Science.gov

Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  2. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm. I - Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects. II - Model results versus observations involving electrical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Model results and the observed cloud behavior are examined in terms of nonelectrical and electrical aspects of a thunderstorm. The characteristics of the two-dimensional, time-dependent atmospheric electricity model used to simulate the cloud observations of July 19, 1981 in Miles City, Montana are described. The interactions of the dynamics and microphysics of the cloud with the charge separation mechanisms are analyzed. It is observed that the model accurately represents many of the observed characteristics of the cloud; however, the cloud base height, maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground are not accurately modeled. It is found that the model adequately represents the electrical field structure of the cloud and the electrical field strengths.

  3. Medical Expertise and Patient Involvement: A Multiperspective Qualitative Observation Study of the Patient’s Role in Oncological Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Peter; Wäscher, Sebastian; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Decision making in oncology poses intricate ethical questions because treatment decisions should account not only for evidence-based standards but also for the patient’s individual values and preferences. However, there is a scarcity of empirical knowledge about patient involvement in oncological decision making. Methods. Direct, nonparticipant observation was used as a qualitative research method to gain an understanding of the interplay between medical expertise and patient participation in oncological decision making. Based on a multiperspective approach, observations were performed in three settings (tumor conference, ward round, and outpatient clinic) in the oncology department of a German university hospital. The observation transcripts were analyzed using central features of qualitative data analysis. Results. Major differences were identified regarding the decision-making processes in the three settings related to the patient’s presence or absence. When the patient was absent, his or her wishes were cited only irregularly; however, patients actively advanced their wishes when present. Preselection of treatments by physicians was observed, narrowing the scope of options that were finally discussed with the patient. Dealing with decisions about risky treatments was especially regarded as part of the physician’s professional expertise. Conclusion. The study reveals aspects of decision making for cancer patients that have been underexposed in the empirical and theoretical literature so far. Among these are the relevance of structural aspects for the decisions made and the practice of preselection of treatment options. It should be further discussed how far medical expertise reaches and whether therapeutic decisions can be made without consulting the patient. PMID:24760711

  4. Troponin T in Patients with Traumatic Chest Injuries with and without Cardiac Involvement: Insights from an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Ismail; El-Menyar, Ayman; Dabdoob, Wafer; Abdulrahman, Yassir; Siddiqui, Tarriq; Atique, Sajid; Arumugam, Suresh Kumar; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum troponin T (TnT) is a common marker of myocardial injury. However, its implication in the absence of clinical evidence of cardiac reason is not well established. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the implications of positive TnT in traumatic chest injury (TCI) patients regardless of the cardiac involvement. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all TCI patients admitted to level 1 trauma center between 2008 and 2011. Patients who underwent TnT testing were divided into two groups: Group 1 (positive TnT) and Group 2 (negative TnT). The two groups were analyzed and compared, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of TnT positivity and mortality. Results: Out of 993 blunt TCI patients, 19.3% had positive TnT (Group 1). On comparison to Group 2, patients in Group 1 were 5 years younger and more likely to have head, cardiac, hepatic, splenic, and pelvic injuries, in addition to lung contusion. Positive TnT was associated with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (P = 0.001), higher chest Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) (P = 0.001), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.03). In addition, Group 1 patients were more likely to undergo chest tube insertion, exploratory laparotomy, mechanical ventilation, and tracheostomy. Twenty patients had cardiac involvement, and of them 14 had positive TnT. Among 973 patients who showed no evidence of cardiac involvement, 178 had positive TnT (18.3%). There were 104 deaths (60% in Group 1). On multivariate regression analysis, the predictors of hospital mortality were positive TnT, head injury, and high ISS, whereas, the predictors of TnT positivity were cardiac, hepatic, and pelvic injuries; higher ISS; and age. Conclusions: Positive TnT in blunt TCI patients is a common challenge, particularly in polytrauma cases. Patients with positive TnT tend to have the worst outcome even in the absence of clinical evidence of acute cardiac involvement. Positive TnT is also a reflection of the severity of chest or extrathoracic injuries; however, further prospective studies are warranted.

  5. Involving Learners in Planning TNO Observations with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.; de Villiers, G.; Tlaka, C.

    2006-03-01

    We present a "real science project" at the Johannesburg Planetarium in which learners from less-well-resourced schools helped plan observations at SALT by "observing" home-made "minor planets" using cellphone cameras and photo-software.

  6. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains

  7. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  8. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  9. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  10. A Futile Redox Cycle Involving Neuroglobin Observed at Physiological Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anyang; Brittain, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identifying the potential anti-apoptotic role of neuroglobin raise the question as to how cells might employ neuroglobin to avoid the apoptotic impact of acute hypoxia whilst also avoiding chronic enhancement of tumour formation. We show that under likely physiological conditions neuroglobin can take part in a futile redox cycle. Determination of the rate constants for each of the steps in the cycle allows us to mathematically model the steady state concentration of the active anti-apoptotic ferrous form of neuroglobin under various conditions. Under likely normal physiological conditions neuroglobin is shown to be present in the ferrous state at approximately 30% of its total cellular concentration. Under hypoxic conditions this rapidly rises to approximately 80%. Temporal analysis of this model indicates that the transition from low concentrations to high concentration of ferrous neuroglobin occurs on the seconds time scale. These findings indicate a potential control model for the anti-apoptotic activity of neuroglobin, under likely physiological conditions, whereby, in normoxic conditions, the anti-apoptotic activity of neuroglobin is maintained at a low level, whilst immediately a transition occurs to a hypoxic situation, as might arise during stroke, the anti-apoptotic activity is drastically increased. In this way the cell avoids unwanted increased oncogenic potential under normal conditions, but the rapid activation of neuroglobin provides anti-apoptotic protection in times of acute hypoxia. PMID:26305249

  11. Differential involvement of somatosensory and interoceptive cortices during the observation of affective touch.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Ferri, Francesca; Salone, Anatolia; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; D'Amico, Luigi; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences of self and others. In order to investigate these issues, in the present fMRI study, healthy participants either experienced touch or watched videos depicting other individuals' inanimate and animate/social touch experiences. Essentially, a distinction can be made between exteroceptive and interoceptive components of touch processing, involved with physical stimulus characteristics and internal feeling states, respectively. Consistent with this distinction, a specific negative modulation was found in the posterior insula by the mere visual perception of other individuals' social or affective cutaneous experiences, compared to neutral inanimate touch. On the other hand, activation in secondary somatosensory and posterior superior temporal regions, strongest for the most intense stimuli, seemed more dependent on the observed physical stimulus characteristics. In contrast to the detected vicarious activation in somatosensory regions, opposite activation patterns for the experience (positive modulation) and observation (negative modulation) of touch suggest that the posterior insula does not reflect a shared representation of self and others' experiences. Embedded in a distributed network of brain regions underpinning a sense of the bodily self, the posterior insula rather appears to differentiate between self and other conditions when affective experiences are implicated. PMID:20666597

  12. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  13. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  17. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-12-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family. PMID:26735503

  18. Observational Studies: Matching or Regression?

    PubMed

    Brazauskas, Ruta; Logan, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    In observational studies with an aim of assessing treatment effect or comparing groups of patients, several approaches could be used. Often, baseline characteristics of patients may be imbalanced between groups, and adjustments are needed to account for this. It can be accomplished either via appropriate regression modeling or, alternatively, by conducting a matched pairs study. The latter is often chosen because it makes groups appear to be comparable. In this article we considered these 2 options in terms of their ability to detect a treatment effect in time-to-event studies. Our investigation shows that a Cox regression model applied to the entire cohort is often a more powerful tool in detecting treatment effect as compared with a matched study. Real data from a hematopoietic cell transplantation study is used as an example. PMID:26712591

  19. MAXimising Involvement in MUltiMorbidity (MAXIMUM) in primary care: protocol for an observation and interview study of patients, GPs and other care providers to identify ways of reducing patient safety failures

    PubMed Central

    Daker-White, Gavin; Hays, Rebecca; Esmail, Aneez; Minor, Brian; Barlow, Wendy; Brown, Benjamin; Blakeman, Thomas; Bower, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increasing numbers of older people are living with multiple long-term health conditions but global healthcare systems and clinical guidelines have traditionally focused on the management of single conditions. Having two or more long-term conditions, or multimorbidity, is associated with a range of adverse consequences and poor outcomes and could put patients at increased risk of safety failures. Traditionally, most research into patient safety failures has explored hospital or inpatient settings. Much less is known about patient safety failures in primary care. Our core aims are to understand the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures, to explore the different ways in which patients and services respond (or fail to respond), and to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods and analysis We plan to undertake an applied ethnographic study of patients with multimorbidity. Patients interactions and environments, relevant to their healthcare, will be studied through observations, diary methods and semistructured interviews. A framework, based on previous studies, will be used to organise the collection and analysis of field notes, observations and other qualitative data. This framework includes the domains: access breakdowns, communication breakdowns, continuity of care errors, relationship breakdowns and technical errors. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee for Wales. An individual case study approach is likely to be most fruitful for exploring the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures. A longitudinal and multiperspective approach will allow for the constant comparison of patient, carer and healthcare worker expectations and experiences related to the provision, integration and management of complex care. This data will be used to explore ways of engaging patients and carers more in their own care using shared decision-making, patient empowerment or other relevant models. PMID:25138807

  20. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533

  1. Lung Involvement in Multiple Myeloma - Case Study

    PubMed Central

    NI?U, MIMI; CRI?AN, EMILIA; OLTEANU, M.; C?L?RA?U, CRISTINA; OLTEANU, M?D?LINA; POPESCU, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mutiple mieloma (MM) cells are rarely found in extramedullary sites. The sites of extramedullary dissemination reported in the literature are spleen, liver, lymph nodes, kidneys, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovary, tests, lung, pleura, pericardium, intestinal tract and skin. We report a case in which the myeloma was diagnosed after we discovered the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Matherial and method: a case in which diagnosis was established from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid demonstrating the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in Craiova Pneumology Departament. Results: Analysis of BAL fluid for the presence of plasma cells and for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin DNA provides a noninvasive means of establishing the diagnosis. Conclusions: Pulmonary parenchyma is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma. Interstitial lung disease as pulmonary manifestation of multiple myeloma is even rarer; only isolated cases with histological proofs have been reported in the literature.

