Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  2. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm. I - Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects. II - Model results versus observations involving electrical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Model results and the observed cloud behavior are examined in terms of nonelectrical and electrical aspects of a thunderstorm. The characteristics of the two-dimensional, time-dependent atmospheric electricity model used to simulate the cloud observations of July 19, 1981 in Miles City, Montana are described. The interactions of the dynamics and microphysics of the cloud with the charge separation mechanisms are analyzed. It is observed that the model accurately represents many of the observed characteristics of the cloud; however, the cloud base height, maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground are not accurately modeled. It is found that the model adequately represents the electrical field structure of the cloud and the electrical field strengths.

  3. Medical Expertise and Patient Involvement: A Multiperspective Qualitative Observation Study of the Patient’s Role in Oncological Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Peter; Wäscher, Sebastian; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Decision making in oncology poses intricate ethical questions because treatment decisions should account not only for evidence-based standards but also for the patient’s individual values and preferences. However, there is a scarcity of empirical knowledge about patient involvement in oncological decision making. Methods. Direct, nonparticipant observation was used as a qualitative research method to gain an understanding of the interplay between medical expertise and patient participation in oncological decision making. Based on a multiperspective approach, observations were performed in three settings (tumor conference, ward round, and outpatient clinic) in the oncology department of a German university hospital. The observation transcripts were analyzed using central features of qualitative data analysis. Results. Major differences were identified regarding the decision-making processes in the three settings related to the patient’s presence or absence. When the patient was absent, his or her wishes were cited only irregularly; however, patients actively advanced their wishes when present. Preselection of treatments by physicians was observed, narrowing the scope of options that were finally discussed with the patient. Dealing with decisions about risky treatments was especially regarded as part of the physician’s professional expertise. Conclusion. The study reveals aspects of decision making for cancer patients that have been underexposed in the empirical and theoretical literature so far. Among these are the relevance of structural aspects for the decisions made and the practice of preselection of treatment options. It should be further discussed how far medical expertise reaches and whether therapeutic decisions can be made without consulting the patient. PMID:24760711

  4. Involvement in emergency situations by primary care doctors on-call in Norway - a prospective population-based observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary care doctors on-call in the emergency primary health care services in Norway are, together with the ambulances, the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals. There is a lack of reliable data for Norway on how often the primary care doctors are alerted and on their responses in the most urgent emergency cases. The aim of this study was to investigate how doctors on-call are involved in red responses (highest priority), using three different emergency medical communication centres (EMCC) as catchment area for a prospective population-based study. Methods In the period from October to December 2007 three dispatch centres covering approximately 816 000 inhabitants prospectively recorded all acute emergency cases. Ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from the doctors on-call were collected. NACA score was used to define the severity of the emergencies. Results 5 105 cases were classified as red responses during the period. We have complete basic recordings (AMIS forms) from all and resaved ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from doctors on-call in 89% of the cases. Ambulances were alerted in 96% and doctors on-call in 47% of the cases, but there were large differences between the three EMCCs. Doctors on-call responded with call-out in 42% of the alerted cases. 28% of all patients were taken to a casualty clinic, 46% were admitted to hospital by a doctor and 24% were taken directly to hospital by ambulances. In total, primary care doctors on-call took active part in 42% of all red response cases, and together with GPs' daytime activity the primary health care services were involved in 50% of the cases. 29% of the cases were classified as life-threatening. Call-out by doctors on-call were found to be more frequent in life-threatening situations compared with not life-threatening situations. Conclusion Doctors on-call and GPs on daytime were involved in half of all red responses. There were large differences between the EMCCs in the frequency of doctors alerted. The inhabitants in the three EMMCs were thus offered different levels of professional competency in emergency situations outside hospitals. PMID:20205933

  5. Studies That Observe Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Human testing: Clinical trials Studies that observe humans A study that simply looks at people is ... in the past without counting on a person’s memory. And there’s no way to find out what ...

  6. Are natural killer cells involved in multiple sclerosis etiology? Evidences from NKp46/NCR1 receptor modulation in an observational study.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-10-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated in many autoimmune diseases but their role in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains still unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression levels of a NK cell receptor (NCR1) in patients with diagnosis of MS. Particularly, the study took into account patients undergoing pharmacological therapy with interferon-beta or natalizumab and patients never treated since first-time diagnosed for MS. Expression levels of NCR1 receptor were evaluated in protein extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells performing western blot analysis. Our results show that MS patients display higher NCR1 expression levels than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with a first diagnosis of MS display the highest level of NCR1 when compared with patients pharmacologically treated with interferon-beta or natalizumab. Therefore, pharmacologically treated MS patients show a modulated NK cell expression. PMID:25115502

  7. [The emergency telephone number--the essential weak link in an emergency system. Prospective studies involving cardiac arrests observed by bystanders].

    PubMed

    Diehl, P; Mauer, D; Schneider, T; Dick, W

    1992-06-01

    The first link in the "chain of survival" concept is the activation of the emergency medical system (EMS) by a bystander after recognition of cardiac arrest (CA) or its immediate prodrome. Our ongoing study is aimed at evaluating the current effectiveness of bystander EMS activation for all cases of CA in the city and area of Mainz. Methods. Starting February 1991, we began to prospectively examine collapse-intervention intervals in all cases of CA treated by our physician-manned ambulance. Precision voice recorders carried by the ambulance crews are activated and linked to the EMS dispatcher to time the arrival of the ambulance vehicle. Time intervals starting from the time of collapse are then reconstructed from the dispatcher's time and the tapes. The emergency phone number dialled initially by the bystander and the time of collapse in witnessed cardiac arrests are identified. RESULTS. Sixty-six CAs were witnessed and included in this study. In 20% of those cases, the number dialled initially by the bystander was 19222 (EMS dispatcher), in 38% 110 (police), and in 42% other numbers (family practitioners or their on-call service, fire department). The time interval, as median (25th percentile; 75th percentile), between collapse and receipt call by the emergency dispatchers was 4 min (2; 8) for all patients (n = 66), and 6.5 min (3; 12) whenever numbers other than emergency phone numbers were dialled. All following time intervals (start of BLS or ACLS procedures) showed differences (P less than 0.05) between the 110 or 19222 group [BLS: 8.5 min (4.8; 13.1) or 10 min (7.35; 12.1); ACLS: 11.3 min (9.1; 13.45) or 12.9 min (10.6; 21.5)] vs the group, in which other phone numbers were initially dialled [BLS: 15.25 min (9.25; 19.4); ACLS: 20.11 min (12.6; 28.3)]. The first ECG rhythm showed VF in 56% and 54% in case 110 and 19222 were dialled, but only in 32% in the other group. CONCLUSION. Even one single weak link in the "chain of survival" can lower overall survival rates. An indispensable, but apparently underrated component of an effective EMS includes an informed citizenry able to call swiftly for help. Lack of an unequivocal emergency number, well known and accepted by the citizens, produces confusion and delays. In our systems, the correct medical emergency phone number (19222) was dialled in 20% of the cases only, thus demonstrating clearly the lack of public awareness of this 5-digit number. In a higher percentage, the three-digit police number (110) was dialled. In cases where numbers other than emergency numbers were dialled (42%), the longest time intervals between collapse and receipt of call by the dispatchers occurred, associated with the longest time intervals until initiation of CPR and the lowest percentage of patients found in ventricular fibrillation. We conclude that establishment of a simple three-digit EMS phone number, preferentially Europe-wide, in combination with an intensification of public awareness, could be a vital step not only to reduce time intervals between collapse and CPR in our EMS system but also to improve survival. PMID:1636920

  8. Observing Task and Ego Involvement in a Club Volleyball Setting

    E-print Network

    Schwarzlose, Tori

    2013-04-30

    to task and ego involvement prior to entering physical activity classes (Urdan and Maher, 1995). Second, task involved youth ?report selecting challenging tasks, exerting effort in learning, and attributing success to their effort instead of ability...

  9. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  10. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  11. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  12. Observed emotional involvement and overinvolvement in families of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fredman, Steffany J; Baucom, Donald H; Miklowitz, David J; Stanton, Susan E

    2008-02-01

    Many studies have examined the construct validity of the criticism component of expressed emotion, but little work has been done on clarifying the emotional overinvolvement (EOI) construct. In a sample of 115 recently episodic patients with bipolar disorder, the authors of the present study examined the construct validity of an observational coding system for both appropriate and inappropriate emotional involvement that permitted separate ratings for relatives' intrusiveness, self-sacrificing behaviors, and distress related to the patient's well-being. Findings support the measure's reliability and convergent validity and are moderately supportive of the measure's discriminant validity. Results also suggest that Camberwell Family Interview (C. E. Vaughn & J. P. Leff, 1976) EOI ratings do not discriminate among the different dimensions of the emotional involvement construct (or their appropriateness or inappropriateness) as revealed in laboratory-based interactions. The findings suggest that clinicians working with such families might consider differentiating among the various ways in which family members are involved with the patient and helping them learn to judge under what circumstances such involvement is appropriate and inappropriate. PMID:18266534

  13. Environmental science and ecology involve studies

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    - ence Western (instrumentation for the study of environmental surface chemistry), SHARCNET (a multi and their environments; (ii) geodetic, remote sensing and geographic information systems; (iii) facilities for holding in nuclear- waste technology (D.W. Shoesmith) and reactor safety (J.C. Wren), the Ivey Chair in Ecosystem

  14. 21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2000-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these experiments, tests of the positional accuracy, system sensitivity, and receiver response are inherent in this series of experiments. The MRT was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  15. Two studies of low income parents' involvement in schooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Jose A. Lopez; Perry Nelson; Howard S. Adelman

    1992-01-01

    An interview and an intervention study are reported. Interview findings extend research on the positive relationship of parent involvement to school success. That is, although most of the low income families reported low-moderate participation, a postive relationship was found between parent involvement and school adjustment as early as kindergarten. With respect to negative valuing and barrier interpretations of low participation,

  16. A case study of parent involvement and school outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Brad Gibson

    1991-01-01

    This study was concerned with the role parents play in improving the education of their child. This research was designed to investigate whether parent involvement in the decision-making process can affect student achievement, school climate, and school leadership. The research questions investigated were: (1) How does each of Epstein's five types of parent involvement relate to academic performance? (2) Does

  17. Clinico-pathological study of lymph node involvement in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kar, H K; Mohanty, H C; Mohanty, G N; Nayak, U P

    1983-10-01

    One hundred and five leprosy patients including 37 cases of LL and LI, 22 cases of BL, 3 cases of BB, 17 cases of BT, 23 cases of TT and 3 cases of indeterminate type during the period of 1980-81 have been examined clinically. All the patients of LL, LI, BL and BB types, 94% of BT, 70% of TT and 66.6% of indeterminate type have showed clinical enlargement of lymph nodes. In order of frequency the enlarged nodes are inguinal (76.2%) cervical (69.5%), axillary (69.5%), epitrochlear (64.7%) and lastly pre-auricular (9.5%). Although both regional and distant groups of lymph node enlargement have been observed in all cases of LL, LI and BL, in majority of the non-lepromatous cases there is only involvement of regional lymph nodes. Biopsies of lymph nodes are made from 51 leprosy patients, 22 from LL and LI cases, 11 from BL cases, 2 from BB cases, 8 from BT cases, 6 from TT cases and 2 from indeterminate leprosy cases. Major histopathological changes have been studied in different types of leprosy. The humoral antibody response and the cellular immune response are well reflected on the histopathological finding of the lymph nodes belonging to different immunological spectrum of leprosy patients. The examination of lymph nodes is recommended as a useful adjunct for the diagnosis and classification of leprosy. PMID:6668933

  18. Analysis of computed tomography and pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement

    PubMed Central

    QI, YUAN-GANG; FANG, ZE-HUI; HUANG, YONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between computed tomography (CT) images and the pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement. In total, 26 patients suffering from an NHL with peritoneal, omental or mesenteric involvement were reviewed retrospectively, and the observed CT scan characteristics were analyzed. In addition, associations among the CT scan characteristics and the NHL subtypes, including diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, follicular cell and T-cell lymphoma, were evaluated. The CT scan characteristics of the NHLs with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement included peritoneal cord-like thickening, peritoneal omental nodular and swelling thickening, omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass. The probability of peritoneal linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening was found to be higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases compared with cases of other NHL subtypes (P<0.05). However, the probability of omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass was not found to be significantly different among the NHL subtypes (P>0.05). Signs of peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement were observed in the CT scans of all the NHL subtypes, particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases. Therefore, linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening were characteristic of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass were observed in all NHL subtypes. PMID:25667648

  19. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

    1998-01-01

    This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

  20. Carer involvement with drug services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: ‘Current levels of involvement’, ‘Use of the term carer’ and ‘Opportunities for change?’ Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term ‘carer’ was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the ‘same but different’ from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899

  1. Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

  2. Learning from Reciprocal Peer Observation: A Collaborative Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressick-Kilborn, Kimberley; te Riele, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Engaging in a self-study is a multi-faceted activity that involves not only autobiography and theory, but also students and colleagues. Learning from and with colleagues can take many forms. This article discusses the authors' experience with reciprocal classroom observation in a teacher education context. Peer observation supported our learning…

  3. Molecular Simulation Studies of Proteins Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carloni, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    This contribution describes two recent computational studies related to proteins involved in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The first focuses on the interplay between dopamine and ?-synuclein (AS), which plays a central role in PD (unpublished results). The second deals with the protein DJ-1, whose mutations are present in patients suffering from familiar PD [1]. Computational methods are used to investigate the relationship between such mutations and the protein oligomeric state, which may be important for the progression of the disease.

  4. Observations and modeling of the early acceleration phase of erupting filaments involved in coronal mass ejections

    E-print Network

    C. J. Schrijver; C. Elmore; B. Kliem; T. Toeroek; A. M. Title

    2007-10-08

    We examine the early phases of two near-limb filament destabilization involved in coronal mass ejections on 16 June and 27 July 2005, using high-resolution, high-cadence observations made with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), complemented by coronagraphic observations by Mauna Loa and the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The filaments' heights above the solar limb in their rapid-acceleration phases are best characterized by a height dependence h(t) ~ t^m with m near, or slightly above, 3 for both events. Such profiles are incompatible with published results for breakout, MHD-instability, and catastrophe models. We show numerical simulations of the torus instability that approximate this height evolution in case a substantial initial velocity perturbation is applied to the developing instability. We argue that the sensitivity of magnetic instabilities to initial and boundary conditions requires higher fidelity modeling of all proposed mechanisms if observations of rise profiles are to be used to differentiate between them. The observations show no significant delays between the motions of the filament and of overlying loops: the filaments seem to move as part of the overall coronal field until several minutes after the onset of the rapid-acceleration phase.

  5. Interactions in supramolecular complexes involving arenes: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-16

    The process of learning by doing has fueled supramolecular chemistry and, more specifically, the understanding of noncovalent aromatic interactions in synthetic and natural systems. The preparation of new host molecules and the investigation of their complexations have produced many insights into significant noncovalent binding mechanisms. In this Account, we attempt to discuss significant binding contributions involving aromatic units and their practical applications. We use typical examples from our group and the literature, but this Account is not a comprehensive view of the field. Other than systems with saturated frameworks, host compounds based on arenes offer better controlled conformations and active interactions with many guest molecules. Because of their fluorescent properties, larger aryl systems are particularly suitable for sensors. The noncovalent interactions observed with different supramolecular complexes can be compared and exploited for interactions with biopolymers such as nucleic acids. Complexes formed with cyclophanes have been a constant source of inspiration for understanding noncovalent forces and their use for the design of functional supramolecular systems. Other than cyclodextrins or ionophores, which occur in nature, arene-based macrocycles are synthetic and provide more opportunities for structural variations than other macrocycles. These derivatives allow researchers to study and to exploit an unusually broad variety of binding mechanisms in both aqueous and organic media. Systematic analyses of complexes with different substituents and structures in solution, based also on flat aromatic systems such as porphyrins, can lead to a consistent picture of the noncovalent forces that dominate in these systems. These studies have elucidated attractive interactions between many heteroatoms and ? systems including cyclopropanes . Through systematic analysis of the equilibrium measurements one can derive binding free energy increments for different interactions. The increments are usually additive and provide predictive tools for the design of new supramolecular systems, benchmarks for computational approaches, and an aid for drug design. In aqueous media, the major noncovalent forces between different aryl systems or between arenes and heteroatoms of larger polarizibility are dispersive, and hydrophobic forces play a minor role. In several examples, we show that electrostatic forces also contribute significantly if donor and acceptor groups show complimentarity. In early investigations, researchers found cation-? and, to a lesser degree, anion-? interactions with several cyclophanes in systems where the host or the guest molecules bear charges in an orientation that facilitates contact between charged and aryl portions of the molecules. In supramolecular complexes, hydrogen bonding effects are usually only visible in apolar media, but very strong acceptors such as phenolate anions can also work in water. To facilitate potential applications, researchers have primarily developed water-soluble, arene-containing receptors through the implementation of permanent charges. Supramolecular complexes that mimic enzymes can also rely on aryl interactions. Examples in this Account illustrate that the conformation of host-guest complexes may differ significantly between the solid and solution state, and suitable spectroscopic methods are needed to observe and control these conformations. PMID:22853652

  6. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  7. Religious Congregations’ Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction. PMID:20953903

  8. Diapause in tardigrades: a study of factors involved in encystment.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Boschini, Deborah; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2008-07-01

    Stressful environmental conditions limit survival, growth and reproduction, or these conditions induce resting stages indicated as dormancy. Tardigrades represent one of the few animal phyla able to perform both forms of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Different forms of cryptobiosis (quiescence) are widespread and well studied, while little attention has been devoted to the adaptive meaning of encystment (diapause). Our goal was to determine the environmental factors and token stimuli involved in the encystment process of tardigrades. The eutardigrade Amphibolus volubilis, a species able to produce two types of cyst (type 1 and type 2), was considered. Laboratory experiments and long-term studies on cyst dynamics of a natural population were conducted. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that active tardigrades collected in April produced mainly type 2 cysts, whereas animals collected in November produced mainly type 1 cysts, indicating that the different responses are functions of the physiological state at the time they were collected. The dynamics of the two types of cyst show opposite seasonal trends: type 2 cysts are present only during the warm season and type 1 cysts are present during the cold season. Temperature represents the environmental factor involved in induction, maintenance and termination of the cyst. We also obtained evidence that A. volubilis is able to perform both diapause and cryptobiosis, even overlapping the two phenomena. The induction phase of tardigrade encystment can be compared to the induction phase of insect diapause, also indicating an involvement of endogenous factors in tardigrade encystment. As in insect diapause, tardigrade encystment can be considered a diapausing state controlled by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. PMID:18587124

  9. Is patient involvement possible when decisions involve scarce resources? A qualitative study of decision-making in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Rees Jones; Lee Berney; Moira Kelly; Len Doyal; Chris Griffiths; Gene Feder; Sheila Hillier; Gillian Rowlands; Sarah Curtis

    2004-01-01

    Greater patient involvement has become a key goal of health care provision. This study explored the way in which general practitioners (GPs) in the UK manage the dual responsibilities of treating individual patients and making the most equitable use of National Health Service (NHS) resources in the context of the policy of greater patient involvement in decision-making. We undertook a

  10. A Study of Selected Linguistic Components of Involvement in Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegala, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates several linguistic components (verbal immediacy, uncertainty, pronoun use, and article use) as indicators of interaction involvement. Finds that highly involved communicators use more immediate language, speak with greater certainty, and use more relational pronoun references than their less involved counterparts. (MM)

  11. Patient involvement in drug licensing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Britten, Nicky; Denford, Sarah; Harris-Golesworthy, Faith; Jibson, Steph; Pyart, Nigel; Stein, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Embodied health movements work on the boundary between lay and expert knowledge. Consumer groups, depending on their goals, may increase or decrease pharmaceuticalization. This paper reports a small case study about the retrospective evaluation of a specific second line treatment for type 2 diabetes by an existing patient involvement group. The group is part of a research collaboration between academia and the health service in England, and shares some characteristics of embodied health movements. We used the case study to explore whether an institutionally funded non activist patient group can make a more balanced contribution to drug licensing decisions than that made by either access-oriented or injury-oriented consumer groups, without being co-opted by an institutional agenda. The questions we wished to address were how this group evaluated existing mechanisms for licensing drugs; how they balanced scientific and lay knowledge; how they made their decisions; and how they viewed their experiences as panel members. The five panel members were interviewed before and after the panel discussion in July 2013. They were critical of current licensing processes, and used their own embodied experiences of medicines to evaluate expert knowledge. Their decisions on the panel were informed either by a balancing of benefits and harms, or by trust in experts. The case study suggests that such a group may have the potential both to balance the pro-pharmaceuticalization impact of access-oriented groups and to influence forms of pharmaceutical governance. PMID:25454636

  12. Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

    Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in cadherins. Simulations also revealed how calcium ions control cadherin's shape and the availability of key residues involved in cell-cell adhesion, suggesting a conceptual framework for interpreting mutations in cadherin calcium binding motifs causing hereditary deafness. Overall, simulations provided a unique nanoscopic view of the dynamics and function of some of the proteins involved in mechanotransduction.

  13. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  14. [Involvement of Polish enterprises in workplace health promotion. Trends observed in years 1998-2001].

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2002-01-01

    The author presents voluntary activities aimed at improving the workers' health in medium-sized and large enterprises in Poland, as well as the dynamic of changes in this area. The data were collected from enterprises chosen at random in 1998 (147 enterprises), 2000 (755) and 2001 (215). At present, over 60% of enterprises declare that they do more for their workers' health than it is required by legal regulations. Since 1998, the number of such declarations has been constantly growing. It is observed that the larger enterprise and the better economic situation, the more frequent health promotion activities. Two areas of activities are most commonly carried out: (1) medical services, e.g. vaccinations, extra diagnostic examinations and therapeutical services; and (2) investments in the work environment, e.g. ergonomics, improvement of interior designs. Unfortunately, promotion of healthy lifestyles, e.g. non-smoking campaigns or stress management are definitely less frequent. Although a growing number of enterprises becomes involved in health promotion, the range of their activities is diminishing. The programs aimed at promoting health conductive behaviors among workers are in particular given up. As far as smoking cessation is considered, the enterprises disseminate materials on the adverse effects of smoking or related ill-health and punish smokers for breaking smoking bans instead of helping their workers and teach them how to quit smoking or support those who want to give up this habit. In the years 2000 and 2001, the educational and supporting activities decreased whereas the punitive policy was on the rise. PMID:12577801

  15. Spectroscopic studies of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase and Tb3+.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Tb3+ in the simulated physiological solution was investigated with some electrochemical and spectroscopic methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchronous fluorescence (SF). It was found that Tb3+ can coordinate with oxygen atoms in carbonyl groups in the peptide chain of HRP, form the complex of Tb3+ and HRP (Tb-HRP), and then lead to the conformation change of HRP. The increase in the random coil content of HRP can disturb the microstructure of the heme active center of HRP, in which the planarity of the porphyrin cycle in the heme group is increased and then the exposure extent of the electrochemical active center is decreased. Thus Tb3+ can inhibit the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2 at the Au/Cys/GC electrode. The changes in the microstructure of HRP obstructed the electron transfer of Fe(III) in the porphyrin cycle of the heme group, thus HRP catalytic activity is inhibited. The inhibition effect of Tb3+ on HRP catalytic activity is increased with the increasing of Tb3+ concentration. This study would provide some references for better understanding the rare earth elements and heavy metals on peroxidase toxicity in living organisms. PMID:18024195

  16. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    PubMed

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  17. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  18. Analytic Bounds on Causal Risk Differences in Directed Acyclic Graphs Involving Three Observed Binary Variables.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Sol; Kaufman, Jay S; Maclehose, Richard F

    2009-10-01

    We apply a linear programming approach which uses the causal risk difference (RD(C)) as the objective function and provides minimum and maximum values that RD(C) can achieve under any set of linear constraints on the potential response type distribution. We consider two scenarios involving binary exposure X, covariate Z and outcome Y. In the first, Z is not affected by X, and is a potential confounder of the causal effect of X on Y. In the second, Z is affected by X and intermediate in the causal pathway between X and Y. For each scenario we consider various linear constraints corresponding to the presence or absence of arcs in the associated directed acyclic graph (DAG), monotonicity assumptions, and presence or absence of additive-scale interactions. We also estimate Z-stratum-specific bounds when Z is a potential effect measure modifier and bounds for both controlled and natural direct effects when Z is affected by X. In the absence of any additional constraints deriving from background knowledge, the well-known bounds on RDc are duplicated: -Pr(Y not equalX) studies. PMID:20161106

  19. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study

  20. Direct observation of a borane–silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Adrian Y.; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E.; Tuononen, Heikki M.

    2014-11-01

    Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon–hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This ‘metal-free’ hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si–H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si–H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si–H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si–H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free ‘frustrated-Lewis-pair’ hydrosilylation reactions.

  1. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  2. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

  3. Medial frontal cortex involvement in PTSD symptoms: a spect study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon-Kar Zubieta; Julie A Chinitz; Umberto Lombardi; Lorraine M Fig; Oliver G Cameron; Israel Liberzon

    1999-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) responses to a combat stress-related auditory stimulus was examined in Vietnam veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on prior data in healthy subjects, we hypothesized that the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in the processing of stress responses. Twelve male veterans diagnosed with PTSD, 11 age-matched, combat-exposed subjects without PTSD, and

  4. Concatenation of Observed Grasp Phases with Observer’s Distal Movements: A Behavioural and TMS Study

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific’s action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals. PMID:24278395

  5. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies: the STRATOS initiative.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-12-30

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even 'standard' analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  6. Is patient involvement possible when decisions involve scarce resources? A qualitative study of decision-making in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene; Hillier, Sheila; Rowlands, Gillian; Curtis, Sarah

    2004-07-01

    Greater patient involvement has become a key goal of health care provision. This study explored the way in which general practitioners (GPs) in the UK manage the dual responsibilities of treating individual patients and making the most equitable use of National Health Service (NHS) resources in the context of the policy of greater patient involvement in decision-making. We undertook a qualitative study incorporating a series of interviews and focus groups with a sample of 24 GPs. We analysed GP accounts of decision-making by relating these to substantive ethical principles and the key procedural principle of explicitness in decision-making. GPs saw patient involvement in positive terms but for some GPs involvement served an instrumental purpose, for instance improving patient 'compliance'. GPs identified strongly with the role of patient advocate but experienced role tensions particularly with respect to wider responsibilities for budgets, populations, and society in general. GPs had an implicit understanding of the key ethical principle of explicitness and of other substantive ethical principles but there was incongruence between these and their interpretation in practice. Limited availability of GP time played an important role in this theory/practice gap. GPs engaged in implicit categorisation of patients, legitimating this process by reference to the diversity and complexity of general practice. If patient involvement in health care decision-making is to be increased, then questions of scarcity of resources, including time, will need to be taken into account. If strategies for greater patient involvement are to be pursued then this will have significant implications for funding primary care, particularly in terms of addressing the demands made on consultation time. Good ethics and good professional practice cost money and must be budgeted for. More explicit decision-making in primary care will need to be accompanied by greater explicitness at the national level about roles and responsibilities. Increased patient involvement has consequences for GP training and ways of addressing rationing dilemmas will need to be an important part of this training. Further research is needed to understand micro-decision-making, in particular the spaces in which processes of implicit categorisation lead to distorted communication between doctor and patient. PMID:15087146

  7. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); and others

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  9. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  10. Human tracking studies involving an actively powered, augmented exoskeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Repperger; B. O. Hill; C. Hasser; M. Roark; C. A. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    An actively powered, augmented, exoskeleton system is studied within a speed-accuracy performance task framework with human subjects. This system has a dual use in military applications as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders

  11. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  12. Observations on the complex interactions involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Wood; S. I. McCrae; C. A. Wilson

    1984-01-01

    Although fractionation studies performed on the cellulases of the fungiPencillium funiculosum, Trichoderma koningii, andFusarium solani have shown that the solubilization of high ordered crystalline cellulose can be effected by mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase,\\u000a cellobiohydrolase, and ?-glucosidase, factors that affect the interaction of these enzymes are not well understood. Sequential\\u000a action between endo-1,4-?-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase is almost certainly a feature of these

  13. A study of the relationship between parent involvement and student achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Roger Huth

    1989-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental involvement in the schooling process and children's achievement test scores. The importance of this research was three-fold: (a) to investigate the relationship between level of involvement, Less and More, and achievement test scores (Education Records Bureau); (b) to investigate the relationship between level of involvement in four

  14. Fathers of Children in Public Preschool Programs: A Study of School Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Amy Kappel

    2012-01-01

    In this quantitative study, I examined the involvement levels of fathers of children attending public preschool programs using the Family Involvement Questionnaire; I also examined fathers' satisfaction with school contact and involvement experiences using the Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences scale. Additionally, I…

  15. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an…

  16. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  17. The Geyser Observation and Study Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geyser Observation and Study Association is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation who's purpose is the "collection and dissemination of information about geysers and other geothermal phenomena in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere". The Web site has descriptions and photographs of geysers from around the world with an emphasis on Yellowstone and Old Faithful. Other features include recent and historical geyser activity information, a glossary of geyser terms, an index to geysers described on the site, a "guess the geyser" game, and other interesting links round out the site nicely.

  18. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare.

  19. A Case Study Involving Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Bennett

    2008-01-01

    This interrupted case study presents a discussion about the benefits of the influenza vaccine between Mary, a nursing student, and her coworker, Karen. Karen is not convinced by Mary’s arguments in favor of vaccination, and she counters with several common rationalizations for not getting the vaccine. Students work in small groups to evaluate the arguments for and against vaccination from the perspective of each woman. In addressing the questions in the case, students learn about the general biology of viral infections, treatment of infections, and immunity. The case was designed for use in an entry-level course in microbiology for nursing students or a first-year biology course for majors.

  20. Determinants of hemorrhagic infarcts. Histologic observations from experiments involving coronary occlusion, coronary reperfusion, and reocclusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Dorado, D.; Théroux, P.; Solares, J.; Alonso, J.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Elizaga, J.; Soriano, J.; Botas, J.; Munoz, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of intramyocardial hemorrhage was performed in 69 pigs submitted to various protocols of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. The study groups include 1) permanent occlusion; 2) reperfusion after periods of coronary occlusion of 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes; 3) reperfusion with diltiazem and with 4) methoxamine after a 60-minute occlusion period; and 5) permanent reocclusion after a 30-minute period of reperfusion. Red blood cell counts were directly assessed by visual examination of histologic slices of myocardium and in a subgroup of animals by counts of red blood cells labeled with 99m-technetium pertechnetate. Hemorrhage occurs in infarcts reperfused after a duration of 45 minutes or more of coronary occlusion and after a period of reperfusion maintained for at least 30 minutes. Red blood cell counts were maximal in the mid portions of transmural sections of the infarcts, with decreasing values toward epicardium and endocardium. Diltiazem decreased total red blood cell counts, whereas methoxamine increased it and also caused subendocardial hemorrhage. The most powerful predictors of the severity of hemorrhage after sustained reperfusion were infarct size and higher blood pressure. Images Figure 3 Figure 3 PMID:2386198

  1. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  2. Observational studies of drizzle in marine stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Dione Lee

    The most expansive and persistent clouds, reducing the net radiation balance on a annually averaged global basis by ˜15 W/m2, are the low-lying marine stratocumulus (MSc) which hover over the eastern subtropical oceans. Despite their climatic importance, key processes and feedbacks within the MSc regime have yet to be fully quantified or understood. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of MSc processes and their impact on the marine boundary layer (MBL). Specifically, using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical measurements, this research pays particular attention to the process of drizzle, the sedimentation of liquid water. Data utilized in this study primarily come from the Artium Flight Phase Doppler Interferometer (F/PDI) and the Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) during four days of the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005 in the northeastern Pacific near Monterey, California. Results presented in this dissertation are especially unique because of the broad and continuous range in which the F/PDI samples (2-100 mum diameter), a size range measured by no other instrument alone with the same resolution and accuracy. The upper portion of this size range, ˜30 to 100 mum, is of particular importance to the initiation and evolution of drizzle but traditionally, has been difficult to measure well. The first goal of this research was to characterize in-cloud drizzle during the four MASE days by exploring the horizontal and vertical structure of drizzle. Drizzle statistics indicate two microphysical regimes exist, a high drizzle regime, associated with patches of heavy drizzle occurring in clusters, and a low drizzle regime, associated with more uniform, light-to-no drizzle. Heavy drizzle regimes exhibit significant drop growth by collision-coalescence while low drizzle regimes exhibit drop growth primarily from condensation. The second goal of this research is to quantify the effects of drizzle on the MBL via the process of evaporation. The observations indicate a large range of BL cooling exists among the four study days. Sub-cloud profiles of evaporative cooling show variability in the location of peak and total depth of cooling. Variability is also found to exist in the horizontal. Lastly, cloud top (CT) processes which may be responsible for the initiation of drizzle during the heavy drizzle days are investigated. We utilize drop size distribution (DSD) measured from CIP/PDI and derived from box model simulations to calculate CT collision rates. We found the observational collision rates follow a power law with the observed slope, m , varying at CT between well-developed and less-developed drizzling MSc. No correlations between m and other observed cloud properties were found. Drop size distributions simulated from a box model of collision-coalescence suggest that while collision rates can be impacted by properties such as turbulence and cloud drop residence time, realistic values were insufficient to reproduce observed CT collision rates.

  3. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  4. Involving Low-Income Parents and Parents of Color in College Readiness Activities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Cheryl Holcomb

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory and descriptive study that examined the parental involvement beliefs, attitudes, and activities of 22 high school counselors who work in high-poverty and high-minority schools. More specifically, this study examined school counselors' beliefs and activities about involving parents in the college admission…

  5. Newly observed thalamic involvement and mutations of the HEXA gene in a Korean patient with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon Min Lee; Min Jung Lee; Joon Soo Lee; Heung Dong Kim; Jin Sung Lee; Jinna Kim; Seung Koo Lee; Young Mock Lee

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of patients with GM2 gangliosidosis are rare. The thalamus and basal ganglia are principally involved\\u000a in patients affected by the infantile form of GM2 gangliosidosis. Unlike in the infantile form, in juvenile or adult type\\u000a GM2 gangliosidosis, progressive cortical and cerebellar atrophy is the main abnormality seen on conventional magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI); no basal ganglial or thalamic

  6. Adaptive pacing of visual stimulation for fMRI studies involving overt speech.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Thomas J; Bauer, Matthew D; Foreman, Derek; Mehta, Sonya; Eaton, Brent L; Graves, William W; Defoe, Dori L; Bolinger, Lizann

    2006-02-01

    We report the development of an interactive approach to single-word language production studies in fMRI. The approach, adaptive pacing, involves real-time adjustment of stimulus presentation times based on individual subject performance timing and content. At the same time, it maintains a stochastic distribution of interstimulus intervals to avoid confounding task covariates with speech-related signal variance. Adaptive pacing of overt speech production is an example of a new class of paradigms that require an observational approach to data acquisition and benefit from a "time-aware" acquisition and processing environment. The advantages of adaptive pacing in fMRI of impaired subjects are expected to be the acquisition of more informative data per unit time, less contamination of data by correlates of non-language processes such as emotion, and facilitation of experiments that combine normal and impaired subjects. PMID:16303319

  7. Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power generation, the flow of liquids and gases, and the transfer of thermal energy (heat) by means and an airplane can be propelled forward. The processes involved are a superb example of thermal science processes

  8. An Urban School District's Parent Involvement: A Study of Teachers' and Administrators' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnyak, Natalie Conrad; McNelly, Tracy A.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the practices and beliefs of administrators and teachers regarding parent involvement in an urban school district following the first year of the implementation of an action plan based on six national standards for parent involvement (National PTA, 1997). The theoretical framework is based upon Bandura's social…

  9. An Urban School District's Parent Involvement: A Study of Teachers' and Administrators' Beliefs and Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Conrad Barnyak; Tracy A. McNelly

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the practices and beliefs of administra - tors and teachers regarding parent involvement in an urban school district following the first year of the implementation of an action plan based on six national standards for parent involvement (National PTA, 1997). The theoreti - cal framework is based upon Bandura's social cognitive theory of self-efficacy. Administrators and

  10. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake Payne, Ruthanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

  12. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Small; Danya Fast; Andrea Krusi; Evan Wood; Thomas Kerr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada.

