the radio sources is presented. Numerical simulations of the interaction of a Mach 4 relative velocity slip surface with several trains of incident nonlinear sound waves are performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method. PPM simulations of the supersonic slip surface between 10:1 density ratio fluids are made at M = 1, 1.9, and 4. Further simulations test the effects of grid resolution, the SLIC interface tracking method, and the initial transverse perturbation.

Pedelty, Jeffrey Alan

282

Different oral contraceptives and voice quality — an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical literature on endocrine effect on voice considers oral contraceptives (OCs) as a risk factor for voice. However, recent studies revealed no adverse effect of new-generation OCs on voice. It was also suggested that OCs could improve specific voice characteristics via different mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of OCs on voices of

Ofer Amir; Tal Biron-Shental; Osnat Tzenker; Tal Barer

2005-01-01

283

Considerations for Studying Father Involvement in Early Childhood among Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last three decades there has been a notable increase in interest about fathers and their role in the socioemotional, academic, and cognitive development of young children. Concurrently, there has been a shift in this nation's ethnic minority demography, where Latinos are now the nation's largest minority group. The father-involvement

Campos, Rodrigo

2008-01-01

284

Family and Differential Involvement with Marihuana: A Study of Suburban Teenagers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results point to a negative association between degree of involvement with marihuana and: (1) quality of parental models; (2) high amount of recognition received within the family; (3) perceptions of the family as warm and not simply controlling and/or indifferent; (4) subjective feelings of satisfaction and the ability to rely upon the family as…

Tec, Nechama

1970-01-01

285

Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

2011-01-01

286

Packaging and purchase decisions : An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of packaging design as a vehicle for communication and branding is growing in competitive markets for packaged food products. This research utilized a focus group methodology to understand consumer behavior toward such products and how packaging elements can affect buying decisions. Visual package elements play a major role, representing the product for many consumers, especially in low involvement,

Pinya Silayoi; Mark Speece

2004-01-01

287

Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for

Kenneth J McCann; Jean E Twomey; Donna Caldwell; Rosemary Soave; Lynne Andreozzi Fontaine; Barry M Lester

2010-01-01

288

Involving patients in HTA activities at local level: a study protocol based on the collaboration between researchers and knowledge users  

PubMed Central

Background The literature recognizes a need for greater patient involvement in health technology assessment (HTA), but few studies have been reported, especially at the local level. Following the decentralisation of HTA in Quebec, Canada, the last few years have seen the creation of HTA units in many Quebec university hospital centres. These units represent a unique opportunity for increased patient involvement in HTA at the local level. Our project will engage patients in an assessment being carried out by a local HTA team to assess alternatives to isolation and restraint for hospitalized or institutionalized adults. Our objectives are to: 1) validate a reference framework for exploring the relevance and applicability of various models of patient involvement in HTA, 2) implement strategies that involve patients (including close relatives and representatives) at different stages of the HTA process, 3) evaluate intervention processes, and 4) explore the impact of these interventions on a) the applicability and acceptability of recommendations arising from the assessment, b) patient satisfaction, and c) the sustainability of this approach in HTA. Methods For Objective 1, we will conduct individual interviews with various stakeholders affected by the use of alternatives to isolation and restraint for hospitalized or institutionalized adults. For Objective 2, we will implement three specific strategies for patient involvement in HTA: a) direct participation in the HTA process, b) consultation of patients or their close relatives through data collection, and c) patient involvement in the dissemination of HTA results. For Objectives 3 and 4, we will evaluate the intervention processes and the impact of patient involvement strategies on the recommendations arising from the HTA and the understanding of the ethical and social implications of the HTA. Discussion This project is likely to influence future HTA practices because it directly targets knowledge users' need for strategies that increase patient involvement in HTA. By documenting the processes and outcomes of these involvement strategies, the project will contribute to the knowledge base related to patient involvement in HTA.

2012-01-01

289

Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secretory immunity, and others will enhance the gut inflammatory immune response. The aim of this work was to establish the reason for these different behaviors and to define possible mechanisms involved in the interaction of lactic acid bacteria at the intestinal level. We studied IgA+ and IgM+ B cells comparatively in bronchus and intestine and CD4+ T cells and IgA anti-lactic acid bacteria antibodies in the intestinal fluid, induced by oral administration of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The increase in the IgA+ B cells in the bronchus means that these lactic acid bacteria were able to induce the IgA cycle by interaction with M cells from Peyer's patches or intestinal epithelial cells. The IgM+ cells increased when the stimulus did not induce the switch from IgM+ to IgA+. The increase in the CD4+ cells suggests interaction of Peyer's patches and enhancement of the B- and T-cell migration. The anti-lactic acid bacteria antibody is related to the processing and presentation of the microorganisms to the immune cells. We demonstrated that Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were able to interact with Peyer's patch cells and showed an increase in IgA-, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific for the stimulating strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus induced gut mucosal activation by interaction with the epithelial cells without increase in the immune cells associated with the bronchus. Although Lb. rhamnosus and Strep. salivarius ssp. thermophilus interact with epithelial cells, they also induced an immune response against their epitopes. Lactococcus lactis and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus induced an increase of IgA+ cells entering the IgA cycle but not CD4+ cells; thus, these bacteria would have been bound to epithelial cells that activated B lymphocytes without processing and presenting of their epitopes. We did not determine specific antibodies against Lc. lactis or Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:10386296

Perdigón, G; Vintiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M

1999-06-01

290

Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition. PMID:23580364

Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

2013-01-01

291

Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Nikravesh, Mansoure

2004-01-01

292

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

293

A daily diary study of mental health and community involvement outcomes for three Chinese American social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 100 American youths of Chinese descent participated in a 14-day diary study, completing daily reports on ethnic feelings, American feelings, ethnic community involvement, and psychological well-being. Participants were divided into 4 identity orientations (Chinese, American, bicultural, or other) and then assessed for differential patterns of mental health and community involvement. Chinese-centered identities were characterized by positive well-being and positive

Tiffany Yip; Cross William E Jr

2004-01-01

294

Association between metabolic syndrome and bone fractures: a meta-analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging epidemiological evidence suggest an association between metabolic syndrome and fractures. However, whether metabolic syndrome is an independent risk or protective factor of fractures remains controversial. Our goal is to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between metabolic syndrome and bone fractures by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods The PubMed and Embase database were searched through to March 2013 to identify studies that met pre-established inclusion criteria. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a fixed or random effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results Eight epidemiologic studies involving 39,938 participants were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, metabolic syndrome was not associated with prevalent fractures [pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 - 1.03] in cross-sectional studies or incident fractures [pooled relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.37 - 2.12] in prospective cohort studies. No evidence of heterogeneity was found in cross-sectional studies (p?=?0.786, I 2 ?=?0.0%). A substantial heterogeneity was detected in cohort studies (p?=?0.001, I 2 ?=?85.7%). No indication of significant publication bias was found either from Begg’s test or Egger’s test. Estimates of total effects were substantially consistent in the sensitivity and stratification analyses. Conclusions The present meta-analysis of observational studies suggests that the metabolic syndrome has no explicit effect on bone fractures.

2014-01-01

295

A mechanistic study of the proapoptotic effect of tolfenamic acid: involvement of NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

Recent studies demonstrate that tolfenamic acid (TA) induces apoptosis and suppresses the development and progression of several types of cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms are complex and remain to be fully elucidated. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) plays a critical role in inflammation, cancer development and progression. Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modulate NF-?B signaling pathway in different ways, the link between NF-?B and TA-induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells has yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of TA on the NF-?B pathway and apoptosis. TA activated NF-?B transcriptional activity and binding affinity of NF-?B to DNA. TA-induced NF-?B activation was mediated by an increased phosphorylation and proteosomal degradation of I?B-? and subsequent p65 nuclear translocation. We also observed that TA stabilized p65 and increased nuclear accumulation via an increase of p65 phosphorylation at Ser276 residue, which was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The knockout of p53 blocked TA-induced transcriptional activation of NF-?B, but not the p65 nuclear accumulation. TA increased transcriptional activity of p53 and the binding affinity of p53 with p65, which are mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-stimulated Ser276 phosphorylation. TA-induced apoptosis was ameliorated by the knockout of p65 and p53 and the point mutation of p65 at Ser276 residue. We demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism by which TA induced the NF-?B and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:23784084

Jeong, Jin Boo; Yang, Xuyu; Clark, Ruth; Choi, Jieun; Baek, Seung Joon; Lee, Seong-Ho

2013-10-01

296

An observational study of cometary globules near the Rosette nebula.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular line observations are reported of two regions containing small cometary globules at the edge of the Rosette Nebula. Observations of the CO, 3CO and C^18^O J=21,-and CO J=43-molecular lines towards Globule 1, the most prominent of the group, show it has a well-developed head-tail structure, with a head diameter ~0.4pc, and a tail extending ~1.3pc behind it. The major axis of the system points about 45 degrees away from the direction to the centre of the Rosette Nebula (which contains the [presumed] illuminating stars), and 20 degrees out of the plane of the sky, along a projected line towards the luminous (924Lsun_) infrared source IRAS 06314+0427. The CO lines have a complex velocity structure; with a pronounced broadening at the front of the head (as viewed from IRAS 06314+0427); a velocity gradient ~1.4km/s along the tail, and material at the front of the head is blue-shifted by ~0.5km/s compared to surrounding gas. The CO J=21-line intensity peaks towards the front of the head, and along the edges of the tail. The 3CO J=21-antenna temperatures in the head are very similar to those of CO, suggesting very high opacities or column densities, or that there is significant CO self-absorption. There is a narrow rim of CO J=43-emission around the front of the head over a limited velocity range, which correlates with the position of a faint optical rim, and a narrow ridge of 2?m H_2_ emission. These data give strong support to the Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) model of Lefloch and Lazareff (1994 -- hereafter LL94), which was developed to explain the physical structure of cometary globules. Using an RDI simulation, a remarkably good fit to the data has been obtained, allowing the CO, 3CO and C^18^O spatial structures and velocity field to be modelled. This simulation suggests that Globule 1 is ~400,000years old, and has a mass ~50Msun_. Additional observations towards the region close to IRAS 06314+0427 show that it is associated with an intense molecular concentration lying at the northern end of a ~5pc long molecular ridge, with a mass ~330Msun_, and lies close to the centre of a shell-like condensation.

White, G. J.; Lefloch, B.; Fridlund, C. V. M.; Aspin, C. A.; Dahmen, G.; Minchin, N. R.; Huldtgren, M.