  2. Efficient estimation of ideal-observer performance in classification tasks involving high-dimensional complex backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Subok; Clarkson, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The Bayesian ideal observer is optimal among all observers and sets an absolute upper bound for the performance of any observer in classification tasks [Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Academic, 1968).]. Therefore, the ideal observer should be used for objective image quality assessment whenever possible. However, computation of ideal-observer performance is difficult in practice because this observer requires the full description of unknown, statistical properties of high-dimensional, complex data arising in real life problems. Previously, Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were developed by Kupinski et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430(2003) ] and by Park et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B136 (2007) and IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 657 (2009) ] to estimate the performance of the ideal observer and the channelized ideal observer (CIO), respectively, in classification tasks involving non-Gaussian random backgrounds. However, both algorithms had the disadvantage of long computation times. We propose a fast MCMC for real-time estimation of the likelihood ratio for the CIO. Our simulation results show that our method has the potential to speed up ideal-observer performance in tasks involving complex data when efficient channels are used for the CIO. PMID:19884916

  3. Science Studies from Archived Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and available history where versioning has occurred. While these are challenging criteria to meet-especially in succinct form-the use of archival data for valid science publication requires that these criteria are achieved. The full presentation will illustrate and expand on these criteria.

  4. Direct Observation of Intermediates Involved in the Interruption of the Bischler-Napieralski Reaction.

    PubMed

    White, Kolby L; Mewald, Marius; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The first mechanistic investigation of electrophilic amide activation of ?,?-disubstituted tertiary lactams and the direct observation of key intermediates by in situ FTIR, (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR in our interrupted Bischler-Napieralski-based synthetic strategy to the aspidosperma alkaloids, including a complex tetracyclic diiminium ion, is discussed. The reactivity of a wide range of pyridines with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was systematically examined, and characteristic IR absorption bands for the corresponding N-trifluoromethanesulfonylated pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonates were assigned. The reversible formation of diiminium ether intermediates was studied, providing insight into divergent mechanistic pathways as a function of the steric environment of the amide substrate and stoichiometry of reagents. Importantly, when considering base additives during electrophilic amide activation, more hindered ?-quaternary tertiary lactams require the use of non-nucleophilic pyridine additives in order to avoid deactivation via a competing desulfonylation reaction. The isolation and full characterization of a tetracyclic iminium trifluoromethanesulfonate provided additional correlation between in situ characterization of sensitive intermediates and isolable compounds involved in this synthetic transformation. PMID:26166404

  5. Analysis of computed tomography and pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement

    PubMed Central

    QI, YUAN-GANG; FANG, ZE-HUI; HUANG, YONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between computed tomography (CT) images and the pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement. In total, 26 patients suffering from an NHL with peritoneal, omental or mesenteric involvement were reviewed retrospectively, and the observed CT scan characteristics were analyzed. In addition, associations among the CT scan characteristics and the NHL subtypes, including diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, follicular cell and T-cell lymphoma, were evaluated. The CT scan characteristics of the NHLs with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement included peritoneal cord-like thickening, peritoneal omental nodular and swelling thickening, omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass. The probability of peritoneal linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening was found to be higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases compared with cases of other NHL subtypes (P<0.05). However, the probability of omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass was not found to be significantly different among the NHL subtypes (P>0.05). Signs of peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement were observed in the CT scans of all the NHL subtypes, particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases. Therefore, linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening were characteristic of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass were observed in all NHL subtypes. PMID:25667648

  6. Observational Evidence for Involvement of Nitrate Radicals in Nighttime Oxidation of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mordechai; Tas, Eran; Obrist, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Moore, Christopher; Gabay, Maor; Luria, Menachem

    2015-12-15

    In the atmosphere, reactive forms of mercury species can be produced by oxidation of the dominant gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). The oxidation of GEM is an important driver for deposition, but oxidation pathways currently are poorly constrained and likely differ among regions. In this study, continuous measurements of atmospheric nitrate radical (NO3) concentrations and mercury speciation (i.e., elemental and reactive, oxidized forms) were performed during a six week period in the urban air shed of Jerusalem, Israel during summer 2012, to investigate the potential nighttime contribution of nitrate radicals to oxidized mercury formation. Average nighttime concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were almost equivalent to daytime levels (25 pg m(-3) and 27 pg m(-3) respectively), in contrast to early morning and evening RGM levels which dropped to low levels (9 and 13 pg m(-3)). During daytime, the presence of RGM was increased when solar radiation exceeded 200 W m(-2), suggesting a photochemical process for daytime RGM formation. Ozone concentrations were largely unrelated to daytime RGM. Nighttime RGM concentrations were relatively high (with a maximum of 97 pg m(-3)) compared to nighttime levels in other urban regions. A strong correlation was observed between nighttime RGM concentrations and nitrate radical concentration (R(2) averaging 0.47), while correlations to other variables were weak (e.g., RH; R(2) = 0.35) or absent (e.g., ozone, wind speed and direction, pollution tracers such as CO or SO2). Detailed analyses suggest that advection processes or tropospheric influences were unlikely to explain the strong nighttime correlations between NO3 and RGM, although these processes may contribute to these relationships. Our observations suggest that NO3 radicals may play a role in RGM formation, possibly due to a direct chemical involvement in GEM oxidation. Since physical data, however, suggest that NO3 unlikely initiates GEM oxidation, NO3 may play a secondary role in GEM oxidation through the addition to an unstable Hg(I) radical species. PMID:26551088

  7. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  8. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  9. Involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic (mdx) mouse skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Martin, Dominique; Colson-Van Schoor, Monique; Debaix, Huguette; Gailly, Philippe

    2002-09-16

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from the lack of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the inner surface membrane, in skeletal muscle. The absence of dystrophin induces an abnormal increase of sarcolemmal calcium influx through cationic channels in adult skeletal muscle fibers from dystrophic (mdx) mice. We observed that the activity of these channels was increased after depletion of the stores of calcium with thapsigargin or caffeine. By analogy with the situation observed in nonexcitable cells, we therefore hypothesized that these store-operated channels could belong to the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family. We measured the expression of TRPC isoforms in normal and mdx adult skeletal muscles fibers, and among the seven known isoforms, five were detected (TRPC1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry of normal and mdx muscle fibers demonstrated the localization of TRPC1, 4, and 6 proteins at the plasma membrane. Therefore, an antisense strategy was used to repress these TRPC isoforms. In parallel with the repression of the TRPCs, we observed that the occurrence of calcium leak channels was decreased to one tenth of its control value (patch-clamp technique), showing the involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic fibers. PMID:12235126

  10. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, S; Schmalbruch, H; Rrth, M; Krarup, C

    2007-04-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses. At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin. PMID:17301082

  11. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  12. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main

  13. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  14. International Study of Business/Industry Involvement with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.; Eckstein, Max A.

    The study reported in this paper describes business/industry involvement with the education of secondary school students in Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, and France. The study covers the following: business/industry's criticisms and recommendations about secondary education; the institutional framework within which business/industry

  15. Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patients depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the low level model. However, this result was highly uncertain, as shown by the confidence intervals. Conclusions Classification of patients depressive state was feasible, but time consuming, using the classification framework proposed. Further validation of the framework is required. Unlike the analyses of diabetes and obesity management, no significant differences in the proportion of depression-free days or health service costs were found between the alternative levels of practice nurse involvement. PMID:24422622

  16. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  17. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  18. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  20. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  1. Carer involvement with drug services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: Current levels of involvement, Use of the term carer and Opportunities for change? Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term carer was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the same but different from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899

  2. Caregiver Involvement in Hospice Interdisciplinary Team Meetings: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Petty, Bethany; Day, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Involving caregivers in hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) meetings has been offered as a potential solution to caregivers' unmet communication needs. This case study details one caregiver's participation in her mother's hospice interdisciplinary team care planning meetings, both in person and via videophone technology. This preliminary case is offered as part of a larger National Cancer Institute sponsored study investigating involvement of caregivers in team meetings using videophone technology. This analysis highlights communication differences between the two mediums as well as measures caregiver outcomes. Findings noted differences in team leadership and verbal validation and remediation between the two mediums. Caregiver outcomes revealed potential benefits of their involvement in team meetings. Caregiver-team communication issues are noted including the need for standardized caregiver assessment and team education and training. PMID:19227021

  3. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  4. Asymmetric profiles observed in the recombination of Bi{sup 79+}: A benchmark for relativistic theories involving interference

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke; Kavanagh, Anthony P.; Currell, Fred J.; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Li Yueming; Tong Xiaomin

    2009-07-15

    Asymmetric profiles have been observed in the recombination cross section of Be-like Bi obtained by measuring the electron energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in an electron-beam ion trap. In contrast to the previous x-ray measurements, the present measurement gives the integrated recombination cross section with higher statistical quality, which provides a benchmark to test the relativistic theory involving the interference between the resonant and continuum states. The comparison with our theoretical study shows that the Breit interaction plays an important role in this case.