  13. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  14. A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school 

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Shantina Rayford

    2009-05-15

    This study examines school level differences on different dimensions of teacherrated parent involvement and school climate while adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, how certified, and number of years teaching. Two hundred twenty-four elementary...

  15. Connection between psychosis, trauma and dissociation: an exploratory study involving patients in forensic mental health settings 

    E-print Network

    Austin, Jessica Ann

    2011-11-25

    Background: High levels of dissociation have been found in recent studies involving psychiatric inpatients. Proponents of the ‘dissociative psychoses’ have found that trauma-focused intervention strategies can improve ...

  16. Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence, E-mail: moureaul@ipc.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France); Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Teissier, Eric [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France)] [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France); Department of Radiation Therapy, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Center, Montpellier (France); Salem, Nagi [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Lemanski, Claire [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France)] [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France); Ellis, Steve [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)] [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France); Resbeut, Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to use of a BCT boost technique, as well as emphasizing the important of investigating the benefit of BCT boost in prospective randomized trials.

  17. Oxytocin involvement in SSRI-induced delayed ejaculation: a review of animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trynke R. de Jong; Jan G. Veening; Berend Olivier; Marcel D. Waldinger

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) differ in the severity of induced ejaculation delay. Various studies indicate that oxytocin is involved in sexual behavior. AIM: To review and evaluate the involvement of oxytocin in SSRI-induced ejaculation delay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oxytocine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotransmission, and desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors. METHODS: A review and critical analysis of animal studies investigating

  18. Observation of double charm production involving open charm in pp collisions at sqrt {s} = {7}{{TeV}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderson, J.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; de Bruyn, K.; Büchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chiapolini, N.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J.-C.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R. S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Keaveney, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y. M.; Knecht, M.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, L.; Gioi, L. Li; Lieng, M.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; von Loeben, J.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Mac Raighne, A.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Malde, S.; Mamunur, R. M. D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Massafferri, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Maynard, B.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; McNulty, R.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.

    2012-06-01

    The production of J/? mesons accompanied by open charm, and of pairs of open charm hadrons are observed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. Model independent measurements of absolute cross-sections are given together with ratios to the measured J/? and open charm cross-sections. The properties of these events are studied and compared to theoretical predictions.

  19. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    PubMed

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  20. Major vascular involvement in Behçet's disease: a retrospective study of 796 patients.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunyun; Li, Xuemei; Lin, Sen; Song, Xiaojun; Wu, Qingjun; Zhu, Yanlin; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Wen; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

    2013-06-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder which can affect all types and sizes of blood vessels. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of vascular involvement in BD. Among 796 patients diagnosed with BD, 102 patients (81 male, 21 female) with vascular involvement were included, whose detailed clinical characteristics were recorded. The diagnosis of vascular lesions was made on clinical signs, by Doppler ultrasonography, and/or angiography using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance techniques. Vascular involvement occurred in 12.8 % of BD patients. Male to female ratio was 3.86:1. Mean age at onset of vascular involvement was 29.5?±?11.3 years. Vascular lesion was the initial sign of BD in 28 patients, accounting for 27.5 %. Of 102 BD patients with vascular involvement, 72 had venous lesions (70.6 %) and 56 had arterial lesions (54.9 %), among which 26 (25.5 %) patients had both venous and arterial involvements. Female BD patients were more often involved with arterial lesions, whereas male BD patients developed venous lesions more often than females, P?=?0.000. The most common type of vascular involvement was deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities (n?=?49), other affected venous sites including inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, and cerebral venous. The prominent type of arterial lesions was dilatation (n?=?25, including 24 cases of aneurysms); other types included eight cases of occlusion and 23 cases of stenosis. The main locations of arterial lesions were the aorta (n?=?19), lower extremity arteries (n?=?15), pulmonary arteries (n?=?13), coronary arteries (n?=?5), and subclavian arteries (n?=?5). Compared with those without vascular lesions, ocular involvement, genital ulcers, and arthritis were significantly less frequent among patients with vasculo-BD (23.5 vs 35.2 %, P?=?0.024; 54.9 vs 76.5 %, P?=?0.000; 19.6 vs 30.5 %, P?=?0.026), whereas a higher frequency of cardiac involvement was found in vasculo-BD patients (20.6 vs 3.6 %, P?=?0.000). Vascular involvement is a complication in BD patients. This study illustrated that venous lesions are more frequently involved than arterial lesions. Vascular lesions correlated with a high frequency of cardiac involvement and a low incidence of ocular lesions, genital ulcers, and arthritis. PMID:23443336

  1. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  2. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  3. Deuterium studies reveal a new mechanism for the formose reaction involving hydride shifts.

    PubMed

    Appayee, Chandrakumar; Breslow, Ronald

    2014-03-12

    In the formose reaction, formaldehyde is converted to glycolaldehyde, its dimer, under credible prebiotic conditions. Breslow proposed a mechanism for the process in 1959, but recent studies by Benner showed that it was wrong in detail. Our present studies clarify the mechanism, which involves the original Breslow intermediates but some different connecting steps. PMID:24575857

  4. Thromboangitis obliterans: a clinical study with special emphasis on venous involvement.

    PubMed

    Chopra, B S; Zakariah, T; Sodhi, J S; Khanna, S K; Wahi, P L

    1976-02-01

    Sixty-one cases of thromboangitis obliterans (TAO) were studied during 1969-70. Nearly all were males, smokers, of poor socio-economic status. Average age of presentation was 34.2 years. A majority (64%) presented with claudication pain. About one fifth gave history of migratory thrombophlebitis and venography and histological investigations suggested that sixty per cent had venous involvement. Nearly half the patients had involvement of upper limb vessels. Clinical and arteriographic studies showed femoral-popliteal junction to be the commonest site of block. No evidence of coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism was seen in these patients. Arteriographic findings were unlike atherosclerosis obliterans (ASO). From this study we conclude that thromboangitis obliterans (TAO) is a separate and distinct clinical and pathologic entity and the incidence of venous involvement is very high if venographic investigations are combined with clinical examination. PMID:1053473

  5. Studying Triggers for Interest and Engagement Using Observational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann; Bachrach, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then…

  6. An Ergonomic Walkthrough Observation of Carpentry Tasks: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Bhattacharya; Lisa Greathouse; James Warren; Yuhua Li; Mina Dimov; Harriet Applegate; Rick Stinson; Grace Lemasters

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the ergonomic risk factors for cumulative trauma disorders associated with carpentry tasks. Twenty-one union carpenters were observed on 29 occasions at 17 different construction sites. The job specialties observed were ceiling, drywall, and concrete form. A checklist for ergonomic walkthrough surveys was developed for this study. The carpenters were observed and

  7. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  9. Prefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    to emotional stimuli and/or the inhibition of emotional influences on subsequent behavior. These processesPrefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies Gregory J Quirk1 and Jennifer S Beer2 Emotion regulation is a process by which we control when and where emotions

  10. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  11. Early involvement in the design chain—a case study from the computer industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lyu; L. Y. Chang

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a case study of how a design chain, with more than three tiers of organisations (customer, manufacturer, and supplier), can involve its members in the early stages of the design and development process to meet their needs more effectively. A vertical design chain model, consisting of strategy, process and information levels, is adopted to elucidate how a

  12. Case study of a frontal car accident involving three fatally injured children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Feist; Wolfgang Sinz; Heinz Hoschopf; Christoph Mottl; Ernst Tomasch

    2011-01-01

    Rear occupants are generally considered to sustain less severe injuries in frontal car impacts compared with front occupants. Contrary to this thesis, in 2009, in a serious accident involving two passenger cars took place in Austria in which three children seated in the rear were fatally injured in a frontal collision. Based on this car accident, the present study was

  13. Case study of a frontal car accident involving three fatally injured children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Feist; Wolfgang Sinz; Heinz Hoschopf; Christoph Mottl; Ernst Tomasch

    2012-01-01

    Rear occupants are generally considered to sustain less severe injuries in frontal car impacts compared with front occupants. Contrary to this thesis, in 2009, in a serious accident involving two passenger cars took place in Austria in which three children seated in the rear were fatally injured in a frontal collision. Based on this car accident, the present study was

  14. [Cardiac involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis. Apropos of an echocardiographic study in 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Ata, J; Brigui, M; Jerad, T; Belkhiria, N; Yacoub, M; Harbi, A; Essoussi, A S

    1991-11-01

    Of all the storage diseases, mucopolysaccharidosis is the one whose cardiac manifestations are probably the least well known. Clinical and above all echocardiographic findings of heart involvement were studied in 8 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis, including four with Hunter disease. The paucity of clinical manifestations was in sharp contrast with the highly informative echocardiographic results. Valvular dystrophy, usually of the left side of the heart, was the most common anomaly, with five patients affected. Whereas some valvular lesions had no consequences, others led to stenosis or incompetence. Asymmetrical hypertrophy of the septum was found in one patient. No patient had evidence suggestive of vascular involvement, in particular of the coronary arteries. PMID:1750743

  15. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  16. Explaining governmental involvement in home care across Europe: an international comparative study.

    PubMed

    Genet, Nadine; Kroneman, Madelon; Boerma, Wienke G W

    2013-04-01

    The involvement of governments in the home care sector strongly varies across Europe. This study aims to explain the differences through the conditions for the involvement of informal care and governments in society; wealth and the demographic structure. As this study could combine qualitative data and quantitative data analyses, it could consider larger patterns than previous studies which were often based on ideographic historical accounts. Extensive data were gathered in 30 European countries, between 2008 and 2010. In each country, policy documents were analysed and experts were interviewed. International variation in regulation and governmental funding of personal care and domestic aid are associated with differences in prevailing values on family care, tax burden and wealth in a country. Hence, this study provides evidence for the obstacles - i.e. country differences - for transferring home care policies between countries. However, longitudinal research is needed to establish whether this is indeed the causal relationship we expect. PMID:23399041

  17. Male partner involvements in PMTCT: a cross sectional study, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male partner participation is a crucial component to optimize antenatal care/prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV(ANC/PMTCT) service. It creates an opportunity to capture pregnant mothers and their male partners to reverse the transmission of HIV during pregnancy, labour and breast feeding. Thus involving male partners during HIV screening of pregnant mothers at ANC is key in the fight against mother to child transmission of HIV(MTCT). So, the aim of this study is to determine the level of male partner involvement in PMTCT and factors that affecting it. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted among 473 pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT in Mekelle town health facilities in January 2011. Systematic sampling was used to select pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT service after determination of the client load at each health facility. Clinic exit structured interviews were used to collect the data. Finally multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors that affect male involvement in ANC/PMTCT. Results Twenty percent of pregnant mothers have been accompanied by their male partner to the ANC/PMTCT service. Knowledge of HIV sero status [Adj.OR (95% CI)?=?0.43 (0.18- 0.66)], maternal willingness to inform their husband about the availability of voluntary counselling and testing services in ANC/PMTCT [Adj.OR (95% CI) =3.74(1.38-10.17)] and previous history of couple counselling [Adj.OR (95% CI) =4.68 (2.32-9.44)] were found to be the independent predictors of male involvement in ANC/PMTCT service. Conclusion Male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT is low. Thus, comprehensive strategy should be put in place to sensitize and advocate the importance of male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT in order to reach out male partners. PMID:24521216

  18. The valuable contribution of observational studies to nephrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Jager; V S Stel; C Wanner; C Zoccali; F W Dekker

    2007-01-01

    In studies on the effects of therapy (or other interventions), the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an almost unbeatable standard in clinical research. The value of RCTs leaves unabated the valuable contributions of observational studies to medicine. This paper discusses some limitations of RCTs providing examples where these are not possible, inappropriate, inadequate, or unnecessary. Thereafter, it focuses on observational

  19. RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA

    E-print Network

    422 RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 SPECIAL AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 by David Kramer United States Fish;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Survey design 2 Methods of sampling 2 Sardine eggs 2 Fish larvae 11 Plankton

  20. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

  1. Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2013-05-15

    In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. PMID:23357079

  2. A large-scale study of bone marrow involvement in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Levis, Alessandro; Pietrasanta, Daniela; Godio, Laura; Vitolo, Umberto; Ciravegna, Giorgio; Di Vito, Francesco; Gavarotti, Paolo; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Orsucci, Lorella; Raviolo, Ermanno; Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Salvi, Flavia; Tonso, Anna; Aglietta, Massimo; Boccadoro, Mario; Gallamini, Andrea; Saglio, Giuseppe; Scassa, Enzo; Gallo, Eugenio

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to identify variables that can predict bone marrow involvement (BMI) in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and to analyze the benefit of bilateral over unilateral bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB). From 1982 to 2000, BMB had been performed at diagnosis in 1161 patients with HL who had been followed from the institutions participating in the Piemonte Hodgkin's Disease Registry. Six hundred and sixteen patients (53%) had received bilateral BMB, and the remaining 545 patients (47%) received unilateral BMB. The relationships between BMB results and other clinical features were retrospectively studied with both univariate and multivariate analyses. Ninety-two patients (8%) showed BMI: 51 of them were staged with bilateral and 41 with unilateral BMB. Among the 92 patients with BMI, a second extranodal involvement was present in only 25 patients (27%). In multivariate analysis, the 5 independent factors that predicted for BMI were B symptoms, infradiaphragmatic involvement, mixed cellularity (MC) and lymphocyte depleted (LD) histology, involvement of > or = 4 lymphatic areas, and liver involvement. The probability of BMI according to the presence of these variables was distributed as follows: 0.3%, 2.5%, 7.6%, and 27% in patients positive for 0, 1, 2, and > or = 3 factors, respectively. Among 51 patients staged with bilateral BMB, BMI was shown in both specimens in 33 cases (65%), whereas the positivity was limited to only 1 of the 2 specimens in the remaining 18 cases (35%). A score based on 5 variables can predict the probability of BMI, and BMB could be avoided in patients with a score of 0 and a probability of BMI of < 0.5%. When BMB is needed, the superiority of bilateral over unilateral biopsy is suggested. PMID:15245608

  3. [The basic strategies and research advances in the studies on glycosyltransferases involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui-Chao; Wang, Qing-Hua; Gong, Ting; Du, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhu, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng, attract our attention for their extensive and powerful pharmacological activities. Ginsenosides are the main active constituents of these medicinal herbs. The related glycosyltransferases involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis are the key enzymes which catalyze the last important step. Modification of ginsenoside aglycones by glycosyltransferases produces the complexity and diversity of ginsenosides, which have more extensive pharmacological activity. At present, ginsenoside aglycones and compound K have been obtained by synthetic biology. As the last step of ginsenoside biosynthesis, glycosylation of ginsenoside aglycones has been studied intensively in recent years. This review summarizes the basic strategies and research advances in studies on glycosyltransferases involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis, which is expected to lay the theoretical foundation for the in-depth research of biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides and their production by synthetic biology. PMID:25975020

  4. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  5. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  6. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated With Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    BOWES, LUCY; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; MAUGHAN, BARBARA; TAYLOR, ALAN; CASPI, AVSHALOM; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test whether school, neighborhood, and family factors are independently associated with children's involvement in bullying, over and above their own behaviors that may increase their risk for becoming involved in bullying. Method We examined bullying in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994Y1995 birth cohort of 2,232 children. We used mother and teacher reports to identify children who experienced bullying between the ages of 5 and 7 years either as victims, bullies, or bully-victims. We collected information about school characteristics from the Department for Children, Schools and Families. We collected reports from mothers about children's neighborhood and home environments and reports from mothers and teachers about children's internalizing and externalizing problems when they were 5 years old. Results Multinomial logistic regressions showed that over and above other socioenvironmental factors and children's behavior problems, school size was associated with an increased risk for being a victim of bullying, problems with neighbors was associated with an increased risk for being a bully-victim, and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment, domestic violence) were associated with all groups of children involved in bullying. Conclusions Socioenvironmental factors are associated with children's risk for becoming involved in bullying over and above their own behaviors. Intervention programs aimed at reducing bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include local communities and families. PMID:19325496

  7. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  8. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  9. Involvement Of Superoxide Anions In Cutaneous Porphyrin Photosensitization: An In Vivo Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A.; Zaim, M. Tarif; Lloyd, Jenifer R.; Bickers, David R.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    1988-02-01

    Hematoporphyrin derivative also known as Photofrin-I (Pf-I) and its more active dimeric tissue localizing component dihematoporphyrin ether, also known as Photofrin-II (Pf-II), are currently used in the diagnosis and management of a variety of epithelial neoplasms, in a modality known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). One of the drawbacks of these porphyrins for PDT is their ability to evoke prolonged cutaneous photosensitization. The mechanism of tumor ablation and cutaneous photosensitization by these photosensitizers is thought to relate to the generation of one or more reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical. However, the role of none of these oxygen species has been established unequivocally. In this study, groups of C3H mice were injected intraperitoneally with Pf-I or with Pf-II (5 mg/kg). Four hours after treatment with the photosensitizer, animals were divided into four groups and treated with a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, bis [ (3,5 diisopropyl salicylato)(0,0))copper (II) (80 mg/kg body wt. in olive oil), Ill-carotene (133 mg/kg in olive oil) and dimethyl sulfoxide (0.3 ml/mouse in olive oil) or olive oil alone. Six hours after injection of the photosensitizer all of the mice were irradiated with visible radiation from a 4 KW metal halide light source for 2.5 hrs. Immediately after the irradiation ear swelling was measured as a marker of cutaneous photosensitization. The mice treated with Pf-I or Pf-II and light demonstrated two-fold enhancement of ear swelling whereas animals treated with the SOD mimic, b-carotene and DMSO had considerably less ear swelling (p ( 0.01). The order of protective effects was SOD mimic > dimethyl sulfoxide > b-carotene. The observed protective effect was dependent on the dose of each quencher. The histopathologic evaluation of sections of ears of Pf-I and Pf-II treated photosensitized mice revealed vascular ectasia, dermal edema, neutrophilic infiltrate, increased mast cells, and mast cell degranulation. These effects were significantly alleviated by SOD mimic in both Pf-I and Pf-II treated mice. The protection was more pronounced with Pf-II as compared to Pf-I. )B-carotene and DMSO afforded lower protection than that which occurred with SOD mimic. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the involvement of superoxide anion in cutaneous porphyrin photosensitization. Furthermore, the greater protection against ear swelling by SOD mimic in the Pf-II treated animals suggests a more important role for superoxide anion in Pf-II mediated photosensitization.

  10. Why is quercetin a better antioxidant than taxifolin? Theoretical study of mechanisms involving activated forms.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison; Pérez, Edwin G; Areche, Carlos; Ruiz, Lina María; Cassels, Bruce K; Flórez, Elizabeth; Tiznado, William

    2013-05-01

    The stronger antioxidant capacity of the flavonoid quercetin (Q) compared with taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, T) has been the subject of previous experimental and theoretical studies. Theoretical work has focused on the analysis of hydrogen bond dissociation energies (BDE) of the OH phenolic groups, but consider mechanisms that only involve the transfer of one hydrogen atom. In the present work we consider other mechanisms involving a second hydrogen transfer in reactions with free radicals. The relative stability of the radicals formed after the first hydrogen transfer reaction is considered in discussing the antioxidant activity of Q and T. In terms of global and local theoretical reactivity descriptors, we propose that the radical arising from Q should be more persistent in the environment and with the capability to react with a second radical by hydrogen transfer, proton transfer and electron transfer mechanisms. These mechanisms could be responsible of the stronger antioxidant capacity of Q. PMID:23283546

  11. Gender differences in the association between religious involvement and depression: the Cache County (Utah) study.

    PubMed

    Norton, Maria C; Skoog, Ingmar; Franklin, Lynn M; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Zandi, Peter P; Breitner, John C S; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C

    2006-05-01

    We examined the relation between religious involvement, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and major depression in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 4,468 nondemented individuals between the ages of 65 and 100 years who were interviewed in person. In logistic regression models adjusting for demographic and health variables, frequent church attendance was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression in women but increased prevalence in men. Social role loss and the potential impact of organizational power differential by sex are discussed. Though causality cannot be determined here, these findings suggest that the association between religious involvement and depression may differ substantially between men and women. PMID:16670181

  12. Peri- and paracardial involvement in lymphoma: a radiographic study of 11 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Jochelson, M.S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Balikian, J.P.; Mauch, P.; Liebman, H.

    1983-03-01

    Eleven patients with pericardiac and paracardiac lymphomatous involvement were studied. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest was compared to plain chest films for its ability to define the sites and extent of involvement in the paracardiac area. Nine of the 11 patients had abnormalities on chest radiography, which included abnormal contours in the fat pad areas and along the heart border, or an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Two patients had normal cardiac silhouettes; however, CT showed definite abnormalities. CT differentiated adenopathy from fat pads in two patients and pericardial effusion from cardiomegaly or paracardiac adenopathy in two patients. The exact location and extent of the paracardiac adenopathy initially seen on chest film was defined by CT. Careful analysis of the peri- and paracardiac areas by plain films and CT is essential to the diagnosis and the proper management of patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  13. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  14. An observational study of seatbelt use among vehicle occupants in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adesola O Sangowawa; Ben T Alagh; Simeon E U Ekanem; Idang P Ebong; Babalola Faseru; Babatunde J Adekunle; Obioma C Uchendu

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe use of seatbelts reduces the likelihood of death and severe injuries to crash-involved vehicle occupants by 45–60%. Several countries, including Nigeria, have laws mandating the use of seatbelts but compliance is not universal. This study was conducted to determine rates of use of seatbelts among vehicle occupants in Ibadan municipality.DesignAn observational study was conducted. A selected petrol station in

  15. Markers in cutaneous lupus erythematosus indicating systemic involvement. A multicenter study on 296 patients.

    PubMed

    Tebbe, B; Mansmann, U; Wollina, U; Auer-Grumbach, P; Licht-Mbalyohere, A; Arensmeier, M; Orfanos, C E

    1997-07-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disorder, involving the skin and/or other internal organs. As cutaneous variants, chronic discoid LE (CDLE) and subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE) usually have a better prognosis, however, involvement of internal organs with transition into systemic disease may occur. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of some clinical and laboratory criteria that could serve as markers for early recognition of systemic involvement in cutaneous LE. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients with LE, seen in five cooperating Departments of Dermatology during the years 1989-1994, were documented by electronic data processing according to a common protocol. Two hundred and forty-five of these patients had cutaneous LE (CDLE or SCLE), and 51 had systemic LE (SLE) and were included in this study. Forty-nine patients with either CDLE/SCLE or SLE were not evaluated because of incomplete documentation; also, 34 patients suffered from other LE subsets and were likewise excluded from the evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess the value of seven selected variables for distinguishing between the CDLE/SCLE and SLE groups: ESR, titers of antinuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA-antibodies, photosensitivity, presence of arthralgias, recurrent headaches and signs of nephropathy. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the obtained data showed that signs of nephropathy (proteinuria, hematuria) was the variable with the highest statistical relevance for distinguishing between patients with cutaneous (CDLE/SCLE) and with systemic LE (SLE) in all statistical models tested, followed by the presence of arthralgias and of high ANA titers (> or =1:320). In contrast, low ANA titers as well as anti-dsDNA antibodies showed little or no statistical relevance as a criterion for distinction. It seems, therefore, that cutaneous LE patients showing signs of nephropathy, presence of arthralgias and elevated ANA titers (> or =1:320) should be carefully monitored, because they may be at risk of developing systemic LE involvement. PMID:9228225

  16. Documenting Observations of Students in Mathematics: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Linda Dager

    This paper is the report of a year-long study of a mathematics teacher's attempts to document her observations of students. One goal of the project is to determine whether it is feasible for a teacher to keep a record of informal assessments such as observations and interviews. Another goal is to determine how useful such information could be to…

  17. An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joy

    A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

  18. Brain areas involved in acupuncture treatment on functional dyspepsia patients: a PET-CT study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Song, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Xu-Guang; Xie, Hong-Jun; Tang, Yong; Shan, Bao-Ci; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Shu-Guang; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2009-05-29

    Neuroimaging studies on brain responses to acupuncture stimulations have received considerable attention recently. The majority of these studies are centered on healthy controls (HC) and neuropathy, while little work has addressed other disorders. This study aimed to investigate the influence of acupuncture stimulations on brain activities in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Eight FD patients and eight healthy controls (HC) were involved in this study. Each HC received an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan at baseline, while each patient received scans at baseline and after acupuncture stimulations. Manual acupuncture stimulations were performed at ST34 (Liangqiu), ST36 (Zusanli), ST40 (Fenglong) and ST42 (Chongyang) in FD patients. The images were analyzed with the Statistical Parametric Mapping software 2.0. Compared to HC, the FD patients showed a lower glycometabolism in the right orbital gyrus, the left caudate tail and the cingulate gyrus, and a higher glycometabolism in the left inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.005). After acupuncture stimulations, the FD patients showed a glycometabolism decrease in the postcentral gyrus and the cerebella, and an increase in the visual-related cortices(p<0.005). The results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortices and the caudate tail involve in processing gastric perceptions in FD patients and that the deactivation of the primary somatosensory area and the cerebella is contributable to acupuncture stimulation, while activation of the visual-related cortex is a response to pain or acupoint actions. PMID:19429123

  19. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  20. Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L Hudson; Ronald M Rapee

    2001-01-01

    Past research has indicated a potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by control and rejection. However, few studies have utilised observational methods to support these findings. In the current study, mother–child interactions were observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children (n=20) and non-clinical

  1. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (P<0.001). When other factors known to be linked with teenage smoking were held constant, awareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required. PMID:11230063

  2. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  3. Transgenic Studies on the Involvement of Cytokinin and Gibberellin in Male Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R. Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M.; Hanson, Doris D.; Malloy, Kathleen P.; Ness, Linda A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

  4. A Case Study of Parent Involvement in the Homes of Three Puerto Rican Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Dinah

    This paper describes three case studies of interactions between mothers and their kindergarten children. Mothers and children were of Puerto Rican descent and lived in a midwestern city. Children were bilingual, but used English more competently than Spanish. During the children's kindergarten year, researchers observed mother-child interactions…

  5. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male involvement during childbirth in rural Bangladesh. These findings have important implications for program planners, who should pursue culturally sensitive ways to involve husbands in maternal health interventions and assess the effectiveness of education strategies targeted at husbands. PMID:22494576

  6. Teacher Effectiveness and Causal Inference in Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Roderick A.

    2013-01-01

    An important target of education policy is to improve overall teacher effectiveness using evidence-based policies. Randomized control trials (RCTs), which randomly assign study participants or groups of participants to treatment and control conditions, are not always practical or possible and observational studies using rigorous quasi-experimental…

  7. Assessing Harm Reduction Strategies: The Dilemma of Observational Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Bruneau; Eduardo Franco; Frangois Lamothe

    Paramount among the contributions of observational epidemiologic studies is the identification of determi- nants of medical and public health outcomes. Cohort and case-control studies are well suited to scan and identify a large spectrum of factors and behaviors potentially associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; and they are, therefore, instru- mental in the design of appropriate selective interven- tions

  8. Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tova Rosenbloom

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionThrough spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance.

  9. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  10. Ultrasound features of shoulder involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) courses, shoulder involvement is common. However, etiologies of shoulder pain in patients with AS remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ultrasound (US) abnormalities in shoulders of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to determine predictive factors of ultrasound shoulder enthesitis. Methods 38 patients with AS were included with 38 age and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients fulfilled the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. Clinical and demographical data were recorded. US examination of bilateral shoulders was performed by a musculoskeletal sonographer according to a defined protocol that included imaging of the insertions of supraspinatus, subscapularis and infraspinatus tendons, rotator cuff tendons, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, acromioclavicular joint, and glenohumeral joint. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 36 years, each group of patients and controls comprised 22 men (57.9%) and 16 women (42.1%). Disease duration was 9.6?±?7.2 years. Among 38 patients with AS, 21 had coxitis (55%) and 19 had previous or current shoulder pain (50%). AS shoulders presented significantly more ultrasound enthesitis than controls shoulders (43 shoulders (56.6%) versus 8 shoulders (10.5%) respectively). Involvement of rotator cuff tendons was significantly higher in patients with AS compared with control subjects (16/38 (42.1%) versus 6 (15.2%) respectively). However, involvement of gleno-humeral and acromio-clavicular joints was infrequent in both groups. In patients with AS, we found that the presence of coxitis was the only significant predictive factors of shoulder enthesitis (Odds Ratio (OR)?=?9.4; Confidence interval (CI) 95% (1.10; 81.9), p?=?0.04). Conclusions Ultrasound abnormalities of shoulders are common in patients with AS, and the most frequent abnormalitie was enthesitis, which was associated with the presence of coxitis. PMID:24053556

  11. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  12. A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

  13. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

  14. Cervical spine involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - MRI follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe MRI and clinical findings in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with cervical spine involvement at onset and follow-up under therapy. Methods 13 patients with signs of cervical spine involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a median disease duration of 1.7 years were included in the study. Clinical records and MR images were retrospectively analyzed according to symptoms and findings concerning the cervical spine. Results At the onset of cervical spine involvement all patients showed limited range of motion, whereas only 5 of them complained of pain. In MR images joint hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, malalignment, ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction were found at 28, 32, 15, 2, 2 and 3 sites in 12 (93%), 13 (100%), 8 (62%), 2 (15%), 2 and 3 (20%) patients respectively. 3 of the 5 patients with pain (60%) showed ankylosis, erosions or narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction on MRI. At follow-up - after a median disease duration of cervical spine arthritis of 2.1 years and a variable duration of treatment with methotrexate (all patients) and biological agents (12 patients) - joint hyperintensity, enhancement and malalignment decreased to 15, 19 and 6 sites in 10 (77%), 11 (85%) and 3 (20%) patients respectively whereas ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction increased to 7, 6 and 4 sites in 3 (20%), 4 (31%) and 4 patients respectively. Pain was no longer reported, but 9 of 13 (69%) patients still had a limited range of motion with 6 of them (46%) showing skeletal changes on MRI. Conclusions This first MRI based follow-up study shows that cervical spine arthritis can follow a severe disease course in juvenile arthritis. While malalignments and inflammation sites decreased osseous changes with erosions, ankylosis, and narrowing of the spinal canal increased under treatment despite only minor subjective complaints. Therefore close MRI monitoring of these patients appears to be reasonable. PMID:24593886

  15. Functional study on TRPV1-mediated signalling in the mouse small intestine: involvement of tachykinin receptors.

    PubMed

    de Man, J G; Boeckx, S; Anguille, S; de Winter, B Y; de Schepper, H U; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

    2008-05-01

    Afferent nerves in the gut not only signal to the central nervous system but also provide a local efferent-like effect. This effect can modulate intestinal motility and secretion and is postulated to involve the transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). By using selective TRPV1 agonist and antagonists, we studied the efferent-like effect of afferent nerves in the isolated mouse jejunum. Mouse jejunal muscle strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. Jejunal strips contracted to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Contractions to capsaicin showed rapid tachyphylaxis and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, atropine or L-nitroarginine. Capsaicin did not affect contractions to electrical stimulation of enteric motor nerves and carbachol. Tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor blockade by RP67580, nepadutant plus SR-142801 reduced contractions to capsaicin to a similar degree as contractions to substance P. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, SB-366791, iodo-resiniferatoxin (iodo-RTX) and N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC) was studied. Capsazepine inhibited contractions not only to capsaicin but also those to carbachol. SB-366791 reduced contractions both to capsaicin and carbachol. Iodo-RTX partially inhibited the contractions to capsaicin without affecting contractions to carbachol. BCTC concentration-dependently inhibited and at the highest concentration used, abolished the contractions to capsaicin without affecting those to carbachol. From these results, we conclude that activation of TRPV1 in the mouse intestine induces a contraction that is mediated by tachykinins most likely released from afferent nerves. The TRPV1-mediated contraction does not involve activation of intrinsic enteric motor nerves. Of the TRPV1 antagonists tested, BCTC combined strong TRPV1 antagonism with TRPV1 selectivity. PMID:18194153

  16. Observational studies of transiting extrasolar planets (invited review)

    E-print Network

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterisation of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  17. Special Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in

    E-print Network

    Clark, William R.

    chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a simple illustration, we show(1):52­60; 2008) DOI: 10.2193/2007-317 KEY WORDS chronic wasting disease, disease detection, disease prevalenceSpecial Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in Wildlife

  18. Using observational pilot studies to test and improve lab packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoel G. Mendonça; Daniela Cruzes; Josemeire Dias; Maria Cristina Ferreira De Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Controlled experiments are a key approach to evalua te and evolve our understanding of software engineering technologies. However, defining and running a controlled experiment is a difficult and error-prone task. This paper argues t hat one can significantly reduce the risks associated with defi ning a new controlled experiment by running a set of well-plan ned observational pilot studies aimed

  19. Studies of the observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    The four related topics covered include: (1) distributions of total and upper atmospheric ozone and their time and space variations; (2) observed and theoretical models of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) ozone variation; (3) radiative processes in the upper atmosphere; and (4) relations between ozone and solar variations. The results of these studies are presented. They come from twenty-three published papers.