1997-07-01

297

Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

Sivron, Ran

1995-01-01

298

Presentation of continuous outcomes in randomised trials: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterise the percentage of available outcome data being presented in reports of randomised clinical trials with continuous outcome measures, thereby determining the potential for incomplete reporting bias. Design Descriptive cross sectional study. Data sources A random sample of 200 randomised trials from issues of 20 medical journals in a variety of specialties during 2007–09. Main outcome measures For each paper’s best reported primary outcome, we calculated the fraction of data reported using explicit scoring rules. For example, a two arm trial with 100 patients per limb that reported 2 sample sizes, 2 means, and 2 standard deviations reported 6/200 data elements (1.5%), but if that paper included a scatterplot with 200 points it would score 200/200 (100%). We also assessed compliance with 2001 CONSORT items about the reporting of results. Results The median percentage of data reported for the best reported continuous outcome was 9% (interquartile range 3–26%) but only 3.5% (3–7%) when we adjusted studies to 100 patients per arm to control for varying study size; 17% of articles showed 100% of the data. Tables were the predominant means of presenting the most data (59% of articles), but papers that used figures reported a higher proportion of data. There was substantial heterogeneity among journals with respect to our primary outcome and CONSORT compliance. Limitations We studied continuous outcomes of randomised trials in higher impact journals. Results may not apply to categorical outcomes, other study designs, or other journals. Conclusions Trialists present only a small fraction of available data. This paucity of data may increase the potential for incomplete reporting bias, a failure to present all relevant information about a study’s findings.

2012-01-01

299

Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study  

PubMed Central

This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with treatment objectives. The Step'n Out study will randomize 450 drug-involved parolees to collaborative behavioral management or usual parole. Follow-up at 3-and 9-months will assess primary outcomes of rearrest, crime and drug use. If collaborative behavioral management is effective, its wider adoption could improve the outcomes of community reentry of drug-involved ex-offenders.

FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; KATZ, ELIZABETH C.; RHODES, ANNE G.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.; O'CONNELL, DANIEL J.; FRISMAN, LINDA K.; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; FLETCHER, BENNETT W.; LITT, MARK D.; CLARKE, JENNIFER; MARTIN, STEVEN S.

2009-01-01

300

Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30 90 km): A study involving MetO and MFR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MetO assimilated data and mesospheric winds provided by five medium frequency radars (MFR) from the Canada US Japan Opportunity (CUJO) network have been used to study coupling processes due to planetary waves (PWs) in the middle atmosphere. It is shown that there is strong vertical coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere especially during winter months. However, not all observed disturbances in mesospheric winds can be explained by the simple propagation of PWs from below. In addition to the vertical coupling there is also weaker horizontal “inter-hemispheric” coupling during equinoxes. The data used are from December 2000 to December 2002. The time interval was chosen to include austral winters and springs of 2 years: the dynamically unusual year 2002, during which a major stratospheric warming involving a split vortex and wind reversals occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, and a more typical year 2001. The character of PW activity during these 2 years is compared. In contrast to the usually weak PW activity dominated by eastward motions, both strong eastward and westward propagating waves existed during austral winter of 2002. Wavelet spectra of MetO winds show strong peaks near 14 days that match similar signals observed in mesospheric winds at Antarctic stations [Dowdy et al., 2004. The large-scale dynamics of the mesosphere lower thermosphere during the SH stratospheric warming of 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14102. doi:10.1029/2004GL020282] during the stratospheric warming. It is suggested that this oscillation was generated at low atmospheric heights and propagated upward. The longer duration of the stratospheric mesospheric winter vortex (7 months) compared to that of the summer jet in the Northern Hemisphere provide equinoctial months when eastward winds dominate globally. Results suggest that during equinoxes, with favourable conditions, the PWs with ˜10-, 16- and 25-day periods can penetrate to the opposite hemisphere.

Chshyolkova, T.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

2006-02-01

301

IVF conversion to IUI in poor responders: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of converting an IVF stimulation cycle with poor ovarian response\\u000a to an IUI cycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between January and December 2007, 47 cycles of IVF conversion to IUI were retrospectively studied in 44 infertile women who\\u000a had a low response to ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. Patients’ characteristics, ovarian stimulation, and ovarian response

Thomas Freour; Sophie Dubourdieu; Sophie Mirallie; Marie Laure Langlois; Miguel Jean; Paul Barrière

2010-01-01

302

Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

Raab, J. [Raab (J.), Boston, MA (United States); Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-02-01

303

Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.  

PubMed

We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions. PMID:24039645

Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

2013-01-01

304

The Foreigner Talk of a Family Physician: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the characteristics of one male physician's foreigner talk over the telephone with non-native speakers (NNSs) of English and compared it to that of native speakers (NSs). The conversations all related to requests that patients come into the office for a periodic, preventative physical exam. Data came from tape recordings of the…

Nelson, Dana Kristine

305

ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

306

Estimation of diffusive boundary layer thickness in studies involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory experiments and field investigations involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have shown that the\\u000a thickness (?) of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), which can affect the accuracy of the technique, is generally not negligible. Accordingly,\\u000a the determination of ? has become a matter of considerable practical importance. Though the problem has been addressed in the recent literature,

Ø. A. Garmo; K. Razi Naqvi; O. Røyset; E. Steinnes

2006-01-01

307

Differential motor neuron involvement in progressive muscular atrophy: a comparative study with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a clinical diagnosis characterised by progressive lower motor neuron (LMN) symptoms/signs with sporadic adult onset. It is unclear whether PMA is simply a clinical phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which upper motor neuron (UMN) signs are undetectable. To elucidate the clinicopathological features of patients with clinically diagnosed PMA, we studied consecutive autopsied cases. Design Retrospective, observational. Setting Autopsied patients. Participants We compared clinicopathological profiles of clinically diagnosed PMA and ALS using 107 consecutive autopsied patients. For clinical analysis, 14 and 103 patients were included in clinical PMA and ALS groups, respectively. For neuropathological evaluation, 13 patients with clinical PMA and 29 patients with clinical ALS were included. Primary outcome measures Clinical features, UMN and LMN degeneration, axonal density in the corticospinal tract (CST) and immunohistochemical profiles. Results Clinically, no significant difference between the prognosis of clinical PMA and ALS groups was shown. Neuropathologically, 84.6% of patients with clinical PMA displayed UMN and LMN degeneration. In the remaining 15.4% of patients with clinical PMA, neuropathological parameters that we defined as UMN degeneration were all negative or in the normal range. In contrast, all patients with clinical ALS displayed a combination of UMN and LMN system degeneration. CST axon densities were diverse in the clinical PMA group, ranging from low values to the normal range, but consistently lower in the clinical ALS group. Immunohistochemically, 85% of patients with clinical PMA displayed 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while 15% displayed fused-in-sarcoma (FUS)-positive basophilic inclusion bodies. All of the patients with clinical ALS displayed TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions PMA has three neuropathological background patterns. A combination of UMN and LMN degeneration with TDP-43 pathology, consistent with ALS, is the major pathological profile. The remaining patterns have LMN degeneration with TDP-43 pathology without UMN degeneration, or a combination of UMN and LMN degeneration with FUS-positive basophilic inclusion body disease.

Riku, Yuichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Yoshida, Mari; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mimuro, Maya; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2014-01-01

308

An Analysis of Political Values and Political Involvement of High School Social Studies Teachers in Missouri. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine political values of secondary school teachers. Two hundred and two social studies teachers from 24 public high schools in Missouri served as a sample population. The survey instrument contained questions on political involvement and various personal background characteristics. The results indicated that Missouri…

Atwell, L. Roberta

309

Complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context: an observational prospective study (CIAOW Study)  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) has designed the CIAOW study in order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community- and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context. The CIAOW study (Complicated Intra-Abdominal infection Observational Worldwide Study) is a multicenter observational study currently underway in 57 medical institutions worldwide. The study includes patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections. This preliminary report includes all data from almost the first two months of the six-month study period. Patients who met inclusion criteria with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the study. 702 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range 18–98) were enrolled in the study. 272 patients (38.7%) were women and 430 (62.3%) were men. Among these patients, 615 (87.6%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 87 (12.4%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Generalized peritonitis was observed in 304 patients (43.3%), whereas localized peritonitis or abscesses was registered in 398 (57.7%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 10.1% (71/702). The final results of the CIAOW Study will be published following the conclusion of the study period in March 2013.

2013-01-01

310

Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

311

Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

1974-01-01

312

Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for\\u000a treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse\\u000a effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide\\u000a treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study

Yasuo Takahashi; Yayoi Nishida; Tomohiro Nakayama; Satoshi Asai

2011-01-01

313

Observational Study on Sublimation from the Snow Surface in Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Eurasia region, both of snow-cover water equivalence and winter precipitation has been demonstrated to be range of 50 to 150 mm. Sublimation from snow surfaces has been identified as an important hydrological process at high altitudes and in high latitude regions, involving complex mass and energy exchanges. Since 2002, intensive observations, to dressing winter hydrological land processes, have been conducted in Mogot experimental watershed, which is locating in the southern mountain taiga region of eastern Siberia of Russia (55.5_E#8249;N, 124.7_E#8249;E), and also on snow-tussock grassland in Nalaikh of Mongolia (47o45'N, 107o20'E), which locating in southern periphery region of Eurasia cryosphere. Snow sublimation has been quantitatively dressed by aero-dynamics or Lysimeter method. Effects of topography and vegetation cover to sublimation have been investigated, and the seasonality has been presented at both study sites. In taiga region of eastern Siberia, sublimation from snow surfaces differed with atmospheric stability. During early spring, a significant difference in snow sublimation was observed between slopes and valley bottoms, despite variable vegetation cover. However, during observation period, only one episode of significant snow sublimation was observed, which was caused by strong wind and ensuing light snowmelt. As atmospheric stability decrease, the effect of forest cover on snow sublimation was clear, with a significant difference between forested areas and open fields. Later in the spring, increased net all-wave radiation did not lead to an increase in sublimation. The effect of forest cover on snow sublimation can be seen from the estimated bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat. The bulk transfer coefficient was larger for a larch forest than that of open site. At two study sites, sublimation shows similar seasonal variation, even if the snow depth varied differently. Peak sublimation was occurred earlier spring coupling light snow melting. Modeling works demonstrated sublimation proportioned 17 to 52% to winter precipitation. Key words: Northern Eurasia, snow cover, sublimation

Zhang, Y.; Ohata, T.; Suzuki, K.

2004-12-01

314

Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline). To adequately address local concerns, cases found it necessary to also search and appraise primary studies, resulting in hybrid (adaptation plus de novo) guideline development strategies that required advanced methodological skills. Adaptation was found to be an action element in the knowledge translation continuum that required integration of an implementation perspective. Accordingly, the adaptation methodology and resources were reformulated and substantially augmented to provide practical assistance to groups not supported by a dedicated guideline panel and to provide more implementation planning support. The resulting framework is called CAN-IMPLEMENT.

2013-01-01

315

International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

Edberg, S. J.