  5. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  6. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  7. Interactions in supramolecular complexes involving arenes: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hans-Jrg

    2013-04-16

    The process of learning by doing has fueled supramolecular chemistry and, more specifically, the understanding of noncovalent aromatic interactions in synthetic and natural systems. The preparation of new host molecules and the investigation of their complexations have produced many insights into significant noncovalent binding mechanisms. In this Account, we attempt to discuss significant binding contributions involving aromatic units and their practical applications. We use typical examples from our group and the literature, but this Account is not a comprehensive view of the field. Other than systems with saturated frameworks, host compounds based on arenes offer better controlled conformations and active interactions with many guest molecules. Because of their fluorescent properties, larger aryl systems are particularly suitable for sensors. The noncovalent interactions observed with different supramolecular complexes can be compared and exploited for interactions with biopolymers such as nucleic acids. Complexes formed with cyclophanes have been a constant source of inspiration for understanding noncovalent forces and their use for the design of functional supramolecular systems. Other than cyclodextrins or ionophores, which occur in nature, arene-based macrocycles are synthetic and provide more opportunities for structural variations than other macrocycles. These derivatives allow researchers to study and to exploit an unusually broad variety of binding mechanisms in both aqueous and organic media. Systematic analyses of complexes with different substituents and structures in solution, based also on flat aromatic systems such as porphyrins, can lead to a consistent picture of the noncovalent forces that dominate in these systems. These studies have elucidated attractive interactions between many heteroatoms and ? systems including cyclopropanes . Through systematic analysis of the equilibrium measurements one can derive binding free energy increments for different interactions. The increments are usually additive and provide predictive tools for the design of new supramolecular systems, benchmarks for computational approaches, and an aid for drug design. In aqueous media, the major noncovalent forces between different aryl systems or between arenes and heteroatoms of larger polarizibility are dispersive, and hydrophobic forces play a minor role. In several examples, we show that electrostatic forces also contribute significantly if donor and acceptor groups show complimentarity. In early investigations, researchers found cation-? and, to a lesser degree, anion-? interactions with several cyclophanes in systems where the host or the guest molecules bear charges in an orientation that facilitates contact between charged and aryl portions of the molecules. In supramolecular complexes, hydrogen bonding effects are usually only visible in apolar media, but very strong acceptors such as phenolate anions can also work in water. To facilitate potential applications, researchers have primarily developed water-soluble, arene-containing receptors through the implementation of permanent charges. Supramolecular complexes that mimic enzymes can also rely on aryl interactions. Examples in this Account illustrate that the conformation of host-guest complexes may differ significantly between the solid and solution state, and suitable spectroscopic methods are needed to observe and control these conformations. PMID:22853652

  8. Murder-suicides involving children: a 29-year study.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Knight, D; James, R A; Gilbert, J

    1999-12-01

    Review was undertaken from February 1969 to January 1998 at the State forensic science center (Forensic Science) in Adelaide, South Australia, of all cases of murder-suicide involving children <16 years of age. A total of 13 separate cases were identified involving 30 victims, all of whom were related to the perpetrators. There were 7 male and 6 female perpetrators (age range, 23-41 years; average, 31 years) consisting of 6 mothers, 6 father/husbands, and 1 uncle/son-in-law. The 30 victims consisted of 11 daughters, 11 sons, 1 niece, 1 mother-in-law, and 6 wives of the assailants. The 23 children were aged from 10 months to 15 years (average, 6.0 years). The 6 mothers murdered 9 children and no spouses, with 3 child survivors. The 6 fathers murdered 13 children and 6 wives, with 1 child survivor. This study has demonstrated a higher percentage of female perpetrators than other studies of murder-suicide. The methods of homicide and suicide used were generally less violent among the female perpetrators compared with male perpetrators. Fathers killed not only their children but also their wives, whereas mothers murdered only their children. These results suggest differences between murder-suicides that involve children and adult-only cases, and between cases in which the mother rather than the father is the perpetrator. PMID:10624923

  9. Inter-observer variation in methodologies involving the pubic symphysis, sternal ribs, and teeth.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Prince, Debra A; Berg, Gregory E

    2008-05-01

    For the skeletal age of a victim to be useful in victim identification, the methods on which it is based must be reliable, accurate, and the results easily duplicated. The ability of multiple investigators to duplicate results is an interesting and complex issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate how consistently multiple investigators assign skeletal traits to rib, pubic symphyseal, or tooth "phases" and measure teeth. The skeletal data from identified individuals in Kosovo are used to test inter-observer variation for a variety of skeletal and dental aging techniques. Two hundred and ninety-six (n = 296) pubic symphyses were scored in the manners of the Todd's ten-phase system and the Suchey-Brooks six-phase system. Six hundred and twenty-two (n = 622) sternal rib ends were scored in the manner of I?can and co-author's nine-phase system. Four hundred and twelve (n = 412) single-rooted teeth were measured in the manner of Lamendin and colleagues and scored for the amount of tooth wear using Smith's nine-phase system. Repeat measures were taken by multiple observers. There appears to be a wide range of variation, even among experienced investigators in the assignment of phase or metric data. Inter-observer variation, investigated through Pearson's r correlation coefficients, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and paired samples t-tests demonstrate significant differences using all methods. How this variation affects the accuracy of age estimation is subject to further investigation, but what is clear is that even with collaboration among investigators to calibrate with one another, the repeatability of numerous aging methodologies is difficult to achieve. Through this investigation it appears the problem lies in the qualitative nature of broad descriptive phase categories, which contain multiple skeletal features and traits that are open to interpretation. PMID:18471202

  10. Religious Congregations Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Domnguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction. PMID:20953903

  11. TLR4 is involved in the pathogenic effects observed in a murine model of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongxiang; Kong, Xiangmin; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Yachao; Sheng, Liangju; Wang, Ting; Xia, Longfei; Yan, Jinchuan

    2015-10-01

    Antiphospholipid (aPL)/anti-?2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) antibodies are considered to play a pivotal pathogenic role in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by inducing an intracellular signaling and procoagulant/proinflammatory phenotype that leads to thrombosis. There is increasing evidence that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could serve as an important molecule for anti-?2GPI recognition on target cells. However, few studies have focused on the effects of TLR4 in in vivo models. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 in the pathogenic effects of aPL/anti-?2GPI more precisely using TLR4-intact (C3H/HeN) and TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) mice. C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were injected with either IgG isolated from patient with APS (IgG-APS) or epitope-specific anti-?2GPI purified from ?2GPI peptide-immunized rabbits. We found that, following anti-?2GPI injections and vascular injury, thrombus formation in both the carotid artery and femoral vein was markedly reduced in C3H/HeJ mice when compared with C3H/HeN mice. IgG-APS or anti-?2GPI-induced carotid artery and peritoneal macrophage tissue factor activity/expression was significantly lesser in C3H/HeJ than in C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, the IgG-APS or anti-?2GPI induced expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta and of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? in peritoneal macrophages of C3H/HeJ mice was also significantly reduced compared to C3H/HeN mice. Together, these data suggest that TLR4 is involved in the pathogenic effects of aPL/anti-?2GPI antibodies in vivo. PMID:26065621

  12. Political Involvement. Community Involvement/Career Education: An Experience-based Social Studies Program, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, James; And Others

    This collection of materials and ideas is designed for the high school student who wants to try to influence society. The guide provides background information and descriptions of experience-based learning activities for use by students as they explore political involvement opportunities in their communities. The purposes of the materials are to

  13. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  14. Embedding clinical interventions into observational studies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B; Avils-Santa, M Larissa; Anderson, Garnet; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Wm James; Krucoff, Mitchell; Kuller, Lewis H; Lewis, Cora E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Taylor, Herman; Trevio, Roberto P; Weintraub, William

    2016-01-01

    Novel approaches to observational studies and clinical trials could improve the cost-effectiveness and speed of translation of research. Hybrid designs that combine elements of clinical trials with observational registries or cohort studies should be considered as part of a long-term strategy to transform clinical trials and epidemiology, adapting to the opportunities of big data and the challenges of constrained budgets. Important considerations include study aims, timing, breadth and depth of the existing infrastructure that can be leveraged, participant burden, likely participation rate and available sample size in the cohort, required sample size for the trial, and investigator expertise. Community engagement and stakeholder (including study participants) support are essential for these efforts to succeed. PMID:26611435

  15. Direct Observation of Reversible Electronic Energy Transfer Involving an Iridium Center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A cyclometalated iridium complex is reported where the core complex comprises naphthylpyridine as the main ligand and the ancillary 2,2?-bipyridine ligand is attached to a pyrene unit by a short alkyl bridge. To obtain the complex with satisfactory purity, it was necessary to modify the standard synthesis (direct reaction of the ancillary ligand with the chloro-bridged iridium dimer) to a method harnessing an intermediate tetramethylheptanolate-based complex, which was subjected to acid-promoted removal of the ancillary ligand and subsequent complexation. The photophysical behavior of the bichromophoric complex and a model complex without the pendant pyrene were studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Reversible electronic energy transfer (REET) is demonstrated, uniquely with an emissive cyclometalated iridium center and an adjacent organic chromophore. After excited-state equilibration is established (5 ns) as a result of REET, extremely long luminescence lifetimes of up to 225 ?s result, compared to 8.3 ?s for the model complex, without diminishing the emission quantum yield. As a result, remarkably high oxygen sensitivity is observed in both solution and polymeric matrices. PMID:24555716

  16. Workplace Education Initiative: Case Studies and Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrein, Bruce; And Others

    Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general observations and specific information in case studies of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on