  20. Freshwater drowning and near-drowning accidents involving children: a five-year total population study.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Wilkey, I

    A large total population study of childhood fresh water immersion accidents is reported. The study was undertaken in the City of Brisbane over the five-year period 1971 to 1975 inclusive, and 111 fresh water immersion accidents involving children were studied and analysed. The childhood fresh water immersion accident rate, including drowning and near-drownings, of 10-43 per year per 100,000 at risk (fatality rate of 5-17) is the highest reported. If an unsupervised child gets into difficulties in fresh water and loses consciousness he has a 50% chance of dying. The immersion accident rate has doubled over the last six years. Age-specific immersion accident rates have been calculated, and have revealed that, in the toddler group (12 months to 23 months), the fresh water immersion accident rate is 50-01 per 100,000 (fatality rate of 22-55). Rates for drowning and near-drowning accidents after a fresh water immersion, by site, age and outcome (survival versus fatality), are also presented for the first time. Swimming pools produce 6-20 immersion accidents per year per 100,000 children at risk, and the domestic family bath tub produces 1-78. Possible factors explaining the high incidence are discussed, and comparisons of drowning rates from other centres are made. PMID:1018677

  1. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  2. Sharing decisions in consultations involving anti-psychotic medication: a qualitative study of psychiatrists' experiences.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Chaplin, Robert; Lelliott, Paul; Quirk, Alan

    2006-06-01

    In psychiatry, and in treating people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in particular, there are obstacles to achieving concordant, shared decision making and in building a co-operative therapeutic alliance where mutual honesty is the norm. Studies of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have revealed critical views of medical authority, particularly over the issue of enforced compliance with antipsychotic medication. Psychiatrists are known to place particular value on such medication. This qualitative study reports the views of 21 general adult psychiatrists working in UK about their experiences of consultations involving discussion of antipsychotic medication. Interviewees reported a general commitment to achieving concordant relationships with patients and described a number of strategies they used to promote this. In this respect, their self-perception differs from the picture of authoritarian practice painted by critics of psychiatry, and by some studies reporting patients' views. Interviewees also described obstacles to achieving concordance, including adverse judgements of patients' competence and honesty about their medication use. Explaining the adverse effects of medication was perceived to discourage some patients from accepting this treatment. Moments of strategic dishonesty were reported. Psychiatrists perceived that trust could be damaged by episodes of coercion, or by patients' perception of coercive powers. We conclude that a self-perception of patient-centredness may not preclude psychiatrists from fulfilling a social control function. PMID:16343722

  3. SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, E. G.; Lester, M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood (Imperial College, London), J. C. Samson (University of Alberta, Edmonton), L. J. Lanzerotti (AT&T Bell Laboratories), A. Wolfe (New York City Technical College) and to Dr. M. Vellante (University of LÁquila) for helpful discussions. They also thank Dr. A. Meloni (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma) who made available geomagnetic field observations from LÁquila Geomagnetic Observatory. This research activity at LÁquila is supported by MURST (40% and 60% contracts) and by GIFCO/CNR. Topical Editor K.-H. Glaßmeier thanks C. Waters and S. Fujita for their help in evaluating this paper.-> Correspondence to :P. Francia->

  4. Involvement of prostaglandins in the down-regulation of allergic plasma leakage observed in rats undergoing pleural eosinophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira-Melo, C.; Singh, Y.; Cordeiro, R. S.; e Silva, P. M.; Martins, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Recent evidence has implicated eosinophils in the inhibition of allergen-induced rat pleurisy, but the mechanism of this negative modulation is not completely understood. This study was undertaken in order to define the potential role of prostaglandins in this phenomenon. 2. Wistar rats were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of a mixture of ovalbumin and AI(OH)3 and challenged with an intrapleural (i.pl.) injection of ovalbumin (12 micrograms/cavity) 14 days later. 3. Analysis of the pleural fluid effluent revealed a massive mast cell degranulation and plasma protein extravasation 4 h post-challenge. We confirmed that concurrently with selective pleural fluid eosinophilia caused by platelet-activating factor (PAF), the pleural cavity became hyporesponsive to allergen-induced protein exudation and to the parallel reduction in the number of intact mast cells. 4. These hyporesponsive animals presented a significant augmentation in the pleural effluent level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which increased with increasing numbers of eosinophils in the pleural cavity. Furthermore, pretreatment with either indomethacin or aspirin failed to modify allergen-induced exudation but reversed the exudatory hyporesponsiveness associated with eosinophil recruitment. 5. Allergic exudation was clearly down-regulated by the following pretreatments: (i) PGE2 (10 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.) plus rolipram (40 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.), (ii) misoprostol (200 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) or (iii) dibutyryl cyclic AMP (80 micrograms/cavity, i.pl.). 6. We conclude that prostaglandins may be implicated in the eosinophil-mediated inhibition of allergic pleurisy, probably acting via cyclic AMP signalling pathway activation. PMID:8864561

  5. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

  6. A study of social workers' involvement in the relief and reconstruction efforts following the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bian Huimin; Wei Kenan; Feng Hua; Zhang Qiongwen

    2009-01-01

    This study explores social workers' involvement in the relief and reconstruction efforts that followed the Wenchuan earthquake. Two surveys were conducted nine months after the earthquake to determine the views of both earthquake victims and social workers themselves on the efficacy of the social workers' involvement in post-disaster relief and reconstruction. In addition, 26 social workers were interviewed regarding the

  7. Using Capillary Electrophoresis To Study the Electrostatic Interactions Involved in the Association of D-Ala-D-Ala with

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Using Capillary Electrophoresis To Study the Electrostatic Interactions Involved in the Association involved in the recognition of D-Ala-D-Ala (DADA) by vancomycin (Van) by using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). Acetylation of the N-terminal amine of Van

  8. Studies of the Involvement of an Endogenous Rhythm in the Photoperiodic Response of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J C; Hamner, K C

    1967-05-01

    An attempt was made to determine the involvement of an endogenous circadian rhythm in the flowering response of the long-day plant Hyoscyamus niger L. grown in a modified White's medium. Both variable-cycle-length and light interruption experiments were employed in this attempt. In the variable-cycle experiments, plants were subjected to light periods of 6, 12, or 18 hours followed by varying lengths of darkness. The total lengths of the cycles varied from 12 to 72 hours. In experiments utilizing a 6-hour photoperiod, a high level of flowering occurred in cycle lengths of 12, 36, and 60 hours. Flowering was suppressed in the 24-, 48-, and 72-hour cycles. When a 12-hour photoperiod was used the flowering response was low between 24 and 36 hours and flowering did not indicate a rhythmic response. When an 18-hour photoperiod was used, the flowering response was suppressed in the 36- and 60-hour cycles.Light-break experiments were conducted to study further the flowering response in Hyoscyamus. These experiments consisted of a 6-hour main photoperiod followed by varying lengths of darkness to make cycles of 24, 48, and 72 hours. At given intervals the dark period was interrupted by 2-hour light breaks. In a 24-hour cycle, flowering was promoted when a light break was given at either the twelfth or eighteenth hour of the cycle. In a 48-hour cycle, flowering was strongly promoted by light breaks given near the beginning or at the end of the dark period. In a 72-hour cycle, light breaks given at the eighteenth, forty-second, and sixty-sixth hour of the cycle stimulated flowering as compared with light breaks given at the thirtieth and fifty-fourth hour. These results are indicative of the involvement of an endogenous rhythm in the flowering response of Hyoscyamus niger. PMID:16656562

  9. Observational and Theoretical Studies of Low-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    1998-01-01

    Under this grant we have pursued studies of low-mass star formation with observations of candidate star-forming regions, (1) to determine the incidence of "infall asymmetry" in the spectral lines from very red young stellar objects; (2) to make detailed maps of candidate infall regions to determine the spatial extent of their infall asymmetry; (3) to compare the spatial and velocity structure of candidate infall regions with single dish and interferometer resolution; and (4) to begin a program of observations of starless dense cores to detect the presence or absence of infall motions.

  10. Functional Proteomics Study Reveals SUMOylation of TFII-I is Involved in Liver Cancer Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Chen, Yalan; Cai, Lili; Xu, Changming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yanmei; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jinke; Xie, Hongwei; Zhong, Fan; He, Fuchu

    2015-06-01

    SUMOylation has emerged as a new regulatory mechanism for proteins involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. However, the detailed function of SUMOylation in liver cancer is still elusive. This study reveals that the SUMOylation-activating enzyme UBA2 is highly expressed in liver cancer cells and clinical samples. Silencing of UBA2 expression could to some extent suppress cell proliferation. To elucidate the function of UBA2, we used a large scale proteomics strategy to identify SUMOylation targets in HepG2 cells. We characterized 827 potential SUMO1-modified proteins that were not present in the control samples. These proteins were enriched in gene expression processes. Twelve candidates were validated as SUMO1-modified proteins by immunoprecipitation-Western blotting. We further characterized SUMOylated protein TFII-I that was identified in this study and determined that TFII-I was modified by SUMO1 at K221 and K240. PIAS4 was an E3 ligase for TFII-I SUMOylation, and SENP2 was responsible for deSUMOylating TFII-I in HepG2 cells. SUMOylation reduced TFII-I binding to its repressor HDAC3 and thus promoted its transcriptional activity. We further show that SUMOylation is critical for TFII-I to promote cell proliferation and colony formation. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of SUMOylation in liver cancer development. PMID:25869096

  11. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  12. An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

  13. Increasing Parent Involvement among Head Start Families: A Randomized Control Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoatche, Kendall Jeffries; Bradley-Klug, Kathy L.; Ogg, Julia; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) during preschool has been linked with strong pre-literacy skills, acquisition of mathematical skills, well-developed social skills, and positive attitudes toward school. Parents' active involvement in their children's learning is a recommended strategy in engaging families in children's education experiences. The purpose of…

  14. Parents, Principals, and Power: A Historical Case Study of "Managing" Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvat, Erin McNamara; Curci, Juliet DiLeo; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship on parent-principal relationships often ignores how some parental involvement can create challenges for school leaders. We analyze parent-principal relationships at an urban public K-8 school over a 30-year period, exploring how three different principals "managed" parental involvement. Our analysis reveals how these principals…

  15. Uncertainty analysis in model parameters regionalization:1 A case study involving the SWAT model in Mediterranean2

    E-print Network

    1 Uncertainty analysis in model parameters regionalization:1 A case study involving the SWAT model southern France using the SWAT hydrological model. Regionalization of model parameters22 based on physical

  16. A study to examine community involvement in major U.S.military base closures and realignments from 1988 to 2001 

    E-print Network

    Yahn, Nancy Stiles

    2005-11-01

    This study examines community involvement in major U.S. military base closures and realignments from 1988 to 2001. There were four waves of base closures during this time. They were in 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1995. Community ...

  17. Mixing and administration times of bypassing agents: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, Jennifer; Donkin, Jennifer; Recht, Michael; Cooper, David L

    2014-01-01

    DOSE (Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia) was a prospective, observational diary study designed to evaluate the use of bypassing agents in patients prescribed recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as first-line treatment in the home setting. Patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and caregivers participated, and as part of the study, the time spent preparing and administering product was recorded for bypassing agent (BPA) infusions. The aim of this manuscript is to present the results of the analysis of the time spent preparing and administering a single dose of either rFVIIa or plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC). Diaries were completed for 18 adult patients and 19 caregivers of 21 children with 176 BPA-treated bleeding episodes and 1,350 BPA infusions (1,270 rFVIIa, 80 pd-aPCC). The median preparation and administration times were 5.0 minutes and 5.0 minutes for rFVIIa and 29.0 minutes and 24.5 minutes for pd-aPCC, respectively. Preparation and administration times were significantly shorter with rFVIIa than pd-aPCC (P<0.0001). The significantly shorter combined preparation and administration time of rFVIIa, taking into consideration the faster-than-recommended aPCC infusion rates, suggests that rFVIIa permits a rapid and safe initiation of treatment once a bleeding episode is identified and a decision is made to treat at home. PMID:25187744

  18. Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, João Claudio Gonçalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

  19. Foreshock structures observed by THEMIS: case and statistical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbar, Jaroslav; Jelinek, Karel; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Prech, Lubomir

    The ion foreshock region is typically observed upstream of the Earth’s quasi-parallel bow shocks and is characterized by enhanced ULF waves. These waves are created due to the interaction of the solar wind plasma with the ions reflected at the bow shock. As a result, fast magnetosonic waves are generated with an in-phase relationship between ion flux and magnetic field fluctuations. Using multipoint observations upstream of Earth’s bow shock from the Themis mission, we present statistical maps of modification of upstream parameters due to foreshock processes (solar wind heating and deceleration, enhancements of the magnetic field fluctuation level, etc.). The statistical study is complemented with case studies of transient phenomena in the foreshock like foreshock bubbles, hot flow anomalies, and others. We investigate an influence of foreshock effects on the bow shock and magnetopause motions and discuss a role of energetic particles and magnetic field orientations in these processes.

  20. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning. PMID:20105340

  1. Observational and theoretical studies of rich clusters with multiple subcondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies are investigated. The relationship between the properties of individual galaxies and their environment is examined. Perphaps the most remarkable physical result derived from these is the apparent substructure in redishift position space. The distribution of spiral galaxies is quite different from the distribution of the ellipticals. The velocity distribution for the spirals is also substantially broader than the distribution for the ellipticals.

  2. Sequential events of apoptosis involving docetaxel, a microtubule-interfering agent: A cytometric study

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Francesco; Carloni, Silvia; Brigliadori, Giovanni; Zoli, Wainer; Lapalombella, Rosa; Marini, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in the understanding of programmed cell death, little attention has been paid to the sequence of the events that characterise it. In particular, the course of apoptotic events induced by microtubule-interfering agents such as taxanes is poorly understood. In order to increase such knowledge, we studied a number of independent biochemical and cytological modifications using cytometric methods in a bladder cancer cell line treated with the second generation taxane, docetaxel. Results Within a few hours, drug treatment had induced mitochondrial membrane transition, cell shrinkage and a decrease in granularity. Cell cycle was almost completely blocked in G2/M phase within 24 hours. The hypodiploid peak started to become prominent 48 hours after the treatment. At the same time, the appearance of a DNA ladder demonstrated caspase-dependent chromatin fragmentation. Concurrently, specific cell surface modifications took place, involving at first glycoprotein syalilation and later phospholipid asymmetry. DNA fragmentation was subsequently detected by TUNEL assay. Over time, cell membranes became permeable to propidium iodide. A very similar time-course of apoptotic events was found after treatment of a myelomonocytic cell line with the same drug. Conclusion After discussing some characteristics of the methods employed and their limitations, a succession of apoptotic events over time is suggested, in which the collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) is the earliest sign of apoptosis. PMID:16438719

  3. Continuing Studies in Support of Ultraviolet Observations of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John

    1997-01-01

    This program was a one-year extension of an earlier Planetary Atmospheres program grant, covering the period 1 August 1996 through 30 September 1997. The grant was for supporting work to complement an active program observing planetary atmospheres with Earth-orbital telescopes, principally the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The recent concentration of this work has been on HST observations of Jupiter's upper atmosphere and aurora, but it has also included observations of Io, serendipitous observations of asteroids, and observations of the velocity structure in the interplanetary medium. The observations of Jupiter have been at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths, including imaging and spectroscopy of the auroral and airglow emissions. The most recent HST observations have been at the same time as in situ measurements made by the Galileo orbiter instruments, as reflected in the meeting presentations listed below. Concentrated efforts have been applied in this year to the following projects: The analysis of HST WFPC 2 images of Jupiter's aurora, including the Io footprint emissions. We have performed a comparative analysis of the lo footprint locations with two magnetic field models, studied the statistical properties of the apparent dawn auroral storms on Jupiter, and found various other repeated patterns in Jupiter's aurora. Analysis and modeling of airglow and auroral Ly alpha emission line profiles from Jupiter. This has included modeling the aurora] line profiles, including the energy degradation of precipitating charged particles and radiative transfer of the emerging emissions. Jupiter's auroral emission line profile is self-absorbed, since it is produced by an internal source, and the resulting emission with a deep central absorption from the overlying atmosphere permits modeling of the depth of the emissions, plus the motion of the emitting layer with respect to the overlying atmospheric column from the observed Doppler shift of the central absorption. By contrast the airglow emission line, which is dominated by resonant scattering of solar emission, has no central absorption, but displays rapid time variations and broad wings, indicative of a superthermal component (or corona) in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Modeling of the observed motions of the plumes produced after the impacts of the fragments of Comet S/L-9 with Jupiter in July 1994, from the HST WFPC 2 imaging series.

  4. A prospective cohort study on minor accidents involving commuter cyclists in Belgium.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Int Panis, Luc; Thomas, Isabelle; Degraeuwe, Bart; Cumps, Elke; Aertsens, Joris; Torfs, Rudi; Meeusen, Romain

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into bicycle accidents. Bicycle accident data and weekly exposure data were prospectively collected for one year to calculate the incidence rate (IR) of bicycle accidents. An accident was included if it occurred during utilitarian cycling, resulting in an acute injury with corporal damage. If an accident occurred, a detailed questionnaire was filled out to collect detailed information about its circumstances and consequences. A sample of 1087 regular (?2 cycling trips to work a week) adult (40±10 years) cyclists was analyzed. Over the 1-year follow-up period, 20,107 weeks were covered, accumulating 1,474,978 cycled kilometers. Sixty-two participants were involved in 70 bicycle accidents, of which 68 were classified as 'minor'. The overall IR for the 70 accidents was 0.324 per 1000 trips (95% CI 0.248-0.400), 0.896 per 1000 h (95% CI 0.686-1.106) and 0.047 per 1000 km (95% CI 0.036-0.059) of exposure. Brussels-capital region is the region with the highest IR (0.086; 95% CI 0.054-0.118), with a significantly (P<0.05) higher IR compared to Flanders (0.037; 95% CI 0.025-0.050). Injuries were mainly caused by 'slipping' (35%) or 'collision with a car' (19%). The accidents caused abrasions (42%) and bruises (27%) to the lower (45%) and upper limbs (41%). Police, hospital emergency department or insurance companies were involved in only 7%, 10% and 30% of the cases, respectively. It is noteworthy that 37% of the participants indicated that they could have avoided the accident. In order to decrease the number of accidents, measures should be taken to keep cycling surfaces clean and decrease the number of obstacles on bicycle infrastructure. Roads and intersections need to be built so that the collisions between cars and bicycles are decreased to a minimum. Car drivers and cyclists should pay more attention towards each other. Underreporting of minor bicycle accidents in Belgium is confirmed, and is higher than expected. Reliable accident statistics, taking into account exposure, are needed to decide which road safety measures are the most effective. The 'safety in numbers' principle is also applicable for minor bicycle accidents. PMID:22269558

  5. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  6. A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.

    PubMed

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

    2013-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. PMID:23354394

  7. Supplemental Submission Form for Studies Involving Neonates 1 of 2 Form Date: 12/15/05

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    authorized representative need not be obtained if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Category 2 resulted from rape or incest. 3. Will the research involve non-viable neonates? Yes No If no, go

  8. Computational Estimation in the Primary School: A Single Case Study of One Teacher's Involvement in a Professional Learning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula; Hackling, Mark; Swan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial analysis of a study of a professional learning intervention. Using a case study design it was possible to describe one teacher's involvement in this research. The study revealed how the teacher's beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge of computational estimation was altered as a result of participating in the…

  9. Studying the Impact of Parental Involvement on College Student Development: A Review and Agenda for Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda J. Sax; Katherine Lynk Wartman

    \\u000a Although parental involvement in higher education has received significant attention on college campuses and by the media,\\u000a this topic has received scarce consideration in the empirical literature on college student development. The chapter begins\\u000a with a review of theoretical concepts and methodologies used in research on parental involvement in higher education. Next,\\u000a the chapter reviews relevant findings from this body

  10. A knowledge synthesis of patient and public involvement in clinical practice guidelines: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Boivin, Antoine; Weijden, Trudy van der; Packenham, Christine; Tapp, Sylvie; Burgers, Jako

    2009-01-01

    Background Failure to reconcile patient preferences and values as well as social norms with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommendations may hamper their implementation in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients and public involvement programs (PPIP) in CPGs development and implementation. This study aims at identifying what it is about PPIP that works, in which contexts are PPIP most likely to be effective, and how are PPIP assumed to lead to better CPGs development and implementation. Methods and design A knowledge synthesis will be conducted in four phases. In phase one, literature on PPIP in CPGs development will be searched through bibliographic databases. A call for bibliographic references and unpublished reports will also be sent via the mailing lists of relevant organizations. Eligible publications will include original qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods study designs reporting on a PPIP pertaining to CPGs development or implementation. They will also include documents produced by CPGs organizations to describe their PPIP. In phase two, grounded in the program's logic model, two independent reviewers will extract data to collect information on the principal components and activities of PPIP, the resources needed, the contexts in which PPIP were developed and tested, and the assumptions underlying PPIP. Quality assessment will be made for all retained publications. Our literature search will be complemented with interviews of key informants drawn from of a purposive sample of CPGs developers and patient/public representatives. In phase three, we will synthesize evidence from both the publications and interviews data using template content analysis to organize the identified components in a meaningful framework of PPIP theories. During a face-to-face workshop, findings will be validated with different stakeholder and a final toolkit for CPGs developers will be refined. Discussion The proposed research project will be among the first to explore the PPIP in CPGs development and implementation based on a wide range of publications and key informants interviews. It is anticipated that the results generated by the proposed study will significantly contribute to the improvement of the reconciliation of CPGs with patient preferences and values as well as with social norms. PMID:19497114

  11. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  12. An observational study of Algol-type binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerli, S. K.

    1999-12-01

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to obtain more accurate orbital parameters for a number of Algol-type binaries. In this study, five systems were observed in two observing runs in 1994 (La Palma, 7 nights) and 1997 (Mexico, 4 nights). The 1994 run consisted of single slit observations of U CrB, TU Mon and TX UMa. In 1997, U CrB was repeated and RS Vul and GU Her were added to the target list; in this case, the observing was carried out with an Echelle spectrograph. Data reduction was done using FIGARO and IRAF for the 1994 and 1997 data sets, respectively. The radial velocity curves of these five systems were analysed to obtain accurate orbital parameters, in particular to try to obtain radial velocity semi-amplitudes, K1 and K2, for both components. For U CrB, a new pair of K1 and K2 was found which leads us to a much more sensible point in the evolutionary sequence of this system. For TX UMa and TU Mon only confirmation of their published K1 values could be achieved because of their low resolution spectra which did not enable the other component to be resolved. For RS Vul, K1 was confirmed. Because of the inadequate phase coverage at one quadrature, the K2 value could not be improved, but a comparison was made with the latest published value. GU Her was defined to be a `cool algol' (i.e. both components are late type sub giants), and the K1 and K2 value of the system was found for the first time. Besides radial velocity studies, magnetic activity in Algol-type binaries and its relation to their evolutionary sequences is also discussed. In this part of study some Algol--type binaries are categorised into four Groups depending on the evolutionary stage of the system. We claim to find that there is a remarkable correlation between evolutionary status and X--ray activity in the mass losing star of the system. In addition to already observed and categorised systems a list of systems is presented as candidates for this categorisation.

  13. Studying the System-Level Involvement of MicroRNAs in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Roy, Debjani

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD. Result We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD. Conclusion Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:24690883

  14. Kinetic Studies of Some Free Radical Reactions Involved in Cloudwater Chemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waygood, Steven John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The SO_3^-, SO _4^- and SO_5^ - radicals have been proposed as key intermediates in the mechanisms proposed for the oxidation of dissolved SO_2 initiated by both the OH radical and transition metal ions. This study has investigated the reactivity of these radicals in solution using laser flash photolysis and steady-state photolysis techniques. Photolytic precursors for the radicals have been established. Gated diode array spectroscopy has been used to determine the absorption spectra of the radicals. Kinetic spectrophotometric techniques have been employed to investigate the decay of each radical in aqueous solution in the absence of other species. The reactions of the sulphate radical anion, SO_4^-, with other cloudwater constituents, such as ferrous iron, formaldehyde, formic acid and the hydrogen carbonate anion, have also been studied. Where possible, ion chromatography has been used to identify the aqueous-phase reaction products. In addition, it has been proposed that the reaction of OH radicals with hydrated formaldehyde is a major source of tropospheric formic acid, the major acidic component of precipitation at remote sites. This reaction has been studied and a mechanism proposed which accounts for the observed dependence of the rate of oxidation on the oxygen content of the solution. It was necessary to study this reaction before the reaction between the sulphate radical anion and formaldehyde could be rationalized. Using the results of this study, a better characterized mechanism is proposed for the OH-initiated oxidation of dissolved S(IV). When this scheme is used to predict the rate of formation of S(VI) adopting typical cloudwater concentrations, it is shown that the process could be an important route in the acidification of cloudwater. The study of the reaction between SO_4^ - and Fe(II) shows that current cloud chemistry models greatly overpredict the rate of production of Fe(III) by this route and demonstrate that the role of transition metal ions in cloud chemistry is not fully characterized. It has been confirmed that, under atmospheric conditions, formic acid is the only product of the aqueous oxidation of formaldehyde by the OH radical. The SO_4 ^- radical has also been shown to be an oxidant for both formaldehyde and formic acid, but reaction mechanisms which explain all the empirical facts are not obvious.

  15. Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Boivin; Pascale Lehoux; Réal Lacombe; Anaïs Lacasse; Jako Burgers; Richard Grol

    2011-01-01

    Background  Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed\\u000a as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context\\u000a of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator\\u000a choice and agreement with

  16. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.

    PubMed

    Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

    2014-12-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24 h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ?5.8 cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ?25.6 cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72 h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

  17. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  18. ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

  19. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by “online” self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures—known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding—demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

  20. An Observational Study on Infective Endocarditis: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Bakhshian, Ramezan; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Abdar Esfahani, Morteza; Bahrami, Amir; Sate, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cloning of microorganisms on heart endothelium can lead to infective endocarditis (IE). The prototypic lesion of infective endocarditis, the vegetation is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with IE and also focusing on echocardiographic data and comparison between TTE (transthoracic echocardiography) and TEE (transesophageal echocardiography) of native and prosthetic valve endocarditis and the final impact of IE (infective endocarditis) in these patients with endocarditis. Patients and Methods: All patients with IE admitted to our center between 2007 and 2010 were studied. All echocardiographies were performed by the same echocardiographer. Echocardiography and lab tests were performed for all patients. We used SPSS 16 for data analysis. Results: We studied 35 patients, 45% male and 55% female with a mean age of 56.36 ± 12.44 years. Fever (80%) and chills (65.7%) were the most common symptoms. There was only a positive blood culture and enterococci sensitive to vancomycin and amoxicillin. The most involved valve was mitral (54.2%) and then aortic valve (48.5%) (two patients had vegetation on both aortic and mitral valves). In this study, specificity and sensitivity of TEE were 100% and 88.6%. Six patients (17.1%) died and six patients needed surgery. Conclusions: Endocarditis is an important disease with a high mortality rate if not treated appropriately. Therefore, these patients need more attention. In echocardiography, vegetation and complications of IE such as abscess and paravalvular leakage can be detected. PMID:25785248

  1. An observational study of salt fluxes in Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Chant, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    An observational study was conducted in Delaware Bay during the summer of 2011 aiming to quantify the different mechanisms driving the salt flux in this system. Seven moorings, equipped with bottom-mounted ADCPs and CT sensors at difference depths, were deployed across a section of the estuary. The total area-averaged and tidal-averaged salt flux was decomposed in three different contributions: the advective salt flux that represents the flux caused by river input and meteorological-induced flows, the steady shear dispersion that is the salt flux driven by the estuarine exchange flow, and the tidal oscillatory salt flux that is induced by the tidal currents. The advective salt flux dominated over the steady shear dispersion and tidal oscillatory salt flux, because it was driven mainly by changes in sea surface height associated with wind-driven setup and setdown. The steady shear dispersion was always positive and presented a spring/neap variability that was consistent with a two-layer exchange flow. On the other hand, the tidal oscillatory salt flux fluctuated between positive and negative values, but increased around a strong neap tide and decreased on the following spring tide. This variability is contrary to previous parameterizations, whereby the tidal salt flux is proportional to the amplitude of the tidal currents. The observational estimate was compared to a parameterization that relates tidal salt flux as proportional to tidal current amplitude and stratification. The observational estimate agreed with this new parameterization when the river discharge was relatively constant.

  2. Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan, Edgar Garcia

    2001-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the kinetics of the important stratospheric reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO (k1) (using the technique of laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence). Investigation of N2O production from the collisional deactivation of electronically excited NO 2 and OH by N2 and from the interaction of nascent O 3 with N2 have resulted in upper limit quantum yields which render all three processes as insignificant sources of atmospheric N 2O. The following expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the reaction O(1D) + N2 + M --> N2O + M (k2) in its third order low-pressure limit over the temperature range 220-324 K: k2,0(T) = (2.72 +/- 0.08) × 10-36 (T/300)-(0.92 +/- 0.37) cm6 molecule-2 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported rate coefficients is estimated to range from 30 to 40%. Preliminary calculations indicate that reaction 2 represents a source of about 0.2 Tg N2O per year to the atmosphere (i.e., about 1% of the currently estimated global source budget of N 2O). This is the first suggested mechanism that generates N2O photochemically in the atmosphere that is capable of explaining the altitude dependence of the N2O isotopic signature. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for reaction 1: k1(T ) = (4.21 +/- 0.25) × 10-12 exp[(273 +/- 18)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported values for k 1(T) is estimated to be +/-6% over the entire temperature range investigated (221-425 K). Incorporation of our kinetics results for reaction 1 into models of stratospheric chemistry would lead to somewhat lower mid-stratospheric ozone levels than would be obtained using results of previous studies.

  3. Procedural elements involved in maintaining bioanalytical data integrity for good laboratory practices studies and regulated clinical studies.

    PubMed

    James, Christopher A; Hill, Howard M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes procedural elements involved in ensuring the integrity of bioanalytical data. These elements can be divided into 3 areas. First, there are those ensuring the integrity of the analyte until analysis, through correct sample collection, handling, shipment, and storage procedures. Incorrect procedures can lead to loss of analyte via instability, addition of analyte through contamination or instability of related metabolites, or changes in the matrix composition that may adversely affect the performance of the analytical method. Second, the integrity of the sample identity needs to be maintained to ensure that the final result reported relates to the individual sample that was taken. Possible sources of error include sample mixup or mislabeling, or errors in data handling. Finally, there is the overall integrity of the documentation that supports the analysis, and any prestudy validation of the method. This includes a wide range of information, from paper and electronic raw data, through standard operating procedures and analytical procedures and facility records, to study plans and final reports. These are critical to allow an auditor or regulatory body to reconstruct the study. PMID:17614354

  4. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  5. Application of micro-attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy in the forensic study of questioned documents involving red seal inks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warnadi Dirwono; Jin Sook Park; M. R. Agustin-Camacho; Jiyeon Kim; Hyun-Mee Park; Yeonhee Lee; Kang-Bong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Red seal inks from Korea (6), Japan (1) and China (6) were studied to investigate the feasibility of micro-attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy as a tool in the forensic study of questioned documents involving seal inks. The technique was able to differentiate red seal inks of similar colors and different manufacturers. Blind testing has shown that micro-ATR FTIR can

  6. Study of the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Ezequiel; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Justiniano-Basaran, Hélène; Lugnier, Claire; Orallo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1??M–1?mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1??M), high extracellular KCl (60?mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1??M) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+-free solution, EGCG (1??M–1?mM) relaxed 1??M PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1??M–1?mM) did not affect the 1??M okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10??M), tetraethylammonium (2?mM) or charybdotoxin (100?nM) plus apamin (500?nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5?mM Ca2+-containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+-free high KCl 60?mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100??M) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100?nM) and KCl (60?mM) in 1.5?mM CaCl2-containing solution and by ANG II (100?nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100??M) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1??M) and high KCl (60?mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50?17) and on PDE1 (IC50?25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:16299547

  7. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Perdigón, G; Vintiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M

    1999-06-01

    The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secretory immunity, and others will enhance the gut inflammatory immune response. The aim of this work was to establish the reason for these different behaviors and to define possible mechanisms involved in the interaction of lactic acid bacteria at the intestinal level. We studied IgA+ and IgM+ B cells comparatively in bronchus and intestine and CD4+ T cells and IgA anti-lactic acid bacteria antibodies in the intestinal fluid, induced by oral administration of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The increase in the IgA+ B cells in the bronchus means that these lactic acid bacteria were able to induce the IgA cycle by interaction with M cells from Peyer's patches or intestinal epithelial cells. The IgM+ cells increased when the stimulus did not induce the switch from IgM+ to IgA+. The increase in the CD4+ cells suggests interaction of Peyer's patches and enhancement of the B- and T-cell migration. The anti-lactic acid bacteria antibody is related to the processing and presentation of the microorganisms to the immune cells. We demonstrated that Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were able to interact with Peyer's patch cells and showed an increase in IgA-, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific for the stimulating strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus induced gut mucosal activation by interaction with the epithelial cells without increase in the immune cells associated with the bronchus. Although Lb. rhamnosus and Strep. salivarius ssp. thermophilus interact with epithelial cells, they also induced an immune response against their epitopes. Lactococcus lactis and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus induced an increase of IgA+ cells entering the IgA cycle but not CD4+ cells; thus, these bacteria would have been bound to epithelial cells that activated B lymphocytes without processing and presenting of their epitopes. We did not determine specific antibodies against Lc. lactis or Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:10386296

  8. Employee Involvement, Attitudes, and Productivity in High Technology Manufacturing: A Two-Year, Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, William D.; And Others

    To investigate methods of improving both employees' productivity and the quality of their work life, workers from four businesses were surveyed before and after their organizations implemented a total employees involvement program. Survey questions covered employees' perceptions of (1) the quality of the product produced, (2) the leadership's…

  9. The Edge of the Ghetto. A Study of Church Involvement in Community Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, John; And Others

    This research document reports on the involvement of several local Protestant and Roman Catholic churches with a mass community organization in a racially changing area of Chicago. The corporate participation of churches in this social and political experiment and others of its kind has been the subject of much controversy. The research is an…

  10. Packaging and purchase decisions : An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinya Silayoi; Mark Speece

    2004-01-01

    The importance of packaging design as a vehicle for communication and branding is growing in competitive markets for packaged food products. This research utilized a focus group methodology to understand consumer behavior toward such products and how packaging elements can affect buying decisions. Visual package elements play a major role, representing the product for many consumers, especially in low involvement,

  11. Research Study. The School District Attorney: Trends of Legal Involvement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Stacie Rissmann

    1982-01-01

    This extract from the author's doctoral thesis reports on a survey of Minnesota school board chairpersons, superintendents, and school attorneys on the role of the school district attorney. The results showed that attorneys perceived themselves as more responsible and involved in decision-making than did the administrators. (Author/RW)

  12. Paternal involvement and fetal morbidity outcomes in HIV/AIDS: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N=4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (<35 years old), and unmarried with at least a high school education (p<.01). They were also more likely to have a history of drug (p<.01) and alcohol (p=.02) abuse. These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Infants of HIV-positive mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.05-2.82; PTB: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897

  13. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  14. Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

  15. Neural Circuits Involved in the Recognition of Actions Performed by Nonconspecifics: An fMRI Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Buccino; Fausta Lui; Nicola Canessa; Ilaria Patteri; Giovanna Lagravinese; Francesca Benuzzi; Carlo A. Porro; Giacomo Rizzolatti

    2004-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of mouth actions performed by humans and by individuals belonging to other species (monkey and dog). Two types of actions were presented: biting and oral communicative actions (speech reading, lip-smacking, barking). As a control, static images of the same actions were shown. Observation of biting,

  16. Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, J. (Raab (J.), Boston, MA (United States)); Schweitzer, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

  17. 75 FR 17411 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study SUMMARY: Under...Collection: Title: Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study. Type of Information...Respondents: Women, next-of-kin...physician's office staff...Observational Study...

  18. 75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study SUMMARY: In...Title: The Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study. Type of Information...Respondents: Women, next-of-kin...physician's office staff...Observational Study...