1983-01-01

316

Road traffic crashes in Ramadan: an observational study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate trends in road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by an emergency service, Rescue 1122, in 2011 in Punjab, Pakistan. RTC data were collected from 35 districts of Punjab and reviewed retrospectively. Data analysis revealed that the service responded to 12 969 RTC emergencies during August 2011 (Ramadan), compared with an average of 11 573 RTCs per month from January to August 2011. The younger age group (11-27 years) was victims in 29% of RTCs; 39% were due to speeding and 43% occurred in peak rush hours (14:00-18:00) before iftar (breakfast).Results of the study showed that Rescue 1122 faced more RTCs during Ramadan compared with the preceding months. Road safety is an important public health issue in Pakistan. Although there have been great improvements in roads in the past few years, much work needs to be done to deal with mounting trends in RTCs. Public awareness, political will and stringent law enforcement are key factors. PMID:24995738

Tahir, M N; Macassa, G; Akbar, A H; Naseer, R; Zia, A; Khan, S

2014-01-01

317

Observational Studies of Protoplanetary Disks at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used mid-infrared cameras on 8-to-10 m class telescopes to study the properties of young circumstellar disks. During the initial phases of this program we examined a large sample of mid-IR images of standard stars delivered by T-ReCS at Gemini South to evaluate its on-sky performance as characterized by, for example the angular resolution, the PSF shape, and the PSF temporal stability, properties that are most relevant to our high-angular resolution study of disks. With this information we developed an Interactive Data Language (IDL) package of routines optimized for reducing the data and correcting for image defects commonly seen in ground-based mid-IR data. We obtained, reduced, and analyzed mid-IR images and spectra of several Herbig Ae/Be disks (including HD 259431, MWC 1080, VV Ser) and the debris disk (? Pic), and derived their physical properties by means of radiative transfer modeling or spectroscopic decomposition and analyses. These results are highlighted here. During this study, we also helped commission CanariCam, a new mid-IR facility instrument built by the University of Florida for the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. CanariCam is an imager with spectroscopic, polarimetric, and coronagraphic capabilities, with the dual-beam polarimetry being a unique mode introduced with CanariCam for the first time to a 10 m telescope at mid-IR wavelengths. It is well known that measurements of polarization, originating from aligned dust grains in the disks and their environments, have the potential to shed light on the morphologies of the magnetic fields in these regions, information that is critical to understanding how stars and planets form. We have obtained polarimetric data of several Herbig Ae/Be disks and YSOs, and the data reduction and analyses are in process. We present preliminary results here. This poster is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant AST-0903672 and AST-0908624 awarded to C.M.T.

Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles; Wright, Christopher; Packham, Christopher; Marinas, Naibi

2013-07-01

318

Weight versus volume in breast surgery: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study hypothesis is to assess correlation of breast specimen weight versus volume. Design Consecutive patients undergoing breast surgery at a single tertiary referral centre during a 6-month period were included. Specimen weight was measured in grams. Direct volume measurements were performed using water displacement. Data including side of the breast, age and menstrual status of the patient were noted. Setting Knowledge of breast volume provides an objective guide in facilitating the achievements of balance in reconstructive operations. Surgeons use intraoperative weight measurements from individual breasts to calculate the breast volume assuming that weight is equal to the volume of the specimen. However, it is unclear whether weight accurately reveals the true volume of resection. Participants Forty-one patients were included in the study with 28 having bilateral surgeries, 13 having unilateral procedures giving a total of 69 breast specimens. Main outcome measures Breast specimen weight correlation to breast specimen volume. Results The mean age of the group was 42.4 years. Fifty-two specimens were from premenopausal patients and 17 were of postmenopausal. Thirty-five were left-sided. Twenty-six patients had bilateral breast reduction, two had bilateral mastectomy, nine had a unilateral mastectomy and four patients had a unilateral breast reduction. The difference between weight and volume of these breasts was 36.4 units (6.6% difference). The difference in measurement of weight and volume in premenopausal was 37.6 units compared to 32.6 units in postmenopausal women. The density was 1.07 and 1.06, respectively. This was statistically not significant. Conclusions No significant difference between volume and weight was seen in this series. Furthermore, we are unable to support the notion that premenopausal patients have a significant difference in the proportion of fatty and glandular tissue as there was little difference between the weight and the volume. An easy, clinically proper formula for the quantification of actual breast volume has yet to be derived.

Parmar, Chetan; West, Malcolm; Pathak, Samir; Nelson, J; Martin, Lee

2011-01-01

319

Adverse drug reactions in older patients: an Italian observational prospective hospital study  

PubMed Central

Background In adults over 65 years of age, the frequency of adverse drug reaction (ADRs) related hospital admissions is higher than in younger adults, and the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay highly ranges. The review was designed to evaluate the frequency of ADRs, both resulting in hospital admission and occurring during the hospital stay of older patients, while identifying the types of reactions and the associated drugs. Methods Age, sex, date, and diagnosis of admission of all patients aged 65 and over admitted in three geriatric wards of University Hospital of Verona, Italy, from February to July 2009 were registered by nurses on a special form. In the specific cases of admissions caused by an ADR as well as in the cases of an ADR occurring during the hospital stay, the type of reactions and the suspected drugs were also registered by nurses and physicians involved in the study. Results During the six months of the study, 1023 patients matched the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. One hundred fourteen hospital admissions (11.1%) were caused by ADRs, while 256 patients (25.0%) had an ADR during their hospital stay. The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients who developed an ADR during their time in hospital, 18.7 (95% CI: 17.2–20.1) days versus 12.6 (95% CI: 11.9–13.3) days. Electrolyte disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, anemia, and International Normalized Ratio increase were the more frequent observed ADRs, with diuretics, antithrombotic agents, and antibacterials as the main involved drugs. Our study confirms that ADRs are an important cause of hospitalization in older patients. In addition, the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay is high and causes prolonged hospitalization.

Conforti, Anita; Costantini, Davide; Zanetti, Francesca; Moretti, Ugo; Grezzana, Matteo; Leone, Roberto

2012-01-01

320

Observational and modelling studies of Australian severe weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forecastability of severe weather conditions over sub-tropical Australia are tested with a mesoscale model capable of running at high resolutions over a region of interest anywhere in the world. Improved forecast output, for example, of precipitation, wind speed/direction and humidity which are required to indicate severe weather conditions are dependent on model improvements and the following areas are addressed: (1)data; (2)theory; (3)model; and, (4)computing. The initial condition uncertainty inherent in the data which is used in the analysis to initialise numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is addressed through two ensemble forecasting studies, one on rainfall from a mesoscale system and the other on the central low position, wind and rainfall distribution of an explosive east coast low. Also, relating to data, some major mesoscale phenomena are described in the form of New South Wales coastal ridging which helps produce severe weather in this area and which needs to be captured by a mesoscale NWP model in order that improved predictions can be made. In terms of theory the major focus is on the ensemble methodology and on the use of improved precipitation parameterisations, namely, those of Fritsch-Chappell and Kain-Fritsch. The mesoscale model development is extended through the use of increased resolution studies, for example, by showing statistically significant greater than operational skill in predicting details of wind, relative humidity and temperature patterns both near the surface and above the boundary layer in relation to the Sydney January 1994 bushfire weather; by including an option for a Lagrangian particle dispersion model; and by replacement of a previously inadequate representation of cumulus convection which was required to represent the effects of mesoscale downdrafts which are essential for the successful prediction of the squall-line over Sydney in Chapter 7. Mesoscale weather prediction is one of the so called `grand challenges' of computational science in that it requires large amounts of memory and very efficient use of high performance computers. In this thesis the computations ranged form multiprocessor shared memory main frames; high performance work stations; and, now state-of-the-art Pentium PCs. Each of these machines has its distinct requirements for optimisation. Much work has been dedicated in producing code that transfers easily between platforms.

Speer, Milton Samuel

1998-09-01

321

Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE  

PubMed Central

Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. Methods An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of studies that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching.

Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer

2006-01-01

322

Longitudinal analyses of early lesions by fluorescence: an observational study.  

PubMed

Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this study, we aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parameters--area (A [mm(2)]), fluorescence loss (F [%]), and Q [% × mm(2)]--obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians and examined them at baseline and regular intervals over 48 months according to the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), yearly radiographs, and QLF. QLF images from surfaces with ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 at baseline that progressed (N = 2,191) to cavitation (ICDAS 5/6) or fillings and surfaces that did not progress to cavitation/fillings (N = 4,141) were analyzed independently for A, F, and Q. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare means and slopes (changes over time) between surfaces that progressed and those that did not. QLF A, F, and Q increased at a faster rate for surfaces that progressed than for surfaces that did not progress (p = .0001), regardless of type of surface or baseline ICDAS score. AUC for ICDAS ranged from 0.65 to 0.80, but adding QLF information improved AUC (0.82-0.87, p < .0005). We concluded that faster changes in QLF variables can indicate lesion progression toward cavitation and be more clinically relevant than actual QLF values. PMID:23690351

Ferreira Zandoná, A; Ando, M; Gomez, G F; Garcia-Corretjer, M; Eckert, G J; Santiago, E; Katz, B P; Zero, D T

2013-07-01

323

Temporomandibular Disorders in Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by absence of any lesions and burning of the oral mucosa associated to a sensation of dry mouth and/or taste alterations. The purpose of our study is to estimate signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in patients with BMS and to investigate for the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four BMS patients were enrolled; BMS subtype was established according to the classification of Lamey. After a gnathological evaluation, according to the protocol of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders, patients were classified by RDC/TMD criteria. The data were compared and analyzed using a chi-square test to describe the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. RESULTS: 65.9% the BMS patients showed disorders classified as primary signs and symptoms of TMD according to RDC / TMD criteria, and 72.7% showed parafunctional habits. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p = 0.035) between BMS and TMD. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that there is a possible relationship not yet well understood between BMS and TMD, may be for neurophatic alterations assumed for BMS that could be also engaged in TMD pathogenesis.

Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

2013-01-01

324

Percutaneous nephrostomy by direct puncture technique: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous nephrostomy is the procedure of establishing a temporary drainage tract of the renal pelvi-calyceal system through the skin. This study aims to find out whether low cost trocar catheter can be a suitable substitute for the relatively high cost fluoroscopy/ultrasonography guided tract dilatation and tube insertion procedure. Percutaneous nephrostomy by the trocar catheter was performed in 126 patients. Under local anesthesia, a stab wound deep enough to traverse the muscle layer was made through which the trocar - catheter drainage set was inserted under ultrasonography guidance. About 179 procedures were performed in 126 patients. Primary technical success rate was 94%, major complication rate 1.6%, minor complication rate 11% and catheter related complications like catheter blockage or dislodgement were 13%. There was no procedure related mortality in our series. The ultrasonography-guided trocar, catheter nephrostomy, is a quick, safe and low cost procedure in selected cases of upper urinary tract obstruction. The primary technical success and complication rates are comparable to any other reported procedure and its low cost is particularly suitable for developing countries like India.

Karim, R.; Sengupta, S.; Samanta, S.; Aich, R. K.; Das, U.; Deb, P.