  17. Observational Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.

    2015-07-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterization of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  18. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  19. Observational studies: cohort and case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae W; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    Observational studies constitute an important category of study designs. To address some investigative questions in plastic surgery, randomized controlled trials are not always indicated or ethical to conduct. Instead, observational studies may be the next best method of addressing these types of questions. Well-designed observational studies have been shown to provide results similar to those of randomized controlled trials, challenging the belief that observational studies are second rate. Cohort studies and case-control studies are two primary types of observational studies that aid in evaluating associations between diseases and exposures. In this review article, the authors describe these study designs and methodologic issues, and provide examples from the plastic surgery literature. PMID:20697313

  20. Small joint involvement: a systematic roentgenographic study in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Halla, J T; Fallahi, S; Hardin, J G

    1986-01-01

    Standard hand and foot roentgenograms from 200 consecutively hospitalised patients with definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were read for marginal erosions by three independent observers. For each joint or group of joints analysed the degree of symmetry (S = absolute symmetry, U = unilateral, PS = partial symmetry) was determined. The total number of joints affected significantly correlated only with disease duration; symmetry of erosions and number of affected patients were not influenced by seropositivity. Metatarsophalangeal erosions (in 70%) were the most common and were classified as S in 16%, U in 21%, and PS in 63%. Metacarpophalangeal erosions (in 68%) were also common, with a symmetry pattern of S in 19%, U in 21%, and PS in 60%. Proximal finger interphalangeal erosions (in 42%) were unilateral in 42% (S in 8% and PS in 50%). The only site where symmetry was usual (90%) was the wrist, but radiocarpal and intercarpal joints were considered together. Erosions also occurred in about 16% of the finger distal interphalangeal and 28% of the great toe interphalangeal joints. In RA roentgenographic asymmetry is usual and unilateral involvement common. PMID:3707221

  1. Surface studies of asteroids from earthbound observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, H. J.; Scaltriti, F.; Zappala, V.

    1980-04-01

    The angular diameter of minor planets under the best observation conditions of about one arcsec (seeing) at ground-based observatories usually is too small to be resolved for surface studies or diameter determinations with direct photographic or similar imaging methods. Nevertheless, the rough geometry and/or small-scale structures on the asteroid surfaces can be studied with light curve observations using high-precision photoelectric photometry and the fact that the rotation of an asteroid during a spin period is now determined for slightly more than 200 minor planets. For only a few selected asteroids (63 Ausonia, 88 Thisbe, 92 Undina, 110 Lydia, 118 Peitho, 128 Nemesis, 139 Juewa, 337 Devosa, and 599 Luisa) it is shown from details detected in the light curves, how observations of this type were carried out successfully. From the small scale features, rough linear extensions on the asteroid surface are obtained from differences in magnitude and time. Such observations will be more useful and important in the future with respect to the optimum selection of objects for a possible direct asteroid spacecraft mission.

  2. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  3. Patient involvement in drug licensing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Britten, Nicky; Denford, Sarah; Harris-Golesworthy, Faith; Jibson, Steph; Pyart, Nigel; Stein, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Embodied health movements work on the boundary between lay and expert knowledge. Consumer groups, depending on their goals, may increase or decrease pharmaceuticalization. This paper reports a small case study about the retrospective evaluation of a specific second line treatment for type 2 diabetes by an existing patient involvement group. The group is part of a research collaboration between academia and the health service in England, and shares some characteristics of embodied health movements. We used the case study to explore whether an institutionally funded non activist patient group can make a more balanced contribution to drug licensing decisions than that made by either access-oriented or injury-oriented consumer groups, without being co-opted by an institutional agenda. The questions we wished to address were how this group evaluated existing mechanisms for licensing drugs; how they balanced scientific and lay knowledge; how they made their decisions; and how they viewed their experiences as panel members. The five panel members were interviewed before and after the panel discussion in July 2013. They were critical of current licensing processes, and used their own embodied experiences of medicines to evaluate expert knowledge. Their decisions on the panel were informed either by a balancing of benefits and harms, or by trust in experts. The case study suggests that such a group may have the potential both to balance the pro-pharmaceuticalization impact of access-oriented groups and to influence forms of pharmaceutical governance. PMID:25454636

  4. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  5. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of

  6. Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

    Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in cadherins. Simulations also revealed how calcium ions control cadherin's shape and the availability of key residues involved in cell-cell adhesion, suggesting a conceptual framework for interpreting mutations in cadherin calcium binding motifs causing hereditary deafness. Overall, simulations provided a unique nanoscopic view of the dynamics and function of some of the proteins involved in mechanotransduction.

  7. Card Studies for Observational Research in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, John M.; Zittleman, Linda; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Parnes, Bennett; Smith, Peter C.; Niebauer, Linda J.; Fernald, Douglas H.; Quintela, Javan; Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Pace, Wilson D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Observational studies that collect patient-level survey data at the point-of-care are often called card studies. Card studies have been used to describe clinical problems, management, and outcomes in primary care for more than 30 years. In this article we describe 2 types of card studies and the methods for conducting them. METHODS We undertook a descriptive review of card studies conducted in 3 Colorado practice-based research networks and several other networks throughout the United States. We summarized experiences of the State Networks of Colorado Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP). RESULTS Card studies can be designed to study specific conditions or care (clinicians complete a card when they encounter patients who meet inclusion criteria) and to determine trends and prevalence of conditions (clinicians complete a card on all patients seen during a period). Data can be collected from clinicians and patients and can be linked. CONCLUSIONS Card studies provide cross-sectional descriptive data about clinical care, knowledge and behavior, perception of care, and prevalence of conditions. Card studies remain a robust method for describing primary care. PMID:21242563

  8. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  9. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  10. STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  11. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  12. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N?=?5 to N?=?13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase and Tb 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Tb 3+ in the simulated physiological solution was investigated with some electrochemical and spectroscopic methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchronous fluorescence (SF). It was found that Tb 3+ can coordinate with oxygen atoms in carbonyl groups in the peptide chain of HRP, form the complex of Tb 3+ and HRP (Tb-HRP), and then lead to the conformation change of HRP. The increase in the random coil content of HRP can disturb the microstructure of the heme active center of HRP, in which the planarity of the porphyrin cycle in the heme group is increased and then the exposure extent of the electrochemical active center is decreased. Thus Tb 3+ can inhibit the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H 2O 2 at the Au/Cys/GC electrode. The changes in the microstructure of HRP obstructed the electron transfer of Fe(III) in the porphyrin cycle of the heme group, thus HRP catalytic activity is inhibited. The inhibition effect of Tb 3+ on HRP catalytic activity is increased with the increasing of Tb 3+ concentration. This study would provide some references for better understanding the rare earth elements and heavy metals on peroxidase toxicity in living organisms.

  14. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  15. Study of ENSO Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Observations within the last 1 to 1.5 decades indicate that the El Nio warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have peaked more often in the central Pacific than in the eastern Pacific. The advection of the eastern edge of western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) plays an important role modulating the SST in the central Pacific, and satellite observations provide high-resolution information to understand the dynamics in this area. The Aquarius satellite data resolves much more detailed structures of the salinity front (SF) along the eastern edge of WPWP than the in situ observations (i.e. Argo). Together with zonal currents from Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-Time product (OSCAR), we calculate the advection of the SF at the equator, which is important for three reasons: First, the advection of the SF affects formation the barrier layer (BL), which can further influence the behavior of ENSO. Second, the east-west SF migration is a prominent feature of ENSO variability. For example, during the 2011 La Nia, the salinity front was advected westward, resulting in much higher salinity in the western Pacific compared to the neutral year in 2012. Third, we can analyze how the ocean compensates for the large vertical net freshwater flux (~3 m yr-1) into the warm pool region using simple salt budget analysis. During the boreal fall, Aquarius reveals the strong SF in line with the north-south zonal bounds of the whole Pacific ITCZ rain band centered at about 8-10N, which is also aligned with boundaries between the zonal equatorial current and counter current. At the same time, the thick barrier layers underneath the ITCZ are also observed. In this study, we apply the first two+ years (25 August 2011 - present) of Aquarius data to describe the correlations among the SF, surface currents, precipitation and the BL in the whole tropical Pacific basin, and discuss findings in the context of ENSO prediction and model comparisons.

  16. Detection of single cells: an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Nancy L.; Pollmann, Steven I.; Habets, Damiaan F.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2004-05-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have brought high-resolution imaging into the practical laboratory setting. As a result, there has been increasing interest in imaging molecular and cellular processes in live animals. To image a single cell, a contrast medium, radiolabel or metallic label is inserted into the cell, which is then introduced into the animal. How well the cell is visualized depends upon the contrast-to-noise ratio between the cell and the surrounding tissues, along with other factors such as the amount of signal present in each voxel of the image and the size of the contrast-enhanced region, as compared with the image dimensions. Through observer studies, we are investigating the detectability of a single cell in an image. We synthesized uniform volumetric datasets with Gaussian distributed noise and altered a single voxel to reflect one of 5 different contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) to create the cell-labeled image. The maximum intensity projection was acquired through each image. For each dataset, a high-contrast signal-only image was flanked on either side by the noise image and the cell-labeled image to create an image triplet. The observer task was to locate the cell-labeled image in a two-alternative forced choice study.

  17. Observations on Bilingual Lexicography Involving Bantu and Indo-European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogho, Kalumbo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the methods of the pioneers of language study in the Bantu-speaking areas of Africa, criticizes their approaches to presenting information about African languages in lexical form, and notes that bilingual dictionaries are not adapted to the needs of African people. Suggests some technical procedures for future lexicographers to follow.