  19. Observational study of job satisfaction in hospital pharmacy technicians.

    PubMed

    Sanford, M E; Facchinetti, N J; Broadhead, R S

    1984-12-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to job satisfaction of pharmacy technicians in two community hospitals were studied. A pharmacy student employed part-time as a pharmacy technician by one of the hospitals observed fellow technicians in a wide range of job activities for 22 months. In a second hospital, the same student conducted similar observations during one summer while posing as a social researcher. Both hospitals had technician training programs providing classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Data were gathered primarily from informal conversations with technicians and pharmacists and by recording activities through notetaking. Formal training programs, praise from pharmacists, opportunities to train other technicians, diversity of job activities, and autonomy in coordinating work with time demands were identified as factors contributing to job satisfaction of technicians. Negative aspects of the job that employers attempted to circumvent or clarify were the unchallenging nature of the work and the limited opportunities for advancement. Technicians' and pharmacists' attitudes toward job enrichment for technicians are discussed, and suggestions for improving technicians' intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction are provided. A reliable cadre of pharmacy technicians is necessary for further expansion of clinical pharmacy services under current hospital budgetary restraints. In addition to modifying job activities to promote technicians' intrinsic job satisfaction, pharmacy managers can improve extrinsic satisfaction by providing adequate salaries, job security, and flexible work schedules. PMID:6517083

  20. [Observational study of atmospheric HONO in summer of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Wu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Dou, Ke; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Si, Fu-Qi; Li, Su-Wen; Qin, Min

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of HONO, NO2, O3 and other atmospheric pollutants were observed continuously by using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) from 2007-08-14 to 2007-08-24 in Beijing, China. Diurnal variation characteristics of HONO and NO2 were analyzed. The HONO levels originated from the nocturnal direct emission were discussed. And the correlation between the heterogeneous formation of HONO and its related factors (BC, RH, and so on) was studied. The results showed that HONO had two peaks at about 01:00 and 06:00, respectively, while two peaks of NO2 concentrations appeared at about 01:00 and 07:00. The highest HONO(em)/HONO ratio of 31.3% was observed at about 20:00 between 19:00 to 07:00, and the average ratio was 15%. Good correlation of HONO(corr)/NO2 ratio with BC and RH at night was obtained. The correlation suggested that heterogeneous NO2 to HONO conversion processes may occur on BC surfaces by reaction with absorption water, and the average nighttime conversion frequency from NO2 into HONO (HONO/NO2) was calculated about 0.8% x h(-1). At the same time, the results showed that heterogeneous formation of HONO was increased with RH and inhibited at RH > 80%, and the hypothesis was further supported by detailed analysis of selected case. PMID:19662832

  1. A STUDY OF SUPPLIER PERFORMANCE RATING USING TOTAL-INVOLVED-QUALITY-COSTS ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Cheng Chen; Ching-Chow Yang

    2004-01-01

    This research establishes a cost-effectiveness based performance rating system for suppliers and operations. The purpose is to provide a methodology for “integrating supplier and manufacturer capabilities through a common goal-“profitability improvement” based on lowering the cost of purchased materials. The merits of measuring supplier quality performance using Total-Involved-Quality-Costs (TIQC) analysis include: 1). a common measurement language-money, 2). very simple and

  2. Brain sites involved in ?-opioid receptor-mediated actions: a 2-deoxyglucose study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingeborg Fabian; Annemarie Ableitner

    1995-01-01

    Brain regions that may be functionally involved in the neuropharmacological actions of ?-opioid agonists have been examined in conscious rats using the quantitative [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. At 0.5 ?g and 1 ?g intracerebroventricularly the highly selective ?-opioid receptor agonistd-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin effected statistically significant increases as well as statistically significant decreases in regional glucose utilization: in limbic structures, such as

  3. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-01-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  4. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-05-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  5. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  6. Pediatric fractures through the eyes of parents: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sofu, Hakan; Gursu, Sarper; Kockara, Nizamettin; Issin, Ahmet; Oner, Ali; Camurcu, Yalkin

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an observational cross-sectional study. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the perception and behaviors of parents in a series of pediatric upper extremity fracture cases. Hundred and seventeen patients younger than 12 years who were conservatively treated for the upper extremity fracture were included in our study. Parents of the patients were requested to answer a family-centered questionnaire related to their child's fracture and its treatment. When the parents were asked whether they believe casting would be sufficient or not as the treatment of their child's fracture, 84.6% answered 'yes', 13.7% answered 'I am not sure,' and 1.7% answered 'no.' Sixty-four of the parents were not worried about any residual defect in joint or extremity functions related to fracture, whereas 21 were worried and 32 were not sure on this. The rate of searching further information about the child's fracture was 34.2% and the mostly used source was the Internet. Twenty-eight of the 117 respondents (23.9%) emphasized that they would reduce the time their child spend outside the home at least for a while after the removal of cast. When conservatively treating a child's fracture, physicians dealing with traumatology should always consider the parents' perception and behaviors as critically important. PMID:25590848

  7. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  8. Observation of pain behavior in the NICU: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bozzette, M

    1993-06-01

    Pain in children has been historically undertreated for a variety of reasons, including the complexity of pain assessment, inadequate research and training, and assumptions concerning pain. Lack of consistency in pain assessment and personal attitudes about pain have been identified as concerns in the NICU population. Some of the factors that are thought to affect caregivers include personal experience with pain and the idea that some procedures are more painful than others. Nurses currently have insufficient assessment tools and limited education about pain assessment in non-verbal infants. Personal beliefs also vary widely as to the nature and intensity of pain. The problem is further compounded by the abstract nature and the possible range of responses to painful stimuli. Behavior is the main source of information in nonverbal infants. However, depletion of an infant's response capacity can occur rapidly with stress, gestational age, and illness. In addition, behavioral responses may also be affected by multiple interventions, intubation, and paralytic drugs. Specific facial and motor behaviors were observed responses to pain in this sample of infants as well as increased heart rate and oxygen desaturation. No one single behavior constitutes an unequivocal measure of infant pain. However, characteristic patterns of distress have emerged from analysis of infant facial expressions, motor responses, and cries. Frequent and prolonged pain may be potentially harmful to the developing nervous system and may threaten the physiologic stability of premature and sick term infants. Whether or not a premature infant has the capacity to perceive pain is not in question, but these infants do have limited abilities to express their pain. Defining common behaviors that consistently appear with painful stimuli will assist in the identification of pain so that appropriate interventions to assess and to relieve pain can be planned. A variety of factors complicates the observation of neonates in an NICU. Premature birth, range of physiologic stability, the level of activity in the environment, and other possible sources of discomfort may confuse or blunt observations. While this observational design was difficult, it succeeded in delineating behaviors associated with a painful stimulus that provides a basis for further study. PMID:8336293

  9. Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, M. G.

    1988-12-01

    This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

  10. A study and investigation of human error in time study observations

    E-print Network

    Case, Richard Blanch

    1954-01-01

    the ex~sent? . Hewevei?' due to the. ~- ed. length of 'time 'required for each oj~ativ'e' study: and the limited time eich observex' could devote to the study?. a diverse group of observers had to be used at different intex . vale? . 'fheso observirs...HUHAH EBB OR XH TX NE STUDY LI 8 ftARQ A k jH COLLEGE QF TEXAS A STUDY AItD I?VESTIGATIOS OIA ITUMAN ZBRQR T8 TIT& STUDY OBSERVATIONS Aprkoultural and. Nechauical College of Texas Iu'pargial fulfillment of the" reguiremeute for the Ce...

  11. Funding sources for continuing medical education: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Ramesh; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Ponnish, Arun S.; Abraham, Babu K.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Medical accreditation bodies and licensing authorities are increasingly mandating continuing medical education (CME) credits for maintenance of licensure of healthcare providers. However, the costs involved in participating in these CME activities are often substantial and may be a major deterrent in obtaining these mandatory credits. It is assumed that healthcare providers often obtain sponsorship from their institutions or third party payers (i.e. pharmaceutical-industry) to attend these educational activities. Data currently does not exist exploring the funding sources for CME activities in India. In this study, we examine the relative proportion of CME activities sponsored by self, institution and the pharmaceutical-industry. We also wanted to explore the characteristics of courses that have a high proportion of self-sponsorship. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective audit of the data during the year 2009 conducted at an autonomous clinical training academy. The details of the sponsor of each CME activity were collected from an existing database. Participants were subsequently categorized as sponsored by self, sponsored by institution or sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. Results: In the year 2009, a total of 2235 participants attended 40 different CME activities at the training academy. Of the total participants, 881 (39.4%) were sponsored by self, 898 (40.2%) were sponsored by institution and 456 (20.3%) by pharmaceutical-industry. About 47.8% participants attended courses that carried an international accreditation. For the courses that offer international accreditation, 63.3% were sponsored by self, 34.9% were sponsored by institution and 1.6% were sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. There were 126 participants (5.6%) who returned to the academy for another CME activity during the study period. Self-sponsored (SS) candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activity compared with the other two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In our study, majority of healthcare professionals attending CME activities were either self or institution sponsored. There was a greater inclination for self-sponsoring for activities with international accreditation. SS candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activities. PMID:25136190

  12. 78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: Under the...Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Revision--OMB...disease among older women by developing...

  13. 78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: Under the...Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Revision- OMB No...disease among older women by developing...

  14. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5?-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)]3+ below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log ?11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3 ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al3+ at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al3+ from Fe3+ and Cr3+ via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al3+ and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe3+ and Cr3+. Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies.

  15. [Institutionalized elderly and depression: a multicenter observational study].

    PubMed

    Storti, Matteo; Braggion, Marco; Dal Santo, Pierluigi; Fanchin, Gianmaria; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-04-01

    Scientific literature recommends nurses to use the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in the assessment of symptoms of depression among elderly with no cognitive deficits. The first purpose of this observational study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the related antidepressant therapy in a sample of institutionalized elderly people administering the 30 questions GDS (GDS 30). The second aim was to estimate the time to complete the test. The survey is a cross-sectional multicenter study. 115 cognitively intact elderly residents in 5 retirement houses in the province of Vicenza (Italy) were administered the 30 items GDS by nursing staff: 80 females with a median age of 83 years (Inter Quartile Range RIQ: 80-85) and 35 males with a median age of 79 years (RIQ: 73-85). The prevalence of depression was 46% (95% Confidence Interval: 37-55%). The difference in depression between males and females was not significant (p=0.646). The median of the total answering time was equal to 306 seconds (RIQ: 257-315). The answering time of the GDS in people taking antidepressants is higher with respect to those who do not take them. The GDS 30 is an useful tool for nurses to identify in a fairly short amount of time institutionalised individuals with no cognitive deficit and risk of depression. PMID:22561994

  16. The impact of process workshop involvement on the use of an electronic process guide: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Brede Moe; T. Dingsoyr

    2005-01-01

    Many software companies disseminate process knowledge through electronic process guides. A common problem with process guides is that they are not used in practice. Through a case study we investigate how involvement in creating an electronic process guide through process workshops influences the use of the process guide. We interviewed ten software developers and project managers in a medium-size company

  17. Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

  18. A study to determine the effects of direct parental involvement on students' mathematic achievement in grades three through five

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith E Arnold Joy

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if direct parental training would effect third, fourth, and fifth grade students' academic performance in the area of mathematics. Mathematics is an important subject in elementary education. The major emphasis of the activities involved was on reinforcing computational skills.^ Those interested in the formal education of students, both in the K-12 arena

  19. Student Involvement as a Vehicle for Empowerment: A Case Study of the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolo; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student…

  20. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  1. Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Buonviso, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP) rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15–30 Hz) and gamma (40–90 Hz). All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loop. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density (CSD) analysis combined with multi-unit activity (MUA) recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly the upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL) and superficial areas of granule cell layer (GRL). In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings. PMID:25126057

  2. Observational Study of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard; Kang, Peter; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Sproule, Douglas Michael; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy; Martens, Bill; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean M.; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Irvine, Carrie; Annis, Christine L.; Butler, Hailly; Caracciolo, Jayson; Montgomery, Megan; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin; De Vivo, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the short-term course of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in a genetically and clinically well-defined cohort of patients with SMA. Design A comprehensive multicenter, longitudinal, observational study. Setting The Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network for SMA, a consortium of clinical investigators at 3 clinical sites. Participants Sixty-five participants with SMA types 2 and 3, aged 20 months to 45 years, were prospectively evaluated. Intervention We collected demographic and medical history information and determined the SMN2 copy number. Main Outcome Measures Clinical outcomes included measures of motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure and expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity), and muscle strength (myometry). Participants were evaluated every 2 months for the initial 6 months and every 3 months for the subsequent 6 months. We evaluated change over 12 months for all clinical outcomes and examined potential correlates of change over time including age, sex, SMA type, ambulatory status, SMN2 copy number, medication use, and baseline function. Results There were no significant changes over 12 months in motor function, pulmonary function, and muscle strength measures. There was evidence of motor function gain in ambulatory patients, especially in those children younger than 5 years. Scoliosis surgery during the observation period led to a subsequent decline in motor function. Conclusions Our results confirm previous clinical reports suggesting that SMA types 2 and 3 represent chronic phenotypes that have relatively stable clinical courses. We did not detect any measurable clinical disease progression in SMA types 2 and 3 over 12 months, suggesting that clinical trials will have to be designed to measure improvement rather than stabilization of disease progression. PMID:21320981

  3. Periodontal Disease and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Tu, Ming-Li; Liu, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Jing; Leng, WeiDong

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD) and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. Methods PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional) involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio?=?2.08, 95% confidence interval?=?1.48–2.91; P<0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. Conclusions Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:23094025

  4. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

  5. Whistleblowing: An integrative literature review of data-based studies involving nurses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Hickman, Louise D; Hutchinson, Marie; Andrew, Sharon; Smith, James; Potgieter, Ingrid; Cleary, Michelle; Peters, Kath

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Aim To summarise and critique the research literature about whistleblowing and nurses. Background Whistleblowing is identified as a crucial issue in maintenance of healthcare standards and nurses are frequently involved in whistleblowing events. Despite the importance of this issue, to our knowledge an evaluation of this body of the data-based literature has not been undertaken. Method An integrative literature review approach was used to summarise and critique the research literature. A comprehensive search of five databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Health Science: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Google, were searched using terms including: 'whistleblow*', 'nurs*'. In addition, relevant journals were examined, as well as reference lists of retrieved papers. Papers published during the years 2007-2013 were selected for inclusion. Findings Fifteen papers were identified, capturing data from nurses in seven countries. The findings in this review demonstrate a growing body of research for the nursing profession at large to engage and respond appropriately to issues involving suboptimal patient care or organisational wrongdoing. Conclusions Nursing plays a key role in maintaining practice standards and in reporting care that is unacceptable although the repercussions to nurses who raise concerns are insupportable. Overall, whistleblowing and how it influences the individual, their family, work colleagues, nursing practice and policy overall, requires further national and international research attention. PMID:25346267

  6. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  7. Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus involving three cardiac valves. A case study.

    PubMed

    Maglioni, E; Garosi, M; Marchetti, L; Galluzzi, P; Marri, D; Biagioli, B

    2003-06-01

    A 20-year-old woman, diagnosed with coarctation of the aorta, situs viscerum inversus, and bicuspid aortic valve, underwent corrective surgery for the coarctation. After a postoperative neurological state that suggested a spinal lesion, corticosteroid therapy was initiated and the patient was discharged early from the unit to begin a motor rehabilitation program. Following the dehiscence of the thoracotomy surgical wound, a severe infective clinical picture, sustained by methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA), became evident with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves and caused the patient's death due to septic shock complicated by ARDS. According to the authors, the early discharge of the patients after such a complex operation, the eccessive lengthening of the steroid therapy that would have contribuited to delay the diagnosis, causing the lack of preventing identification of the first signs of infection and the impossibility for the patient to have another operation (involving 3 valves) are conclusive elements that led to the above mentioned complications. PMID:14564255

  8. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-28

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical?molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical?molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp(3))-N(sp(2)) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. PMID:23387624

  9. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Weitao [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  10. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    PubMed Central

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)–N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. PMID:23387624

  11. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  12. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This study is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such studies.

  13. Temperament in young adulthood and later mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, P; Gunnell, D; Harrison, G; Okasha, M; Davey, S

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the association between a clinician assessment of temperament in early adulthood and cause specific mortality. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Glasgow University. Participants: 9239 male former students aged 16–30 (mean 20.5) years who participated in an ongoing health survey from 1948–68. A physician recorded free text assessment of temperament, which seemed to capture aspects of personality (trait) and mental health (state), was coded into: stable, anxious, schizoid, hypomanic, odd, depressed, immature, hypochondriacal, unstable, and obsessive. Associations between temperament and mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Main results: There were 878 deaths. Most students—8342 (90.3%)—were assessed as stable, the remaining 897 (9.7%) having at least one, and 103 (1.1%) having more than one, temperament type. The second most common temperament was anxiety, recorded in 520 (5.6%) students. In multivariable analyses, having at least one temperament type was associated with increased all cause and stroke mortality, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.23 (1.01 to 1.50) and 1.95 (1.06 to 3.59) respectively, compared with stable students. Students with more than one temperament type had higher risk of death from: all causes, 2.05 (1.36 to 3.09); stroke, 3.26 (1.01 to 10.56); and cancer, 2.90 (1.62 to 5.20). Anxiety was positively associated with all cause and cancer mortality, respective hazard ratios: 1.36 (1.07 to 1.72) and 1.51 (1.04 to 2.20). Men labelled hypomanic had increased cardiovascular mortality risk, 1.90 (1.05 to 3.44). Conclusions: Markers of early adult psychological distress are associated with increased mortality. Mechanisms underlying these associations require investigation. PMID:14600116

  14. An observational study to evaluate micronutrient status during enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T; Janes, S; MacDonald, A; Elia, M; Booth, I

    2002-01-01

    Background: There are few data on the optimal micronutrient composition of paediatric enteral feeds. The recent European Directive on Foods for Special Medical Purposes (1999/21/EC) did not distinguish between the composition of adult and paediatric feeds. Aims: To evaluate, in an open, observational study, the long term nutritional biochemistry of 12 children aged 1–6 years and/or 8–20 kg. Methods: The children were receiving at least 50% of their estimated average requirement (EAR) for energy from paediatric enteral formulae: 1.0 kcal/ml (Nutrison Paediatric Standard) or 1.5 kcal/ml (Nutrison Paediatric Energy Plus). Venous blood samples for trace elements, vitamins, and minerals were taken at study entry and six months later. Parents kept three day food and feed records every month. Results: Despite a median energy intake of only 75% EAR (range 52–158%), 67% (n = 8) achieved their reference nutrient intake (RNI) for all micronutrients. No significant micronutrient deficiencies were seen on blood analysis after six months. Eighty three per cent (n = 10) had vitamin B12 and 92% (n = 11) had copper intake >150% RNI. Fifty eight per cent (n = 7) had high plasma B12 (>733 µmol/l) and 75% (n = 9) had high serum copper (>22 µmol/l) concentrations. Conclusions: Children without excess losses maintain adequate micronutrient status on long term enteral feeding. Subjects had high blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and copper, and had high dietary intakes of these micronutrients. We suggest that the maximum nutrient guidelines for paediatric enteral feeds should be more clearly defined. PMID:12023170

  15. Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Daniel; Blomberg, Marie

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1 year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women >99% (n = 11,124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2 months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common. PMID:25132521

  16. Paternal Age, Paternal Presence and Children's Health: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Julian; Sutcliffe, Alastair G; Melhuish, Edward; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2015-02-24

    In an observational study of 31,257 children we investigated the effects of paternal age at the time of the child's birth, paternal absence and non-biological fathers on children's health. Results are per 5 year change in paternal age. Older fathers were associated with lower rates of unintentional injuries, odds ratio (OR)=0.966, P=0.0027. There was a quadratic association between paternal age and risk of hospital admission, ?=0.0121, P=0.0109, with minimum risk at paternal age 37.7. Absent fathers were associated with increased risk of hospital admission, OR=1.19, P<10(-3), lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.562, P<10(-3), higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) difficulties scores: ?=0.304, P=0.0024 (3 year olds), ?=0.697, P<10(-3) (5 year olds). Non-biological fathers were associated with increased risk of unintentional injury, OR=1.16, P=0.0319 and hospital admission, OR=1.26, P=0.0166; lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.343, P=0.0309 and higher SDQ difficulties scores: ?=0.908, P<10(-3). PMID:25918623

  17. Model-based observer: a gas turbine engine case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver F. Qi; P. J. Gawthrop; N. R. L. Maccallum

    1992-01-01

    A model-based control approach to synthesizing a nonlinear controller for a single-spool gas turbine engine is described. Since the main control variable, engine thrust, cannot be directly measured, a model-based observer is considered to provide online estimation of the thrust for feedback control. Both proportional and proportional-integral (PI) observers have been used in the model-based observer design. The latter is

  18. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

  19. A study involving mordenite, titanate nanotubes, perfluoroalkoxy polymers, and ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Shaneela

    Zeolites and molecular sieves are finding applications in many areas of catalysis due to appreciable acid activity, shape selectivity, and ion-exchange capacity, as they possess an unbalanced framework charge. For catalytic applications, zeolites become more valuable as the ratio of SiO2/Al2O 3 increases. Acid resistance and thermal stability of zeolite are both improved with increasing SiO2/Al2O3. This part of the thesis deals with the control of morphology focused on decreasing the crystal diameter of mordenite zeolite and to increase the SiO2/Al 2O3 ratio by changing synthesis conditions. A high SiO 2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR15) of mordenite was prepared in a very short reaction time. We studied the role of hydroxide in the crystallization of the mordenite as a structure director, nucleation time modifier, and crystallite aggregate enhancer. The formation of nano-aggregates of mordenites was greatly enhanced using a combination of alcohol additives and conventional heating. Mordenite nucleation was also increased without using alcohols when microwave heating was employed, but the alcohols further accelerated the nucleation process. The different heating techniques affected the morphology; microwave heating produced crystallites of ˜40 nm, while the conventional hydrothermal method formed larger size crystallites of ˜88 nm. We controlled the size and shape of the mordenite crystals because they have important implications in hydrocarbon conversion and separation processes. Mordenite synthesized showed jellyfish, acicular, flower, and wheat grain like structures. In the second part of this thesis, a phase transition was successfully achieved from TiO2 particles to titanate nanotubes by the breakage of Ti-O bonds and the creation of oxygen vacancies without using expensive precursors, high temperatures, high chemical concentrations of alkaline solutions, and long synthesis times. A combination of anatase nano-particles/titanate nano-tubes was synthesized using TiO2 (anatase) and a temperature of only 100°C. When TiO2 (P-25) was used with the same concentration of alkaline solution (1 molar NaOH), the same processing time of 12 hours, and a higher temperature at 110°C, only titanate nano-tubes were observed. The linkages of 'Ti-O' play a very important role in the structural features of different phases. Two crystalline phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) were synthesized as products in the case of TiO 2 (anatase) and one crystalline phase (monoclinic) for products of TiO 2 (P-25). The third part of the thesis concerns surface modification of hydrophobic fluoropolymers that have low surface energies and are very difficult to metallize. Surface modification was done to enhance surface roughness and hence to boost surface energy for metallization processes. We used low impact, environmentally friendly non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure to strip off F - ions and replace them with reactive unsaturated hydrocarbon functionalities such as CH=CH2 on the surface of a polymer. As these hydrocarbon functionalities are reactive with metals, they form composites that have good adhesion between layers of polymer. Due to surface modification, polymeric chains were broken by the loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.33) and the gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.17) using methane/argon plasmas. Methane/hydrogen/argon plasmas on the other hand produced extensive loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.07-0.33) and gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.08-0.16) that was far better than pristine PFA. The surface of PFA was modified by defluorination and oxidation. Further enhancement of COF and COO groups revealed that the surface was modified to a hydrophilic membrane that can further be easily hydrolyzed to COOH in the presence of atmospheric humidity. The last part of the thesis deals with ammonia borane which was studied as a potential source of hydrogen for fuel cells. We analyzed the viability of ammonia borane as a hydrogen carrier compound for fuel cell applications using a thermolysis method. Ammonia borane is an attractive source for hydrogen productio

  20. School expectations for parental involvement and student mathematics achievement: a comparative study of middle schools in the US and South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhao; Motoko Akiba

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental involvement in the US and South Korea and the

  1. An Observational Study of Algol-Type Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Algol-Type binary systems are a subtype of binary systems. Their unique semi-detached structure leads to have abundant physical phenomena, including the dramatically distorted donor star, strong magnetic activities, various ways of mass transfer, the evolution stage quite different from that of single stars, and specific formation tracks. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental physics of light curves, as well as the models or programs used in the past. We show the influence of different parameters on the light curves, including the inclination, temperature, abundance, surface gravity, the third light, radius, orbital eccentricity, and the argument of periastron. Based on the current catalog of Algols, we investigate their statistic characteristics. We observe three Algols and analyze the data in detail. The results are as follows: (1)Our statistical analyses of Algols support the previous suggestion that most of the detached component stars are main sequence stars. The distribution of the mass ratio agrees to our calculated critical value of the mass ratio for Algols. We suggest that there could be a lower limit of the radius ratio. We also show that there are good correlations among the temperature, luminosity, radius, and the mass of the component stars. (2) The binary FG Gem is observed, and the data are analyzed. Based on the solutions of large combinations of the temperature and luminosity, we use a new age-comparing method to show that the FG Gem is a semi-detached system, and a new temperature-searching method to get a better estimate of the temperature of the detached component star. We suggest that a combination of the intermittent mass flow and the continuous magnetic braking can explain its orbital period change. (3) Taking the VV Vir as an example, we discuss some properties of the mass flow in a semi-detached binary. Some of them can reflect the common characteristics of the mass flows in the Algol systems, e.g., the radius of the mass flow is very small, so is its impact spot. If the mass transfer rate is high, the energy transfer rate can be comparable to the intrinsic luminosity of the detached component star. The position of the impact spot can be determined by the orbital period, mass ratio, and the dimensionless potential. The temperature of the impact spot is very high, and it can be directly reflected by the humps on the light curves. (4) We discover a rare Algol binary V753 Mon, which is just in the process of mass ratio inversion. The mass ratio of this binary is very close to one, and the key evolutional stage provides an important observational source for the theoretical studies of binary evolution. (5) We introduce the light curve models and the related physical factors, including the shape of the orbit, the shape of the stars, gravity brightening, atmosphere model, limb darkening, reflection effect, eclipse effect, the third body and its third light, dark spots and magnetic effect, hot spots, asteroseismology, atmospheric eclipse, and circumstellar matter. The light curve analysis programs are presented. We analyze the parameters and show the relevant results, including the orbital inclination, surface temperature, metal abundance, gravity acceleration, the third light, stellar radius (expressed by the surface potential), the eccentricity of the orbit, and anomaly.

  2. Tethered chains in poor solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lee, L.T. [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Satija, S. [NIST Center For Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [NIST Center For Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    We have employed Langmuir monolayers of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 to {minus}35thinsp{degree}C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature ({ital T}) over this entire range. However, the variation with {ital T} becomes weak below {minus}20thinsp{degree}C. At the lowest {ital T}, the layer thicknesses are 55{percent}{endash}75{percent} of the values at the theta condition (T{sub {theta}}=22thinsp{degree}C). The contraction of the layer with decreasing {ital T} is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight, and these data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the near surface region over the entire {ital T} range, with the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing {ital T}. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. With decreasing {ital T}, negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayers, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a transition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing {ital T} was observed in the reflectivity for very low PDMS-PS coverage. At high coverage where the submerged blocks are strongly interacting at 22thinsp{degree}C, only a modest decrease in surface pressure is observed over the experimental range of {ital T} despite the strong contraction. This latter result is discussed in terms of the relative contributions of enthalpic and entropic effects to the surface pressure. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Parametric and nonparametric Bayesian model specification: A case study involving models for count data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milovan Krnjajic; Athanasios Kottas; David Draper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a simulation study to explore the ability of Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models to provide an adequate t to count data, of the type that would routinely be analyzed parametrically either through xed-eects or random-eects Poisson models. The context of the study is a randomized controlled trial with two groups (treatment and

  4. Parental involvement in a private primary school in Karachi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navbukhor Mamadyusufov

    2005-01-01

    This research is a case study on how parental involvement is enacted in a private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The study looked at the ways in which parents are involved in education in the school. Data was collected through interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings from the study indicate that all the stakeholders positively view the involvement of parents

  5. Tethered Chains in Poor Solvent Conditions: An Experimental Study Involving Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Lee, L.T.; Majewski, J.; Satija, S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-10-13

    We have employed Langmuir monolayer of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane- polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 "C to -35 `C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature (T) over this entire r~ge. However, the v~iation with T becomes weak below -20 "C. At the ]owest T, the layer thicknesses are contracted 55 % -75 `% of their values at the theta condition (T8 = 22 "C), but are still quite swollen compared to the fully collapsed, nonsolvent limit. The contraction of the layer with decreasing T is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight. These data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the air surface over the entire T range, the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing T. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. Negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayer, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a trruisition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing T was observed in the reflectivity at very low PDMS-PS coverage.

  6. Procedural elements involved in maintaining bioanalytical data integrity for good laboratory practices studies and regulated clinical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. James; Howard M. Hill

    2007-01-01

    This article describes procedural elements involved in ensuring the integrity of bioanalytical data. These elements can be\\u000a divided into 3 areas. First, there are those ensuring the integrity of the analyte until analysis, through correct sample\\u000a collection, handling, shipment, and storage procedures. Incorrect procedures can lead to loss of analyte via instability,\\u000a addition of analyte through contamination or instability of

  7. The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon

    2006-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

  8. Lateralization in motor facilitation during action observation: a TMS study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh; Fumiko Maeda; Eran Zaidel; John Mazziotta; Marco Iacoboni

    2002-01-01

    Action observation facilitates corticospinal excitability. This is presumably due to a premotor neural system that is active\\u000a when we perform actions and when we observe actions performed by others. It has been speculated that this neural system is\\u000a a precursor of neural systems subserving language. If this theory is true, we may expect hemispheric differences in the motor\\u000a facilitation produced

  9. Tethered chains in good solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S. [Dept. 1815, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico (United States))] [Dept. 1815, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico (United States)); [Lee, L.T. (Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)); [Factor, B.J.; [Rondelez, F. (Laboratoire P.S.I., Institut Curie-Section de Physique et Chimie, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)); [Smith, G.S. (LANCSE, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos New Mexico (United States))

    1995-08-08

    We have employed Langmuir monolayers of polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene diblock copolymers as a model system for examining layers of tethered chains under good solvent conditions. The range of surface density accessible with this system coincides with the ranges reported in the literature for chains tethered onto solid substrates from dilute solution in good solvents. We have varied both the surface density ({sigma}) and the molecular weight ({ital M}) of the submerged polystyrene block independently, covering over a decade in each variable. Both the form of the segmental concentration profile and the variation of the layer height with {sigma} and {ital M} are in good agreement with numerical self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations. On the other hand, we do not observe precise agreement with the scaling predictions for strongly stretched chains, in contrast to some previous reports. Through measurements of the surface pressure ({Pi}), we present the first direct comparison between anchoring energies and differential chain energies in tethered layers. We find these to be of equal magnitude at the desorption transition. However, the chain energies reach values roughly an order of magnitude larger than can be accounted for by the osmotic interaction of the polystyrene segments in the good solvent. In addition, the dependence of {Pi} on {sigma} is more consistent with a model of soft spheres with hard cores than that of a semidilute polymer mesh. The hard core areas seem to be loosely related to {ital R}{sub {ital g}}. We attribute these observations to a steric effect which limits lateral interpenetration of the submerged blocks. The sharp rise in {Pi} with {sigma} is of great practical importance as it limits the maximum surface coverage in this system, and may also do so for other systems. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Forging an Identity: An Insider-outsider Study of Processes Involved in the Formation of Organizational Identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis A. Gioia; Kristin N. Price; Aimee L. Hamilton; James B. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the processes involved in forming an organizational identity, which we studied during the founding of a distinctive new college by using an interpretive, insider-outsider research approach. The emergent grounded theory model suggests that organizational identity formed via the interplay of eight notable processes, four of which occurred in more-or-less sequential, stage-like fashion —(1) articulating a vision, (2) experiencing

  11. 78 FR 8152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study SUMMARY: In...Title: The Women's Health Initiative...Observational Study. Type of Information...population of aging women. Frequency...Respondents: Study participants...physician's office...

  12. Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the opportunities and preceded Plan in just 21.8%. Certain communication elements were occasionally absent. For example, SBAR's Recommendation and admission note information about the patient's Past Medical History were absent from 22 (55.0%) and 20 (50.0%), respectively, of patient handovers. Conclusions Clinical handover practice of faculty-level critical care physicians did not conform to any of the three predefined structuring schemes. Further research is needed to examine whether alternative approaches to handover communication can be identified and to identify features of high-quality handover communication. PMID:22233877

  13. The Neural Circuitry Involved in the Reading of German Words and Pseudowords: A PET Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hagoort; Peter Indefrey; Colin Brown; Hans Herzog; Helmuth Steinmetz; Rüdiger J. Seitz

    1999-01-01

    Silent reading and reading aloud of German words and pseudowords were used in a PET study using (15O) butanol to examine the neural correlates of reading and of the phonological conversion of legal letter strings, with or without meaning. The results of 11 healthy, right-handed volunteers in the age range of 25 to 30 years showed activation of the lingual

  14. Atomic Scale Study of Interfaces Involved in Epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrieu, S. [Nancy Universite, Vandoeuvre, France; Serra, R. [CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse, France; Bonell, F. [Nancy Universite, Vandoeuvre, France; Tiusan, C. [Nancy Universite, Vandoeuvre, France; Calmels, L. [CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse, France; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse, France; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Walls, M. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy have been studied by using spatially resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). The structure, the chemical composition as well as the bonding variations across the interfaces were investigated up to the atomic scale.

  15. Parental Involvement in the Development of Children's Reading Skill: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening

  16. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  17. Internationalisation in the Swedish Nurse Education from the Perspective of Teachers Involved: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Wihlborg, Monne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from an interview investigation with teachers in Swedish nurse education especially interested in internationalising the education. The aim has been to study teachers' understandings and experiences of internationalisation against the backdrop of the strong concern for internationalisation expressed in policy documents.…

  18. Abstract--Metagenomic studies inherently involve sampling genetic information from an environment potentially contain-

    E-print Network

    Polikar, Robi

    communities in the human gut causing ailments such as obesity and Crohn's Disease [5]. The findings of such studies may not only elucidate the cause of the disease, but hopefully will lead to novel medical Microbiome Project has been commissioned by the National Institutes of Health to catalog the diversity

  19. MRI in 31 patients with Behçet's disease and neurological involvement: prospective study with clinical correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Wechsler; B Delllsola; M Vidailhet; D Dormont; J C Piette; O Blétry; P Godeau

    1993-01-01

    Thirty one patients with Behçet's disease and neurological manifestations were prospectively studied with MRI. Cerebral venous thrombosis was diagnosed in 10 patients. MRI performed during the acute illness in eight patients showed an abnormally high signal on the T2 weighted sequences in the occluded sinus. MRI showed minor flow abnormalities suggestive of partial recanalisation of the sinus in two cases

  20. A Study of Selected Variables Involved in the Assessment of Teacher Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Linda K.