2010-01-01

325

Oral and dental health in Huntington's disease - an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few case reports and case series dealing with oral and dental health care are available in literature until now. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine the status of dental health in comparison to matched controls and to heighten the neurologists’ and dentists’ awareness of the oral aspects of the disease. Methods 42 Huntington’s disease (HD) participants were scored according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale. The dental status was assessed by using the well established score for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and the dental plaque score (Silness-Loe plaque index). Results Compared to controls HD participants showed significantly more decayed teeth and more plaques in both plaque indices. A higher motor impairment and a lower functional status of the patients lead to a worsening in dental status. Conclusion Possible reasons for our findings are discussed. Apart from local oral complications general complications may also occur. Thus, as a consequence, we would encourage patients, caregivers, neurologists, and the dentists to ensure regular preventive dental examinations and dental treatments of individuals with Huntington’s disease even in the premanifest stage of this disease.

2013-01-01

326

Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

2013-01-01

327

Studies on the enzymes involved in puparial cuticle sclerotization in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The properties of cuticular enzymes involved in sclerotization of Drosophila melanogaster puparium were examined. The cuticle-bound phenoloxidase from the white puparium exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 in phosphate buffer and oxidized a variety of catecholic substrates such as 4-methylcatechol, N-beta-alanyldopamine, dopa, dopamine, N-acetyldopamine, catechol, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phenoloxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide and sodium fluoride inhibited the enzyme activity drastically, but phenylthiourea showed marginal inhibition only. This result, coupled with the fact that syringaldazine served as the substrate for the insoluble enzyme, confirmed that cuticular phenoloxidase is of the "laccase" type. In addition, we also examined the mode of synthesis of the sclerotizing precursor, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine. Our results indicate that this catecholamine derivative is biosynthesized from N-acetyldopamine through the intermediate formation of N-acetyldopamine quinone and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide as established for Sarcophaga bullata [Saul, S. and Sugumaran, M., F.E.B.S. Letters 251, 69-73 (1989)]. Accordingly, successful solubilization and fractionation of cuticular enzymes involved in the introduction of a double bond in the side chain of N-acetyldopamine indicated that they included o-diphenoloxidase, 4-alkyl-o-quinone:p-quinone methide isomerase, and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide:dehydro N-acetyldopamine isomerase and not any side chain desaturase. PMID:1600191

Sugumaran, M; Giglio, L; Kundzicz, H; Saul, S; Semensi, V

1992-01-01

328

Endometriosis involving the mucosa of the intestinal tract: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases.  

PubMed

Endometriosis involving the mucosa of the intestines is rare, but may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. We reviewed 15 cases (seven biopsies and eight resections) from 14 patients. The patients' mean age is 48 years (31-66 years). Presenting symptoms included lower gastrointestinal bleeding, pelvic pain, rectal urgency, abdominal mass, and bowel obstruction. In the majority of cases, the lesion was located in the rectum (73%) with the remainder in the sigmoid colon (20%) and ileum (7%). The most common indication for biopsy was a polypoid lesion seen endoscopically (eight cases). For patients who underwent resections, the most common clinical impression was colonic carcinoma (75%), due to mass lesions and stricture as the most common macroscopic findings. Histologically, one case had stromal endometriosis only, but the remaining 14 cases had both endometrial glands and stroma. Epithelial metaplasia was present in all cases, mostly tubal metaplasia (ciliated epithelium). Hybrid glands and replacement of the surface epithelium by endometrial epithelium were also seen. Crypt architectural distortion, cryptitis, and crypt abscesses were seen in some cases, mimicking chronic active colitis or enteritis. A panel of immunohistochemical stains (CK7, CK20, CDX2, and ER) was found to be useful in biopsies with suspected endometriosis demonstrating unusual histology or only containing endometrioid stroma tissue. Vascular involvement by endometriosis was identified in one case. Endometrial hyperplasia (n=2) and cancer (n=1) were also seen in the ectopic tissue. All patients were alive at follow-up (3-216 months, mean 67 months). PMID:23579618

Jiang, Wei; Roma, Andres A; Lai, Keith; Carver, Paula; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Xiuli

2013-09-01

329

Topographic study of root trunk type on Chinese molars with Class III furcation involvements: molar type and furcation site.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between root trunk length and prognosis for molars with furcation involvement. Molars with furcation involvement were obtained from 169 patients affected with periodontitis. The test group consisted of 174 hopeless molars screened from a total of 441 molars with Class III involvement; the remaining 267 molars formed the control group. Both arches showed a significantly higher missing rate for teeth with a long root trunk length (type C) in second molars (41.3% and 32.4% in the maxilla and mandible, respectively), with a high degree of Class III furcation involvement for the test group (extracted hopeless or poor prognosis), compared to first molars (9.9% and 0.9% in the maxilla and mandible, respectively). Both arches had a significantly higher prevalence of long root trunk lengths in the second molars compared to first molars, irrespective of furcation site. Although first molars had an early and higher prevalence of Class III furcation involvement than second molars, the latter reached a significantly higher missing rate. Molars with longer root trunk lengths had a higher risk for poor prognosis than shorter root trunks when teeth were affected by Class III furcation involvement. For extracted furcation-involved maxillary second molars that failed to respond to periodontal therapy, long root trunk length (C) accounted for the greatest prevalence at the mesial furcation site (41.8%), followed by the distal (33.0%) and buccal sites (25.2%); the greatest prevalence of root trunk length C was found at the lingual (47.9%) and buccal furcation sites (45.1%) of mandibular second molars. When a molar with root trunk type C has a Class III involvement, the prognosis is poor; for the disease to reach that level, greater amounts of attachment must be destroyed. PMID:15839594

Hou, Guey-Lin; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Weisgold, Amold S

2005-04-01

330

Characterizing Suicide in Toronto: An Observational Study and Cluster Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether people who have died from suicide in a large epidemiologic sample form clusters based on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Method: We conducted a coroner’s chart review for 2886 people who died in Toronto, Ontario, from 1998 to 2010, and whose death was ruled as suicide by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. A cluster analysis using known suicide risk factors was performed to determine whether suicide deaths separate into distinct groups. Clusters were compared according to person- and suicide-specific factors. Results: Five clusters emerged. Cluster 1 had the highest proportion of females and nonviolent methods, and all had depression and a past suicide attempt. Cluster 2 had the highest proportion of people with a recent stressor and violent suicide methods, and all were married. Cluster 3 had mostly males between the ages of 20 and 64, and all had either experienced recent stressors, suffered from mental illness, or had a history of substance abuse. Cluster 4 had the youngest people and the highest proportion of deaths by jumping from height, few were married, and nearly one-half had bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Cluster 5 had all unmarried people with no prior suicide attempts, and were the least likely to have an identified mental illness and most likely to leave a suicide note. Conclusions: People who die from suicide assort into different patterns of demographic, clinical, and death-specific characteristics. Identifying and studying subgroups of suicides may advance our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of suicide and help to inform development of more targeted suicide prevention strategies.

Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Streiner, David L

2014-01-01

331

Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure.

Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

2013-01-01

332

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac failure: meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the risks of cardiac failure with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the specific risks with Cox-2 specific NSAIDs (COXIBs). Methods: We performed meta-analyses examining the risks of developing cardiac failure in observational studies and in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with arthritis and non-rheumatic disorders. Electronic databases and published bibliographies were systematically searched (1997-2008). Results: Five

Paul A Scott; Gabrielle H. Kingsley; David L Scott

2008-01-01

333

The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study  

SciTech Connect

The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

1983-06-01

334

Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively.

2011-01-01

335

Chemiluminescent Studies Involving Collisions of CHO+ Ions and CH4 Molecules. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emission bands of the CHO, CH, and OH radicals, together with atomic hydrogen transitions, have been observed due to collisions of CHO, ions and CH4 molecules. Cross sections of the most intense band of the CH radical have been determined at different lab...

A. Michael P. Misra V. Kushawaha

1992-01-01

336

Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We observed that exposure of rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) to JP-8 in vitro induces biochemical and morphological markers of apoptotic cell death such as activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP- ribose) polymerase, chromatin c...

M. Smulson

2004-01-01

337

How to Improve the Implementation of Academic Clinical Pediatric Trials Involving Drug Therapy? A Qualitative Study of Multiple Stakeholders  

PubMed Central

Objective The need for encouraging pediatric drug research is widely recognized. However, hospital-based clinical trials of drug treatments are extremely time-consuming, and delays in trial implementation are common. The objective of this qualitative study was to collect information on the perceptions and experience of health professionals involved in hospital-based pediatric drug trials. Methods Two independent researchers conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with principal investigators (n?=?17), pharmacists (n?=?7), sponsor representatives (n?=?4), and drug regulatory agency representatives (n?=?3) who participated in institutionally sponsored clinical trials of experimental drugs in pediatric patients between 2002 and 2008. Results Dissatisfaction was reported by 67% (16/24) of principal investigators and pharmacists: all 7 pharmacists felt they were involved too late in the trial implementation process, whereas 11 (65%) principal investigators complained of an excessive regulatory burden and felt they were insufficiently involved in the basic research questions. Both groups perceived clinical trial implementation as burdensome and time-consuming. The sponsor and regulatory agency representatives reported a number of difficulties but were not dissatisfied. Conclusions The heavy burden related to regulatory requirements, and suboptimal communication across disciplines involved, seem to be the main reasons for the major delays in pediatric drug trial implementation. The pharmaceutical aspects are intrinsically tied to trial methodology and implementation and must therefore be examined, in particular by involving Clinical Research Pharmacists at early stages of study conception.

Girard, Delphine; Bourdon, Olivier; Abdoul, Hendy; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Brion, Francoise; Tibi, Annick; Alberti, Corinne

2013-01-01

338

Differences in working memory involvement in analytical and creative tasks: an ERP study.  

PubMed

If, as suggested, creative (insight) problem solving is less systematic and employs less planning than analytical problem solving, the former requires substantially less working memory (WM) than the latter. Subjects simultaneously solved problems and counted auditory stimuli (concurrent WM task), in response to which ERPs were recorded. Counting disrupted analytical, but not creative performance. Peak and time-window average P300 were more frontal during analytical problem solving as compared to insight or counting tones only (control). A PCA extracted two factors in the P3 range, one frontal and one broad left-lateralized, which distinguished analytical from creative problem solving. The findings indicate distinct processing pathways for the two types of tasks with more WM involvement in analytical tasks. PMID:10852211

Lavric, A; Forstmeier, S; Rippon, G

2000-06-01

339

Brain involvement in systemic immune mediated diseases: magnetic resonance and magnetisation transfer imaging study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) provides information about brain damage with increased pathological specificity over conventional MRI and detects subtle abnormalities in the normal appearing brain tissue, which go undetected with conventional scanning. Brain MRI and MTI findings were compared in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic immune mediated diseases (SIDs) affecting the CNS to investigate their roles in understanding the nature of brain damage in these diseases.?METHODS—Brain dual echo, T1 weighted and MTI scans were obtained in patients affected by systemic lupus erithematosus (SLE) with (NSLE, n=9) and without clinical CNS involvement (n=15), Behçet's disease (BD) (n=5), Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) (n=9), and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLAS) (n=6). Ten patients with clinically definite MS and 15 healthy controls also underwent the same scanning protocol. Brain MRI and MT ratio (MTR) images of the same subject were coregistered and postprocessed to obtain MTR histograms of the whole brain and of the NABT.?RESULTS—Brain hyperintense lesions were found in all patients with MS and with NSLE and in 5/15 patients with SLE, 5/9 with WG, 1/5 with BD, and 3/6 with APLAS. The lesion burden in the brain was significantly higher in patients with MS compared with all the other disease groups. All MTR histogram parameters were significantly different among patient subgroups. Patients with MS had significantly lower average MTR than all except patients with NSLE and significantly lower peak height and location than patients with SLE. patients with NSLE had significantly lower average MTR than patients with SLE.?CONCLUSIONS—Microscopic brain tissue damage is relevant in patients with MS, but, apart from patients with NSLE, it seems to be absent in systemic immune mediated diseases, even in the presence of macroscopic MRI lesions or clinical evidence of CNS involvement.??