  18. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also

  19. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  20. Parents and Federal Education Programs. Volume 1: The Nature, Causes, and Consequences of Parental Involvement. The Study of Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaragno, Ralph J.; And Others

    Intended to provide a comprehensive view of parental involvement in school districts receiving federal education funds, this study collected data on four federal programs in 57 projects across the country. Titles I and VII of the Elementary Secondary Education Act, the Emergency School Aid Act, and Follow Through were examined. The entire study is

  1. Laser Studies of Species Involved in Plasma Etching Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to investigate the chemistry of free radicals in a 13MHz parallel plate discharge in CF_4 and CF _4/O_2 mixtures, systems of industrial importance for the production of integrated circuit devices. The free radicals CF_2 and CF were detected, with the first rotationally resolved LIF excitation spectra of the CF radical reported. Lifetimes and branching ratios for fluorescence from the A ^2Sigma^+ v^ ' = 0 and 1 levels were determined. The latter indicate that the electronic transition dipole moment varies considerably with vibrational quantum number. The absolute concentrations of CF and CF_2 radicals in a 50mTorr 100W CF_4 plasma were determined to be 1.1 +/- 3 times 10^{12 } and 7 +/- 3 times 10^{12}cm ^{-3} respectively. The rotational temperature of the bath gas was less than 100K higher than ambient in a 200W 200mTorr plasma. The technique of time-resolved LIF, combined with modulation of the R.F. power supply, was developed to determine the radical reaction rate constants, and, when combined with the absolute concentration measurements, the rates of radical production. These studies indicated the importance of surface catalysed reactions for transient species produced in the discharge. A one-dimensional diffusion model was developed to interpret the temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the CF and CF_2 concentrations. At 50mTorr wall reaction was the major loss process for both radicals, and the sticking coefficients were determined. At 500mTorr both radicals were observed to undergo significant gas phase reactions. The results indicated that the radical production process was enhanced close to the powered electrode at both pressures. The chemistry of these radicals in a CF_4/O _2 plasma was also investigated. Both radicals were observed to have much greater reaction rates in a pure CF_4 plasma, and suggestions as to the reactions of importance in these systems are made. Similar temporally and spatially resolved studies of the remaining important species present in the plasma, notably CF_3 and atomic F and O, are necessary for a fuller understanding of the system.

  2. Observational studies of drizzle in marine stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Dione Lee

    The most expansive and persistent clouds, reducing the net radiation balance on a annually averaged global basis by 15 W/m2, are the low-lying marine stratocumulus (MSc) which hover over the eastern subtropical oceans. Despite their climatic importance, key processes and feedbacks within the MSc regime have yet to be fully quantified or understood. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of MSc processes and their impact on the marine boundary layer (MBL). Specifically, using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical measurements, this research pays particular attention to the process of drizzle, the sedimentation of liquid water. Data utilized in this study primarily come from the Artium Flight Phase Doppler Interferometer (F/PDI) and the Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) during four days of the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005 in the northeastern Pacific near Monterey, California. Results presented in this dissertation are especially unique because of the broad and continuous range in which the F/PDI samples (2-100 mum diameter), a size range measured by no other instrument alone with the same resolution and accuracy. The upper portion of this size range, 30 to 100 mum, is of particular importance to the initiation and evolution of drizzle but traditionally, has been difficult to measure well. The first goal of this research was to characterize in-cloud drizzle during the four MASE days by exploring the horizontal and vertical structure of drizzle. Drizzle statistics indicate two microphysical regimes exist, a high drizzle regime, associated with patches of heavy drizzle occurring in clusters, and a low drizzle regime, associated with more uniform, light-to-no drizzle. Heavy drizzle regimes exhibit significant drop growth by collision-coalescence while low drizzle regimes exhibit drop growth primarily from condensation. The second goal of this research is to quantify the effects of drizzle on the MBL via the process of evaporation. The observations indicate a large range of BL cooling exists among the four study days. Sub-cloud profiles of evaporative cooling show variability in the location of peak and total depth of cooling. Variability is also found to exist in the horizontal. Lastly, cloud top (CT) processes which may be responsible for the initiation of drizzle during the heavy drizzle days are investigated. We utilize drop size distribution (DSD) measured from CIP/PDI and derived from box model simulations to calculate CT collision rates. We found the observational collision rates follow a power law with the observed slope, m , varying at CT between well-developed and less-developed drizzling MSc. No correlations between m and other observed cloud properties were found. Drop size distributions simulated from a box model of collision-coalescence suggest that while collision rates can be impacted by properties such as turbulence and cloud drop residence time, realistic values were insufficient to reproduce observed CT collision rates.

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Laorden, Elena; Garca-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecn, Paola; Atucha, Noem M; Milans, Mara-Victoria; Laorden, Mara-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  4. Determinants of hemorrhagic infarcts. Histologic observations from experiments involving coronary occlusion, coronary reperfusion, and reocclusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Dorado, D.; Throux, P.; Solares, J.; Alonso, J.; Fernandez-Avils, F.; Elizaga, J.; Soriano, J.; Botas, J.; Munoz, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of intramyocardial hemorrhage was performed in 69 pigs submitted to various protocols of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. The study groups include 1) permanent occlusion; 2) reperfusion after periods of coronary occlusion of 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes; 3) reperfusion with diltiazem and with 4) methoxamine after a 60-minute occlusion period; and 5) permanent reocclusion after a 30-minute period of reperfusion. Red blood cell counts were directly assessed by visual examination of histologic slices of myocardium and in a subgroup of animals by counts of red blood cells labeled with 99m-technetium pertechnetate. Hemorrhage occurs in infarcts reperfused after a duration of 45 minutes or more of coronary occlusion and after a period of reperfusion maintained for at least 30 minutes. Red blood cell counts were maximal in the mid portions of transmural sections of the infarcts, with decreasing values toward epicardium and endocardium. Diltiazem decreased total red blood cell counts, whereas methoxamine increased it and also caused subendocardial hemorrhage. The most powerful predictors of the severity of hemorrhage after sustained reperfusion were infarct size and higher blood pressure. Images Figure 3 Figure 3 PMID:2386198

  5. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  6. A cross sectional study of renal involvement in tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J A; Oliver, K; Mueller, R F; Sampson, J

    1996-01-01

    Renal disease is a frequent manifestation of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and yet little is known about its true prevalence or natural history. We reviewed the notes of 139 people with TSC, who had presented without renal symptoms, but who had been investigated by renal ultrasound. Information on the frequency, type, and symptomatology of renal involvement was retrieved. The prevalence of renal involvement was 61%. Angiomyolipomas were detected in 49%, renal cysts in 32%, and renal carcinoma in 2.2%. The prevalence of angiomyolipoma was positively correlated with age, compatible with a two hit aetiology. Renal cysts were the commoner lesion in young children, and their prevalence did not appear to be age related. Renal investigation in people with TSC had been inconsistent and limited. We suggest guidelines for renal investigation in those with TSC. Images PMID:8782048

  7. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:25046131

  8. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  9. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  10. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A.

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  12. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  13. Involving study populations in the review of genetic research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R R; Foster, M W

    2000-01-01

    Genetic research can present risks to all members of a study population, not just those who choose to participate in research. The authors suggest that community-based reviews of research protocols can help identify and minimize such research-related risks. PMID:11067631

  14. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of

  15. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Lazzareschi, Daniel V; Taviloglu, Korhan; Van Goor, Harry; Viale, Pierluigi; Leppaniemi, Ari; De Werra, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates.Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high.In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES), in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E) and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study.The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI. PMID:22152549

  16. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES), in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E) and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI. PMID:22152549

  17. Concentrated Study: A Pedagogic Innovation Observed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlett, Malcolm R.; King, John G.

    The Concentrated Study (COS) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is fulltime study of a single subject for a short period with no concurrent academic commitments. Chapter one describes the first trial of COS at MIT. Emphasis is placed on planning and preparation, description of course work and activities, and evaluation.

  18. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  19. Multispectral satellite observations for arid land studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data when properly calibrated and standardized can be used synergistically for a quantitative analysis of processes and surface characteristics, and for quantifying land surface change. Relationships among multispectral satellite data (visible reflectance, surface temperature and polarization difference of microwave emission at 37 GHz frequency) have been used to develop hypotheses concerning the relative sensitivity of these data to varied land surface characteristics, which needs to be verified by field observations. Radiative transfer models have also been developed to understand these multispectral data. Interannual variations of visible reflectance and polarization difference for the period 1982-1986 over the Sahel and the Sudan zones of Africa show a lagged response with respect to the rainfall deficit during recovery from drought, which needs to be understood in terms of biophysical parameters.

  20. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  1. Ethics of studies involving human volunteers. I. Historical background.