    The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers on the Common Examinations of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) in relation to national averages, and (2) determine strengths and weaknesses in the test performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers. Prospective teachers in Louisiana were…

  1. Married Men’s Involvement in Family Planning – A Study from Coastal Southern India

    PubMed Central

    B, Unnikrishnan; Mithra, Prasanna P; Kumar, Nithin; Holla, Ramesh; Raina, Vishal; Hashim, Hisham; Singh, Prakhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the years, India has emerged as one of the most populous countries in the world, next only to China. Unregulated fertility can compromise the economic development and political stability of a country. Family planning was always thought to be a woman’s prerogative, especially in a male dominant society like India. Consequently, most of the studies on family planning focused on women as the subject of interest. Purpose To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning amongst men who have been married for at least five years. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the teaching hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (Manipal University), Mangalore; India among 156 men who had been married for at least five years. They were selected using non-random sampling method and were interviewed using a pretested semi structured validated questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Results Overall, 75.6% were aged between 26 and 34 years, 41.7% had one child, 92.3% subjects from upper and 86.9% from lower socio-economic status were aware about the male family planning services available in the market. Most husbands preferred that their spouse should be sterilized (53.8%). Family planning methods were actively practiced by 71.2 %. Conclusion Most of the studies on family planning have focused mainly on females. This study throws light on the male perspective of family planning. Our study subjects were well aware about various family planning services and their attitude towards family planning was favorable, but the number of men practicing family planning was not high. PMID:26023572

  2. Tethered chains in theta solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lee, L.T. [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Lab. Leon Brillouin, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Satija, S. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Langmuir monolayers of polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at 22{degree}C are employed as a model tethered chain system in theta solvent conditions. The segmental concentration profile of the tethered PS block is obtained over an order of magnitude in both surface density ({sigma}) and molecular weight (M) by neutron reflection. A depletion layer of PS segments is observed at the air{endash}liquid interface which increases with M and is independent of {sigma}. The variation of the tethered layer height with {sigma} and M is consistent with h{approximately}{sigma}{sup 0.18}M{sup 0.74} over the range of reduced surface density ({sigma}{pi}R{sub g}{sup 2}) from 1 to 11. These dependencies, along with the form of the profile, indicate that the asymptotic limit is not achieved for {sigma}{pi}R{sub g}{sup 2}{le}11 in theta solvent conditions. The upper limit of surface density is limited by the interaction of the submerged blocks, which leads to a sharp rise in surface pressure ({Pi}). The increase of {Pi} with {sigma} far exceeds theoretical predictions, even in the asymptotic limit, and is attributed to distortion of chain configurations arising from limited lateral interpenetration. Anchoring energies compare well with differential chain energies at the desorption transition when the surface PDMS blocks are noninteracting. Comparisons are made with results obtained previously in good solvent conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Garcia Estupinan

    2001-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the

  4. A study on the possible involvement of the PAX3 gene in human neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hol, F.A.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Geurds, M.P.A. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are congenital malformations of the central nervous system which are generally attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the molecular defect responsible for the phenotype of the Splotch mouse, a monogenic model system for NTD, was determined. A mutation disrupts the homeodomain of the gene for Pax3. In humans, mutations in the cognate gene for PAX3 can cause Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is associated with NTD. Based on these findings, PAX3 can be regarded as a candidate gene for human NTD. To test this hypothesis we have screened the DNA of 39 familial and 70 sporadic NTD patients for mutations in the coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the PAX3 gene. SSC analysis revealed abnormal bands in exon 2, exon 5, exon 6 and exon 7 in different patients. A missense mutation was identified in exon 6 downstream from the homeodomain in several patients resulting in an amino acid substitution (Thr315Lys) in the protein. However, the same substitution was detected in unaffected controls suggesting no biological significance. Above shifts most likely represent polymorphisms that are irrelevant for NTD. A conspicuous SSC-band shift was observed in exon 5 of one familial patient with spina bifida. Sequencing revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a 5 bp deletion upstream of the homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift, which leads to premature termination of translation. Mild characteristics of WS were detected in several members of the family including the index patient. DNA analysis showed co-segregation of the mutation with these symptoms. Although PAX3 mutations can increase the penetrance of NTD in families with WS, our results show that their presence is not sufficient to cause NTD.

  5. Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental Design Random Samples Case Study Producing Data

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    hemisphere, all Africanized honey bees are descended from this apiary. When the time arrives for replacing of bacteria? 4 / 16 #12;Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental or levels that will be used in the treatment. Example. A breeding experiment using African and European bees

  6. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac failure: meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A Scott; Gabrielle H. Kingsley; David L Scott

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the risks of cardiac failure with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the specific risks with Cox-2 specific NSAIDs (COXIBs). Methods: We performed meta-analyses examining the risks of developing cardiac failure in observational studies and in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with arthritis and non-rheumatic disorders. Electronic databases and published bibliographies were systematically searched (1997-2008). Results: Five

  7. Involved-Node and Involved-Field Volumetric Modulated Arc vs. Fixed Beam Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Female Patients With Early-Stage Supra-Diaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Comparative Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@medecine.unige.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Peguret, Nicolas; Dipasquale, Giovanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: A comparative treatment planning study was performed to compare volumetric-modulated arc (RA) to conventional intensity modulated (IMRT) for involved-field (IFRT) and involved-node (INRT) radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for RA and IMRT. First, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OAR) dose deposition was assessed between the two modalities. Second, the OAR (lung, breast, heart, thyroid, and submandibular gland) dose-volume histograms were computed and compared for IFRT and INRT, respectively. Results: For IFRT and INRT, PTV coverage was equally homogeneous with both RA and IMRT. By and large, the OAR irradiation with IFRT planning was not significantly different between RA and IMRT. For INRT, doses computed for RA were, however, usually lower than those with IMRT, particularly so for the lung, breast, and thyroid. Regardless of RA and IMRT modalities, a significant 20-50% decrease of the OAR computed mean doses was observed with INRT when compared with IFRT (Breast D{sub Mean} 1.5 +- 1.1 vs. 2.6 +- 1.7 Gy, p < 0.01 and 1.6 +- 1.1 vs. 2.9 +- 1.9 Gy, p < 0.01 for RA and IMRT, respectively). Conclusions: RA and IMRT results in similar level of dose homogeneity. With INRT but not IFRT planning, the computed doses to the PTV and OAR were usually higher and lower with RA when compared to IMRT. Regardless of the treatment modality, INRT when compared with IFRT planning led to a significant decrease in OAR doses, particularly so for the breast and heart.

  8. The Path to Self-Management: A Qualitative Study Involving Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Mark W.; Murdoch, Michelle; Kearney, Anne; Godwin, Marshall; Stefanelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This qualitative study sought to explore older people's experience of ageing with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the natural history of self-management from their points of view. Methods: Eighteen people over age 55 and living with MS for at least 20 years were recruited from an MS clinic and rehabilitation outpatient records. Interviews (60–80 min), using open-ended questions, explored participants' lifelong experiences of MS. Following interview transcription, data were coded and analyzed; themes, subthemes, and their relationships were described based on consensus. Results: Participants recounted their diagnosis process, their life experience with MS, and how they eventually accepted their disease, adapted, and moved toward self-management. The findings included vivid descriptions of social relationships, health care interactions, overcoming barriers, and the emotions associated with living with MS. A conceptual model of phases of self-management, from diagnosis to integration of MS into a sense of self, was developed. Conclusions: Study participants valued self-management and described its phases, facilitators, and inhibitors from their points of view. Over years and decades, learning from life experiences, trial and error, and interactions with health care professionals, participants seemed to consolidate MS into their sense of self. Self-determination, social support, strong problem-solving abilities, and collaborative relationships with health professionals aided adaptation and coping. Findings from this study make initial steps toward understanding how MS self-management evolves over the life course and how self-management programmes can help people with MS begin to manage wellness earlier in their lives. PMID:23277680

  9. A correlation study involving a comparison of professional science teaching standards and student performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schum, Paul A.

    If international report cards were issued today, to all industrialized nations world wide, the United States would receive a "C" at best in mathematics and science. This is not simply a temporary or simple cause and effect circumstance that can easily be addressed. The disappointing truth is that this downward trend in mathematics and science mastery by American students has been occurring steadily for at least the last eight years of international testing, and that there are numerous and varied bases for this reality. In response to this crisis, The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and The National Research Council (NRC) each have proposed relatively consistent, but individual sets of professional science teaching standards, designed to improve science instruction in American schools. It is of extreme value to the scientific, educational community to know if any or all of these standards lead to improved student performance. This study investigates the correlation between six, specific teacher behaviors that are common to these national standards and which behaviors, if any, result in improved student performance, as demonstrated on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT Assessment. These standards focus classroom science teachers on professional development, leading toward student mastery of scientific interpretation, concept development, and constructive relationship building. Because all individual teachers interpret roles, expectations, and guiding philosophies from different lenses, effective professional practice may reflect consistency in rationale and methodology yet will be best evidenced by an examination of specific teaching techniques. In this study, these teaching techniques are evidenced by self-reported teacher awareness and adherence to these consensual standards. Assessment instruments vary widely, and the results of student performance often reflect the congruency of curricular methodology and explicit testing domains. Although the recent educational impetus for change is most notably governed numerically by test scores, the true goal of scientific literacy is in the application of logic. Therefore, the ultimate thematic analysis in this study attempts to relate both educational theory and practice with positive change at the classroom level. The data gathered in this study is insufficient in establishing a significant correlation between adherence to national science teaching standards and student performance on the ACT in Jefferson County, Kentucky, for either public or Catholic school students. However, with respect to mean student scores on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT, there is statistically significant evidence for superior performance of Catholic school students compared with that of public school students in this region.

  10. Study Finds Romantic Rejection Stimulates Areas of Brain Involved in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-07-06

    "Is romantic rejection a specific form of addiction?" This press release describes the experimental design and findings from a July 2010 study in the Journal of Neurophysiology entitled "Reward, Addiction and Emotion Regulation Systems Associated with Rejection in Love" conducted by Helen E. Fisher, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, Lucy L. Brown, Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, NY, Art Aron, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, and Greg Strong and Debra Mashek, the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  11. The measurements technique of balance in opera houses: A study of the sources involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parati, Linda; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The study of the acoustical balance between the singer and the orchestra by means of room acoustical measurements has shown that the directional characteristics of the source on the stage are important. This investigation compares the performance of two directional and one omnidirectional loudspeakers in emulating a soprano voice. Directivity measurements of a soprano singer were carried out in an anechoic chamber and used as a basis for comparison in room acoustic simulations of the Royal Theatre of Copenhagen, the Ankara Congress and Cultural Center, and the Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. In particular, the balance measurement was simulated and the performance of the different sources with respect to the soprano was assessed.

  12. Tongue Inspection in TCM: Observations in a Study Sample of Patients Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michelle; Quinn, Jessica; Capili, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical “snapshot” of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ?3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications. PMID:24761186

  13. Studies of sodar?observed dot echo structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Singal; B. S. Gera; S. K. Aggarwal

    1985-01-01

    During moist weather under stably stratified and light wind conditions very often “dot” shaped echoes, either distributed randomly or arranged in a stratified layer, have been observed on sodar echograms. They last from a couple of hours to ten hours. Their horizontal widths are up to 200 m while their vertical sizes are up to 40 m. It is argued

  14. Application of FT-ICR-MS for the study of proton-transfer reactions involving biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Raczy?ska, E D; Gal, J-F; Maria, P-C; Zientara, K; Szelag, M

    2007-11-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, combined with modern ionization (fast atom bombardment , electrospray ionization, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization), fragmentation (collision-induced dissociation, surface-induced dissociation, one-photon ultraviolet photodissociation, infrared multiphoton dissociation, blackbody infrared radiative dissociation, electron-capture dissociation), and separation (high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) techniques is now becoming one of the most attractive and frequently used instrumental platforms for gas-phase studies of biomolecules such as amino acids, bioamines, peptides, polypeptides, proteins, nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides, nucleic acids, saccharides, polysaccharides, etc. Since it gives the possibilities to trap the ions from a few seconds up to thousands of seconds, it is often applied to study ion/molecule reactions in the gas phase, particularly proton-transfer reactions which provide important information on acid-base properties. These properties determine in part the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules, most of their intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and consequently their biological activity. They also indicate the form (unionized, zwitterionic, protonated, or deprotonated) which the biomolecule may take in a nonpolar environment. PMID:17786415

  15. An Examination of the Influence of No Child Left Behind on Parental Involvement Policies, Practices, and Programs in Oklahoma Public Schools: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Dana Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined superintendents' or designees' perceptions in light of NCLB (2002) and to understand parental involvement through the lens of Epstein's Framework of Parent Involvement (1992, 1995, 2002). The central problem was that despite parental involvement legislation, implementation and effectiveness of policies, and programs varies…

  16. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying neural computations.

  17. A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

  18. Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

  19. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. PMID:25800405

  20. Psychosocial pathways to childhood obesity: a pilot study involving a high risk preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Moore, Elizabeth S; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study adopts a systems theory perspective to explore associations between parent and child factors and children's body mass index (BMI). Forty mothers and their preschool-aged children (3-6years) who were eligible for Head Start were recruited. Measures included demographic risk, maternal depression, negative parenting, children's impulsivity, children's approach to eating, and BMI. Structural Equation Modeling supported a mediating model such that mothers who reported greater demographic risk and more depressive symptoms showed higher rates of negative parenting. In turn, more negative parenting predicted higher child impulsivity ratings, which were related to higher food approach scores. Finally, children who scored higher in food approach had higher BMIs. Tests of sub-models excluding any of the mediating variables indicated a significantly worse fit to the data in each case. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early-onset obesity in high-risk children. PMID:25098723

  1. Expression and Replication Studies to Identify New Candidate Genes Involved in Normal Hearing Function

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

  2. Parent Involvement: Influencing Factors and Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delores C. Peña

    2000-01-01

    The involvement of Mexican American parents in their children's education was explored in a year-long case study of an elementary school in Texas. Interviews, document analysis, and observations of parent activities revealed that parent involvement was influenced by several factors, including language, parent cliques, parents' education, attitudes of the school staff, cultural influences, and family issues. Although the school staff

  3. Pharyngeal cancer prevention: evidence from a case--control study involving 232 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Escribano Uzcudun, Ana; Rabanal Retolaza, Ignacio; García Grande, Antonio; Miralles Olivar, Lara; García García, Alfredo; González Barón, Manuel; Gavilán Bouzas, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for pharyngeal cancer and to propose 10 result-based preventive measures. It was a case-control study conducted in Madrid, Spain, with 232 consecutive patients diagnosed between January 1 1990 and December 31, 1995, sex- and age-matched with 232 control individuals with no oncological disease or history. By means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, seven different epidemiological areas were surveyed, namely: (1) sociodemographic variables, (2) familial all-site cancer history, (3) medical history, (4) lifestyle (habits), (5) diet, (6) occupational exposure, and (7) non-occupational exposure. Of the great number of factors within each epidemiological area, the following were found to be risk factors after adjustment for tobacco smoking and alcoholic beverage drinking: (1) tobacco smoking, (2) alcoholic beverage drinking, (3) low and low-middle socioeconomic background, (4) low educational level, (5) rural milieu, (6) working, or having worked, as a manual worker in agriculture, (7) working, or having worked as a manual worker in building industry, (8) having an upper aerodigestive tract cancer familial history, (9) having a medical history of alcholism, low weight/malnutrition, gastroesophageal reflux or chronic obstructive bronchopneumonia, (10) low dietary intake of fruit, fruit juice, uncooked vegetables, dietary fibre-containing foods, fish and milk and dairy products, (11) high dietary intake of meat and fried foods, (12) deficient oral and dental hygiene, (13) abuse of black coffee, (14) abuse of 'carajillo' (a typical Spanish drink composed of black coffee and flambéed brandy), (15) occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents and dust of different origins. On the basis of our results and those reported by other authors, we put forward 10 measures for the prevention of pharyngeal cancer. However, due to the small size of the nasopharyngeal cancer subsample (n = 35, 15.08 per cent), our results as well as the preventive measures are to considered as referring uniquely to oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. In addition, from descriptive statistical data inspection one can conclude that nasopharyngeal cancer is likely to bear risk factors different from those for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, thus nasopharyngeal cancer warrants specific epidemiological investigation with a sufficiently large patient sample. PMID:12238672

  4. LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, Nicola [INFN of Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127 (Italy); Norris, Jay [University of Denver, Denver CO 80208 (United States)

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

  5. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  6. HIV: An Epidemiologic study on Head and Neck Involvement in 50 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Sarvghad, Mohammad Reza; Khazaeni, Kamran; Movahed, Rahman; Hoseinpour, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide infection. Because of the vast array of manifestations of AIDS and its many atypical presentations, it is becoming increasingly challenging for clinicians to accurately diagnose new lesions. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 2007 to 2010, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the findings of a physical examination and paraclinic tests, HIV signs and symptoms were recorded. Results: The mean (range) age of the patients was 35.45 ±5.24 (5–55) years. Forty-two (84%) cases were male and eight were female. The mean duration of carrying the virus was 4.51 ±1.03 years. Oral manifestations were the most common (94%), followed by rhinologic (88%), otologic (66%), and finally neck (44%) manifestations. Conclusion: Head and neck presentations are very common in HIV patients; therefore otolaryngologists, as the first physicians who may encounter such patients, should be aware of this condition. PMID:24744998

  7. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bisbing, Teagan A.; Olm, Christopher A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation.

  8. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    PubMed Central

    Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy. PMID:21430952

  9. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  10. Novel approaches to study the involvement of ?7-nAChR in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Conti, Luca; Roseti, Cristina; Limatola, Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR) is widely distributed in the human brain and has been implicated in a number of human central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and autism. Recently, new roles for ?7 nAChRs in lung cancer and heart disease have been elucidated. Despite the importance of this receptor in human pathology, many technical difficulties are still encountered when investigating the role of ?7 nAChRs. Electrophysiological analysis of the receptor upon heterologous expression or in human tissues was limited by the fast desensitization of ?7-mediated nicotinic currents and by tissue availability. In addition, animal models for the human diseases related to ?7 nAChRs have long been unavailable. The recent development of new imaging and analysis approaches such as PET and receptor microtransplantation have rendered the study of ?7 nAChRs increasingly feasible, paving new roads to the design of therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent findings obtained by these novel approaches. PMID:22300023

  11. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  12. The Timing of Drug Funding Announcements Relative to Elections: A Case Study Involving Dementia Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S.; Gupta, Neeraj; Bell, Chaim M.; Rochon, Paula A.; Austin, Peter C.; Laupacis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Following initial regulatory approval of prescription drugs, many factors may influence insurers and health systems when they decide whether to add these drugs to their formularies. The role of political pressures on drug funding announcements has received relatively little attention, and elections represent an especially powerful form of political pressure. We examined the temporal relationship between decisions to add one class of drugs to publicly funded formularies in Canada's ten provinces and elections in these jurisdictions. Methods Dates of provincial formulary listings for cholinesterase inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, were compared to the dates of provincial elections. Medical journal articles, media reports, and proceedings from provincial legislatures were reviewed to assemble information on the chronology of events. We tested whether there was a statistically significant increase in the probability of drug funding announcements within the 60-day intervals preceding provincial elections. Results Decisions to fund the cholinesterase inhibitors were made over a nine-year span from 1999 to 2007 in the ten provinces. In four of ten provinces, the drugs were added to formularies in a time period closely preceding a provincial election (P?=?0.032); funding announcements in these provinces were made between 2 and 47 days prior to elections. Statements made in provincial legislatures highlight the key role of political pressures in these funding announcements. Conclusions Impending elections appeared to affect the timing of drug funding announcements in this case study. Despite an established structure for evidence-based decision-making, drug funding remains a complex process open to influence from many sources. Awareness of such influences is critical to maintain effective drug policy and public health decision-making. PMID:23460820

  13. Studies on protein kinases involved in regulation of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport.

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, H C; Rottmann, M; Wenger, R; Bachmann, M; Dorn, A; Müller, W E

    1988-01-01

    The rate of energy-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-mediated nucleocytoplasmic translocation of poly(A)-containing mRNA [poly(A)+mRNA] across the nuclear envelope is thought to be regulated by poly(A)-sensitive phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear-envelope protein. Studying the phosphorylation-related inhibition of the NTPase, we found that phosphorylation of one polypeptide of rat liver envelopes by endogenous NI- and NII-like protein kinase was particularly sensitive to poly(A). This polypeptide (106 kDa) was also phosphorylated by nuclear-envelope-bound Ca2+-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Activation of kinase C by tumour-promoting phorbol esters resulted in inhibition of nuclear-envelope NTPase activity and in a concomitant decrease of mRNA (actin) efflux rate from isolated rat liver nuclei. Protein kinase C, but not nuclear envelope NI-like or NII-like protein kinase, was found to be solubilized from the envelope by Triton X-100, whereas the presumable poly(A)-binding site [the 106 kDa polypeptide, representing the putative carrier for poly(A)+mRNA transport] remained bound to this structure. RNA efflux from detergent-treated nuclei lost its susceptibility to phorbol esters. Addition of purified protein kinase C to these nuclei restored the effect of the tumour promoters. Protein kinase C was found to bind also to isolated rat liver nuclear matrices in the absence but not in the presence of ATP. The NII-like nuclear-envelope protein kinase co-purified together with the 106 kDa polypeptide which specifically binds to poly(A) in an ATP-labile linkage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:2844156

  14. The involvement of the thalamus in semantic retrieval: a clinical group study.

    PubMed

    Pergola, Giulio; Bellebaum, Christian; Gehlhaar, Britta; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene; Suchan, Boris

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing attention about the role of the thalamus in high cognitive functions, including memory. Although the bulk of the evidence refers to episodic memory, it was recently proposed that the mediodorsal (MD) and the centromedian-parafascicular (CM-Pf) nuclei of the thalamus may process general operations supporting memory performance, not only episodic memory. This perspective agrees with other recent fMRI findings on semantic retrieval in healthy participants. It can therefore be hypothesized that lesions to the MD and the CM-Pf impair semantic retrieval. In this study, 10 patients with focal ischemic lesions in the medial thalamus and 10 healthy controls matched for age, education, and verbal IQ performed a verbal semantic retrieval task. Patients were assigned to a target clinical group and a control clinical group based on lesion localization. Patients did not suffer from aphasia and performed in the range of controls in a categorization and a semantic association task. However, target patients performed poorer than healthy controls on semantic retrieval. The deficit was not because of higher distractibility but of an increased rate of false recall and, in some patients, of a considerably increased rate of misses. The latter deficit yielded a striking difference between the target and the control clinical groups and is consistent with anomia. Follow-up high-resolution structural scanning session in a subsample of patients revealed that lesions in the CM-Pf and MD were primarily associated with semantic retrieval deficits. We conclude that integrity of the MD and the CM-Pf is required for semantic retrieval, possibly because of their role in the activation of phonological representations. PMID:23363413

  15. Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n?=?15) and pre-model (n?=?65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n?=?15), the sham-point group (n?=?15), and the ST36 group (n?=?15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495

  16. Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-11-01

    Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865

  17. Observation and studies of double J /? production at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present the observation of doubly produced J /? mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in p p ¯ collisions at ?{s }=1.96 TeV . The production cross section for both singly and doubly produced J /? mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1 fb-1 . For the first time, the double J /? production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section ?eff, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  18. Direct Observation, Study, and Control of Molecular Superrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery

    2014-03-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N =95 in oxygen and N=60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

  19. Direct observation, study and control of molecular super rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander; Hepburn, John; Milner, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with or exceeds the molecular bond strength are known as ``super rotors''. It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. We demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular super rotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an ``optical centrifuge'' is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultra-broad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N = 95 in oxygen and N = 60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular super rotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, inter-molecular collisions and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

  20. Examining the Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McGwin, Gerald; Mitchell, Bradford; Searcey, Karen; Albert, Michael A.; Feist, Richard; Mason, John O.; Thomley, Martin; Owsley, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about motor vehicle collision (MVC) risk in older drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study is to examine associations between MVC involvement and AMD presence and severity. Methods In a retrospective cohort study pooling the samples from four previous studies, we examined associations between MVC rate and older drivers with early, intermediate, or advanced AMD as compared to those in normal eye health. MVC data were based on accident reports obtained from the state agency that compiles this information. Results MVC rate was highest among those in normal eye health and progressively declined among those with early and intermediate disease, and then increased for those with advanced AMD. However, only for drivers with intermediate AMD was the MVC rate significantly different (lower) as compared to those in normal eye health, regardless of whether the rate was defined in terms of person-years (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.89) or person-miles (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13–0.91) of driving. Conclusion These results suggest that older drivers with intermediate AMD have a reduced risk of collision involvement. Further research should investigate whether self-regulatory driving practices by these drivers (avoiding challenging driving situations) underlies this reduced risk. PMID:23832967

  1. Experiments offer more reliable evidence on causation than observational studies, which is not to gainsay the contribution to knowledge from observation. Experi-

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Experiments offer more reliable evidence on causation than observational studies, which is not to gainsay the contribution to knowledge from observation. Experi- ments should be analyzed as experiments, models, experiments, observational studies, intention-to-treat, per-protocol, treatment

  2. LESSONS LEARNED FROM FOUR EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES: THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER STUDIES INVOLVING ELDERLY COHORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its collaborators are conducting a series of human exposure panel studies on elderly (65+ years) subpopulations. The primary objectives of these studies are -To determine personal and indoor exposures to particles and relate...

  3. Chromatographic method involving inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection for the study of metal-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Sandier, A; Amiel, C; Sébille, B; Rouchaud, J C; Fedoroff, M; Soltes, L

    1997-07-25

    A chromatographic method has been used to study metal ion-protein complexes. It involves successively a gel filtration technique to separate and distinguish the complexed from the free metallic ions, and a spectrometric technique, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), which allows us to calculate accurately the concentration of ionic metallic species in solution. In the chromatographic step, we applied a large-zone Hummel and Dreyer method. Thus, fractions can be collected throughout the chromatographic experiment and their metal concentration measured by ICP-AES, at constant and known protein concentration. This method has been tested on the copper complex of bovine serum albumin. Results of our study are in good agreement with previous studies on this complex. PMID:9286082

  4. Birth weight of offspring and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; Catherine Ferrell; Mark Upton; David Hole; Victor Hawthorne; Graham Watt

    1997-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To investigate the association between birth weight of offspring and mortality among fathers and mothers in the west of Scotland.Design: Prospective observational study.Participants: 794 married couples in Renfrew district of the west of Scotland.Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease over 15 year follow up.Results: Women who had heavier babies were taller, had higher body

  5. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-01-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  6. A study of Saturn's 3 micron window from ISO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouch, E.; Kleiner, I.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.

    The infrared spectrum of Jupiter and Saturn displays a 3-micron window extending from 2 6 to 3 2 micron and limited on both sides by strong absorption from CH4 and in Jupiter s case by absorption from NH3 ice High S N observations of this region were obtained in 1996 by the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer of ISO at a spectral resolution of about 1500 In addition to numerous CH4 lines the Saturn spectrum shows several absorption bands due to PH3 notably at 2 92 and 3 02 micron for which molecular parameters have recently become available We will present an analysis of this spectrum hoping to get information on the PH3 abundance and vertical profile and searching for the signatures of other gases and of ammonia ice

  7. An observational and theoretical study of highly supercooled altocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Miloshevich, Larry M.; Slingo, Anthony; Sassen, Kenneth; Starr, David O'C.

    1991-01-01

    The microphysics of two altocumulus clouds sampled at a temperature of about -30 C through the NCAR King Air aircraft and coincident lidar has been characterized. The clouds are structurally similar to stratocumulus and have extensive cloudtop entrainment, a capping temperature inversion, and a dry layer above. Microphysical and radiative properties of both clouds have been modeled numerically. When entrainment effects are incorporated in the model, calculations of droplet concentration and mean diameter profiles compare favorably with the measurements. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that radiative cooling causes sufficient negative buoyancy in cloudtop parcels for producing convective instability and reproducing the observed downdraft velocities. It is shown that entrainment of warmer, drier air near a cloudtop counteracts the radiatively induced negative buoyancy in the downdrafts.

  8. “Benchmark” — a large observational study of Ontario beef breeding herds: Study design and collection of data

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, John J.; Alves, David M.; Anderson, Neil G.; Martin, S. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The methods used in a large field study which investigated the health and productivity of Ontario beef breeding herds are described. Beginning in the calving season of 1986, 180 breeding herds on 170 randomly sampled farms were followed for a two year period, using producer records and annual farm visits. The response (cooperation) rate among the eligible producers initially contacted was 70%. Approximately two-thirds of producers maintained individual animal records, primarily calving season records. Approximately 40% recorded disease occurrences. The advantages, disadvantages, and interpretation of “on-farm” observational studies are discussed. PMID:17423817

  9. Parent Involvement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

  10. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different…

  11. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

  12. An Observational Study of Co-Rumination in Adolescent Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Glick, Gary C.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' "tendency" to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of…

  13. Ocean observing satellite study: instrument and satellite constellation architecture options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, A. J.; McGuire, J.; Cunningham, J. D.; Pichel, W. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides: (1) an overview of the set of active and passive instruments identified by the IPO designed to make the ocean measurements including visible and infrared medium and high resolution imagers, radiometers, altimeters, and synthetic aperture radars and (2) the instrument and satellite constellation architecture options studied, and their ability to meet the set of measurement requirements.

  14. Observational study of 14 cases of chronic pancreatitis in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Watson; J. Archer; A. J. Roulois; T. J. Scase; M. E. Herrtage

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the clinical, clinicopathological and ultrasonographic findings from dogs with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Fourteen dogs with clinical signs consistent with CP and histological confirmation of the disease were evaluated. Abdominal ultrasound and clinical pathology results were recorded. Sensitivities of pancreatic enzymes for diagnosis of CP were calculated with two different cut-off values. The mean age of affected dogs

  15. Predicting Three Dimensions of Residential Curbside Recycling: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskamp, Stuart; Burkhardt, Rachel L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Hurin, Sharrilyn; Zelezny, Lynnette

    1998-01-01

    Three dependent variables of household recycling behavior were studied in a suburban community over eight weeks, 10 independent variables serving as predictors. Results indicate that many of the independent variables that predicted recycling behavior in past research have weaker relationships in current, more convenient curbside programs.…

  16. Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…

  17. Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2005-01-01

    During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

  18. Genes Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum N-Glycosylation Pathway of the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.: A Bioinformatic Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2014-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

  19. Genes involved in the endoplasmic reticulum N-glycosylation pathway of the red microalga Porphyridium sp.: a bioinformatic study.

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2014-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

  20. Involvement of ATP in Noxious Stimulus-Evoked Release of Glutamate in Rat Medullary Dorsal Horn: A Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Chiang, C.Y.; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Sessle, Barry J.; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Our electrophysiological studies have shown that both purinergic and glutamatergic receptors are involved in central sensitization of nociceptive neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH). Here we assessed the effects of intrathecal administration of apyrase (a nucleotide degrading enzyme of endogenous adenosine 5-triphosphate [ATP]), a combination of apyrase and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), or 2,3-O-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-adenosine triphosphate (TNP-ATP, a P2X1, P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist) on the release of glutamate in the rat MDH evoked by application of mustard oil (MO) to the molar tooth pulp. In vivo microdialysis was used to dialyse the MDH every 5 min, and included 3 basal samples, 6 samples after drug treatment and 12 samples following application of MO. Tooth pulp application of MO induced a significant increase in glutamate release in the MDH. Superfusion of apyrase or TNP-ATP alone significantly reduced the MO-induced glutamate release in the MDH, as compared to vehicle. Furthermore, the suppressive effects of apyrase on glutamate release were reduced by combining it with DPCPX. This study demonstrates that application of an inflammatory irritant to the tooth pulp induces glutamate release in the rat MDH in vivo that may be reduced by processes involving endogenous ATP and adenosine. PMID:23079194

  1. Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

  2. Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use) study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ?3?months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22999494

  3. The impact of consent on observational research: a comparison of outcomes from consenters and non consenters to an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Una Macleod; Graham CM Watt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health benefits from research often rely on the use of data from personal medical records. When neither patient consent nor anonymisation is possible, the case for accessing such records for research purposes depends on an assessment of the probabilities of public benefit and individual harm. METHODS: In the late 1990s, we carried out an observational study which compared

  4. An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

  5. Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

  6. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

  7. Observational Study and Parameterization of Aerosol-fog Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, C.; Su, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that human activities such as increased aerosols affect fog occurrence and properties significantly, and accurate numerical fog forecasting depends on, to a large extent, parameterization of fog microphysics and aerosol-fog interactions. Furthermore, fogs can be considered as clouds near the ground, and enjoy an advantage of permitting comprehensive long-term in-situ measurements that clouds do not. Knowledge learned from studying aerosol-fog interactions will provide useful insights into aerosol-cloud interactions. To serve the twofold objectives of understanding and improving parameterizations of aerosol-fog interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, this study examines the data collected from fogs, with a focus but not limited to the data collected in Beijing, China. Data examined include aerosol particle size distributions measured by a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X), fog droplet size distributions measured by a Fog Monitor (FM-120), Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), liquid water path measured by radiometers and visibility sensors, along with meteorological variables measured by a Tethered Balloon Sounding System (XLS-?) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS). The results will be compared with low-level clouds for similarities and differences between fogs and clouds.

  8. Active Commuting to Elementary School and Adiposity: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth-grade adiposity. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (n=7938). Enrollment in kindergarten (1998–1999) was nationally representative of the United States and follow-up occurred in 2004. Kindergarten ACS was the main exposure variable and fifth-grade BMI z-score was the main outcome measure. Covariates included (1) neighborhood safety and BMI z-score in kindergarten and (2) demographics (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, single- vs. two-parent households, region of country, and urbanicity in fifth grade). Three interactions were included: school travel*neighborhood safety; school travel*BMI z-score (kindergarten); and school travel*socioeconomic status. Analysis of covariance accounted for the complex sampling design. Results: Kindergarten ACS was associated with lower BMI z-score in fifth grade. The interaction of school travel*neighborhood safety indicated that children from less-safe neighborhoods who did ACS in kindergarten had a lower fifth-grade BMI z-score (p<0.05) than their peers who did not do ACS in kindergarten (i.e., in terms of BMI, this difference was ?0.49?kg/m2 for children of average height in less-safe neighborhoods). Conclusion: Among children from less-safe neighborhoods, kindergarten ACS independently predicted lower BMI z-score in fifth grade among a national US cohort. Interventions and policies to increase ACS among young children, especially from unsafe neighborhoods, are warranted and should address parents' safety concerns. PMID:24443901

  9. Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

    2001-06-01

    In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

  10. An observational study of co-rumination in adolescent friendships.

    PubMed

    Rose, Amanda J; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Glick, Gary C; Smith, Rhiannon L; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2014-09-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' tendency to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of co-ruminative conversations. The primary goal of the present study (N = 314 adolescent friend dyads) was to identify microsocial processes that sustain and reinforce problem talk among adolescent co-ruminating friends. Results indicated that co-rumination was characterized by friends responding to each other's statements about problems with engaged statements (e.g., questions, supportive statements) that elicited even more problem talk. Results also indicated that some aspects of co-rumination (i.e., extensively talking about problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, and mutual encouragement of problem talk) were associated with positive friendship adjustment, whereas other aspects (i.e., dwelling on negative affect) were associated with internalizing problems. The present research highlights the utility of attending to microsocial processes in friends' conversations and has implications for intervention. PMID:25069053

  11. An observational and theoretical study of Colorado lee cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1990-01-01

    A cyclogenesis event that occurred over Colorado in early March of 1981 is the focus of this study. Two features that seemed to play a role in storm initiation were a traveling upper troposphere disturbance associated with an undulation on the subtropical front and a warm-cored shallow surface trough that was guided along the eastern slope of the Rockies from Canada to Colorado. The arrival of the latter feature initiated a sudden shift of the surface flow from upslope to downslope on the eastern side of the continental divide. A time-dependent quasi-geostrophic model was used to study the interaction of the traveling short wave and a broad topographic surface ridge in the presence of a baroclinic mainly westerly background flow. Westerly and easterly background surface winds were used to determine whether the surface trough arrival had any influence on the vigor of lee cyclogenesis initiated by the upper troposphere short-wave trough. With surface westerlies rapid cyclogenesis occurred, while with surface easterlies little cyclogenesis was found to the east of the Rockies. Thus, the shallow surface trough's arrival seemed to be crucial to storm initiation. These findings were based on a linear model. It is shown, however, that the height of the Rockies necessitates the inclusion of finite amplitude effects associated with the lower boundary into the model.