Rovaris, M; Viti, B; Ciboddo, G; Gerevini, S; Capra, R; Iannucci, G; Comi, G; Filippi, M

2000-01-01

340

The Utility of Involvement and Talent Development Theory in Assessing Charter School Success: Results from a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of involvement and talent development theory in the assessment of charter schools and their students' success was studied as part of an effort to develop an assessment that would match the views of primary stakeholders (parents and teachers) more authentically. The research considered how parents and teachers define success in…

Opp, Ronald D.; Hamer, Lynne M.; Beltyukova, Svetlana

341

Pallial oviduct of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda): ultrastructural studies of the parenchymal cellular types involved in the metabolism of perivitellins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the morphology of the parenchymal mass and function of the albumen gland\\/capsule gland complex have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, together with the cellular types involved in the synthesis and secretion of perivitellin fluid components. The two major parenchymal cell types, albumen secretory cells (AS) and labyrinthic cells (LC), undergo seasonal variations throughout the annual reproductive cycle,

M. Catalán; M. S. Dreon; H. Heras; R. J. Pollero; S. N. Fernández; B. Winik

2006-01-01

342

Student Involvement as a Vehicle for Empowerment: A Case Study of the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student…

Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolo; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

2010-01-01

343

The Consistency of Correlation between Students' Perceptions of Classroom Involvement and Academic Self-Concept in Secondary Social Studies Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research measured the effects of students' perceptions of classroom involvement on academic self-concept in high school social studies classes. Sample 1 consisted of 133 11th graders attending an Alabama high school during the 1999-2000 school year. Sample 2 consisted of 259 11th graders attending an Alabama high school during the same year.…

Byer, John L.

344

Neural sources involved in auditory target detection and novelty processing: An event-related fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging ~erf MRI! techniques to examine the cerebral sites involved with target detection and novelty processing of auditory stimuli. Consistent with the results from a recent erf MRI study in the visual modality, target processing was associated with activation bilaterally in the anterior superior temporal gyrus, inferior and middle frontal gyrus, inferior and superior

KENT A. KIEHL; KRISTIN R. LAURENS; TIMOTHY L. DUTY; BRUCE B. FORSTER; PETER F. LIDDLE

2001-01-01

345

An Empirical Study of Decisions Involving Post-Secondary Vocational School Training. Volume II--Technical Report. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined decisions involving private, postsecondary vocational schooling using three large, national sets of data (from the National Longitudinal Surveys) on males. Particular attention is paid to three target groups: inner-city and rural individuals and dropouts. Various equations were estimated using a life-cycle model of time allocation…

Olson, Lawrence S.

346

An Empirical Study of Decisions Involving Post-Secondary Vocational School Training. Volume I--Executive Summary. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined decisions involving private, postsecondary vocational schooling using three large, national sets of data (from the National Longitudinal Surveys) on males. Particular attention is paid to three target groups--inner-city and rural individuals and dropouts. Various equations were estimated using a life-cycle model of time allocation…

Olson, Lawrence S.

347

EFFECT OF DRUG THERAPY AND RISK INVOLVED IN CORONARY VASCULAR DISEASE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MILLITUS - A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the chronic diseases in the world. According to World Health Organization (WHO) approximately 171 million people worldwide currently on diabetic and that type 2 diabetes accounts to about 90% . This study presents Oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) prescription pattern by the physicians among Out patients of two hospital and risk involved in

Omi Bajracharya; B. S Rao; G. M. Khan

348

Queer Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study of Identity Development and LGBT Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first phase of a longitudinal study of student leaders of the 2002 Midwest Bi-, Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Allies College Conference (MBLGTACC), the authors explore the intersections of involvement in identity-specific leadership activities and development of LGBT/Queer identity. LGBT leadership experiences appear to have contributed…

Renn, Kristen A.; Bilodeau, Brent

2005-01-01

349

A Simple Loglinear Model for Haplotype Effects in a Case-Contro Study Involving Two Unphased Genotypes  

Cancer.gov

Statistical Software A Simple Loglinear Model for Haplotype Effects in a Case-Control Study Involving Two Unphased Genotypes (written by Stuart G. Baker) These programs were based on a publication by Baker SG. A simple loglinear model for haplotype effects

350

Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

2010-01-01

351

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Cynthia D. Mulrow; Stuart J. Pocock; Charles Poole; James J. Schlesselman; Matthias Egger

2007-01-01

352

Diurnal cycle on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica: An observational study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric diurnal cycle in tropical regions under different atmospheric environments is crucial to understand the role of convective activity (both, thermal and mechanical) in the global circulation energy budget. Many of the physical mechanisms involved in the diurnal cycle, such as the land-sea and mountain-valley breezes, are not well understood, partly because of lack of observational studies and the deficiencies shown by numerical models to capture the essence of the process. Studies of the diurnal cycle, and its interaction with other processes at different time and space scales, such as trade winds, have been relatively scarce. In this paper, preliminary results are presented for available observational data of precipitation and wind from several automatic meteorological stations in order to identify major features of the mean diurnal cycle on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. The analyzed region includes a relatively flat area near the coast and a mountain range to its west, being partly influenced by the trade wind system all year round. This factor provides the opportunity to investigate the diurnal cycle under different synoptic and climate conditions. Data consists of a set of 19 stations with hourly resolution for 2006-2011and 8 stations for 2000-2006. The spatial distribution of the stations covers a transect of about 350 km long, which allows a wide range of topographical conditions to be considered. Observational results over the region show a large contrast among the stations in the mean precipitation diurnal cycle patterns that seem to be the result of the interaction of the large scale environment (trades), the local land-sea characteristics, and the topography.

Amador, J. A.; Saenz, F.

2013-05-01

353

Expression and Study of Recombinant ExoM, a ?1-4 Glucosyltransferase Involved in Succinoglycan Biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Here we report on the overexpression and in vitro characterization of a recombinant form of ExoM, a putative ?1-4 glucosyltransferase involved in the assembly of the octasaccharide repeating subunit of succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti. The open reading frame exoM was isolated by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pET29b, allowing inducible expression under the control of the T7 promoter. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing exoM expressed a novel 38-kDa protein corresponding to ExoM in N-terminal fusion with the S-tag peptide. Cell fractionation studies showed that the protein is expressed in E. coli as a membrane-bound protein in agreement with the presence of a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region. E. coli membrane preparations containing ExoM were shown to be capable of transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to glycolipid extracts from an S. meliloti mutant strain which accumulates the ExoM substrate (Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Gal-pyrophosphate-polyprenol). Thin-layer chromatography of the glycosidic portion of the ExoM product showed that the oligosaccharide formed comigrates with an authentic standard. The oligosaccharide produced by the recombinant ExoM, but not the starting substrate, was sensitive to cleavage with a specific cellobiohydrolase, consistent with the formation of a ?1-4 glucosidic linkage. No evidence for the transfer of multiple glucose residues to the glycolipid substrate was observed. It was also found that ExoM does not transfer glucose to an acceptor substrate that has been hydrolyzed from the polyprenol anchor. Furthermore, neither glucose, cellobiose, nor the trisaccharide Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Glc inhibited the transferase activity, suggesting that some feature of the lipid anchor is necessary for activity.

Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Geremia, Roberto A.

1999-01-01

354

Tethered chains in poor solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers  

SciTech Connect

We have employed Langmuir monolayers of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 to {minus}35thinsp{degree}C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature ({ital T}) over this entire range. However, the variation with {ital T} becomes weak below {minus}20thinsp{degree}C. At the lowest {ital T}, the layer thicknesses are 55{percent}{endash}75{percent} of the values at the theta condition (T{sub {theta}}=22thinsp{degree}C). The contraction of the layer with decreasing {ital T} is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight, and these data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the near surface region over the entire {ital T} range, with the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing {ital T}. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. With decreasing {ital T}, negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayers, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a transition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing {ital T} was observed in the reflectivity for very low PDMS-PS coverage. At high coverage where the submerged blocks are strongly interacting at 22thinsp{degree}C, only a modest decrease in surface pressure is observed over the experimental range of {ital T} despite the strong contraction. This latter result is discussed in terms of the relative contributions of enthalpic and entropic effects to the surface pressure. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Kent, M.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lee, L.T. [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Satija, S. [NIST Center For Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [NIST Center For Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

1999-02-01

355

[Study of the interactions between oligosaccharides involved in the cell adhesion. Example of the Lewis(x) trisaccharide].  

PubMed

Nature often chooses weak molecular interactions for playing important role in cellular recognition and adhesion. These interactions involve particularly oligosaccharides, which are the structural elements present at the most exterior surface of the cell. Three oligosaccharides were prepared for study of the interaction by vesicle micromanipulation technique. This study allowed us to measure directly, for the first time, a carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction. PMID:19061733

Zhang, Y

2008-01-01

356

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.  

PubMed

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

357

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kroz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

358

Studying interactions involving the T-cell antigen receptor by surface plasmon resonance.  