    PubMed

    Carson, P A; Holt, J

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of personal products using panels of human volunteers is crucial to the continued development of the industry. Nowadays, however, it is increasingly important to ensure that such studies are both safe for the participants and are ethical. As a means of defining general rules for judging and justifying the ethics of human testing, historical milestones in the development of human experimentation are given. While most experience originates from biomedical research, findings help establish standards of ethical review of non-therapeutic human testing used in the cosmetics industry. PMID:16832572

  2. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  3. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key

  4. Evaluation of autoimmune safety signal in observational vaccine safety studies

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chun; Jacobsen, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune safety evaluation is an important component of post-licensure vaccine safety evaluation. Recently, we published the findings from a large observational safety study of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in females. From this study, based on two large managed care organizations, we have obtained some empirical data that may prove useful for the design of future vaccine safety studies within a managed care environment. For autoimmune conditions, a major challenge in vaccine safety study is to determine true incident cases in relation to the timing of vaccination. We found expert case review of medical records an indispensable component for autoimmune safety studies based on electronic health records. Case identification should also be expanded to include the use of laboratory test results or other relevant measures in addition to the disease specific ICD-9 diagnosis codes, when applicable. Furthermore, we recommend the parallel use of both safety signal evaluation that involves pattern evaluation for conditions that are more common, and statistical comparisons for conditions that are rather rare. Finally, we recommend an accompanying vaccine uptake study to understand the potential selection bias and confounding in a given study population that should be addressed with data collection and analytical techniques. PMID:22871958

  5. Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R

    1991-01-01

    The term autogynephilia denotes a male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman. This term subsumes transvestism as well as erotic ideas or situations in which women's garments per se play a small role or none at all. This review article presents clinical examples of the lesser known types of autogynephilia (i.e., those in which the element of cross-dressing is secondary or entirely absent), sketches earlier attempts to label and conceptualize these phenomena, summarizes recent quantitative studies exploring the relationships between autogynephilia and other psychosexual variables (e.g., heterosexual attraction), and speculates on the etiology of autogynephilia and its relationship to transsexualism. It is concluded that the concept of autogynephilia is needed to fill a gap in our current battery of concepts and categories for thinking about gender identity disorders. PMID:1815090

  6. Retinal involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study with optical coherence tomography and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Hübers, Annemarie; Müller, Hans Peter; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Böhm, Kathrin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Pinkhardt, Elmar H

    2016-03-01

    Although motor neuron degeneration is the predominant feature in ALS, recent data point to a more widespread pathology also comprising non-motor symptoms. Retinal thinning has been reported in a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Yet, studies of retinal involvement in ALS are sparse and results are heterogeneous. We studied retinal alterations in ALS using a systematic approach combining Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and clinical phenotyping. We hypothesized that selective changes of specific retinal layers may be a reflection of overall neurodegeneration as measured by DTI. Spectral domain OCT images were analyzed to calculate the average thickness of retinal layers in 71 ALS patients and 20 controls. In 30 patients, the region of interest (ROI) based fractional anisotrophy (FA) was measured in the corticospinal tract (CST), as this region is preferentially affected by motor neuron degeneration. Clinical data were collected for correlation analysis. Patients showed a significant thinning of the inner nuclear layer (INL; p = 0.04) and the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL; p = 0.004) compared to controls. We saw significant correlations between retinal thickness and FA values of the CST in patients (p = 0.005). No significant correlation between clinical parameters and retinal involvement was observed. Our study provides evidence for a retinal involvement in ALS. Interestingly, ALS patients show a reduction in FA of the CST, which is correlated to retinal thinning. We conclude that retinal involvement is in fact associated to overall neurodegeneration and may be regarded as a potential technical biomarker in ALS. PMID:26582428

  7. CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an

  9. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  10. Observation of double charm production involving open charm in pp collisions at sqrt {s} = {7}{{TeV}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderson, J.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjrnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; de Bruyn, K.; Bchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chiapolini, N.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Surez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Falabella, A.; Frber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J.-C.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gndara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugs, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R. S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Keaveney, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y. M.; Knecht, M.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefranois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, L.; Gioi, L. Li; Lieng, M.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; von Loeben, J.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Mac Raighne, A.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Malde, S.; Mamunur, R. M. D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Mrki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martn Snchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Massafferri, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Maynard, B.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; McNulty, R.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.

    2012-06-01

    The production of J/? mesons accompanied by open charm, and of pairs of open charm hadrons are observed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. Model independent measurements of absolute cross-sections are given together with ratios to the measured J/? and open charm cross-sections. The properties of these events are studied and compared to theoretical predictions.

  11. Optimizing the magnitude of the magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers: A formula to combine all involved parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristomenopoulou, E.; Zeibekis, M.; Stamopoulos, D.

    2016-03-01

    The competitive nature of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in Ferromagnet/Superconductor (FM/SC) hybrids has attracted much interest in the last decades. In particular, the superconducting magnetoresistance (SMR) observed in FM/SC/FM trilayers (TLs) is related to the manipulation of the transport properties of the SC interlayer by the magnetic domain structure of the FM outer layers with out-of-plane anisotropy. In our recent work [Sci. Rep. 5, 13420 (2015)], a phenomenological model was proposed that describes successfully the scaling of the SMR magnitude with the relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the SC and FM structural units. Based on this model, here we investigate the contribution of the parameters that affect indirectly the SMR magnitude and do not appear in the original model. To this end, the parameters of both the SC interlayer (i.e., the thickness, dSC, the mean free path, l, the coherence length, ξ(0), etc.) and the FM outer layers (i.e., the thickness, dFM) are examined. The theoretical simulations presented here and experimental data unveil the indirect contribution of these parameters on the magnitude of the SMR and confirm the predictive power of the original phenomenological model. Accordingly, this model can be employed as a generic formula to combine successfully all involved parameters in every kind of FM/SC/FM TLs, ultimately optimizing the magnitude of the SMR.

  12. The joint observation and study project for slowly rotating asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Muninonen, karri; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Yibo

    2015-08-01

    The study for the spin rates and shapes of asteroids provides us important information to understand asteroids' structure and their physical processes. For example, a single Maxwellian distribution of the spin rates of larger asteroids (e.g. larger than 50km in diameter) reflects they had undergone collison history; a more dispersed distribution of smaller asteroids may be associated with the affect of radiation pressure torques( Pravec& Harris2000). Therefore, larger samples of spin parameters are needed for understanding deeply the evolution of asteroids. Meanwhile, some special subsets of asteroids, such as the slow rotators which probably represent a different physical process for asteroids, can open other windows to understand asteroids. Here we focus on a subset of larger asteroids with spin rates around 1 or 0.5 revolution per day. For these asteroids, the same rotational phases are observed repeatly by a telescope in different time. Under such cases, some ambigous spin periods are guessed, and it is impossible to determine their shapes. For determining the accurate spin parameters and shapes of these asteroids, a collaboration among several countries was established in 2014. Till now, the joint observations for a few of slow rotators have been made by several different telescopes distributed in China, USA and Chile. As samples, here we present new jiont observations in 2014 and analysis results for asteroids (346) Hermentaria and (168) Sibylla.Considering reasonable shapes of asteroids, the spin parameters of the two asteroids are analyzed carefully. Firstly, the procedure of analysis involves the MCMC method to find the initial spin parameters, which is based on a triaxial ellipsoid shape and a Lommel-Seeliger surface scattering law(Muinonen et al.2014). Then, the fine spin parameters accompanying with uncertainties and convex shapes of the asteroids are derived using the light curve inversion method(Kaasalainen et al 2002) and virtual photometric method(wang2012).

  13. Institutional Ethical Review and Ethnographic Research Involving Injection Drug Users: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators’ responses to the committee’s concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  14. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    PubMed

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  15. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition. PMID:16731454

  16. Involving Low-Income Parents and Parents of Color in College Readiness Activities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Cheryl Holcomb

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory and descriptive study that examined the parental involvement beliefs, attitudes, and activities of 22 high school counselors who work in high-poverty and high-minority schools. More specifically, this study examined school counselors' beliefs and activities about involving parents in the college admission

  17. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  18. Student Involvement as Predictive of College Freshmen Plans to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val; Dhanatya, Cathryn; Furuto, Linda H. L.; Kheiltash, Omid

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyze the 2003 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey to investigate whether freshmen who intend to study abroad express a history of active involvement. The CIRP Freshman Survey has a number of items indicating student involvement and participation. The authors created six scales based on

  19. The Effects of Student Involvement on Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Kelsey; McKee, Mallory; Brooks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pilot study discussed in this article investigates the perception of counselor education students' level of involvement and their satisfaction regarding their graduate program experience. It is believed, more involved students are more satisfied. Because there is limited existing data, this study seeks to ignite the conversation and future

  20. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early

  1. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  2. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  3. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  4. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

  5. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%

  6. Organizational values in general practice and public involvement: case studies in an urban district.

    PubMed

    Brown, I

    2001-05-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore dimensions of organizational values in general practice with respect to developing public involvement. The study was undertaken in an urban district in England with data collected through in-depth individual and focus group interviews with service providers and service users. Four general practice organizations were randomly selected for study after sorting all in the district according to their record of developing involvement activities. The case studies provide evidence of how organizational values can differ markedly in general practice in relation to ideas of public involvement, with consequences for the quantity and quality of activities for involving local people and service users. The differences manifest themselves in the beliefs and attitudes of service providers about the purpose of the organization and the types of relationships that are appropriate with service users and local people. Service users appear to be very perceptive to the underlying ethos and purpose to their practice organization and this affects their responsiveness to initiatives for their involvement. The dimensions of the different values found in the study appear to be essentially the same as a number of established empirical findings of variations in values in general practice: an orientation to a narrow medical role and to general practice as a business are associated with a low valuation of involvement; an orientation to teamwork and to a broader social role appear more congruent with the development of involvement. Power is a critical issue in this setting with evidence in the study of the dominance of the medical practitioners in establishing organizational values and the nature of public involvement activities. PMID:11560732

  7. Liver involvement in patients with brucellosis: results of the Marmara study.

    PubMed

    Ozturk-Engin, D; Erdem, H; Gencer, S; Kaya, S; Baran, A I; Batirel, A; Tekin, R; Celen, M K; Denk, A; Guler, S; Ulug, M; Turan, H; Pekok, A U; Mermut, G; Kaya, S; Tasbakan, M; Tulek, N; Cag, Y; Inan, A; Yalci, A; Ataman-Hatipoglu, C; Gonen, I; Dogan-Celik, A; Bozkurt, F; Gulsun, S; Sunnetcioglu, M; Guven, T; Duygu, F; Parlak, E; Sozen, H; Tosun, S; Demirdal, T; Guclu, E; Karabay, O; Uzun, N; Gunal, O; Diktas, H; Haykir-Solay, A; Erbay, A; Kader, C; Aydin, O; Erdem, A; Elaldi, N; Kadanali, A; Yulugkural, Z; Gorenek, L; Alt?ndis, M; Bolukcu, S; Agalar, C; Ormeci, N