  12. Observations on mattress covers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    1998-01-01

    Samples of covers from three commercially available mattresses were examined in the laboratory using test methods originally devised for testing surgical dressings. These revealed that although the covers shared many common features, there were differences in the conformability and tensile properties which may be of some clinical relevance. The study also confirmed that with some minor modifications, the experimental techniques used would be suitable for a future, more comprehensive review of mattress performance. In a separate investigation designed to examine the consequences of a failure of a mattress cover, the bioburden of a foam core removed from a damaged cover revealed the presence of very large numbers of microorganism, well in excess of 10(10) per gram of foam which could act as a recevoir of contamination and thus a source of cross infection. PMID:10531919

  13. Transesophageal defibrillation: animal studies and preliminary clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, T J; Chin, M C; Oliver, D G; Scheinman, M M; Griffin, J C

    1993-06-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) that fails to respond to transthoracic defibrillation leaves the clinician with few alternatives. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique of rescue defibrillation by use of transesophageal electrodes. Fourteen anesthetized dogs (20-30 kg) were investigated in this study. Two electrodes (300 mm2) were mounted 8 cm apart on an esophageal probe and inserted approximately 40 cm from the mouth. VF was induced using AC current delivered to the myocardium. Defibrillation was then performed between the distal electrode (anode) and anterior skin patch (cathode). After 15 seconds of induced VF, transesophageal and transthoracic defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) were determined in random order. The esophageal DFT (90 +/- 15 joules) tended to be lower than the transthoracic DFT (115 +/- 35 joules), though this difference was not statistically significant. One dog could not be defibrillated by transthoracic defibrillation but responded to transesophageal defibrillation. Esophageal electrodes were also useful for arrhythmia discrimination and ventricular pacing (pacing threshold of 38 +/- 5 mA at a pulse duration of 2.5 msec). Following transesophageal DFT determination, in ten dogs (total energy of 600 +/- 150 joules), acute esophageal histopathology demonstrated mild to severe focal injury to the mucosa and/or muscular layers. However, esophagi in four chronic dogs (total energy of 470 +/- 110 joules) showed no gross evidence of mucosal damage, perforation, or stricture 4 weeks following defibrillation. Histopathology showed only focal myocyte atrophy and repair. As a last resort, transesophageal defibrillation was performed in the emergency room on four patients with out-of-hospital refractory VF who failed > 6 high energy transthoracic shocks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7686658

  14. Study Finds that Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Have Altered Expression of Genes Involved in Digestion

    E-print Network

    Salzman, Daniel

    of Genes Involved in Digestion These changes may also affect the mix of bacteria present in the digestive disturbances have altered expression of genes involved in digestion. These variations may contribute to changes

  15. Involvement of the Inconstant Bursa of the Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Psoriatic Arthritis: A Clinical and Ultrasonographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ciancio, Giovanni; Volpinari, Stefania; Fotinidi, Maria; Furini, Federica; Bandinelli, Francesca; Orzincolo, Carlo; Trotta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the involvement of the bursa located next to the head of the 5th metatarsal bone in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with the other seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. All patients with PsA seen during a period of 24 months were enrolled. The control group included healthy subjects and patients with the other SpA. All subjects underwent clinical and ultrasound (US) examination of the lateral surface of the 5th metatarsal. Results. 150 PsA patients (88?M; 62?F), 172 SpA (107?M; 65?F), and 95 healthy controls (58?M; 37?F) were evaluated. Based on clinical and US evaluation, bursitis was diagnosed in 17/150 (11.3%) PsA patients but in none of the SpA (P < 0.0001) and healthy (P = 0.0002) controls. In detecting bursitis, US was more sensitive than clinical examination, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusion. The bursa of the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint appears to be involved in PsA more frequently than by chance. If confirmed by other studies, this finding could be considered as a distinctive clinical sign of PsA, useful for differential diagnosis with the other SpA. In asymptomatic patients, US proved to be more sensitive in the detection of bursitis. PMID:25061602

  16. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  17. Temperature Variability during Delirium in ICU Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooi, Arendina W.; Kappen, Teus H.; Raijmakers, Rosa J.; Zaal, Irene J.; Slooter, Arjen J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU) and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and –nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. Methods We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or –nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome) and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome) were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Results Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (?unadjusted=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001). Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (?adjusted=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001). Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (?unadjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0.10, p=0.61). This did not change after adjusting for confounders (?adjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0.10, p=0.63). Conclusions Our study suggests that temperature variability is increased during ICU delirium. PMID:24194955

  18. Longitudinal analyses of early lesions by fluorescence: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Ando, M; Gomez, G F; Garcia-Corretjer, M; Eckert, G J; Santiago, E; Katz, B P; Zero, D T

    2013-07-01

    Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this study, we aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parameters--area (A [mm(2)]), fluorescence loss (F [%]), and Q [% × mm(2)]--obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians and examined them at baseline and regular intervals over 48 months according to the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), yearly radiographs, and QLF. QLF images from surfaces with ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 at baseline that progressed (N = 2,191) to cavitation (ICDAS 5/6) or fillings and surfaces that did not progress to cavitation/fillings (N = 4,141) were analyzed independently for A, F, and Q. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare means and slopes (changes over time) between surfaces that progressed and those that did not. QLF A, F, and Q increased at a faster rate for surfaces that progressed than for surfaces that did not progress (p = .0001), regardless of type of surface or baseline ICDAS score. AUC for ICDAS ranged from 0.65 to 0.80, but adding QLF information improved AUC (0.82-0.87, p < .0005). We concluded that faster changes in QLF variables can indicate lesion progression toward cavitation and be more clinically relevant than actual QLF values. PMID:23690351

  19. [Observation and study on atmospheric VOCs in Changsha city].

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the key precursors of atmospheric ozone (O3), which also contribute to the production of SOA. During 2008, VOCs were measured near Changsha City. Weekly integrated canister samples were collected and analyzed in the morning and afternoon of each Tuesday. Simultaneously, concentration, potential ozone production and sources of VOCs in the atmosphere of Changsha were studied. The results indicated that the total VOCs species had higher concentrations in the morning (38.4 x 10(-9)), and lower in the afternoon (22.7 x 10(-9)), where the concentration of halo carbon was the highest, and alkanes, aromatics and alkenes came next. The m/p-xylene had the highest OH reactivity concentration (10.71 x 10(-9) C), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (6.04 x 10(-9) C) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (2.23 x 10(-9) C) came next. Aromatics (66%) had the most significant contribution to the production of O3 in the atmospheric VOCs of Changsha, and alkenes (26%) and alkanes (8%) came next. The highest concentrations of propane and isopentane indicated vehicular exhaust and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) appear to be the main source of VOCs in Changsha City. Benzene/toluene ratio was higher than 0.5 which was close to 0.8, showing solvent volatilization was also a main source of VOCs. PMID:22468515

  20. Identifying Conditions That Support Causal Inference in Observational Studies in Education: Empirical Evidence from within Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallberg, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…

  1. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  2. Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID): a dynamic birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. Methods and analysis The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2?years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914. PMID:23117571

  3. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and inflation ratio weaning. Methods Cerebral blood flow was measured using transcranial Doppler, in a convenience sample of twenty patients requiring balloon counterpulsation for refractory cardiogenic shock (N = 7) or a single inotrope to maintain mean arterial pressure following an elective placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump for cardiac surgery (N = 13). Simultaneous blood pressure at the aortic root was recorded via the intra-aortic balloon pump. Cerebral blood flow velocities were recorded for six minute intervals at a 1:1 balloon inflation-ratio (augmentation of all cardiac beats) and during progressive reductions of the inflation-ratio to 1:3 (augmentation of one every third cardiac beat). Real time comparisons of peak cerebral blood flow velocities with systolic blood pressure were performed using cross-correlation analysis. The primary endpoint was assessment of cerebral autoregulation using the time delay between the peak signals for cerebral blood flow velocity and systolic blood pressure, according to established criteria. The variability of cerebral blood flow was also assessed using non-linear statistics. Results During the 1:1 inflation-ratio, the mean time delay between aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow was -0.016 seconds (95% CI: -0.023,-0.011); during 1:3 inflation-ratio mean time delay was significantly longer at -0.010 seconds (95% CI: -0.016, -0.004, P < 0.0001). Finally, upon return to a 1:1 inflation-ratio, time delays recovered to those measured at baseline. During inflation-ratio reduction, cerebral blood flow irregularities reduced over time, whilst cerebral blood flow variability at end-diastole decreased in patients with cardiogenic shock. Conclusions Weaning counterpulsation from 1:1 to 1:3 inflation ratio leads to a progressive reduction in time delays between systolic blood pressure and peak cerebral blood flow velocities suggesting that although preserved, there is a significant delay in the establishment of cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms. In addition, cerebral blood flow irregularities (i.e. surrogate of flow adaptability) decrease and a loss of cerebral blood flow chaotic pattern occurs during the end-diastolic phase of each beat in patients with cardiogenic shock. PMID:20226065

  4. Needle sticks injury among nurses involved in patient care: a study in two medical college hospitals of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Joardar, G K; Chatterjee, C; Sadhukhan, S K; Chakraborty, M; Dass, P; mandal, A

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based retrospective study on a sample of 228 nurses involved in patient care, in two medical college hospitals of West Bengal, showed that 61.4% of them sustained at least one Needle Stick Injury (NSI) in last 12 months. The risk of such injuries per 1000 nurses per year was found to be 3,280. Out of the most recent injuries among 140 nurses, 92.9% remained unreported to appropriate authorities; in 52.9% events hand gloves were worn by the nurses; only 5% of those nurses received hepatitis B vaccine, 2.1% hepatitis B immunoglobulin and none of them received post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. PMID:19189838

  5. Calciphylaxis is a cutaneous process without involvement of internal organs in a retrospective study of postmortem findings in three patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Lehman, Julia S; Davis, Mark D P

    2014-05-01

    Calciphylaxis causes calcification, thrombosis, cutaneous ischemia, and necrosis in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is unclear to what extent it involves other organs. To identify whether other organs are affected we reviewed pathology reports of patients with calciphylaxis who underwent autopsy at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 2011. Three patients were identified: two patients had a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetes mellitus before the diagnosis of calciphylaxis; the third patient had calciphylaxis associated with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma without end-stage renal disease. Autopsy reports showed that despite evidence of vessel calcification elsewhere, there was no evidence of calciphylaxis in other organs. All patients had histopathologic evidence of cardiovascular calcification, and atherosclerosis of coronary arteries and aorta. Calcification of pancreatic vessels and renal vessels was also noted. In this study population, calciphylaxis was a cutaneous process alone. PMID:24096524

  6. Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO) – the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised. To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. Methods The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany. PMID:19505318

  7. [Involvement of the lymphatic system in primary non-lymphogenic edema of the leg. Studies with 2-compartment lymphoscintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, P; Vanscheidt, W; Földi, E; Krause, T; Moser, E

    1997-08-01

    Two-compartment lymphoscintigraphy was developed to examine the sub- and epifascial lymphatics of the leg. Digital images were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively by calculating the uptake of activity within the lymph nodes. The data from patient groups with four different types of leg edema were compared with those of the control group to prove the involvement of the lymphatics in the non-lymphatic edema. The cyclic idiopathic edema demonstrated an accelerated transport of the lymph consistent with a high volume insufficiency. In phlebedema the high volume insufficiency was epifascially so distinct, that it could be detected scintigraphically. In post thrombotic syndrome the transport of the lymph was reduced dramatically corresponding to a safety valve insufficiency. Epifascially however, an accelerated lymph flow was observed due to compensatory mechanisms. The lipedema did not show any scintigraphic abnormalities. These results show that two-compartment lymphoscintigraphy can detect alterations in lymphatic function secondary to non-lymphogenic leg edema. The lymphatic function is changed according to the underlying pathophysiology which may be facilitate the differential diagnosis of such a leg edema. PMID:9378636

  8. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  9. Involvement of nerves and calcium channels in the intestinal response to Clostridium difficile toxin A: an experimental study in rats in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sorensson, J; Jodal, M; Lundgren, O

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The involvement of nerves and calcium channels in the intestinal response to Clostridium difficile toxin A (luminal concentration 1 or 15 µg/ml) was studied in the small intestine of rats in vivo.?METHODS—Inflammation was quantified by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the intestinal lumen, extravascular accumulation of Evan's blue (EB) in the intestine, and number of red blood cells (RBCs) in veins in histological sections. Intestinal damage was estimated using a histological grading system. In some experiments net fluid transport was recorded using a gravimetric technique.?RESULTS—In acutely denervated intestines, toxin A caused marked destruction of the villi, increased luminal release of MPO activity, and augmentation of intestinal content of EB and venous RBCs. Denervating the intestine 3-4 weeks prior to the actual experiment prevented the development of villus damage and significantly decreased the number of RBCs in intestinal veins in experiments with a low toxin concentration, whereas no effect was demonstrated on luminal MPO activity. Using a high toxin concentration, chronic denervation decreased only the number of RBCs. Pretreatment with hexamethonium (low toxin concentration; acute denervation) attenuated the effect of toxin A on morphology, luminal MPO activity, and number of RBCs. Pretreatment with nifedipine (low toxin concentration; acute denervation) significantly decreased intestinal MPO activity and number of RBCs. Tissue accumulation of EB was not influenced by experimental manipulation. Net fluid transport was measured in experiments exposing the intestinal mucosa to a high toxin concentration. Fluid secretion caused by the toxin was significantly attenuated by intravenous hexamethonium whereas no effect was observed after administration of nifedipine or granisetron.?CONCLUSIONS—At a low toxin concentration, intramural reflexes are involved in the inflammatory response whereas axon reflexes contribute to tissue damage. At a high toxin concentration no nervous involvement in the toxin A response was demonstrated except for fluid secretion evoked by the toxin.???Keywords: cholera toxin; enteric nervous system; 5-hydroxytryptamine; myeloperoxidase; red blood cells PMID:11413111

  10. Involvement of the Extrageniculate System in the Perception of Optical Illusions: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Kida, Hirotaka; Kizaki, Moeni; Sakuma, Haruno; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Research on the neural processing of optical illusions can provide clues for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Previous studies have shown that some visual areas contribute to the perception of optical illusions such as the Kanizsa triangle and Müller-Lyer figure; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of these and other optical illusions have not been clearly identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined which brain regions are active during the perception of optical illusions. For our study, we enrolled 18 participants. The illusory optical stimuli consisted of many kana letters, which are Japanese phonograms. During the shape task, participants stated aloud whether they perceived the shapes of two optical illusions as being the same or not. During the word task, participants read aloud the kana letters in the stimuli. A direct comparison between the shape and word tasks showed activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right pulvinar. It is well known that there are two visual pathways, the geniculate and extrageniculate systems, which belong to the higher-level and primary visual systems, respectively. The pulvinar belongs to the latter system, and the findings of the present study suggest that the extrageniculate system is involved in the cognitive processing of optical illusions. PMID:26083375

  11. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: A case study combining Viking, DMSP, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watermann, Jurgen; Delabeaujardiere, Odile; Lummerzheim, Dirk; Woch, Joachim; Newell, Patrick T.; Potemra, Thomas A.; Rich, Frederick J.; Shapshak, Mans

    1992-01-01

    A case study involving data from three satellites and a ground-based radar are presented. Focus is on a detailed discussion of observations of the dynamic cusp made on 24 Sep. 1986 in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere and interior magnetosphere. The relevant data from space-borne and ground-based sensors is presented. They include in-situ particle and field measurements from the DMSP-F7 and Viking spacecraft and Sondrestrom radar observations of the ionosphere. These data are augmented by observations of the IMF and the solar wind plasma. The observations are compared with predictions about the ionospheric response to the observed particle precipitation, obtained from an auroral model. It is shown that observations and model calculations fit well and provide a picture of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp in an invariant latitude versus local time frame. The combination of Viking, Sondrestrom radar, and IMP-8 data suggests that we observed an ionospheric signature of the dynamic cusp. Its spatial variation over time which appeared closely related to the southward component of the IMF was monitored.

  12. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ming [Joint Astronomy Centre/National Research Council Canada, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Papadopoulos, Padeli P. [Argelander Instituet fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Xilouris, Emmanuel M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Kuno, Nario [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Lisenfeld, Ute, E-mail: m.zhu@jach.hawaii.ed, E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d, E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g, E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j, E-mail: ute@ugr.e [Departamento de fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-01

    We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

  13. Longitudinal Studies of Special Education and Regular Students: Autonomy, Parental Involvement Practices and Degree of Reciprocity in Parent-Adolescent Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Leclerc, Danielle; Dore-Cote, Annie

    Research suggests links between authoritative parenting style, parental involvement, autonomy, and school performance during adolescence. This study examined the nature of change over a 2-year period of parenting style, parenting involvement, and autonomy among special education students; compared these variables among regular and special…

  14. Involvement of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in the regulation of LH and GH cells in the pituitary of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: An immunocytochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minakshi Mazumdar; Bechan Lal; Amul J. Sakharkar; Makrand Deshmukh; Praful S. Singru; Nishikant Subhedar

    2006-01-01

    Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been known to influence the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland of teleosts, the NPY receptor subtypes involved in the regulatory processes have not been fully defined. An attempt has been made to study the involvement of NPY Y1 receptors, if any, in mediating the NPY-triggered stimulation of

  15. Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Ian W.; Dilar, Dorothy; Dwyer, Janet; Bienenstock, John; Coret, Andu; Coret-Simon, Judith; Foster, Gary; Franchetto, Arlene; Franic, Slobodan; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Koff, David; Konyer, Norman B.; Levine, Mitchell; McDonald, Ellen; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Paulseth, John; Ribeiro, Luciana; Sayles, Mary Jane; Thabane, Lehana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. Recently a controversial vascular hypothesis for MS, termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been advanced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative prevalence of the venous abnormalities that define CCSVI. Methods A case-control study was conducted in which 100 MS patients aged between 18–65 y meeting the revised McDonald criteria were randomly selected and stratified into one of four MS subtypes: relapsing/remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive and benign. Control subjects (16–70 y) with no known history of MS or other neurological condition were matched with the MS cases. All cases and controls underwent ultrasound imaging of the veins of the neck plus the deep cerebral veins, and magnetic resonance imaging of the neck veins and brain. These procedures were performed on each participant on the same day. Results On ultrasound we found no evidence of reflux, stenosis or blockage in the internal jugular veins (IJV) or vertebral veins (VV) in any study participant. Similarly, there was no evidence of either reflux or cessation of flow in the deep cerebral veins in any subject. Flow was detected in the IJV and VV in all study participants. Amongst 199 participants there was one MS subject who fulfilled the minimum two ultrasound criteria for CCSVI. Using MRI we found no significant differences in either the intra- or extra-cranial venous flow velocity or venous architecture between cases and controls. Conclusion This case-control study provides compelling evidence against the involvement of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis. PMID:23967312

  16. Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of human intestinal biotin uptake: A study of the hSMVT system.

    PubMed

    Reidling, Jack C; Nabokina, Svetlana M; Said, Hamid M

    2007-01-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble micronutrient, is vital for cellular functions, including growth and development. The human intestine utilizes the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) for biotin uptake. Evidence exists showing that the intestinal biotin uptake process is adaptively regulated during biotin deficiency. Nothing, however, is known about molecular mechanism(s) involved during this adaptive regulation. This study compared two human-derived intestinal epithelial cell lines (HuTu-80 and Caco-2) during biotin-deficient or biotin-sufficient states and with an approach that assessed carrier-mediated biotin uptake, hSMVT protein and RNA levels, RNA stability, and hSMVT promoter activity. The results showed that during biotin deficiency, a significant and specific upregulation in carrier-mediated biotin uptake occurred in both human intestinal epithelial cell lines and that this increase was associated with an induction in protein and mRNA levels of hSMVT. The increase in mRNA levels was not due to an increase in RNA stability but was associated with an increase in activity of the hSMVT promoter in transfected human intestinal cells. Using promoter deletion constructs and mutational analysis in transiently transfected HuTu-80 and Caco-2 cells, a biotin deficiency-responsive region was mapped to a 103-bp area within the hSMVT promoter that contains gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor (GKLF) sites that confer the response to biotin deficiency. These results confirm that human intestinal biotin uptake is adaptively regulated and provide novel evidence demonstrating that the upregulation is not mediated via changes in hSMVT RNA stability but rather is due to transcriptional regulatory mechanism(s) that likely involve GKLF sites in the hSMVT promoter. PMID:16959947

  17. Thermal behavior of Belousov-Zhabotinskii reactions with Ce(IV) salts measured by heat exchange calorimetry of flow type involving simultaneous observation of potentiometric oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuko Fujieda; Wei Zhang

    1995-01-01

    Thermal and potentiometric oscillations of Belousov-Zhabotinskii reactions catalyzed by Ce(IV) salt were simultaneously observed in a continuously stirred tank reactor. A heat exchange calorimeter of flow type was assembled. An Ag-AgBr electrode and one end of salt bridge were incorporated in the sample and reference vessels. Three kinds of stock solutions in 0.200 M sulfuric acid were used in typical

  18. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had performed spirometry at least twice with interval of more than one year. The annual changes in spirometric indices of them were calculated. Results: The average age of study population was 55.7 years and 72% were male. Annual decline of FEV1 ? 40 ml/yr was observed among 48% exposed survivors. The mean annual decline of FEV1 among symptomatic exposed survivors with initial normal spirometry was 91 ml (95% CI: 52 ml to 130 ml) and this was more than the patients with initial obstructive pattern. Among fifty four patients with initial normal spirometry, ten patients (18.5%) developed obstructive and two patients (5%) developed restrictive lung function abnormalities during follow up spirometry. Conclusion: The exposed survivors with chronic respiratory symptoms had accelerated decline in lung function and they are at higher risk of developing obstructive lung function. PMID:23741089

  19. Safety and Effectiveness of Central Venous Catheterization in Patients with Cancer: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jina; Kim, Han Jo; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Bae, Sang Byung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Nam Su; Lee, Kyu Taek; Park, Seong Kyu; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Hee Sook

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catherization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catherization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC. PMID:21165289

  20. Dermoscopy to Detect Signs of Subclinical Nail Involvement in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis: A Study of 68 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Tulika A; Khopkar, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Onychopathies constitute one of the major challenges faced by a dermatologist in terms of its early detection and diagnosis. Utility of dermoscope as a tool for detection is increasing by the day and its use in onychopathies needs to be explored. Aims: To study the dermoscopic features of nails in patients of chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 68 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited. Dermoscopy of nail plate was conducted and were compared with equal number of age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Results: Forty-six patients showed dermoscopic findings. Twenty-two patients did not show any dermoscopic findings. Coarse pits (18/46, P < 0.0001), onycholysis (10/46, P < 0.001), oil drop sign (2/46, P = 0.12) and splinter hemorrhages (5/46, P = 0.05) were seen. In addition certain findings of interest were stout, globose, dilated, pink- to red-colored nail bed vessels arranged longitudinally at the onychodermal band surrounded by a prominent halo (9/46, P = 0.01). In contrast, splinter hemorrhages appeared as streaks and were purple in color. Conclusion: In a psoriasis patient, dermoscope can be a useful tool to detect early nail involvement in psoriasis and aid in differentiating it from other disorders of nails. PMID:26120154

  1. An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Austin

    2011-01-01

    The propensity score is the probability of treatment assignment conditional on observed baseline characteristics. The propensity score allows one to design and analyze an observational (nonrandomized) study so that it mimics some of the particular characteristics of a randomized controlled trial. In particular, the propensity score is a balancing score: conditional on the propensity score, the distribution of observed baseline

  2. Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly. PMID:20663129

  3. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  4. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education.…

  5. Examining the Relations of Infant Temperament and Couples' Marital Satisfaction to Mother and Father Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehall, Karissa Greving; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of infant temperament and parents' marital satisfaction to mother and father involvement in early (T1, approximately 7 months, n = 142) and later (T2, approximately 14 months, n = 95) infancy were examined. At each assessment point, mothers and fathers completed daily diaries together to measure their involvement over four days (i.e., 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days), each partner reported on marital satisfaction, and mothers reported on infants' temperament. Structural equation models indicated that when infants were more temperamentally regulated, parents were more satisfied in their marital relationships. Parents' marital satisfaction mediated the association between more regulated infant temperament and greater mother involvement at T1 (but not at T2) and father involvement at T2 (but not at T1). The findings are discussed in terms of the implications of infant temperament and family relationships for parental involvement. PMID:20221413

  6. Accuracy Study of the Space-Time CE/SE Method for Computational Aeroacoustics Problems Involving Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element(CE/SE) method is used to study the sound-shock interaction problem. The order of accuracy of numerical schemes is investigated. The linear model problem.govemed by the 1-D scalar convection equation, sound-shock interaction problem governed by the 1-D Euler equations, and the 1-D shock-tube problem which involves moving shock waves and contact surfaces are solved to investigate the order of accuracy of numerical schemes. It is concluded that the accuracy of the CE/SE numerical scheme with designed 2nd-order accuracy becomes 1st order when a moving shock wave exists. However, the absolute error in the CE/SE solution downstream of the shock wave is on the same order as that obtained using a fourth-order accurate essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. No special techniques are used for either high-frequency low-amplitude waves or shock waves.

  7. Addressing HIV knowledge, risk reduction, social support, and patient involvement using SMS: results of a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Lewis, Megan A; Bann, Carla M; Harris, Jennie L; Furberg, Robert D; Coomes, Curtis M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. Effective antiretroviral therapy has altered the HIV epidemic from being an acute disease to a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV. The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of short message service suggests its potential suitability for supporting the treatment of conditions that must be managed over an extended period. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to develop, implement, and test a tailored short message service-based intervention for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The messages focused on reducing risk-taking behaviors and enhancing HIV knowledge, social support, and patient involvement. Participants reported strong receptivity to the messages and the intervention. The authors detected a statistically significant increase in HIV knowledge and social support from baseline to follow-up. Among participants who received sexual risk reduction messages, the authors also detected a statistically significant reduction in reported risk behaviors from baseline to follow-up. Results confirm the feasibility of a tailored, short message service-based intervention designed to provide ongoing behavioral reinforcement for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Future research should include a larger sample, a control group, multiple sites, younger participants, and longer term follow-up. PMID:22548606

  8. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate.

    PubMed

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction. PMID:26149121

  9. Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Roma, E; Bond, T; Jeffrey, P

    2014-09-01

    Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients' acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase. This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government). Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key to the sustained deployment of point-of-use disinfection technologies. PMID:25252361

  10. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction. PMID:26149121

  11. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses) have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of which differ from the camera eye in the degree of complexity of the eye structures and neurons participating in the visual circuit. Therefore, genes expressed in the cephalopod eye after divergence from the common molluscan ancestor could be involved in eye evolution through association with the acquisition of new structural components. To clarify the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye, we applied comprehensive transcriptomic analysis and conducted developmental validation of candidate genes involved in coleoid cephalopod eye evolution. Results We compared gene expression in the eyes of 6 molluscan (3 cephalopod and 3 non-cephalopod) species and selected 5,707 genes as cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes on the basis of homology searches against 3 molluscan species without camera eyes. First, we confirmed the expression of these 5,707 genes in the cephalopod camera eye formation processes by developmental array analysis. Second, using molecular evolutionary (dN/dS) analysis to detect positive selection in the cephalopod lineage, we identified 156 of these genes in which functions appeared to have changed after the divergence of cephalopods from the molluscan ancestor and which contributed to structural and functional diversification. Third, we selected 1,571 genes, expressed in the camera eyes of both cephalopods and vertebrates, which could have independently acquired a function related to eye development at the expression level. Finally, as experimental validation, we identified three functionally novel cephalopod camera eye genes related to optic lobe formation in cephalopods by in situ hybridization analysis of embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition. PMID:21702923

  12. Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, Julia, E-mail: Julia_Koeck@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Abo-Madyan, Yasser [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Lohr, Frank; Stieler, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kriz, Jan; Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

  13. How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level. PMID:25108237

  14. Study of the involvement of research ethics committees in the constitution and use of biobanks in France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ethics Committees and Biobanks Key words: Research Ethics Committee, Genetic Databases, Biomedical Research, Human Genetics, Collections, Informed Consent, Human Biological Resources. Correspondence to: Dr about the protection of persons taking part in genetic research involving biobanks. We used several

  15. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

  16. Does Parental Involvement Influence the Academic Achievement of Mexican-American Eighth Graders? Results From the National Education Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B. Keith; Marilyn V. Lichtman

    1994-01-01

    Parental involvement is being touted as one mechanism by which academic achievement can be increased. If parental involvement is indeed effective, it may be one approach for improving the achievement of Mexican-American students. Many Mexican-American children are educationally disadvantaged, are at-risk for academic failure, and have not demonstrated the academic achievement that other immigrant groups have, even after they have

  17. Direct observation of reactant-product interfaces formed in natural weathering of exsolved, defective amphibole to smectite: Evidence for episodic, isovolumetric reactions involving structural inheritance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Barker, William W.

    1994-03-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) were employed to characterize grain boundary structures in naturally weathered amphibole. Our observations provide insights into the submicroscopic mineralogic controls on transport of solutions to and from reaction sites. Finely exsolved amphibole (anthophyllite/gedrite) in outcropping, slightly weathered gedrite gneiss transforms isovolumetrically to smectite. Stacking faults and exsolution lamellar boundaries focus weathering reactions, whereas chain width defects decrease the susceptibility of the surrounding amphibole to alteration. Relatively Al-poor anthophyllite lamellae alter slightly more readily than those of Al-rich gedrite. Large quantites of Mg, Fe, Si, and Al are removed from reaction sites. However, smectite compositions directly reflect <0.1 ?m-scale variations in Al:Mg:Si of coexisting anthophyllite and gedrite, supporting a transformation mechanism requiring very limited redistribution of elements incorporated into clay products. Topotactic relationships between products and reactants and interface structures suggest that smectite formation requires only partial depolymerization of amphibole structural units. Up to one-third of the amphibole I-beams may be directly inherited by smectite. Grain boundary structures within smectite mimic current amphibole-smectite interfaces and may represent previous reaction fronts. Such interfaces may be the result of episodic reaction, possibly attributable to the balance between rates of consumption of water by reactions and resupply by dewatering of larger fractures (which are themselves episodically supplied by rainfall). In this coherent, slightly weathered rock, transport of solution to and from reaction sites is restricted to diffusion along semi-coherent, subnanometer-wide grain boundaries and smectite interlayers. This contrasts with weathering grains within a soil, more deeply weathered rock, or laboratory mineral dissolution experiments, where a much larger volume of solution is in contact with weathering surfaces. We suggest that although transformation rates are limited by depolymerization and repolymerization at the amphibole-smectite interface, they may be modulated by episodicity in water supply to reaction sites within minerals.

  18. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Elshout, Gijs; van Ierland, Yvette; Bohnen, Arthur M; de Wilde, Marcel; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriëtte A; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2013-01-01

    Background Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care. Design and setting Observational cohort study involving five GP out-of-hours services. Method Clinical information was registered and manually recoded. Children (<16 years) with fever having a face-to-face contact with a GP were included. Children who were already using antibiotics or referred to secondary care were excluded. The relation between alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections and antibiotic prescription was tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of the 8676 included patients (median age 2.4 years), antibiotics were prescribed in 3167 contacts (36.5%). Patient characteristics and alarm signs and/or symptoms positively related to antibiotic prescription were: increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.02 to 1.05), temperature measured by GP (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.59 to 1.86), ill appearance (OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 2.85 to 5.42), being inconsolable (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.58 to 3.22), shortness of breath (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.88 to 3.56), duration of fever (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.35). Negative associations were found for neurological signs (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.76), signs of urinary tract infection (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and vomiting and diarrhoea (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.74). These variables explained 19% of the antibiotic prescriptions. Conclusion Antibiotics are often prescribed for febrile children. These data suggest that treatment of a supposed serious bacterial infection is a consideration of GPs. However, the relatively low explained variation indicates that other considerations are also involved. PMID:23834880

  19. Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin-Hai; Huang, Guang-Lei; Lin, Du-Ren; Wan, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Dong; Song, Ju-Kun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk. Methods PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Results Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96–1.15). Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk. PMID:26020536

  20. Large-scale, prospective, observational studies in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: A systematic and critical review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies, if conducted appropriately, play an important role in the decision-making process providing invaluable information on effectiveness, patient-reported outcomes and costs in a real-world environment. We conducted a systematic review of large-scale, prospective, cohort studies with the aim of (a) summarising design characteristics, the interventions or aspects of the disease studied and the outcomes measured and (b) investigating methodological quality. Methods We included prospective, cohort studies which included at least 100 adults with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Studies were identified through searches in electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination). Information on study characteristics were extracted and tabulated and quality assessment, using a checklist of 18 questions, was conducted. Results Thirty five papers covering 16 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. There were ten treatment-related studies, only two of which provided a comparison between treatments, and six non-treatment studies which examined a number of characteristics of the disease including mortality, morbidity, cost of illness and health-related quality of life. All studies included a clinical outcome measure and 11 included patient-reported outcomes, however only two studies reported information on patient utilities and two on costs. The quality of the assessed studies varied widely. Studies did well on a number of quality assessment questions including having clear objectives, documenting selection criteria, providing a representative sample, defining interventions/characteristics under study, defining and using appropriate outcomes, describing results clearly and using appropriate statistical tests. The quality assessment criteria least adhered to involved questions regarding sample size calculations, describing potential selection bias, defining and adjusting for confounders and losses to follow-up, and defining and describing a comparison group. Conclusion The review highlights the need for well designed prospective observational studies on the effectiveness, patient-reported outcomes and economic impact of treatment regimes for patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in a real-world environment. PMID:21453459

  1. One-stage hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch: a single-center preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Changwei; Guo, Xi; Sun, Lizhong; Huang, Lianjun; Lai, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the initial results of a hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating descending thoracic aortic disease that involves distal aortic arch. It also intends to report our initial experience in performing this procedure. Methods A total of 45 patients (35 males and 10 females) with descending thoracic aortic disease underwent a hybrid procedure, namely, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) combined with supra-arch branch vessel bypass, in our center from April 2009 to August 2014. Right axillary artery to left axillary artery bypass (n=20) or right axillary artery to left common carotid artery (LCCA) and left axillary artery bypass (n=25) were performed. The conditions of all patients were followed up from the 2nd month to the 65th month postoperative (mean, 26.0±17.1). Mortality within 30 days, complications such as endoleak after the hybrid procedure, and stenosis or blockage of the bypass graft during the follow-up period was assessed. Results All the patients underwent a one-stage procedure. One case of death and one case of cerebral infarction were reported within 30 days. One patient died of the sudden drop in blood pressure during the 2nd day of operation. Meanwhile, another patient suffered from cerebral infarction. Two patients underwent open surgery, and one of them had to undergo a second TEVAR during the follow-up period. Moreover, endoleak occurred in two patients and a newly formed intimal tear was observed in one patient. Overall, 93.2% of the patients survived without any complication related to the hybrid procedure. Conclusions Initial results suggest that the one-stage hybrid procedure is a suitable therapeutic option for thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch. However, this procedure is not recommended for type-B aortic dissection, in which a tear is located in the greater curvature or near the left subclavian artery (LSA), because of the high possibility of endoleak occurrence.