PubMed

T-lymphocyte activation is initiated by the interaction of the alpha beta TCR with a complex consisting of a class I or class II MHC-encoded molecule and an antigenic peptide, displayed on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. Real-time binding measurements using surface plasmon resonance have revealed kinetic and equilibrium parameters for the interactions between purified MHC molecules and peptides, between TCR and MHC-peptide complexes, and between TRC and superantigens. The MHC-peptide interaction is characterized by its high affinity and long half-life, the TCR-MHC/peptide interaction by its low affinity and short half-life, and the TCR-superantigen interaction by its low-to-moderate affinity, which is dependent on the particular superantigen involved. The consistent finding is that both MHC-peptide complexes and superantigens interact with TCR with a low affinity attributable to rapid dissociation. That an MHC-peptide complex that encounters a single TCR only briefly can still deliver the necessary activation signals offers a mechanistic conundrum for which several solutions have been proposed. PMID:8725950

Margulies, D H; Plaksin, D; Khilko, S N; Jelonek, M T

1996-04-01

359

Latent pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease: biological, functional, bronchoalveolar lavage and scintigraphic studies.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the following pulmonary related parameters in 22 patients with Crohn's disease who were free of clinical pulmonary symptoms and had normal chest roentgenograms and in 25 controls: serum angiotensin converting enzyme, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (lymphocyte count and subpopulations, macrophage viability and superoxide anion release by macrophages) and pulmonary scannings. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme was lower in Crohn's disease (14.1 +/- 5.1) than in controls (25.2 +/- 4.7) (p less than 0.001). Twelve of 22 Crohn's disease (54%) had a bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis (greater than 18% alveolar lymphocytes). Bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes subpopulations were quite variable. Twelve of 17 Crohn's disease (71%) had an increase spontaneous and/or stimulated superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages. Six of 12 Crohn's disease (50%) had an increase physiologic dead space in the upper part of their lung against one of 11 controls (9%). These data suggest that most patients with Crohn's disease have a latent pulmonary involvement.

Bonniere, P; Wallaert, B; Cortot, A; Marchandise, X; Riou, Y; Tonnel, A B; Colombel, J F; Voisin, C; Paris, J C

1986-01-01

360

Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Numerous music cultures use nonsense syllables to represent percussive sounds. Covert reciting of these syllable sequences along with percussion music aids active listeners in keeping track of music. Owing to the acoustic dissimilarity between the representative syllables and the referent percussive sounds, associative learning is necessary for the oral representation of percussion music. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the neural processes underlying oral rehearsals of music. There were four music conditions in the experiment: (1) passive listening to unlearned percussion music, (2) active listening to learned percussion music, (3) active listening to the syllable representation of (2), and (4) active listening to learned melodic music. Our results specified two neural substrates of the association mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music. First, information integration of heard sounds and the auditory consequences of subvocal rehearsals may engage the right planum temporale during active listening to percussion music. Second, mapping heard sounds to articulatory and laryngeal gestures may engage the left middle premotor cortex. PMID:20727651

Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chou, Tai-Li; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2010-11-01

361

Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

Crawford, Lyall

362

[Buruli ulcer involving the head: outcomes and therapeutic aspects in 8 cases observed at the University Hospital Center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

Infection due to Mycobacterium ulcerans or Buruli ulcer usually occurs on the limbs (70%) or trunk (20%). Involvement of the head and neck region is less frequent but can lead to serious sequels. The purpose of this report is to describe 8 patients including 7 children who were treated for Buruli ulcers on the head in the dermatology department of the University Hospital Center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Eye lesions and visual impairment were the most frequent sequels. PMID:19639838

Kouame, K; Ecra, E; Cisse, M; Gbery, I; Kacou, E; Kassi, K; Kouassi, A; Ahogo, C; Yoboue, P; Kanga, J M

2008-12-01

363

Tethered Chains in Poor Solvent Conditions: An Experimental Study Involving Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers  

SciTech Connect

We have employed Langmuir monolayer of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane- polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 "C to -35 `C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature (T) over this entire r~ge. However, the v~iation with T becomes weak below -20 "C. At the ]owest T, the layer thicknesses are contracted 55 % -75 `% of their values at the theta condition (T8 = 22 "C), but are still quite swollen compared to the fully collapsed, nonsolvent limit. The contraction of the layer with decreasing T is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight. These data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the air surface over the entire T range, the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing T. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. Negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayer, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a trruisition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing T was observed in the reflectivity at very low PDMS-PS coverage.

Kent, M.S.; Lee, L.T.; Majewski, J.; Satija, S.; Smith, G.S.

1998-10-13

364

Involvement of the Olfactory Tubercle in Cocaine Reward: Intracranial Self-Administration Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine has multiple actions and multiple sites of action in the brain. Evidence from pharmacological studies indicates that it is the ability of cocaine to block dopamine uptake and elevate extracellular dopamine concentrations, and thus increase dopaminergic receptor activation, that makes cocaine rewarding. Lesion studies have implicated the nucleus accumbens (the dorsal portion of the \\

Satoshi Ikemoto

2003-01-01

365

Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

2009-01-01

366

Temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscle involvement in myotonic dystrophy: A study by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myotonic dystrophy (MD) patients. Study Design. MRI of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was performed in 15 MD patients, 11 male and 4 female, aged 16 to 53 years (mean, 31 years). Many of them had dental

Edmar Zanoteli; Helio K. Yamashita; Hideo Suzuki; Acary S. B. Oliveira; Alberto A. Gabbai

2002-01-01

367

Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and

Hongjie Liu; Shuli Yu; Lesley Cottrell; Sonja Lunn; Lynette Deveaux; Nanika V Brathwaite; Sharon Marshall; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton

2007-01-01

368

When is Onuf's nucleus involved in multiple system atrophy? A sphincter electromyography study  

PubMed Central

Background: External anal sphincter (EAS) electromyography (EMG) abnormalities can distinguish multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease in the first five years after disease onset. However, the prevalence of the abnormalities in the early stages of MSA is unknown. Objectives: To present EAS-EMG data in the various stages of MSA. Methods: 84 patients with "probable" MSA were recruited (42 men, 42 women; mean age 62 years (range 47 to 78); mean disease duration 3.2 years (0.5 to 8.0; <1 year in 25%); 50 cerebellar form (MSA-C), 34 parkinsonian form (MSA-P)). EAS motor unit potential (MUP) analysis and EMG cystometry were carried out in all patients. Results: The overall prevalence of neurogenic change of the EAS MUP was 62%—52% in the first year after disease onset, increasing to 83% by the fifth year (p<0.05); it also increased with severity of gait disturbance (p<0.05), storage and voiding disorders, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (NS). The neurogenic change was not correlated with sex, age, MSA-P/C, postural hypotension, constipation, erectile dysfunction in men, underactive or acontractile detrusor, or detrusor overactivity. In 17 incontinent patients without detrusor overactivity or low compliance, urinary incontinence was more severe in those with neurogenic change than in those without (p<0.05). Conclusions: Involvement of Onuf's nucleus in MSA is time dependent. Before the fifth year of illness, the prevalence of neurogenic change does not seem to be high, so a negative result cannot exclude the diagnosis of MSA.

Yamamoto, T; Sakakibara, R; Uchiyama, T; Liu, Z; Ito, T; Awa, Y; Yamamoto, K; Kinou, M; Yamanishi, T; Hattori, T

2005-01-01

369

5-HT spinal antinociception involves mu opioid receptors: cross tolerance and antagonist studies.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effects of intrathecal 5-HT, fentanyl, ICI197067 and U50488H were assessed by electrical current nociceptive threshold and tail flick latency measurements. Equieffective doses of these agonists were then given intrathecally with a range of doses of naloxone or the highly selective mu opioid antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine. Antagonist dose-response curves were plotted. Other rats were made tolerant to either fentanyl or 5-HT by intrathecal injections of these drugs seven times daily and the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal fentanyl and 5-HT were assessed in each group. All intrathecal drugs caused spinally mediated antinociception in both tests. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecal 5-HT assessed by the electrical test (ECT) but not by tail flick latency (TFL) were suppressed by both opioid antagonists at doses similar to those required to suppress all of the effects of intrathecal fentanyl. The ED50 values were 0.22 (fentanyl, ECT), 0.25 (fentanyl, TFL) and 0.18 (5-HT, ECT) mumol kg-1 for naloxone and for beta-funaltrexamine 2.2 fmol (5-HT, ECT), the same order as that required to produce similar suppression of the antinociceptive effects of fentanyl (46 amol: fentanyl, ECT; 4.6 fmol: fentanyl, TFL) and very different from the ED50 for beta-FNA suppression of the antinociceptive effects of the kappa opioid, U50488H (5.88 pmol). Cross tolerance in both directions was demonstrated between intrathecal fentanyl and 5-HT in the electrical test but not in the tail flick test. We conclude that intrathecal 5-HT caused spinally mediated antinociceptive effects revealed by electrical current and tail flick latency tests. The antinociceptive effects in the electrical test involved spinal cord mu opioid receptors. PMID:9175973

Goodchild, C S; Guo, Z; Freeman, J; Gent, J P

1997-05-01

370

Resident Involvement and Participation in Urban Tourism Development: A Comparative Study in Maun and Gaborone, Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a comparative study of urban tourism development in two areas, Maun and Gaborone, located in northern and\\u000a southeastern Botswana. More specifically, the study evaluated residents’ tourism awareness and its importance in their lives;\\u000a assessed economic benefits and employment derived from tourism; and examined impacts of tourism and development issues as\\u000a perceived by the residents. Data were collected

Naomi Moswete; Brijesh Thapa; Elisha N. Toteng; Joseph E. Mbaiwa

2008-01-01

371

Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

2014-06-01

372

Lymph node involvement and metastatic lymph node ratio influence the survival of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a French multicenter retrospective study.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor with disastrous evolution. The prognostic value of nodal involvement is still debated. We analyzed the impact of nodal involvement on overall survival (OS) in patients treated by multimodal therapy including extra pleural pneumonectomy (EPP). We evaluated the role, as a prognostic factor, of the metastatic lymph node ratio (LNR), corresponding to the number of involved nodes out of the total number of removed nodes. In this retrospective multicentric study, we reviewed the data of 99 MPM patients. Information regarding lymph node involvement was assessed from the final pathology reports. N1-N3 patients were pooled as N+ group. The OS, calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, was compared using the log-rank test. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. For the whole cohort, median OS was 18.3 months and 5-year survival was 17.5%. N+ status reduced significantly the median survival (22.4 months for N0 patients vs 12.7 months for N+ patients, P=0.002). A lower metastatic LNR (?13%) was associated with a significantly improved median survival (19.9 vs. 11.7 months, P=0.01). OS was not related to the number of involved or total removed lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, only adjuvant radiotherapy (P=0.001) was identified as an independent positive prognostic factor. Metastatic LNR is a more reliable prognostic factor than the number of involved lymph nodes or the total number of removed nodes. However, it could not be identified as an independent prognostic factor. PMID:24142233

Hysi, Ilir; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Alifano, Marco; Venissac, Nicolas; Mouroux, Jérôme; Regnard, Jean-François; Riquet, Marc; Porte, Henri

2014-01-01

373

Brainstem areas involved in the aspiration reflex: c-Fos study in anesthetized cats.  