    2014-07-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects the reticuloendothelial system. But, the extent of liver damage in due course of the disease is unclear. This study included 325 brucellosis patients with significant hepatobiliary involvement identified with microbiological analyses from 30 centers between 2000 and 2013. The patients with ?5 times of the upper limit of normal for aminotransferases, total bilirubin level ?2 mg/dl or local liver lesions were enrolled. Clinical hepatitis was detected in 284 patients (87.3 %) and cholestasis was detected in 215 (66.1 %) patients. Fatigue (91 %), fever (86 %), sweating (83 %), arthralgia (79 %), and lack of appetite (79 %) were the major symptoms. Laboratory tests showed anemia in 169 (52 %), thrombocytopenia in 117 (36 %), leukopenia in 81 (25 %), pancytopenia in 42 (13 %), and leukocytosis in 20 (6 %) patients. The most commonly used antibiotic combinations were doxycycline plus an aminoglycoside (n?=?73), doxycycline plus rifampicin (n?=?71), doxycycline plus rifampicin and an aminoglycoside (n?=?27). The duration of ALT normalization differed significantly in three treatment groups (p??0.05). During the follow-up, treatment failure occurred in four patients (1 %) and relapse was seen in three patients (0.9 %). Mortality was not observed. Hepatobiliary involvement in brucellosis has a benign course with suitable antibiotics and the use of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside regimen seems a better strategy in select patients. PMID:24557334

  8. Parents and Federal Education Programs. Volume 4: Title VII. The Study of Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadena-Munoz, Raquel; Keesling, J. Ward

    This fourth volume in a seven-volume study is part of a larger study of parental involvement in four federal programs in selected school districts across the country. Presented here are results of an intensive examination of school district programs funded by Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Site studies of Title VII

  9. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  10. Inclusion of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Challenges in Child Care Settings: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Ama, Shane M.; Gordon, Lynwood J.

    Through direct observations of activities, conversations, and social interactions involving children with emotional or behavioral challenges, this study investigated practices child care staff used to include these children in their program, as well as child to child interactions, and supports put in place for times of transition between

  11. NMR studies of conformational states of proteins involved in biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ziqi

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are the most ancient and ubiquitous cofactors that exist throughout evolution. The most important biosynthetic system of the cluster in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the ISC system. Defects in this system can be lethal and have been associated with a number of human diseases. Previous works show that a number of proteins are involved in the [Fe-S] biosynthetic processes and the structural flexibility may play an important role. For example, it was shown that apo-IscU, the scaffold protein, from Escherichia coli populates two functionally important conformational states, one dynamically disordered (D-state) and the other more structured (S-state) (Kim et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2012c). To further investigate the characteristics and transition of the conformational states of proteins involved in this system, I performed extensive NMR studies. Here, I present the findings based on my studies of two important players of the ISC system, IscU and HscB. In this research, I find that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization might account for the slow step in the S-D interconversion of IscU. More specifically, P14 and P101 are trans in the S-state, but become cis in the D-state. In addition, I discover that IscU is very responsive to pH changes, and I postulate that this response is correlated to conserved histidine residues, H10 and H105. Moreover, my thermodynamic analyses reveal that the S-D equilibrium of IscU is also very sensitive to change in temperature, pressure, and amino acid sequence compared to other proteins. In the study, I also discovered a novel state of IscU, the unfolded U-state. I suspect that this state may serve as an intermediate of interconversion between IscU S-/D-states. Finally, I extended the effort to HscB, and find that it may possess more conformational flexibility than expected earlier. I postulate that this flexibility may be the cause of the line-broadening observed during interaction of HscB with IscU (Fuzery et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009) and HscA.

  12. Basement-involved thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics: case study Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of continental crust during continental collision by folding and thrusting follows three types of structural styles: (1) In a true thin-skinned style only cover rocks are involved. This style necessitates a detachment horizon (typically evaporites or shales), and the detachment is accompanied by internal shortened by imbricate thrusting and associated folding of the cover rocks. (2) In case of a thin-skinned basement-involved style thin slabs of crystalline basement rocks are involved and form the main body of the ensuing nappe stack. Nappe-internal deformation was largely controlled by Late Palaeozoic graben structures and Jurassic normal faults. (3) In a true thick-skinned style most of the crust is involved in the deformation. In some cases thrust faults may reach all the way down into the lower crust while in other cases large-scale shearing and folding affects the lower crust. In the Alps all three styles can be recognized. The Helvetic nappes and parts of the Penninic nappes formed by true thin-skinned tectonics. Basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics is typical for the Penninic nappes in the core of the orogen. In these units thrust faults are overprinted by large-scale folds, a process referred to as "post-nappe folding". A kinematic analysis reveals that the detachment of the cover units by thin-skinned tectonics occurred first and was followed by basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics, suggesting a top-down propagation. The incipient thrusting in the basement occurred under relatively low temperatures; prograde conditions then led to the ductile overprint indicated by "post-nappe folding". When considering the Alpine orogen as a whole it is clear that nappe formation propagated from the core towards the external part of the orogen. The thick-skinned style observed in the lower crust evolved seemingly independent from the upper crustal deformation and was responsible for much of the observed crustal thickening.

  13. Professional perspectives on service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Penny; Brooks, Helen; Fraser, Claire; Lovell, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Involving users/carers in mental health care-planning is central to international policy initiatives yet users frequently report feeling excluded from the care planning process. Rigorous explorations of mental health professionals’ experiences of care planning are lacking, limiting our understanding of this important translational gap. Objectives To explore professional perceptions of delivering collaborative mental health care-planning and involving service users and carers in their care. Design Qualitative interviews and focus groups with data combined and subjected to framework analysis. Setting UK secondary care mental health services. Participants 51 multi-disciplinary professionals involved in care planning and recruited via study advertisements. Results Emergent themes identified care-planning as a meaningful platform for user/carer involvement but revealed philosophical tensions between user involvement and professional accountability. Professionals emphasised their individual, relational skills as a core facilitator of involvement, highlighting some important deficiencies in conventional staff training programmes. Conclusions Although internationally accepted on philosophical grounds, user-involved care-planning is poorly defined and lacks effective implementation support. Its full realisation demands greater recognition of both the historical and contemporary contexts in which statutory mental healthcare occurs. PMID:26253574

  14. A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

  15. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

  16. Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

  17. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to

  18. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  19. School nurses' perceptions of parental involvement in school health. Results of a statewide study.

    PubMed

    Birch, D A; Hallock, B A

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how school nurses attempt to involve parents of seventh graders in school health programs, identify nurses' perceptions of barriers to parental involvement, and identify related staff development needs. A questionnaire was sent to the school nurse in each school in Indiana that had a seventh grade (n = 447); 279 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 63%. Most respondents worked in situations without written policies for parental involvement. A minority of school nurses reported receiving input from parents through advisory committees or parent surveys. The most common involvement activities were related to providing parents with information about the school health program. Less than half of the respondents reported offering health education through activities such as parent health education classes, health fairs, health education resource centers, or health newsletters. Lack of time was identified as the major barrier faced by school nurses. Several staff development needs were identified. PMID:9883143

  20. Conceptual study of debris observation and arresting experiment satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Kenichi; Mori, Hatsuo; Satou, Keiichi; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Miyoshi, Kouichi

    1992-07-01

    Present status of debris environment and predictable damage caused by them, such as effects to manned space activities, damage of satellite or other spacecraft caused by their collision, dropping of substances to the ground, radioactive contamination, effects to astronomical observation, and interference with space experiments are outlined. An overview of present status and problems of debris observation and tracking system and an ideal debris observation system is presented. The objectives of a debris observation and arresting system and definition of their subjects are introduced. The results of studies of observation equipment (sensors), including contacting and non-contacting sensors, and their selection is introduced. Orbits, mission duration, operational condition, and overall satellite systems are outlined.

  1. Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the data sets. Globally, there is the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, the Nordic Geodetic Observing System (NGOS) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss in general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such a database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravity, with the Nordic Geodetic Commission NKG2005LU land uplift model for Fennoscandia. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. The primary aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by multidisciplinary projects, such as Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas (DynaQlim) or the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an existing observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development. To make comparisons between different studies possible and reliable, the researcher should document what they have in detail, either in appendixes, supplementary material or some other available format.

  2. Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.A.; Inoue, Toshiro

    1994-03-01

    Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Inoue, Toshiro

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert.

  4. Geospatial web services for limnological data: a case study of sensor observation service for ecological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias Muoz, C.; Oggioni, A.; Brovelli, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The present work aims at designing and implementing a spatial data infrastructure for storing and sharing ecological data through geospatial web services. As case study, we concentrated on limnological data coming from the drainage basin of Lake Maggiore in the Northern of Italy. In order to establish the infrastructure, we started with two basic questions: (1) What type of data is the ecological dataset? (2) Which are the geospatial web services standards most suitable to store and share ecological data? In this paper we describe the possibilities for sharing ecological data using geospatial web services and the difficulties that can be encountered in this task. In order to test actual technological solutions, we use real data of a limnological published study.We concluded that limnological data can be considered observational data, composed by biological (species) data and environmental data, and it can be modeled using Observation and Measurement (O&M) specification. With the actual web service implementation the geospatial web services that could potentially be used to publish limnological data are Sensor Observation Services (SOS) and Web Feature Services (WFS). SOS holds the essential components to represent time series observations, while WFS is a simple model that requires profiling. Both, SOS and WFS are not perfectly suitable to publish biological data, so other alternatives must be considered, as linked data.