  2. Genes Involved in the Osteoarthritis Process Identified through Genome Wide Expression Analysis in Articular Cartilage; the RAAK Study

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; Bomer, Nils; van der Breggen, Ruud; Lakenberg, Nico; Keurentjes, J. Christiaan; Goeman, Jelle J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Bos, Steffan D.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify gene expression profiles associated with OA processes in articular cartilage and determine pathways changing during the disease process. Methods Genome wide gene expression was determined in paired samples of OA affected and preserved cartilage of the same joint using microarray analysis for 33 patients of the RAAK study. Results were replicated in independent samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Profiles were analyzed with the online analysis tools DAVID and STRING to identify enrichment for specific pathways and protein-protein interactions. Results Among the 1717 genes that were significantly differently expressed between OA affected and preserved cartilage we found significant enrichment for genes involved in skeletal development (e.g. TNFRSF11B and FRZB). Also several inflammatory genes such as CD55, PTGES and TNFAIP6, previously identified in within-joint analyses as well as in analyses comparing preserved cartilage from OA affected joints versus healthy cartilage were among the top genes. Of note was the high up-regulation of NGF in OA cartilage. RT-qPCR confirmed differential expression for 18 out of 19 genes with expression changes of 2-fold or higher, and immunohistochemistry of selected genes showed a concordant change in protein expression. Most of these changes associated with OA severity (Mankin score) but were independent of joint-site or sex. Conclusion We provide further insights into the ongoing OA pathophysiological processes in cartilage, in particular into differences in macroscopically intact cartilage compared to OA affected cartilage, which seem relatively consistent and independent of sex or joint. We advocate that development of treatment could benefit by focusing on these similarities in gene expression changes and/or pathways. PMID:25054223

  3. Biochemical, Stabilization and Crystallization Studies on a Molecular Chaperone (PaoD) Involved in the Maturation of Molybdoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; Schwuchow, Viola; Rodrigues, David; Cabrita, Eurico J.; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João; Santos-Silva, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes require specific chaperones for folding and cofactor insertion. PaoD is the chaperone of the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC. It is the last gene in the paoABCD operon in Escherichia coli and its presence is crucial for obtaining mature enzyme. PaoD is an unstable, 35 kDa, protein. Our biochemical studies showed that it is a dimer in solution with a tendency to form large aggregates, especially after freezing/thawing cycles. In order to improve stability, PaoD was thawed in the presence of two ionic liquids [C4mim]Cl and [C2OHmim]PF6 and no protein precipitation was observed. This allowed protein concentration and crystallization using polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate as precipitating agents. Saturation transfer difference – nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) experiments have also been performed in order to investigate the effect of the ionic liquids in the stabilization process, showing a clear interaction between the acidic ring protons of the cation and, most likely, negatively charged residues at the protein surface. DLS assays also show a reduction of the overall size of the protein aggregates in presence of ionic liquids. Furthermore, cofactor binding studies on PaoD showed that the protein is able to discriminate between molybdenum and tungsten bound to the molybdenum cofactor, since only a Mo-MPT form of the cofactor remained bound to PaoD. PMID:24498065

  4. The effects of roundabouts on traffic safety for bicyclists: An observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stijn Daniels; Erik Nuyts; Geert Wets

    2008-01-01

    A before-and-after study was carried out of injury accidents involving bicyclists on 91 roundabouts in Flanders-Belgium. The study design accounted for the effects of general safety trends and regression-to-the-mean, but could not take into account the possibility of specific changes in traffic volume at roundabouts. The conversion of intersections into roundabouts produces a significant 27% increase in the number of

  5. Outcome predictors in autism spectrum disorders preschoolers undergoing treatment as usual: insights from an observational study using artificial neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Antonio; Muratori, Filippo; Buscema, Massimo; Calderoni, Sara; Grossi, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment as usual (TAU) for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) includes eclectic treatments usually available in the community and school inclusion with an individual support teacher. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have never been used to study the effects of treatment in ASDs. The Auto Contractive Map (Auto-CM) is a kind of ANN able to discover trends and associations among variables creating a semantic connectivity map. The matrix of connections, visualized through a minimum spanning tree filter, takes into account nonlinear associations among variables and captures connection schemes among clusters. Our aim is to use Auto-CM to recognize variables to discriminate between responders versus no responders at TAU. Methods A total of 56 preschoolers with ASDs were recruited at different sites in Italy. They were evaluated at T0 and after 6 months of treatment (T1). The children were referred to community providers for usual treatments. Results At T1, the severity of autism measured through the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule decreased in 62% of involved children (Response), whereas it was the same or worse in 37% of the children (No Response). The application of the Semeion ANNs overcomes the 85% of global accuracy (Sine Net almost reaching 90%). Consequently, some of the tested algorithms were able to find a good correlation between some variables and TAU outcome. The semantic connectivity map obtained with the application of the Auto-CM system showed results that clearly indicated that “Response” cases can be visually separated from the “No Response” cases. It was possible to visualize a response area characterized by “Parents Involvement high”. The resultant No Response area strongly connected with “Parents Involvement low”. Conclusion The ANN model used in this study seems to be a promising tool for the identification of the variables involved in the positive response to TAU in autism.

  6. Inter-Observer Reliability Assessments in Time Motion Studies: The Foundation for Meaningful Clinical Workflow Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Bai, Shasha; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert; Embi, Peter; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding clinical workflow is critical for researchers and healthcare decision makers. Current workflow studies tend to oversimplify and underrepresent the complexity of clinical workflow. Continuous observation time motion studies (TMS) could enhance clinical workflow studies by providing rich quantitative data required for in-depth workflow analyses. However, methodological inconsistencies have been reported in continuous observation TMS, potentially reducing the validity of TMS’ data and limiting their contribution to the general state of knowledge. We believe that a cornerstone in standardizing TMS is to ensure the reliability of the human observers. In this manuscript we review the approaches for inter-observer reliability assessment (IORA) in a representative sample of TMS focusing on clinical workflow. We found that IORA is an uncommon practice, inconsistently reported, and often uses methods that provide partial and overestimated measures of agreement. Since a comprehensive approach to IORA is yet to be proposed and validated, we provide initial recommendations for IORA reporting in continuous observation TMS. PMID:24551381

  7. Mendel: a simple excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a ?2 test.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Lluís

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of transgenic and knockout mice always involves the establishment of matings with individuals carrying different loci, segregating independently, whose presence is expected among the progeny, according to a Mendelian distribution. The appearance of distorted inheritance ratios suggests the existence of unexpected lethal or sub-lethal phenotypes associated with some genotypes. These situations are common in a number of cases, including: testing transgenic founder mice for germ-line transmission of their transgenes; setting up heterozygous crosses to obtain homozygous individuals, both for transgenic and knockout mice; establishing matings between floxed mouse lines and suitable cre transgenic mouse lines, etc. The Pearson's ?(2) test can be used to assess the significance of the observed frequencies of genotypes/phenotypes in relation to the expected values, in order to determine whether the observed cases fit the expected distribution. Here, I describe a simple Excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a ?(2) test. The file is freely available for download from my laboratory's web page at: http://www.cnb.csic.es/~montoliu/Mendel.xls . PMID:21853295

  8. Pressure-forced seiches of large amplitude in inlets of the Balearic Islands 2. Observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Garcies; D. Gomis; S. Monserrat

    1996-01-01

    In part 1 of this study, Gomis et al. [1993] proposed a possible mechanism for the generation of large-amplitude seiches observed in inlets of the Balearic Islands. In part 2 we revise the proposed mechanism in light of recent observations. These consist of simultaneous records of sea level\\/bottom pressure measured at three locations inside and outside Ciutadella inlet and atmospheric

  9. Study of ICME Structure Using LASCO White Light and STE Lab IPS Observations of Halo CMEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Webb; M. Tokumaru; B. V. Jackson; P. P. Hick

    2001-01-01

    As part of a long-term investigation of halo-like coronal mass ejections (CMEs) well observed in white light by the SOHO LASCO coronagraphs, we report on a study comparing our catalog of parameters and solar and solar wind associations of halo CMEs with interplanetary disturbances observed with the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) radio array of STE Lab in Japan. We have cataloged

  10. Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study Bin Yang a: Trojan asteroids Infrared observations Asteroids, surfaces a b s t r a c t With a total mass similar to the main asteroid belt, the jovian Trojan asteroids are a major feature in the Solar System. Based upon

  11. Multi-wavelength study of Mrk 421 TeV flare observed with TACTIC telescope in February 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Yadav, K. K.; Chandra, P.; Sahayanathan, S.; Bhatt, N.; Rannot, R. C.; Tickoo, A. K.; Koul, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength study of intense flaring activity from a high frequency peaked BL Lac object Mrk 421. The source was observed in its flaring state on February 16, 2010 with the TACTIC at energies above 1.5 TeV. Near simultaneous multi-wavelength data were obtained from high energy (MeV-GeV) ?-ray observations with Fermi-LAT, X-ray observations by the Swift and MAXI satellites, optical V-band observation by SPOL at Steward Observatory and radio 15 GHz observation at OVRO 40 meter-telescope. We have performed a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of TACTIC, Fermi-LAT and Swift-XRT observations of Mrk 421 during February 10-23, 2010 (MJD 55237-55250). The flaring activity of the source is studied by investigating the properties of daily light curves from radio to TeV energy range and we present the correlation and variability analysis in each energy band. The TeV flare detected by TACTIC on February 16, 2010 is well correlated with the activity in lower energy bands. The differential energy spectrum of the source, in the energy range 1.5-11 TeV, as measured by TACTIC on this night is described by a power law (dN/dE?E) with spectral index ?=2.6±0.3. After accounting for absorption of TeV photons by low energy extragalactic background light photons via pair production, the intrinsic TeV spectrum reveals a power law index of 2.3±0.3. Finally the broad band spectral energy distribution of the source in flaring state is reproduced using a simple emission model involving synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton processes. The obtained parameters are then used to understand the energetics of the source during the flaring episode.

  12. Electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance studies of flavoproteins involved in the photosynthetic electron transport in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7119.

    PubMed

    Medina, M; Gomez-Moreno, C; Cammack, R

    1995-01-15

    The flavins of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 were obtained in their semiquinone states at pH 7 by photoreduction of the pure proteins in the presence of EDTA and 5-deazariboflavin. For FNR, the ESR signal of the FAD semiquinone was centred at g = 2.005 with linewidths 2.0 mT in H2O and 1.48 mT in D2O. These data are in agreement with those reported for other neutral flavin semiquinones. The linewidths were the same when measured either at X-band (9.35 GHz) or at S-band (4 GHz), indicating that line broadening is due to unresolved nuclear hyperfine couplings, caused in part by exchangeable protons. When the substrate, NADP+, was added to the semiquinone form of the protein no changes in the linewidth or shape of the spectra were detected, but a decrease in the ESR signal due to the FNR semiquinone was observed, consistent with the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by reduced FNR and, subsequent displacement of the equilibrium. No changes in the shape or linewidth of the FNR ESR signals were observed when photoreduction of FNR was performed in the presence of either flavodoxin or ferredoxin. Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy of FNR semiquinone from Anabaena PCC 7119 provided further information about the interactions of the flavin radical with protons. A group of signals, with couplings of 5-9.5 MHz, is attributed to protons on C6 and on 8-CH3 of the flavin ring. No change in these hyperfine couplings was detected when the protein was studied in D2O, but the coupling Aiso attributed to protons on 8-CH3 decreased from 8.12 MHz to 7.72 MHz in the presence of NADP+. The decrease in the electron spin density distribution on this part of the flavin ring system was attributed to binding of the substrate, polarising the electron density distribution of the flavin towards the pyrimidine ring. A second group of signals was observed, with hyperfine couplings less than 3 MHz, some of which disappeared when the protein was transferred into D2O. Effects of NADP+ binding to the protein were also observed in these weak couplings. These signals are attributed to displaced water protons, or to exchangeable protons from amino acid residues on the protein near the flavin-binding site, involved in substrate stabilization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7851433

  13. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  14. Medicine Wheels: The Art and Culture of the Plains Indian. An Interdisciplinary Unit for Seventh-Grade Students Involving Art, Social Studies, [and] Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jeanette; And Others

    The interdisciplinary unit for seventh grade students, involving art, social studies, and mathematics, focuses on a study of the forms, symbols, designs, and colors of the traditional art form of the Plains Indians, the Medicine Wheel. Objectives of the unit are for students to gain an understanding of the culture of the Plains Indians; to develop…

  15. The impact of limited search procedures for systematic literature reviews — A participant-observer case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Kitchenham; Pearl Brereton; Mark Turner; Mahmood Niazi; Stephen Linkman; Rialette Pretorius; David Budgen

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to compare the use of targeted manual searches with broad automated searches, and to assess the importance of grey literature and breadth of search on the outcomes of SLRs. We used a participant-observer multi-case embedded case study. Our two cases were a tertiary study of systematic literature reviews published between January 2004 and June 2007 based on

  16. The Observation and Study of ELP V5-120 Conformational Changes 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Qian

    2012-10-24

    and secondary/tertiary structure formation. In this thesis, the collapse process of ELP was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In DSC thermal cycling, a clear conformational transition was observed. Also, a transiently stable state of ELP V5...

  17. Coproduction without Experts: A Study of People Involved in Community Health and Well-Being Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledger, Alison; Slade, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Coproduction (equal professional-public involvement in service delivery) has been widely promoted as a means of revolutionising health and social care. Service providers/professionals are tasked with working more in partnership with service users/clients, recognising their experiences and knowledge as critical to the success of the interaction.…

  18. Establishing User Needs--A Large-Scale Study into the Requirements of Those Involved in the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Wilson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a set of online tools, systems and processes that would facilitate research at the University of Nottingham. The tools would be delivered via a portal, a one-stop place providing a Virtual Research Environment for all those involved in the research process. A predominantly bottom-up approach was used with…

  19. Functional segregation within pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus: evidence from fMRI studies of imitation and action observation.

    PubMed

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Iacoboni, Marco; Koski, Lisa; Mazziotta, John C

    2005-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is important for action observation and imitation. In order to further explore the role of IFG in action observation and imitation, we pooled data from seven functional magnetic resonance imaging studies involving observation and imitation of simple finger movements performed in our laboratory. For imitation we found two peaks of activation in the pars opercularis, one in its dorsal sector and the other in its ventral sector. The dorsal sector of the pars opercularis was also activated during action observation, whereas the ventral sector was not. In addition, the pars triangularis was activated during action observation but not during imitation. This large dataset suggests a functional parcellation of the IFG that we discuss in terms of human mirror areas and the computational motor control architecture of internal models. PMID:15513929

  20. User-friendly tools on handheld devices for observer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Matsusako, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    ROC studies require complex procedures to select cases from many data samples, and to set confidence levels in each selected case to generate ROC curves. In some observer performance studies, researchers have to develop software with specific graphical user interface (GUI) to obtain confidence levels from readers. Because ROC studies could be designed for various clinical situations, it is difficult task for preparing software corresponding to every ROC studies. In this work, we have developed software for recording confidence levels during observer studies on tiny personal handheld devices such as iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To confirm the functions of our software, three radiologists performed observer studies to detect lung nodules by using public database of chest radiograms published by Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The output in text format conformed to the format for the famous ROC kit from the University of Chicago. Times required for the reading each case was recorded very precisely.

  1. Tea consumption didn’t modify the risk of fracture: a dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures are important causes of healthy damage and economic loss nowadays. The conclusions of observational studies on tea consumption and fracture risk are still inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine the effect of tea drinking on the risk of fractures. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and reference lists of the relevant articles. Observational studies that reported an estimate of the association between tea drinking and incidence of fractures were included. A meta-analysis was conducted by the STATA software. Results A total of 9 studies involving 147,950 individuals that examined the association between tea consumption and risk of fractures were included in this meta-analysis. The odds risks (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. The pooled OR of 9 observational studies for the tea consumption on risk of fracture was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-1.04). In the subgroup analyses, no significant association was detected in neither cohort studies (n?=?3; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06) nor case–control studies (n?=?6; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.19), respectively. No significant association was detected in the dose–response meta-analysis. Conclusions Tea consumption might not be associated with the risk of fractures. The following large-sample and well-designed studies are required to confirm the existing conclusions. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5309904231178427. PMID:24588938

  2. Potential impact of observational cohort studies in Japan on rheumatoid arthritis research and practice.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Tohma, Shigeto

    2006-01-01

    For better management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we need information both from well-designed clinical trials, such as randomized controlled trials, and from observational cohorts. Observational cohort study has not been developed in Japanese RA patients; however, two cohorts, IORRA (formerly J-ARAMIS) from 2000 and NinJa by iR-net from 2002, have been established. These two cohorts are an important source not only for better management of Japanese RA patients but also for solutions to a variety of issues concerning RA clinical practice in general. In this minireview, necessities of observational cohort studies are discussed. PMID:16633925

  3. Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort study (CKDCS): A prospective observational study of incident hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aminu K Bello; Ravi Thadhani; Brenda Hemmelgarn; Scott Klarenbach; John Gill; Christopher Chan; Deborah Zimmerman; Daniel Holmes; George Cembrowski; Dawn Opgenorth; Rafael Sibrian; Mohammad Karkhaneh; Sophanny Tiv; Natasha Wiebe; Marcello Tonelli

    2011-01-01

    Background  Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease\\u000a Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers.\\u000a This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving\\u000a dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\/Design  The CKDCS collects information on

  4. Tuning redox potentials of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt complexes: an experimental and theoretical study involving solvent and ligand effects

    SciTech Connect

    Moyses Araujo, C.; Doherty, Mark D.; Konezny, Steven J.; Luca, Oana R.; Usyatinsky, Alex; Grade, Hans; Lobkovsky, Emil; Soloveichik, Grigorii L.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Batista, Victor S.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and electrochemical properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine CoII complexes (NNN)CoX? and [(NNN)?Co][PF?]? (NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(4-R-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine, with R = CN, CF?, H, CH?, OCH?, N(CH?)?; NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(2,6-(iPr)?-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine and X = Cl, Br) were studied using a combination of electrochemical and theoretical methods. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and DFT/B3LYP calculations suggest that in solution (NNN)CoCl? complexes exist in equilibrium with disproportionation products [(NNN)?Co]²? [CoCl?]²? with the position of the equilibrium heavily influenced by both the solvent polarity and the steric and electronic properties of the bis(imino)pyridine ligands. In strong polar solvents (e.g., CH?CN or H?O) or with electron donating substituents (R = OCH? or N(CH?)?) the equilibrium is shifted and only oxidation of the charged products [(NNN)?Co]²? and [CoCl?]²? is observed. Conversely, in nonpolar organic solvents such as CH?Cl? or with electron withdrawing substituents (R = CN or CF?), disproportionation is suppressed and oxidation of the (NNN)CoCl? complexes leads to 18e? CoIII complexes stabilized by coordination of a solvent moiety. In addition, the [(NNN)?Co][PF?]? complexes exhibit reversible CoII/III oxidation potentials that are strongly dependent on the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the N-aryl substituents, spanning nearly 750 mV in acetonitrile. The resulting insight on the regulation of redox properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes should be particularly valuable to tune suitable conditions for reactivity.

  5. Examining students' perceptions of study abroad programs involving sport through application of the social cognitive career theory 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Gregory C.

    2009-06-02

    (FIFA) have been the most successful promoters of a global adherence to positive aspects of sport (Cronin & Holt, 2003). Cronin and Holt (2003) added: during the twentieth century, as formal imperialism went into decline, these two bodies became... which are not affiliated to both (p. 27) Every two years, the Olympics showcase many of the world?s great athletes on a global stage. Soccer is the world?s most globalized sport, with over 200 countries involved with FIFA (Milanovic, 2005). Many...

  6. Characterizing Historical Industrial Hygiene Data: A Case Study Involving Benzene Exposures at a Chemical Manufacturing Facility (1976–1987)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela R. D. Williams; Dennis J. Paustenbach

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how nearly 3700 air samples of benzene collected in a typical chemical manufacturing (acetic acid) facility in the United States from 1976 to 1987 were used to characterize daily time-weighted average (TWA) exposure levels. We found that those workers directly involved in manufacturing operations had likely TWA exposures to benzene of about 2.0 ppm from 1976–1981 and

  7. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandži?, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  8. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  9. Correlates of change in student reported parent involvement in schooling: a new look at the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988.

    PubMed

    Stone, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Using a subsample (2174 students, 174 schools) from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), this study drew on Eccles and Harold's (1996) framework of parent involvement in schooling to estimate the relative influence of key child, family, and school characteristics on change in three types of student-reported parent involvement in schooling between eighth and tenth grades: home communication about school, monitoring, and direct interactions with schools. It also examines relationships between changes in involvement, change in grade point average (GPA), and dropout. Overall, measured school effects accounted for a small proportion of the variation in changes in home communication and direct parent interactions with schools. Sustained home communication related to higher grades and lower likelihood of dropout, although the size of effects was small. PMID:17209720

  10. Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 1: Spatial structures studies. [from satellite observation (Explorer 2 satellite) of lunar occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Observations are presented of lunar occultations of the earth at 250 kHz obtained with the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite which were used to derive two dimensional maps of the location of the sources of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR). By examining the two dimensional source distributions as a function of the observer's location (lunar orbit) with respect to the magnetosphere, the average three dimensional location of the emission regions can be estimated. Although TKR events at 250 kHz can often be observed at projected distances corresponding to the 250 kHz electron gyro or plasma level (approximately 2 earth radii), many events are observed much farther from the earth (between 5 and 15 earth radii). Dayside emission apparently in the region of the polar cusp and the magnetosheath and night emission associated with regions of the magnetotail are examined. The nightside emission is suggestive of a mechanism involving plasma sheet electron precipitation in the pre-midnight sector.

  11. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  12. Spanish ocean observation system. IEO core project: Studies on time series of oceanographic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Valdés; A. Lavín; M. L. Fernández de Puelles; M. Varela; R. Anadón; A. Miranda; J. Camiñas; J. Mas

    2002-01-01

    The Marine Environment Department of the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) is conducting several research projects based on the systematic and continuous study of the Ocean with observations made regularly over much long periods than a year-round and covering events in all seasons. The principal goal of the core project “Studies on time series of oceanographic data” is to understand

  13. A Naturalistic Observational Study of Informal Segregation: Seating Patterns in Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jennifer; Durrheim, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the removal of legislated racial segregation, a number of observational studies in South Africa and elsewhere have shown that "informal," nonlegislated segregation persists in spaces of everyday interaction. Most of these have been case studies of segregation at single sites. The authors seek to quantify segregation in a sample of…

  14. Sensitivity Analysis for Equivalence and Difference in an Observational Study of Neonatal Intensive

    E-print Network

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    the procedure to our study of the timing of discharges of premature babies from neonatal intensive care unitsSensitivity Analysis for Equivalence and Difference in an Observational Study of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Paul R. ROSENBAUM and Jeffrey H. SILBER In randomized experiments, it is sometimes important

  15. OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF MANTLE PLUMEMID-OCEAN RIDGE

    E-print Network

    Ito, Garrett

    and modeling studies predict that the width over which plumes expand along the ridge axis increases with plumeOBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF MANTLE PLUME­MID-OCEAN RIDGE INTERACTION G Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA D. Graham College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon

  16. Observable ramifications of disrupted homes on the lives of students: A descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Eberhardt

    1990-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of negative behavioral factors as observed in students from disrupted homes. The study limits itself to low scholastic achievement, school dropouts, substance abuse, teenage parenthood and corrective counseling.^ The counselors working with teachers and administrators can design tutorial and other programs which tend to assist this segment of the student body.^ Chapter Two gave thought

  17. Three conditions under which experiments and observational studies produce comparable causal estimates: New findings from within-study comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Cook; William R. Shadish; Vivian C. Wong

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes 12 recent within-study comparisons contrasting causal estimates from a randomized experiment with those from an observational study sharing the same treatment group. The aim is to test whether different causal estimates result when a counterfactual group is formed, either with or without random assignment, and when statistical adjustments for selection are made in the group from which

  18. Three Conditions under Which Experiments and Observational Studies Produce Comparable Causal Estimates: New Findings from within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Shadish, William R.; Wong, Vivian C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes 12 recent within-study comparisons contrasting causal estimates from a randomized experiment with those from an observational study sharing the same treatment group. The aim is to test whether different causal estimates result when a counterfactual group is formed, either with or without random assignment, and when statistical…

  19. The role of observational studies in optimizing the clinical management of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine; Zyczynski, Teresa; Khoury, H. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Survival has increased dramatically for patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) using BCR-ABL targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such that life expectancy is expected to approximate that of patients without CP-CML. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies provide valuable insights into the management of chronic diseases such as CP-CML. RCTs are undoubtedly the backbone of clinical research, and the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the efficacy and safety of new therapies. However, many questions surrounding the optimal management of patients with CML remain unanswered, and it is widely accepted that these questions will be best answered by evaluating the use of available therapies in clinical practice. Observational studies can extend the knowledge base beyond the clinical trial setting and thus capture a more accurate picture of everyday clinical practice, particularly patients’ experiences of long-term CML treatment. There is therefore growing interest in and appreciation of the value of observational research. This review article will examine the relative merits of RCTs and observational studies in the setting of CML, highlighting those factors – such as the advancing age of the CML patient population and growing importance of patient-reported outcomes – that mean that observational studies should play an important role in shaping clinical practice. This article also provides an overview of what observational studies have told us thus far about the optimal management of patients with CML, outlines some of the key remaining unanswered clinical questions in CML, and summarizes ongoing observational studies designed to provide answers to these key questions. PMID:25642311

  20. Evaluation of interrater reliability for posture observations in a field study.

    PubMed

    Burt, S; Punnett, L

    1999-04-01

    This paper examines the interrater reliability of a quantitative observational method of assessing non-neutral postures required by work tasks. Two observers independently evaluated 70 jobs in an automotive manufacturing facility, using a procedure that included observations of 18 postures of the upper extremities and back. Interrater reliability was evaluated using percent agreement, kappa, intraclass correlation coefficients and generalized linear mixed modeling. Interrater agreement ranged from 26% for right shoulder elevation to 99 for left wrist flexion, but agreement was at best moderate when using kappa. Percent agreement is an inadequate measure, because it does not account for chance, and can lead to inflated measures of reliability. The use of more appropriate statistical methods may lead to greater insight into sources of variability in reliability and validity studies and may help to develop more effective ergonomic exposure assessment methods. Interrater reliability was acceptable for some of the postural observations in this study. PMID:10098805

  1. Hemodynamic effects of Sarvanga Swedana (Ayurvedic passive heat therapy): A pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Sarvanga Swedana is a common procedure done in Ayurvedic Panchakarma units. Passive body heat therapy, which is akin to Sarvanga Swedana is known to cause systemic hemodynamic changes. Such studies would have been required to find the possible hemodynamic changes following the Sarvanga Swedana sessions also. An observational study was planned to observe hemodynamic changes among patients routinely receiving Sarvanga Swedana in a Panchakarma setting at an Ayurvedic hospital. Significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate (PR) was observed in all patients immediately after the completion of Sarvanga Swedana therapy. Upon continuation of Sarvanga Swedana in a subgroup; however, a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and PR was also observed. PMID:24250123

  2. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Weiguo; Chen, Jiong Jack; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Han, Shu-Fen; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. PMID:24036529

  3. Teacher Perception of Ethnic and Linguistic Minority Parental Involvement and its Relationship to Children's Language and Literacy Learning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss-Keeler, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    A year-long ethnographic study of a British multiethnic primary school examined the influence of teacher perception of Pakistani parent involvement and interest in their children's education on teacher expectation of the children's language and literacy achievement. Findings showed that teachers misinterpreted cultural differences in parents'…

  4. A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. "Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Todd H.

    An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in…

  5. Using TPCK as a Lens to Study the Practices of Math and Science Teachers Involved in a Year-Long Technology Integration Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Liu, Feng; Rodriguez, Prisca; Frey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways teachers enact technological, pedagogical and content practices in math and science lessons and to document the change with teachers involved in a year-long technology integration initiative. Six hundred seventy-two lessons were analyzed in this research using Technological, Pedagogical Content…

  6. Involving health professionals in the development of an advanced symptom management system for young people: The ASyMS ©-YG study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gibson; S. Aldiss; R. M. Taylor; R. Maguire; N. Kearney

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the studyASyMS© is an advanced symptom management system utilising mobile phone technology for patients to report cancer chemotherapy-related symptoms. The aim of this paper is to present health professionals involvement in the development of ASyMS© for use with young people (YG) and evaluate their perceptions of the system.

  7. Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Papaioannou; Evaggelos Bebetsos; Yannis Theodorakis; Triantafyllos Christodoulidis; Olga Kouli

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 – 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 – 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data

  8. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  9. Two cases of severe weather in Catalonia (Spain): an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemente Ramis; Joan Arús; José Manuel López; Antoni M. Mestres

    1997-01-01

    Surface observations, satellite and radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data are used in an observational study of two cases that produced severe weather in Catalonia (Spain). The first one occurred on 24 August 1993; a squall line crossed Catalonia from west to east producing heavy rain with rates of up to 100 mm h[minus sign]1 and hail of 7 cm

  10. Instrument development for high-speed infrared and optical photometry and observational studies of pulsars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Sik Moon

    2004-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first hart, we present the development of instruments for high-speed infrared and optical photometry optimized for pulsar observations. In the second part, we present observational studies of pulsars, mainly on accretion- powered pulsars but also on rotation-powered pulsars. For the instrument development, we first built the Cornell High-Speed Data Acquisition System (CHISDAS)

  11. The generalizability study as a method of assessing intra- and interobserver reliability in observational research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn L. Booth; Sandra K. Mitchell; Frances K. Solin

    1979-01-01

    Most researchers use interobserver agreement percentages to express the quality of their observational data. A better method\\u000a is the generalizability study, which allows the variance in a set of scores to be partitioned among several sources, such\\u000a as observers, occasions, subjects, and error. In this paper the practical application of generalizability theory is described\\u000a and illustrated, using the frequency and

  12. Parent Involvement in Decision-Making. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.

    A study examined parent involvement in decision making in the Smart Start early childhood programs in North Carolina. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and surveys. Findings indicated that both the interested public and the Smart Start board members agreed that having parents involved in decisions about how Smart Start money…

  13. Mexican American Parental Involvement in Site Based Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Delores C.

    This study used interviews, home visits, observations of parent meetings, and informal discussions to examine parental involvement at a Texas elementary school with a high concentration of Mexican American families. In 1997-98, the school's Parent Involvement Cadre (1995-1997) was replaced with a new system of subject-related and support…

  14. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. Methods This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. Results All time intervals with the exception of “decision to skin incision” were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Conclusions Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect potential Hawthorne effects. PMID:24886143

  15. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S.; Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Kettleborough, J. A.; Santee, M. L.; Oelhaf, H.; Wetzel, G.; Sasano, Y.; Sugita, T.

    2005-11-01

    Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE) couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS) satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B), and the in situ NOy instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/97 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N in the beginning of February make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/95 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO3 at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 is significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures, or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates, produce the best statistical fit to MLS observations. Both adjustments would be required to bring the model into agreement with the MIPAS-B observations. The agreement between the model and observations suggests that a NAT-only denitrification scheme (without ice), which was discounted by previous studies, must now be considered as one mechanism for the observed Arctic denitrification. The timing of onset and the rate of denitrification remain poorly constrained by the available observations.

  16. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S.; Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Kettleborough, J. A.; Santee, M. L.; Oelhaf, H.; Wetzel, G.; Sasano, Y.; Sugita, T.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/1995, 1996/1997 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE) couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS) satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B), and the in situ NOy instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/1997 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/1995 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO3 at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 was significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates produce the best statistical fit to MLS observations. Both adjustments would be required to bring the model into agreement with the MIPAS-B observations. The agreement between the model and observations suggests that a NAT-only denitrification scheme (without ice), which was discounted by previous studies, must now be considered as one mechanism for the observed Arctic denitrification. The timing of onset and the rate of denitrification remain poorly constrained by the available observations.

  17. Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement and Positive Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Cause, Consequence, or Just a Correlate? A Prospective 2Year Study of 2,319 Alcohol-Dependent Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John McKellar; Eric Stewart; Keith Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    A positive correlation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural

  18. Predictor of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Invasion and Lymph Node Involvement in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of a Multicenter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kotaro Higashi; Kengo Ito; Yoshinori Hiramatsu; Tsutomu Ishikawa; Tsutomu Sakuma; Ichiro Matsunari; Gencho Kuga; Katsuyuki Miura; Takahiro Higuchi; Hisao Tonami; Itaru Yamamoto

    Intratumoral lymphatic vessel invasion and lymph node involve- ment are important factors in the planning of therapeutic strat- egies, particularly limited surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. 18F-FDG uptake within the primary lesion correlates with aggressiveness on PET studies. The more metabolically active the tumor, the more aggressive are the findings. The aim of this multicenter study

  19. Blending Model Results With Observations in the SBC/SMB Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Ohashi, K.

    2002-12-01

    The 1993-1999 Santa Barbara ­V Santa Maria Basin (SBC/SMB) circulation study, conducted by the Center for Coastal Study of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, represents a major research effort towards designing a coastal ocean observing system (COOS). During the 6-year period, at any time there were always about a dozen current meter and temperature moorings maintained in the study area. The moored measurements have continuous spatial and temporal coverage and are most trustworthy (compared to, say, shipboard observation and remote sensing), and thus are ideally suited as the ­\\x9Dabsolute­Ý reference in describing ocean states. On the other hand, the mooring observations are point measurements, and it is unlikely that the moored data alone will ever have adequate spatial resolution in a COOS. There is need for complementary data. Coastal circulation models could play a crucial role in filling this gap. Examples of using coastal ocean models in the SBC/SMB study to obtain ocean state estimation will be presented. A coastal ocean model typically is driven by the atmospheric forcing (which must be specified over the entire model domain) and the mass and momentum exchange across ­\\x9Dopen­Ý boundaries. In this study the atmospheric forcing is derived from a dozen met buoy observations plus numerous coastal weather stations collected during the SBC/SMB study. The need to specify open-ocean water mass exchange is circumvented by assimilating the moored temperature data. The possibility of impinging open-ocean eddy, however, is ruled out. Two research issues are addressed. First, an attempt is made to blend the model results with moored velocity observations. Second, the impact of data assimilation on model results is examined. These two issues, one dealing with the initialization in ocean forecasts and nowcasts and the other with the sampling design, are fundamental to any COOS. The comprehensive SBC/SMB study affords an excellent opportunity for a COOS feasibility study.