PubMed

Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation was employed in adult anesthetized non-decerebrate cats, in order to localize the brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to sniff-like (gasp-like) aspiration reflex (AR). Tissues were immunoprocessed using an antibody raised against amino acids of Fos and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was identified and counted in particular brainstem sections under light microscopy using PC software evaluations in control, unstimulated cats and in cats where the AR was elicited by repeated mechanical stimulation of the nasopharyngeal region. Fourteen brainstem regions with FLI labeling, including thirty-seven nuclei were compared for the number of labeled cells. Compared to the control, a significantly enhanced FLI was determined bilaterally in animals with the AR, at various medullary levels. The areas included the nuclei of the solitary tract (especially the dorsal, interstitial and ventrolateral subnuclei), the ventromedial part of the parvocellular tegmental field (FTL -- lateral nuclei of reticular formation), the lateral reticular nucleus, the ambigual and para-ambigual regions, and the retrofacial nucleus. FLI was also observed in the gigantocellular tegmental field (FTG -- medial nuclei of reticular formation), the spinal trigeminal nucleus, in the medullar raphe nuclei (ncl. raphealis magnus and parvus), and in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei. Within the pons, a significant FLI was observed bilaterally in the parabrachial nucleus (especially in its lateral subnucleus), the Kolliker-Fuse nucleus, the nucleus coeruleus, within the medial region of brachium conjunctivum, in the ventrolateral part of the pontine FTG and the FTL. Within the mesencephalon a significantly enhanced FLI was found at the central tegmental field (area ventralis tegmenti Tsai), bilaterally. Positive FLI found in columns extending from the caudal medulla oblongata, through the pons up to the mid-mesencephalon suggests that the aspiration reflex is thus co-ordinated by a long loop of medullary-pontine-mesencephalic control circuit rather than by a unique "center". PMID:15588140

Jakus, J; Halasová, E; Poliacek, I; Tomori, Z; Stránsky, A

2004-01-01

374

Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.  

PubMed

Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. PMID:24734699

Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

2014-04-01

375

Assessment of the Quality of Reporting Observational Studies in the Pediatric Dental Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate reporting of observational studies in the pediatric dental literature. Methods: This assessment included the following steps: (1) developing a model for reporting information in clinical dentistry studies; (2) identifying treatment comparisons in pediatric dentistry that were evaluated by at least 5 observational studies; (3) abstracting from these studies any data indicated

Yogita Butani; Arthur Hartz; Steven Levy; Catherine Watkins; Michael Kanellis; Arthur Nowak

2006-01-01

376

Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rationale, design, and methodology.  

PubMed

Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a "congenital malformation" implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, numerous studies failed to confirm its presence in MS patients. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methodology adopted in the CoSMo study, conducted with the aim of verifying whether or not CCSVI is linked to MS. The primary endpoint of the CoSMo study is to compare the prevalence of CCSVI in patients with MS versus patients affected by other neurodegenerative diseases (OND) and healthy volunteers. CoSMo is a multicenter, blinded, prevalence study recruiting 2,000 adult subjects, involving 43 MS centers across Italy. Assessment of the presence or absence of CCSVI is performed by color-coded duplex (CCD) sonography and two out of the five criteria according to Zamboni are necessary for the diagnosis of CCSVI. Local CCD examination carried out by a certified sonologist and the central image readings performed by experts in the field are blinded. An advanced protocol is also described in this paper. The application of a rigorous methodological design will definitively confirm whether an association exists between CCSVI and MS. Should an association be observed, this study also further examines the link between CCSVI and the severity of MS. The addition of subgroups without MS and OND also provides information on whether CCSVI is specific to MS only. Results from the CoSMo study will play a crucial role in the possible studies concerning the potential treatment of CCSVI in MS. PMID:23344741

Comi, Giancarlo; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bertolotto, Antonio; Del Sette, Massimo; Ghezzi, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Salvetti, Marco; Sormani, Maria Pia; Tesio, Luigi; Stolz, Erwin; Mancardi, Gianluigi

2013-08-01

377

A Multicenter prospective study of poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (AMPAS): observational registry study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Our limited knowledge on predictors of long-term outcome in poor-grade patients with aSAH definitively managed comes from retrospective and prospective studies of small case series of patients in single center. The purpose of the AMPAS is to determine the long-term outcomes in poor-grade patients with different managements within different time after aSAH, and identify the independent predictors of the outcome that help guide the decision on definitive management. Methods/design The AMPAS study is a prospective, multicenter, observational registry of consecutive hospitalized patients with poor grade aSAH (WFNS grade IV and V). The aim is to enroll at least 226 poor-grade patients in 11 high-volume medical centers (eg, >150 aSAH cases per year) affiliated to different universities in China. This study will describe poor grade patients and aneurysm characteristics, treatment strategies (modality and time of definitive management), hospitalization complications and outcomes evolve over time. The definitive management is ruptured aneurysm treatment. Outcomes at 3, 6, 12 months after the management were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. Discussion The AMPAS is the first prospective, multicenter, observational registry of poor grade aSAH with any management. This study will contribute to a better understanding of significant predictors of outcome in poor grade patients and help guide future treatment of the worst patients after aSAH. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TNRC-10001041.

2014-01-01

378

Studies Involving Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements of Apatitic Crystals and Mineral-Protein Complexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two major approaches to the application of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) in the study of biomineral apatite and its relation to organic matter were explored and developed. The first approach exploited the paramagnetism of x-ray induced free radical center...

I. Pullman R. Peckauskas

1976-01-01

379

State Education Agency Involvement in Change Agent Programs. Study of Change Agent Programs: A Working Note.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a study that examined the role of the state education agency (SEA) in implementing innovative projects within school districts are presented in this paper. The following federal programs were investigated: (1) the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title III, Innovative Projects; (2) ESEA Title VII, Bilingual Projects; (3)…

Prusoff, Linda L.; Sumner, Gerald C.

380

Keystroke Economy: A Study of the Time and Effort Involved in Self-Archiving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common objection to self-archiving is that it is an extra task that puts an unnecessary burden on each researcher. In particular, the need to enter the extra bibliographic metadata demanded by repositories for accurate searching and identification is presumed to be a particularly onerous task. This paper describes a preliminary study on two months of submissions for a mature

Leslie Carr; Stevan Harnad

2005-01-01

381

Agnew Meets the Student Dissenters: An Experimental Study of Ego-Involvement and Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study deals with effects of David Frost show of September 25, 1970, featuring Vice President Spiro Agnew and five student dissenters on the attitudes of students. Results showed that students exposed to the program were significantly less negative in attitudes toward Agnew. (DS)

Meyer, Timothy P.; Cronen, Vernon E.

1972-01-01

382

Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

2008-01-01

383

Parental Involvement in the Development of Children's Reading Skill: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening

Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre

2002-01-01

384

A Comparative Study of Gang-Involved and Other Adolescent Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent women have been a part of gangs in the United States since the early 1800s, but they have been neglected in gang research. To address the shortfall, this study used structured interviews, standardized questionnaires, and collaborative records to gather information about adolescent women in a metropolitan area with an emerging gang…

Shulmire, Sandra Rodden

385

""We" Are the Professionals": A Study of Teachers' Views on Parental Involvement in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines teachers' attitudes and experiences regarding home-school cooperation. Teachers constitute a powerful group in school compared with parents, and this relationship is interpreted through Bourdieu's concept of social field, as a power relation. The empirical analyses are based on a mixed-methods approach with survey and…

Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

2010-01-01

386

Internationalisation in the Swedish Nurse Education from the Perspective of Teachers Involved: An Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from an interview investigation with teachers in Swedish nurse education especially interested in internationalising the education. The aim has been to study teachers' understandings and experiences of internationalisation against the backdrop of the strong concern for internationalisation expressed in policy documents.…

Svensson, Lennart; Wihlborg, Monne

2007-01-01

387

Predictors of Participation and Attrition in a Health Promotion Study Involving Psychiatric Outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participant selection biases can reduce the generalizability of research findings and lead to misestimates of intervention effectiveness. The authors examined factors associated with study participation and attrition among psychiatric outpatients recruited for the initial phase of a health promotion trial. Medical records were reviewed to obtain HIV-risk and substance abuse data, as well as psychiatric and demographic characteristics of potential

Peter A. Vanable; Michael P. Carey; Kate B. Carey; Stephen A. Maisto

2002-01-01

388

A Study of Selected Variables Involved in the Assessment of Teacher Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers on the Common Examinations of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) in relation to national averages, and (2) determine strengths and weaknesses in the test performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers. Prospective teachers in Louisiana were…

Tarver, Linda K.

389

Studies on the interaction of ribonuclease inhibitor with pancreatic ribonuclease involving differential labeling of cysteinyl residues.  

PubMed

Ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) is a protein that forms a very tight complex with ribonucleases (RNases) of the pancreatic type. RI contains 30 thiol groups, some of which are important for the enzyme-inhibitor interaction. To examine which thiols are affected by the binding of RNase, differential labeling experiments were performed. Reaction of porcine RI with the cysteine-specific labeling reagent 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-iodoacetamido-2'-sulfonic acid resulted in labeling of an average of 7.4 of the 30 cysteinyl residues. Binding of bovine pancreatic RNase A caused a 3.2-fold reduction in the extent of modification. Peptide mapping showed that in free RI, Cys-57, -371, and -404 were labeled to the greatest extent (yield, 0.4-0.6 mol/mol). RNase A did not protect Cys-57 against modification, whereas the labeling of Cys-371 and -404 was reduced by more than 90%. A second group of residues was labeled to a lesser extent in free RI (yield, 0.04-0.2 mol/mol). Within this group 11 residues were protected by RNase A by more than 90%, 2 were not affected at all, and 7 were protected between 10 and 90%. Seven cysteinyl residues in RI that were protected in the RI.RNase A complex were no longer protected in the RI.S-protein complex. These residues were mainly present in the N-terminal region of RI. However, when the S-peptide was included to yield the RI.RNase S complex, the same pattern of labeling was obtained as with the RI.RNase A complex. Addition of the S-peptide alone had no effect on the labeling. The implications of these observations with respect to RNase binding areas of RI are discussed in relation to the results obtained from the analysis of active RI molecules that contain deletions. PMID:1748689

Hofsteenge, J; Servis, C; Stone, S R

1991-12-15

390

Application of micro-attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy in the forensic study of questioned documents involving red seal inks.  

PubMed

Red seal inks from Korea (6), Japan (1) and China (6) were studied to investigate the feasibility of micro-attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy as a tool in the forensic study of questioned documents involving seal inks. The technique was able to differentiate red seal inks of similar colors and different manufacturers. Blind testing has shown that micro-ATR FTIR can identify the origin of the red seal inks with accuracy. Data gathered were converted to a database for future reference. Also, the technique was also successful in determining the sequence of heterogeneous line intersection from a personal seal and a ballpoint pen. The results show that micro-ATR FTIR can be a valuable non-destructive tool for the objective analysis of questioned documents involving different red seal inks. PMID:20413232

Dirwono, Warnadi; Park, Jin Sook; Agustin-Camacho, M R; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Kang-Bong

2010-06-15

391

Predictors of Participation and Attrition in a Health Promotion Study Involving Psychiatric Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Participant selection biases can reduce the generalizability of research findings and lead to overestimates of intervention effectiveness. We examined factors associated with study participation and attrition among psychiatric outpatients recruited for the initial phase of a health promotion trial. Medical records were reviewed to obtain HIV risk and substance abuse data, as well as psychiatric and demographic characteristics of potential participants. Out of 895 eligible outpatients, 67% (n = 601) consented to participate, among whom 69% (n = 415) completed all baseline appointments. Compared to non-consenters, consenters were more likely to be at risk for drug problems, and to receive care from clinics serving more impaired patients. Study completion was associated with older age, a psychiatric diagnosis other than adjustment disorder, and a recent STD diagnosis. These findings suggest that patients who could most benefit from risk reduction interventions are more likely to participate.

Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

392

Predictors of participation and attrition in a health promotion study involving psychiatric outpatients.  

PubMed

Participant selection biases can reduce the generalizability of research findings and lead to misestimates of intervention effectiveness. The authors examined factors associated with study participation and attrition among psychiatric outpatients recruited for the initial phase of a health promotion trial. Medical records were reviewed to obtain HIV-risk and substance abuse data, as well as psychiatric and demographic characteristics of potential participants. Of 895 eligible outpatients, 67% (n = 601) consented to participate, among whom 69% (n = 415) completed all baseline appointments. Compared with nonconsenters, consenters were more likely to be at risk for drug problems and to receive care from clinics serving more impaired patients. Study completion was associated with older age, a psychiatric diagnosis other than adjustment disorder, and a recent sexually transmitted disease diagnosis. These findings suggest that patients who could most benefit from risk reduction interventions are more likely to participate. PMID:11952194

Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B; Maisto, Stephen A

2002-04-01

393

Uranium-involving electrode processes in chloride melts: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of anodic dissolution of uranium metal and the cathodic reduction of uranium(IV) ions in a molten eutectic mixture\\u000a of lithium and potassium chlorides are studied at 450?C using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that UCl\\u000a 6\\u000a 3?\\u000a — ions form in the melt as a result of the metal’s anodic dissolution, and the metal-ligand distance in the complex

V. A. Volkovich; I. B. Polovov; C. A. Sharrad; I. May; J. M. Charnock

2007-01-01

394

Further Dissociating the Processes Involved in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an event-related potential study by Rugg et al. (Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature, 392, 595-598, 1998), we attempted to isolate the hemodynamic correlates of recollection, familiarity, and implicit memory within a single verbal recognition memory task using event-related fMRI. Words were randomly cued for either deep or shallow processing, and then intermixed

Richard N. A. Henson; Michael Hornberger; Michael D. Rugg

2005-01-01

395

Measuring depression in nursing home residents with the MDS and GDS: an observational psychometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) as measures of depression among nursing home residents. METHODS: The data for this study were baseline, pre-intervention assessment data from a research study involving nine nursing homes and 704 residents in Massachusetts. Trained research nurses assessed residents using the MDS and

Melissa Koehler; Terry Rabinowitz; John Hirdes; Michael Stones; G Iain Carpenter; Brant E Fries; John N Morris; Richard N Jones

2005-01-01

396

Studies of the involvement of metal ions with several medicinal agents  

SciTech Connect

NMR and CD studies indicate that Mg/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ are able to change the conformation of tetracycline in DMSO solution. This may affect the in vivo effect of tetracycline. Using /sup 23/Na NMR, the formation constant of NaLAS (LAS represents the anion of lasalocid A) was found to be 80 M/sup -1/ which is much smaller than that in less polar solvents. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements were made to study the binding sites of Gd/sup 3 +/ on Las in ChCl/sub 3/-DMF mixed solvent system. No intermediate conformation (between cyclic and open-chain) was found. LAS was found to be a good second-sphere ligand to inert transition-metal amines. NMR studies suggest that LAS is in cyclic conformation when bound to these metal amines. A new method for the synthesis of spin-labeled anticancer Pt(II) complexes was developed. It is very simple and gives high yield of pure spin-labeled Pt(II) complexes.

Shaw, J.

1985-01-01

397

The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes  

PubMed Central

Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

Le Marrec-Croq, Francoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

2013-01-01

398

Factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants in a prospective study of injection drug users  

PubMed Central

Objectives: While much research to date has examined female sex trade work, little has been done to evaluate factors associated with male sex trade involvement or to assess their health service needs. This is particularly true for male sex trade workers who are also injection drug users (IDUs). Therefore, the present analyses were undertaken to evaluate factors associated with sex trade work in a prospective cohort study of male IDUs. Methods: We identified factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since serial measures for each individual were available at semiannual intervals, variables potentially associated with sex trade involvement were evaluated with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using generalised estimating equations (GEE). Results: Between 1996 and 2003, 995 male IDUs were enrolled into the VIDUS cohort among whom 108 (11%) reported being involved in the sex trade at enrolment and 102 (10%) individuals initiated sex trade involvement during the follow up period. In multivariate analyses, factors independently associated with sex trade involvement included HIV positive serostatus (AOR: 1.77 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.17)), daily cocaine injection (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.70)), daily crack smoking (AOR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.72)), borrowing syringes (AOR: 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32 to 2.25)), and inconsistent use of condoms with casual sexual partners (AOR 0.66, CI 0.53 to 0.82). We also found that male sex trade workers were more likely to report having sought but been unable to access substance abuse treatment (AOR: 1.28 (95% CI: 0.98 to 1.67); p = 0.076). Conclusions: Males involved in the sex trade in this setting have higher levels of HIV infection and engage in risky injection behaviours at an elevated rate. Since these behaviours have major implications for HIV acquisition and public health, prevention efforts and targeted provision of addiction treatment to this population should be expanded.

Kuyper, L; Lampinen, T; Li, K; Spittal, P; Hogg, R; Schechter, M; Wood, E

2004-01-01

399

Trauma symptoms in pupils involved in school bullying--a cross sectional study conducted in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

To determine the association between involvement in school bullying and trauma symptoms and to find whether children with presence of trauma symptoms participate in school bullying more as victims, as bullies or as bully/victims. The study included 1055, 6th to 8th grade (12-14 years of age) elementary school pupils from the western part of Mostar, The pupils were self-interviewed using a Questionnaire on School Violence developed in 2003 and validated in Croatia, and Trauma Symptoms Check List for Children (TSCC). The pupils involved in the school violence, either as victims, bullies, bully/victims had significantly more trauma symptoms than the not involved. Involvement in school bullying as a bully/ victim was a strong indicator of trauma symptoms, particularly anxiety, anger, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, obvious dissociation, and dissociation fantasy symptoms, while the victims of school violence had the highest odds ratio for the development of depressive symptoms. There is strong association between bullying and trauma symptoms in young adolescents. From our results, emphasis should be placed at the regularly screening on bullying in praxis of family physicians and regularly conduction of preventive measures and early intervention in every primary school. PMID:23697244

Obrdalj, Edita Cerni; Sesar, Kristina; Santic, Zarko; Klari?, Miro; Sesar, Irena; Rumboldt, Mirjana

2013-03-01

400

Commercial Drivers' Health: A Naturalistic Study of Body Mass Index, Fatigue, and Involvement in Safety-Critical Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the relation of commercial truck drivers' body mass indexex (BMI) to fatigued driving episodes and involvement in safety-critical events.Methods: One hundred and three professional truck drivers participated in a long-term naturalistic (on-road) driving study whereby vehicle motion data as well as video of the driver and driving environment were gathered continuously. This data set was analyzed to

Douglas M. Wiegand; Richard J. Hanowski; Shelby E. McDonald

2009-01-01

401

Carboxyl terminal sequences of ?-tubulin involved in the interaction of HMW-MAPs. Studies using site-specific antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the finding of the involvement of the C-terminal moieties of tubulin subunits in the interaction of MAPs, different studies have focused on the substructure of the binding domains for the different MAPs. Current biochemical evidence point to the role of a low-homology sequence between a and ß-subunits within the conserved region of the C-terminal domain of tubulin, in the

Daniel Cross; Gustavo Farías; Jorge Domínguez; Jestis Avila; Ricardo B. Maccioni

1994-01-01

402

Study of involvement of ImuB and DnaE2 in stationary-phase mutagenesis in Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bacterial species carry in their genomes a so-called “mutagenesis” gene cluster encoding ImuB which is similar to Y-family DNA polymerases, and DnaE2 related to the catalytic subunit DnaE of Pol III. Y-family DNA polymerases are known to be involved in stationary-phase mutagenesis and DnaE2 homologues characterized so far have expressed a mutator phenotype. In this study, we raised a

Lauri Koorits; Radi Tegova; Mariliis Tark; Kairi Tarassova; Andres Tover; Maia Kivisaar

2007-01-01

403

Renal involvement in sepsis: a prospective single-center study of 136 cases.  

PubMed

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality in sepsis syndrome. Few Indian studies have focused on describing the epidemiology of sepsis with AKI. Adult patients with sepsis-induced AKI were evaluated for the clinical characteristics and outcome and to correlate various parameters associated with sepsis to the outcome of patients. This prospective study included 136 patients with sepsis-induced AKI between 2007 and 2009. All patients required renal replacement therapy. Males comprised 44% of the patients while 56% were females; their mean age was 38.6 years. When we compared the survivor and non-survivor groups, it was found that mortality was associated with delayed presentation (6.8 vs 9.4 days), presence of hypotension (132/80 vs 112/70 mmHg), oliguria (300 vs 130 mL), anemia (8 vs 9.3 gm/dL), prolonged prothrombin time (15 vs 29 s) and activated partial thrombin time (38 vs 46 s), creatinine (7.8 vs 6.4 mg/dL), blood urea (161 vs 135 mg/dL), higher D-dimer (1603 vs 2185), short hospital stay (27.9 vs 8.3 days), number of hemodialysis sessions (11.9 vs 6 times), need for vasopressors (14% vs 52%) and ventilator (7.2% vs 75%) and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (6.7 vs 11.4) (P <0.05). The most com-mon source of infection in this study was urogenital tract (34%). About 51.4% showed complete recovery of renal function. The overall hospital mortality rate was 38.9%. Less than 10% of the patients developed impaired renal function following septic AKI. In conclusion, the most common renal manifestation of sepsis was AKI, which is a risk factor for mortality in sepsis syndrome. SOFA score >11 and multi-organ dysfunction are the risk factors for mortality. PMID:23640650

Shah, Pankaj R; Gireesh, M S; Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Goplani, K R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

2013-05-01

404

Lunar studies. [involving polarimetry and a microfiche data base for lunar photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two research projects to classify lunar photographic images are reported. The feasibility of using polarimetry to study large scale features on the moon was investigated. A system was built that measured polarization by subtracting two film images taken through perpendicular Polaroid filters, however, no new boundaries were discovered in the pictures which are not already discernable in ordinary photographs. The present status and equipment of a microfiche library system which would allow easy access to selected lunar photographs from all space missions is also reported.

Ingersoll, A. P.

1974-01-01

405

Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

1987-01-01