  20. Optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging study of chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula in Alagille syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Shinji; Ohkubo, Yuko; Tampo, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case in the literature of chorioretinal atrophy involving the macula in an 11-year-old girl with Alagille syndrome, as examined by optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Funduscopy revealed diffuse choroidal hypopigmentation with increased visibility of the choroidal vessels and symmetric, well circumscribed macular discoloration. Anomalous oblique configuration of the optic disc and peripapillary tortuous vessels were also detected. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated decreased retinal thickness, especially the outer retinal layer, and the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junctions were irregular and discontinued, corresponding to macular discoloration. Fundus autofluorescence imaging clearly defined hypofluorescent areas in the peripapillary regions that extended along the macula and had a sleep mask appearance. We suggest that transient hypovitaminosis due to Alagille syndrome early in life might contribute to the retinal degeneration seen in this case. PMID:23055661

  1. Quality, Impact and Success of ERP Systems: A Study Involving Some Firms in the Nordic-Baltic Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Princely Ifinedo; Nazmun Nahar

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are among the largest information technology (IT) investments made by firms. Such systems are diffusing rapidly in the Nordic-Baltic region of Europe. While studies discuss the diffusion of ERP in the region, few studies discuss their success in adopting firms. In this study, we explored the issue of ERP success by sampling the views of

  2. A real-time locating system observes physician time-motion patterns during walk-rounds: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Walk-rounds, a common component of medical education, usually consist of a combination of teaching outside the patient room as well as in the presence of the patient, known as bedside teaching. The proportion of time dedicated to bedside teaching has been declining despite research demonstrating its benefits. Increasing complexities of patient care and perceived impediments to workflow are cited as reasons for this declining use. Research using real-time locating systems (RTLS) has been purported to improve workflow through monitoring of patients and equipment. We used RTLS technology to observe and track patterns of movement of attending physicians during a mandatory once-weekly medical teaching team patient care rounding session endorsed as a walk-rounds format. Methods During a project to assess the efficacy of RTLS technology to track equipment and patients in a clinical setting, we conducted a small-scale pilot study to observe attending physician walk-round patterns during a mandatory once-weekly team rounding session. A consecutive sample of attending physicians on the unit was targeted, eight agreed to participate. Data collected using the RTLS were pictorially represented as linked points overlaying a floor plan of the unit to represent each physician’s motion through time. Visual analysis of time-motion was independently performed by two researchers and disagreement resolved through consensus. Rounding events were described as a sequence of approximate proportions of time engaged within or outside patient rooms. Results The patient care rounds varied in duration from 60 to 425 minutes. Median duration of rounds within patient rooms was approximately 33% of total time (range approximately 20-50%). Three general time-motion rounding patterns were observed: a first pattern that predominantly involved rounding in ward hallways and little time in patient rooms; a second pattern that predominantly involved time in a ward conference room; and a third balanced pattern characterized by equal proportions of time in patient rooms and in ward hallways. Conclusions Observation using RTLS technology identified distinct time-motion rounding patterns that hint at differing rounding styles across physicians. Future studies using this technology could examine how the division of time during walk-rounds impacts outcomes such as patient satisfaction, learner satisfaction, and physician workflow. PMID:24568589

  3. Observation of Dayside Convection by Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar and its Application to Substorm Triggering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Lyons, L.; McCready, M.; Heinselman, C.

    2006-12-01

    Convection and its changes are related to geomagnetic disturbances such as substorms, dynamic pressure disturbances and convection bays. Furthermore, convection is theoretically related to evolution of the Harang electric field reversal (or "discontinuity"), which has been related observationally and theoretically to these disturbances. Interplanetary measurements are generally used for studying and making associations of convection with the onsets and temporal evolution of disturbances. This is generally okay for statistical studies, but spatial structure and propagation timing errors due to the highly variable orientation of interplanetary structures create significant ambiguity for case studies and have prevented definitive understanding. Direct observation of dayside convection with high time resolution offers a potential solution to this problem. Here we introduce how we use the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar to observe dayside convection. Up to now, we have studied 31 6-8 hr measurement intervals. Combined with the measurements by solar wind monitors upstream of the magnetosphere, LANL geosynchronous satellite and ground magnetometers, we demonstrate that the radar observations have the ability to accurately monitor dayside convection with ~2 min resolution. Furthermore, the observations clearly show the convection changes from IMF Bz, By and solar wind dynamic pressure variations and thus shed light on how the magnetosphere and ionosphere respond to external driving. As an application, we use this technique to study the relationship between convection changes and substorm onsets. For the majority of substorms we have studied, a clear convection flow change, either flow speed decrease and/or flow direction change, is seen at substorm onset. In the future, we will use this technique to study the relationships between convection, other geomagnetic disturbances and the Harang reversal, as well as to evaluate the preceding convection strength and duration and the convection changes that lead to substorm onset.

  4. Unbiased Causal Inference from an Observational Study: Results of a Within-Study Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi; Steiner, Peter M.; Eisermann, Jens; Soellner, Renate; Cook, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment methods such as propensity scores and analysis of covariance are often used for estimating treatment effects in nonexperimental data. Shadish, Clark, and Steiner used a within-study comparison to test how well these adjustments work in practice. They randomly assigned participating students to a randomized or nonrandomized experiment.…

  5. Bilateral variations of brachial plexus involving the median nerve and lateral cord: An anatomical case study with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Butz, James J; Shiwlochan, Devina G; Brown, Kevin C; Prasad, Alathady M; Murlimanju, Bukkambudhi V; Viswanath, Srikanteswara

    2014-01-01

    During the routine dissection of upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, variations were observed in the brachial plexus. In the right extremity, the lateral cord was piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the median nerve were observed to be branching inferior to the lower attachment of coracobrachialis muscle. The left extremity exhibited the passage of the median nerve through the flat tendon of the coracobrachialis muscle near its distal insertion into the medial surface of the body of humerus. A variation in the course and branching of the nerve might lead to variant or dual innervation of a muscle and, if inappropriately compressed, could result in a distal neuropathy. Identification of these variants of brachial plexus plays an especially important role in both clinical diagnosis and surgical practice. PMID:24944720

  6. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  7. The ICTUS Study: A Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study of 1,380 AD Patients in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Reynish; F. Cortes; S. Andrieu; C. Cantet; M. Olde Rikkert; R. Melis; L. Froelich; G. B. Frisoni; L. Jönsson; P. J. Visser; P. J. Ousset; B. Vellas

    2007-01-01

    The long-term objective of the ICTUS study is to identify milestones in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression and to develop a model to predict disease course in individual AD patients in Europe. The secondary objectives are to describe the patterns of prescribing, and the socioeconomic impact of AD in Europe. Between 2003 and 2005 1,380 patients with probable AD were recruited

  8. Comparison of Pooled Risk Estimates for Adverse Effects from Different Observational Study Designs: Methodological Overview

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K.; Bland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background A diverse range of study designs (e.g. case-control or cohort) are used in the evaluation of adverse effects. We aimed to ascertain whether the risk estimates from meta-analyses of case-control studies differ from that of other study designs. Methods Searches were carried out in 10 databases in addition to reference checking, contacting experts, and handsearching key journals and conference proceedings. Studies were included where a pooled relative measure of an adverse effect (odds ratio or risk ratio) from case-control studies could be directly compared with the pooled estimate for the same adverse effect arising from other types of observational studies. Results We included 82 meta-analyses. Pooled estimates of harm from the different study designs had 95% confidence intervals that overlapped in 78/82 instances (95%). Of the 23 cases of discrepant findings (significant harm identified in meta-analysis of one type of study design, but not with the other study design), 16 (70%) stemmed from significantly elevated pooled estimates from case-control studies. There was associated evidence of funnel plot asymmetry consistent with higher risk estimates from case-control studies. On average, cohort or cross-sectional studies yielded pooled odds ratios 0.94 (95% CI 0.88–1.00) times lower than that from case-control studies. Interpretation Empirical evidence from this overview indicates that meta-analysis of case-control studies tend to give slightly higher estimates of harm as compared to meta-analyses of other observational studies. However it is impossible to rule out potential confounding from differences in drug dose, duration and populations when comparing between study designs. PMID:23977151

  9. Performance comparison of breast imaging modalities using a 4AFC human observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Bosmans, Hilde; Segars, William P.; Wells, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    This work compares the visibility of spheres and simulated masses in 2D-mammography and tomosynthesis systems using human observer studies. Performing comparison studies between breast imaging systems poses a number of practical challenges within a clinical environment. We therefore adopted a simulation approach which included synthetic breast blocks, a validated lesion simulation model and a set of validated image modelling tools as a viable alternative to clinical trials. A series of 4-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer experiments has been conducted for signal detection tasks using masses and spheres as targets. Five physicists participated in the study viewing images with a 5mm target at a range of contrast levels and 60 trials per experimental condition. The results showed that tomosynthesis has a lower threshold contrast than 2D-mammography for masses and spheres, and that detection studies using spheres may produce overly-optimistic threshold contrast values.

  10. Observational and Numerical Modeling Studies of Turbulence on the Texas-Louisiana Continental Shelf

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zheng

    2013-05-24

    for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Chair of Committee, Ayal Anis Co-Chair of Committee, Dongliang Zhao Committee Members, Douglas J. Klein Achim St oessel Head of Department, Piers Chapman August 2013 Major Subject: Oceanography Copyright 2013 Zheng...OBSERVATIONAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING STUDIES OF TURBULENCE ON THE TEXAS-LOUISIANA CONTINENTAL SHELF A Dissertation by ZHENG ZHANG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements...

  11. Statistical study of observed and intrinsic durations among BATSE and Swift/BAT GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouni, H.; Guessoum, N.; Azzam, W. J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2015-05-01

    Studies of BATSE bursts (Kouveliotou et al. 1993) have resulted in the widespread adoption of a two-group categorization: long bursts (those with durations ?2 seconds) and short bursts (those with durations ?2 seconds). This categorization, one must recall, used the observed T 90 time durations for bursts (during which 90 % of a burst's fluence is measured).

  12. The Museum Structured Group Experience: An Observational Study of Criterion Behaviors and Recommendations for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jean

    In a 1973 Smithsonian behavioral science project, observational methods were used to record school group behaviors during docent guided tours in the National Museum of History and Technology. The purpose of this exploratory study was to reveal the natural museum habitat and criterion behaviors of visiting fourth through sixth graders. Children's…

  13. The association between psoriasis and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    REVIEW The association between psoriasis and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies AW Armstrong1 , CT Harskamp1 and EJ Armstrong2 OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is an inflammatory a systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizing the epidemiological associations between psoriasis

  14. Studies on Training Ground Observers to Estimate Range to Aerial Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Michael R.; And Others

    Six pilot studies were conducted to determine the effects of training on range estimation performance for aerial targets, and to identify some of the relevant variables. Observers were trained to estimate ranges of 350, 400, 800, 1,500, or 2,500 meters. Several variations of range estimation training methods were used, including immediate…

  15. Study of pre-storm environment by using rawinsonde and satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. HUNG; Y. D. TSAO

    1987-01-01

    Four groups of severe storms with a total outbreak of 27 tornadoes have been studied by using satellite remote sensing and rawinsonde observations. Geographical distributions of the areas of high moisture concentration at 850 mb height, 7 to 12 hours prior to the formation of the storms, using the best available conventional rawinsonde soundings, and 2 to 3 hours prior to the touchdown

  16. Motorists’ use of hand held cell phones in New Zealand: An observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Unlike many similar countries, New Zealand has no specific legislation restricting the use of cell phones in vehicles. Several factors suggest that legislation may be introduced in the near future. This study provided a benchmark for current cell phone use among motorists. A total of 8700 drivers of cars were observed for cell phone use as they passed a fixed

  17. An Observational Study of Early Heterosexual Interaction at Middle School Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Long, Jeffery D.

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal, observational study of heterosexual interaction at middle school dances we examined the degree to which boys' and girls' groups became more gender integrated over time. The results show groups became more integrated over time with the pattern differing by gender. Boys had a relatively low level of contact with girls over the…

  18. Raised-Line Pictures, Blindness, and Tactile "Beliefs": An Observational Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2007-01-01

    In this observational case study, a 13-year old boy, Carlo, who was born completely blind, was invited to explore and identify, a set of raised-line pictures without receiving feedback about the accuracy of his identification. He was then asked to explain, verbally or by drawing, why he believed that the names he suggested accurately identified…

  19. iPad® Use in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Amie M.; Thomeczek, Melissa; Voreis, Grayce; Scott, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to describe how children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently using iPads® and applications, to explore the role of education professionals on iPad® and application use, and to determine potential research needs regarding iPad® use in children with ASD. Naturalistic observations

  20. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  1. An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book Andreas Dünser1 , Eva books. Children aged between 6 and 7 read and interacted with one of two story books aimed at early literacy education. The books pages were augmented using animated virtual 3D characters, sound

  2. The Importance of Covariate Selection in Controlling for Selection Bias in Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption of strongly ignorable treatment assignment is required for eliminating selection bias in observational studies. To meet this assumption, researchers often rely on a strategy of selecting covariates that they think will control for selection bias. Theory indicates that the most important covariates are those highly correlated with…

  3. Designing and observing human-robot interactions for the study of social development and its disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Kozima; Cocoro Nakagawa; Yuriko Yasuda

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design principle of our robot, Keepon, and reports the longitudinal observation of the interactions between the robot and children with developmental disorders. The robot, Keepon, is a small (12cm tall), simple (like a yellow snowman), soft (made of silicone rubber), creature-like robot, which was designed for studies on human social development and possible remedies for developmental

  4. Far plasma wake of Titan from the RPWS observations: A case study

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Far plasma wake of Titan from the RPWS observations: A case study R. Modolo,1 J.-E. Wahlund,1 R; revised 15 August 2007; accepted 10 September 2007; published 18 October 2007. [1] The Titan's plasma wake onboard the Cassini spacecraft during one Titan flyby on December 26, 2005. The Langmuir Probe

  5. EPA observational studies of children's respiratory health in the Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has suggested that long-term exposures to mobile-source emissions might be associated with the development of allergies and asthma in children. Between 2004 and 2007, EPA scientists successfully conducted nested observational studies of children aged 7-12 years ...

  6. Success and Failure in Helping SMEs. A Three-Year Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewardson, Dave; Coleman, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year observational study of a project to help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) conducted by a British university highlighted initial contacts and working methods that were effective. Results identified why some SMEs do not make full use of facilities offered and reasons for overall success. (Contains 13 references.) (JOW)

  7. Qualitative study of the plates observed with the photographic equatorial of Bucharest Observatory since 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsa, Gheorghe; Popescu, Petre

    2008-09-01

    The study of the plates exposed with Prin-Mertz refractor (f = 6m, D = 38 cm) was performed and the results were included in the WFPA data-base. It was analyzed the next step of including the plate archive in Bucharest Virtual Observatory together with the new CCD observations.

  8. An observational study of the D-region winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric warmings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kawahira

    1982-01-01

    An observational study of the link between the winter anomaly in ionospheric absorption and sudden stratospheric warmings for the 1967\\/1968 winter has been made. On the basis of the daily large-scale distributions of the absorption index, it is found that the winter anomaly during sudden warming could result from a NO increase induced by southward transport from the polar region,

  9. The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Impact of MRI: an Observational Multi-centre Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM HOLLINGWORTH; CHRISTOPHER J. TODD; MATTHEW I. BELL; QAIS ARAFAT; SIMON GIRLING; KANTI R. KARIA; ADRIAN K. DIXON

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To provide information about the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the findings across diagnostic groups.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 2017 consecutive referrals for MRI of the head, spine or knee at four imaging centres. Clinicians completed questionnaires before MRI stating initial diagnoses, diagnostic confidence and treatment plans. After imaging,

  10. Effects of Game Type on Children's Gender-Based Peer Preferences: A Naturalistic Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Mallis, Michael; Leon, Ileana

    1999-01-01

    Used naturalistic observation to study 242 first- to third- graders playing two games that varied in physicality and competitiveness. As predicted, children interacted more often with same-sex peers. Findings support the necessity of investigating social context as an influence on children's own-sex favoritism. (SLD)

  11. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  12. Friends' Responses to Children's Disclosure of an Achievement-Related Success: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Ivers, Ivy E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social support processes in the context of positive events. The conversations of fourth-grade through sixth-grade focal children and their friends (N = 116) were observed after focal children outperformed their friend on an achievement-related task. Changes in focal children's performance-related positive affect from…

  13. Minimum Distance Matched Sampling With Fine Balance in an Observational Study of

    E-print Network

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    Minimum Distance Matched Sampling With Fine Balance in an Observational Study of Treatment on one or two key covariates and close matches on the propensity score to stochastically balance large numbers of covariates. Here we propose a third tool, fine balance, obtained using the assignment algorithm

  14. Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius

    E-print Network

    Observations From a Preservation and Processing Study on Atka Mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius other species including Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monop- terygius (Fig. I), of the greenling family (Hexagrammidae). Although less abundant than other species, Atka mackerel are nonetheless an im- portant resource

  15. Comparison of sunshine records and synoptic cloud observations: a case study for Ireland

    E-print Network

    Bago, Enric Palle

    Comparison of sunshine records and synoptic cloud observations: a case study for Ireland E. Pallee a,b,*, C.J. Butler a a Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh, Ireland b Big Bear Solar-annual variability of sunshine duration and synoptic cloud data for three sites in Ireland. Our results suggest that

  16. A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST L distributions that showed the suppression of strong pitch angle diffusion at energies above $2 keV. What made scattering electrons into the loss cone at energies less than $2 keV and oblique, upper band whistler mode

  17. Thermal tides and studies to tune the mechanistic tidal model using UARS observations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thermal tides and studies to tune the mechanistic tidal model using UARS observations V. A. Yudin1 Abstract. Monthly simulations of the thermal diurnal and semidiurnal tides are compared to High analysis/interpretation for tides, dissipation, and mean ¯ow using a combination of model results

  18. Teaching Statistical Inference for Causal Effects in Experiments and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Donald B.

    2004-01-01

    Inference for causal effects is a critical activity in many branches of science and public policy. The field of statistics is the one field most suited to address such problems, whether from designed experiments or observational studies. Consequently, it is arguably essential that departments of statistics teach courses in causal inference to both…

  19. Observational study of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Little; Hazel Everitt; Ian Williamson; Greg Warner; Michael Moore; Clare Gould; Kate Ferrier; Sheila Payne

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To measure patients' perceptions of patient centredness and the relation of these perceptions to outcomes. Design: Observational study using questionnaires. Setting: Three general practices. Participants: 865 consecutive patients attending the practices. Main outcome measures: Patients' enablement, satisfaction, and burden of symptoms. Results: Factor analysis identified five components. These were communication and partnership (a sympathetic doctor interested in patients' worries

  20. A mechanistic study of Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction involving CO/isonitrile insertion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Honghong; Qiu, Zhiping; Zhang, Zhongchao; Li, Juan; Yan, Bo

    2015-05-19

    The mechanism of the Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction involving CO/isonitrile insertion was investigated with the aid of density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level. The similarity between the CO and isonitrile systems includes the following: (1) the anagostic bonding mechanism rather than the concerted metallation-deprotonation (CMD) mechanism is operative for the C-H cleavage step, (2) the CO/isonitrile insertion step is rate-determining, and (3) the C-H activation and CO/isonitrile insertion steps are accomplished with Pd(ii) and Pd(iii), respectively. For the reaction including isonitrile insertion, the arene C-H activation step occurs after deprotonation of the imino group. However, for reaction including CO insertion, the arene C-H activation step is the first step of the reaction mechanism. The difference between CO and isonitrile systems in the reaction mechanism can be attributed to the difference in the oxidants used. In the reaction including isonitrile insertion, the high endergonicity of the oxidation step suppresses prior C-H activation and favors prior deprotonation of the imino group. In the reactions including CO insertion, the low endergonicity of the oxidation step allows prior C-H activation to occur. PMID:25939250

  1. Comparative study of the effects of combined oral contraceptives in hemostatic variables: an observational preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Bianca; Fumagalli, Helen F; Franceschini, Silvio A; Martinez, Edson Z; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Toloi, Maria Regina T

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is associated with the estrogen dose and type of progestin in combined oral contraceptives. Studies published since 1990 showed that third-generation progestins have larger risk to contribute to thrombosis development than the second-generation. However, there are conflicts in the literature regarding the thrombotic risk associated to the drospirenone progestin. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of 3 formulations of contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (EE) (20 and 30??g) combined with drospirenone versus levonorgestrel combined with EE (30??g) in hemostatic parameters. This cross-sectional study included 70 healthy women between 18 and 30 years, BMI 19 to 30?kg/m², not pregnant, non-smokers, and users or non-users (control) of contraceptives for a minimum period of 6 months. The following parameters were assessed: prothrombin time (PT), Factor VII, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Factor XII, fibrinogen, Factor 1?+?2, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, D-dimers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Significant alterations were found in PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimers, and protein S, all favoring a state of hypercoagulation for contraceptive containing DRSP/20EE. Both contraceptives containing DRSP/30EE and LNG/30EE promoted changes that favor the hypercoagulability in the coagulant variable PT and in the anticoagulant variables Protein S and Protein C, respectively. We suggest that the progestin drospirenone can contribute to an inadequate balance among procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors, since that the contraceptive containing the lowest dose of estrogen and drospirenone (DRSP/20EE) caused a higher number of hemostatic changes. PMID:25634167

  2. Pinpointing Potential Causative Agents in Mixtures of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Observational Field Studies: A Review of Glaucous Gull Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan O. Bustnes

    2006-01-01

    Since different organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are often highly correlated in biota, a major challenge in observational field studies is to establish whether some OCs are potentially important causative agents of adverse effects. A possible solution to this problem is to compare the strength of the effects of different OCs on a number of outcome parameters, and then examine if some

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Appraisals of Communication Competence in Conflict Interactions: A Study Involving Western and Chinese Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances P. Brew; Justin Tan; Helen Booth; Irum Malik

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences between people from Western and Chinese cultures on perceived competence (effectiveness and appropriateness) of the other party’s communication during conflict. First, a pilot study with 30 employees in Singapore examined appraisals of communication competence in recalled intercultural conflict incidents. Western expatriates judged competence of the other party mainly on whether the communication style was direct and

  4. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  5. Attachment Insecurities and the Processing of Threat-Related Information: Studying the Schemas Involved in Insecure People's Coping Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsachi Ein-Dor; Mario Mikulincer; Phillip R. Shaver

    2011-01-01

    In 6 studies we examined procedural, scriptlike knowledge associated with 2 different kinds of attachment insecurity: anxiety and avoidance. The studies examined associations between attachment insecurities, the cognitive accessibility of sentinel and rapid fight–flight schemas, and the extent to which these schemas guide the processing of threat-related information and actual behavior during an experimentally induced threatening event. Anxious attachment was

  6. Inelastic electron scattering study of metallic oxidation: Synergistic effects involving electrons during the low temperature oxidation of Ni(111)

    E-print Network

    Sibener, Steven

    on this surface at low temperatures, resulting in mainly chemisorbed oxygen. We demonstrate that HREELS is capable studies of high temperature oxi- dation, studies of oxide growth on nickel surfaces at low temperatures during the low temperature oxidation of Ni(111) Wei Li, M. J. Stirniman, and S. J. Sibener The James

  7. Involvement and Making Movies: A Study of the Introduction of Movie Making to Poverty Boys. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Roderick

    Advocates of movie making believe that it provides a non-ethnocentric experience that is inherently engaging and relatively free from the risk of failure. Disadvantaged teenage boys who were attending two experimental summer work camps participated in studies of two aspects of movie making. The first study evaluated three different techniques for…

  8. Latino Families and Parental Involvement: A Case Study of Home Literature Conversations in a Primary Bilingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study describes and interprets the dialogue between Latino parents and their children during home literature conversations. The participating students were enrolled in my first and second grade classroom in East Los Angeles, California. I was guided by the following research questions in this qualitative teacher research study:…

  9. Corticospinal excitability during action observation in task-specific dystonia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, M; Zhang, W; Bresciani, M C; Rodi, G; Bertolasi, L; Gambarin, M; Tinazzi, M

    2010-11-24

    Observation of actions performed by other individuals activates the onlooker's motor system in a way similar to real movement execution. The functioning of this mechanism in the pathological domain is not clear yet. The aim of this study was to explore whether action observation activates the motor system of patients affected by a task-specific form of dystonia, such as writer's cramp. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the primary motor cortex and motor evoked potentials were recorded from hand (FDI and ADM) and forearm (FCR) muscles at baseline and during observation of actions (grasping and writing) or images. Writing actions could be performed with healthy or dystonic movement patterns. Results showed a highly specific and reversed pattern of activation in the FDI muscle of the two groups. Differences between the two writing conditions were significantly opposite in the two groups: control subjects had higher activation during observation of the dystonic compared to the healthy action, whereas in patients observation of the healthy writing led to higher activation than the dystonic writing. This opposite corticospinal modulation might be explained by a different self-attribution of the observed actions in the two groups. PMID:20837104

  10. The study on snow observation and simulation of snowmelt process based on 3S technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shifeng; Pei, Huan; Dai, Wei; Liu, Zhihui; Zhao, Qiudong; Lu, Zhi; Li, Ming; Yan, Yan

    2007-06-01

    The snow resources takes a very important part in the water resources especially in the arid and semiarid areas, plays a key role in the social manufacture, subsistence and environment, by the way, the flood caused by the snowmelt in the spring may result in the huge losing, so it is significant to take the accurate observation of snow information and snowmelt process monitoring. The limitation of the traditional "point observation" is unassailable, but with the completely application of RS, GIS and GPS ("3S") technologies, have gained revolutionary progress in the snow observation and the foundation of Distributed Snowmelt Runoff Model. Based on the "3" technology, this paper chose the Juntanghu Basin, which located in the North-Tianshan Mountains, as the representative study area, used MODIS data which has high resolution of time, spectrum and special, also imposed mass observation data of weather, hydrological and snow cover on the spot of the corresponding period, extracted the snow cover index and snow depth information, calculated the relevant snow information such as snow cover index, snow depth and its transformation, built the Distributed Snowmelt Runoff Model based on the GIS software exploited by ourselves, contrasted with the homologous observed data obtained in the field, the observation of snow information has a mean precision up to 0.9, and the average precision of the simulation of snowmelt runoff is up to 0.82.

  11. Knowledge and prevention practices before breast cancer diagnosis in a cross-sectional study among survivors: impact on patients' involvement in the decision making process.

    PubMed

    Taioli, Emanuela; Joseph, Gail R; Robertson, Linda; Eckstein, Stacy; Ragin, Camille

    2014-03-01

    Disparities exist in breast cancer knowledge and education, which tend to influence symptom interpretation and decision to seek screening/care. The present project describes a cohort of women's experiences, knowledge, and health behavior prior to and after a diagnosis of breast cancer. It also studies how knowledge and demographic factors are associated with level of involvement participants had in the treatment of their breast cancer. Women >18 years who have been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer within 10 years were recruited in Pittsburgh, PA, through the Healthy People Cohort Registry, a database of volunteers from the community, and Brooklyn, NY, through the American Cancer Society breast cancer survivor database. Subsequent to institutional ethics approval, a questionnaire was administered by mail and through an electronic interactive format. The study included 124 breast cancer survivors, one-quarter of whom were of African ancestry. Roughly half of the women indicated that their overall knowledge of breast cancer was limited before diagnosis; no significant association between overall knowledge before diagnosis and stage at diagnosis or an active role of the patient in treatment choices was observed. Two-third of the women reported using personal research on internet, books, and other media to increase knowledge on breast cancer after diagnosis; the improvement of knowledge was associated with an active role in therapy choice. White women's self report of breast cancer knowledge prior to diagnosis was higher than that of women of African origin (p?=?0.03); the latter experienced more delays in getting results about the diagnosis (p?=?0.002), in starting treatment (p?=?0.03), and in having treatment available at local facilities (p?=?0.007) than white women. White women were more likely to improve their knowledge through their own research (p?=?0.08) and through the contribution of their physician (p?=?0.06) than women of African origin.There is still a need for addressing breast cancer knowledge among black women, and improvement in physician emotional support and in their contribution to the patient's knowledge is necessary. These efforts may have a positive impact on breast cancer knowledge among black women in the US. PMID:24022520

  12. Examining students' perceptions of study abroad programs involving sport through application of the social cognitive career theory

    E-print Network

    Jones, Gregory C.

    2009-06-02

    With sport organizations venturing into the global realm, it is important to discover sport management students' interest in studying abroad in sport. Previous research has attempted to discover career intentions using the social cognitive career...

  13. A naturalistic observational study of children's expressions of anger in the family context.

    PubMed

    Sears, Meredith S; Repetti, Rena L; Reynolds, Bridget M; Sperling, Jacqueline B

    2014-04-01

    Traditional approaches to the study of children's expressions of anger rely on tightly controlled study environments to test hypotheses about outcomes and correlates of expression characteristics. An unexplored area in the study of emotion expression is a naturalistic examination of school-age children's spontaneously occurring expressions of emotion in their real, uncontrolled family contexts. This observational study describes the naturally occurring characteristics and contexts of 8- to 12-year-old children's anger expressions with family members. Thirty-one families were videotaped for 2 days at home and in community settings. Children's expressions of anger were identified and coded for angry facial, vocal and physical behaviors, and for the expressions' instigating situational contexts. The majority of anger expressions were of mild intensity and brief duration, and most often contained vocal behavioral characteristics (e.g., loud voice, whining). The most common cause of an anger expression was a verbal disagreement; other frequently occurring situational causes included homework, requests for compliance, and reprimands. Patterns in the angry behaviors children exhibited in response to specific situational causes support a functionalist perspective on emotion expression in that children engaged in behaviors that appeared to be attempts to get their needs met. Few differences were observed between mothers' and fathers' rates of instigating children's anger expressions, and between boys' and girls' expression characteristics and contexts. This study offers an ecologically valid, uniquely naturalistic methodology to describe children's observable expressions of anger as they occur in family contexts. PMID:24188059

  14. Opportunities for translational epidemiology: the important role of observational studies to advance precision oncology.

    PubMed

    Marrone, Michael; Schilsky, Richard L; Liu, Geoff; Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    Within current oncology practice, several genomic applications are being used to inform treatment decisions with molecularly targeted therapies in breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma, and other cancers. This commentary introduces a conceptual framework connecting the full spectrum of biomedical research disciplines, including fundamental laboratory research, clinical trials, and observational studies in the translation of genomic applications into clinical practice. The conceptual framework illustrates the contribution that well-designed observational epidemiologic studies provide to the successful translation of these applications, and characterizes the role observational epidemiology plays in driving the dynamic and iterative bench-to-bedside, and bedside-to-bench translation continuum. We also discuss how the principles of this conceptual model, emphasizing integration of multidisciplinary research, can be applied to the evolving paradigm in "precision oncology" focusing on multiplex tumor sequencing, and we identify opportunities for observational studies to contribute to the successful and efficient translation of this paradigm.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 484-9. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25750251

  15. Expanded clinical observations in toxicity studies: historical perspectives and contemporary issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, J F; Mattsson, J L; Fix, A S

    1998-08-01

    Recent or proposed changes in major testing guidelines require expanded clinical observations (ECOs) for a wide variety of toxicity studies in animals. ECOs supplement the simple cageside and hand-held observations traditionally employed during such studies. The new guidelines specify out-of-cage observations [e.g., posture, gait, and reactivity to various stimuli (e.g., auditory, tactile, noxious)] using defined scales and are intended as a Tier 1 screen for neurotoxicity. These new guidelines imply an elevation in the status of clinical observations to equivalency with other major categories of toxicity end points, such as anatomic and clinical pathology. The increased importance of neurological end points in routine studies indicates that there will be a need for many trained professionals to generate and interpret the results of ECOs. However, currently there is wide variation in the training and experience of individuals who conduct and interpret ECOs. The value of ECO data will be increased when industry standards for conducting and interpreting ECOs are systematized and elevated to the level of those for anatomic and clinical pathology. PMID:9784429

  16. HST observations of planetary aurorae, a unique tool to study giant magnetospheres

    E-print Network

    Lamy, L; Badman, S; Clarke, J; Gladstone, R; Pryor, W; Saur, J

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) planetary astronomy is a unique tool to probe planetary environments of the solar system and beyond. But despite a rising interest for new generation giant UV telescopes regularly proposed to international agencies, none has been selected yet, leaving the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as the most powerful UV observatory in activity. HST regularly observed the auroral emissions of the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus systems, leading to significant discoveries and achievements. This rich legacy remains of high interest for further statistical and long-term studies, but new observations are necessary to comparatively tackle pending questions, under varying solar or seasonal cycles.

  17. South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study, Data Report for Observations, October 2003 - April 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Charlene M.; Warner, John C.; Martini, Marinna A.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul A.; Haas, Kevin A.; Hanes, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Oceanographic observations have been made at nine locations in Long Bay, South Carolina from October 2003 through April 2004. These sites are centered around a shore-oblique sand feature that is approximately 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3 m thick. The observations were collected through a collaborative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of South Carolina, and Georgia Institute of Technology Savannah Campus as part of a larger study to understand the physical processes that control the transport of sediments in Long Bay.

  18. Survival benefit of extended D2 lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer with involvement of second level lymph nodes: A longitudinal multicenter study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Roviello; Daniele Marrelli; Paolo Morgagni; Giovanni de Manzoni; Alberto di Leo; Carla Vindigni; Luca Saragoni; Anna Tomezzoli; Hayato Kurihara

    2002-01-01

    Background  The survival benefit of extended lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer is still being debated. The aim\\u000a of this longitudinal multicenter study was to evaluate long-term survival in a group of patients with involvement of second\\u000a level lymph nodes, which would not have been removed in the case of a limited lymphadenectomy. Results were compared with\\u000a those in

  19. A pathway to improved prospective observational post-authorization safety studies.

    PubMed

    Kiri, Victor A

    2012-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for assessing the efficacy of drugs but not necessarily so for drug safety where inadequate power to detect either multiple or rare adverse events is a major handicap. Furthermore, the conditions under which drugs are approved for market use are often different from the settings in actual use. Indeed, with their control mechanisms, trials are by design largely inadequate for the identification of potential safety signals, especially of the rare type, hence the value of postmarketing surveillance and risk management plan-based activities. Today, clinical trials constitute only a part of the research that goes into assessing the safety of drugs. Observational studies, where the investigators merely collect data on treatments received by patients and their health status in routine clinical practice are increasing in uptake because they reflect the real-life utility of drugs, despite the absence of random treatment assignment. Although such studies generally provide less compelling evidence than RCTs, they can be far more useful to drug safety assessment activities than generally acknowledged. An increasing number of post-authorization safety studies (PASS) within the European Medicines Agency's jurisdiction are of the observational type - considered perhaps as more appropriate vehicles for exploring and documenting how products perform in the real world. A similar trend is emerging in the US following the FDA Amendments Act of 2007; since early 2010, an increasing number of post-approval commitments mandated by the FDA include observational studies. However, despite this pattern, not much is known about ongoing efforts to address many of the recognized inadequacies associated with existing methodologies and practices currently adopted in observational PASS. This current opinion presents an overview of some of the main challenges we face in prospective observational PASS, mainly from practical experience, and proposes certain steps for improvement. PMID:22861669

  20. Health promotion in primary care: How should we intervene? A qualitative study involving both physicians and patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of tobacco, physical exercise, diet, and alcohol consumption on morbidity and mortality underline the importance of health promotion and prevention (HPP) at the primary health care (PHC) level. Likewise, the deficiencies when putting such policies into practice and assessing their effectiveness are also widely recognised. The objectives of this research were: a) to gain an in-depth understanding of general practitioners' (GPs) and patients' perceptions about HPP in PHC, and b) to define the areas that could be improved in future interventions. Methods Qualitative methodology focussed on the field of health services research. Information was generated on the basis of two GP-based and two patient-based discussion groups, all of which had previously participated in two interventions concerning healthy lifestyle promotion (tobacco and physical exercise). Transcripts and field notes were analysed on the basis of a sociological discourse-analysis model. The results were validated by triangulation between researchers. Results GPs and patients' discourses about HPP in PHC were different in priorities and contents. An overall explanatory framework was designed to gain a better understanding of the meaning of GP-patient interactions related to HPP, and to show the main trends that emerged from their discourses. GPs linked their perceptions of HPP to their working conditions and experience in health services. The dimensions in this case involved the orientation of interventions, the goal of actions, and the evaluation of results. For patients, habits were mainly related to ways of life particularly influenced by close contexts. Health conceptions, their role as individuals, and the orientation of their demands were the most important dimensions in patients' sphere. Conclusions HPP activities in PHC need to be understood and assessed in the context of their interaction with the conditioning trends in health services and patients' social micro-contexts. On the basis of the explanatory framework, three development lines are proposed: the incorporation of new methodological approaches according to the complexity of HPP in PHC; the openness of habit change policies beyond the medical services; and the effective commitments in the medium to long term by the health services themselves at the policy management level. PMID:21426590