  5. Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED study.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

    2011-09-01

    AIM This paper focuses on stakeholders' active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. BACKGROUND In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. METHODS Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13-17 lay stakeholders and 10-11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. RESULTS  Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. CONCLUSION Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. PMID:20860779

  6. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-R, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  7. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zayeni, Habib; Haji-Abbasi, Asghar; Foumani, Seyed Ali Alavi; Tohidi, Mehdi; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Parsa, Banafsheh Ghavidel; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Hassankhani, Amir; Parsa, Pooneh Ghavidel; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a type of pulmonary manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mostly RA-ILD has no symptoms and is only diagnosed by clinical examination, pulmonary function test (PFT), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); hence it seems that the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in early stages of RA is of great importance. Therefore, we decided to answer this question whether the evaluation of RA patients without pulmonary symptoms using methods such as PFT and HRCT are justifiable and reasonable or not. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a referral rheumatology clinic in Razi hospital of Rasht, Iran. Forty-four consecutive patients, diagnosed with RA, were enrolled. Physical examination of the joints was performed by an rheumatologist. The activity of RA was evaluated in all patients by Disease Activity Score 28. An expert pulmonologist performed the respiratory examination in all participants. Then, all subjects were referred for chest X-ray, PFT, and HRCT of lungs. Results: Patients included in this study, 9 (20.45%) males and 35 (79.55%) females, were 2173 years old and their mean age was 49 13 years. Significant relation between PFT and respiratory complaints was observed (P = 0.016). PFT had significant relation with respiratory examinations (P = 0.009). Our results indicated a significant relation between disease activity rate and PFT (P = 0.038). While HRCT had any significant relation with above items. Conclusion: We concluded, using PFT in the respiratory assessment of RA patients can be limited to persons with high disease activity, respiratory complaints, and positive findings in the clinical respiratory examination.

  8. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    PubMed Central

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

  9. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  10. Psoriasis beyond the skin surface: a pilot study on the ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Neri, P; Giuliodori, K; Arapi, I; Carbonari, G; Borioni, E; Herbort, C P; Mariotti, C; Giovannini, A; Offidani, A

    2015-06-01

    The ocular involvement in psoriasis is not a completely well-known problem. The ophthalmologic involvement occurs in about 10 % of patients, particularly in case of arthropathic or pustular psoriasis. Ocular lesions are more common in males, and they often occur during psoriasis exacerbations. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence and type of ocular involvement in psoriasis, by a comparison between psoriasis and healthy subjects, and if/how a 12-week long systemic immunosuppressive therapy is able to modify them. This study involved thirty-two psoriatic patients and thirty-two healthy subjects. Dermatological evaluation was done using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (PASI, PGA, and DLQI score). Ophthalmological evaluation included ocular surface involvement (Schirmer, Jones, break-up time--BUT, DR-1 camera), retinal pathologies, and ocular surface disease index. Laboratory investigations including the C-reactive protein (CRP) of all the patients were performed. At baseline, the values of Schirmer, Jones, and BUT tests in the patient group were significantly lower compared to controls; moreover, conjunctival hyperemia was more frequent in psoriatic patients than in healthy subjects. Ocular involvement was more prominent in the subset of psoriatic patients with sebo-psoriasis than in general psoriatic population. A statistically significant correlation was found in sebo-psoriasis between PASI and Schirmer, between PASI and Jones, and between PASI and BUT. On the other hand, the results obtained from DR1 camera showed statistically significant difference between psoriatic and sebo-psoriatic patients at the end of the follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean values of PASI, PGA, DLQI, CRP, and BUT showed significant changes in psoriatic patients. Our findings suggest a high rate of ocular involvement in psoriatic patients, emphasizing the need of performing periodic ophthalmological examinations in order to avoid underestimating eye diseases and to allow early diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:24799345

  11. Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstedt, Fredrik; Johansson, Bo; Martinsen, Sofia; Kosek, Eva; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. Aim To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. Methods We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41C), cold(18C) and interleaved(41C+18C?=?TGI) temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational (unpleasantness) and sensory-disciminatory (pain-intensity) dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected ?-level <0.05. Results The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral) thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness(rho?=?0.31). Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity has previously been observed during evoked cold-allodynia in patients with central neuropathic pain. Our results further the understanding of the supraspinal correlates of the TGI-phenomenon and pave the way for future inquiries into if and how it may relate to neuropathic pain. PMID:22096519

  12. Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2013-05-15

    In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. PMID:23357079

  13. Study of the solar corona using radio and space observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Optical, radio and X-ray evidence of violent mass motions in the corona has existed for some years but only recently have the form, nature, frequency and implication of the transients become obvious. The observed properties of coronal transients concentrating on the white-light and radio manifestations. The possible mechanisims involved in the radio bursts are discussed. The estimates of various forms of energy are reviewed. It appears that the magnetic energy transported from the Sun by the transient exceeds that of any other form, and that magnetic forces dominate in the dynamics of the motions. The conversion of magnetic energy into mechanical energy, by expansion of the fields, provides a possible driving force for the coronal and interplanetary shock waves.

  14. METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  16. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to

  17. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  18. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

  19. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior

  20. A Study of Lipscomb University Students' Internet Use and Involvement in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel Aarron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Lipscomb University students' Internet use and involvement in extracurricular activities. A survey of students at Lipscomb University was conducted. As confirmed by the data the research was able to determine that the type of extracurricular activity a student participates in most often is related to the

  1. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative

  2. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  3. Studies of Special Education Administrative Involvement in Computer Implementation. Final Report--Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robey, Elaine; And Others

    The study reported in this document examined how special education administrators and staff in 100 school districts were involved in the adoption of new educational technology. The sample was drawn from the known population list of operating school districts from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Educational Statistics. Selection

  4. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  5. Experimental study of combustion processes involved in hypergolic propellant coaxial injector operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.; Gicquel, P.; Foucaud, R.

    1992-07-01

    The first results are presented of an experimental research program to understand the operation of a coaxial injector using hypergolic propellants. Mechanisms and processes involved in coaxial injector operation are identified for a two-plate injector and a coaxial injector. The usefulness of backlight cinematography and laser sheet visualization in the study of coaxial injector operation is examined. A review of the literature on injector elements using highly reactive hypergolic propellants is presented along with an analysis of fundamental mechanisms involved in these propellants.

  6. Interstellar dust: interfacing laboratory, theoretical and observational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will consider how our understanding of interstellar dust can only be advanced through a combination of laboratory, theoretical and observational studies, which provide the critical framework for advancing our understanding. I will summarise what we currently know, or think we know, about the physical and compositional properties of dust and their evolution in interstellar media. Along the way I will question the utility of astronomical dust analogues and show, based on data from the laboratory, theoretical studies and from astronomical observations, that some of our prior interpretations need to be subjected to a critical re-evaluation. I will present interstellar dust modelling from a new vantage point and review ideas on the interpretation of observations within the framework of this model and its predictions for dust evolution within and between interstellar media. Finally, I will summarise some of the current outstanding issues and what we would like to learn in the future.

  7. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot

  8. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  9. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  10. Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

  11. Studies of the observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    The four related topics covered include: (1) distributions of total and upper atmospheric ozone and their time and space variations; (2) observed and theoretical models of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) ozone variation; (3) radiative processes in the upper atmosphere; and (4) relations between ozone and solar variations. The results of these studies are presented. They come from twenty-three published papers.

  12. Parent Involvement in the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, Adelaide, 1981: An Exploratory Study into Why Parents Become Involved to Differing Degrees in Their Children's Early Childhood Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, V.; And Others

    Part of an exploratory project inquiring into causes and consequences of parent participation, a study was undertaken to identify possible reasons for differences in the extent parents become involved in their children's preschool. The study was conducted at the Lady Gowrie Child Centre in Adelaide, Australia, a center promoting optimum physical

  13. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the

  14. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  15. Male partner involvements in PMTCT: a cross sectional study, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male partner participation is a crucial component to optimize antenatal care/prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV(ANC/PMTCT) service. It creates an opportunity to capture pregnant mothers and their male partners to reverse the transmission of HIV during pregnancy, labour and breast feeding. Thus involving male partners during HIV screening of pregnant mothers at ANC is key in the fight against mother to child transmission of HIV(MTCT). So, the aim of this study is to determine the level of male partner involvement in PMTCT and factors that affecting it. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted among 473 pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT in Mekelle town health facilities in January 2011. Systematic sampling was used to select pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT service after determination of the client load at each health facility. Clinic exit structured interviews were used to collect the data. Finally multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors that affect male involvement in ANC/PMTCT. Results Twenty percent of pregnant mothers have been accompanied by their male partner to the ANC/PMTCT service. Knowledge of HIV sero status [Adj.OR (95% CI)?=?0.43 (0.18- 0.66)], maternal willingness to inform their husband about the availability of voluntary counselling and testing services in ANC/PMTCT [Adj.OR (95% CI) =3.74(1.38-10.17)] and previous history of couple counselling [Adj.OR (95% CI) =4.68 (2.32-9.44)] were found to be the independent predictors of male involvement in ANC/PMTCT service. Conclusion Male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT is low. Thus, comprehensive strategy should be put in place to sensitize and advocate the importance of male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT in order to reach out male partners. PMID:24521216

  16. Mixing and administration times of bypassing agents: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, Jennifer; Donkin, Jennifer; Recht, Michael; Cooper, David L

    2014-01-01

    DOSE (Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia) was a prospective, observational diary study designed to evaluate the use of bypassing agents in patients prescribed recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as first-line treatment in the home setting. Patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and caregivers participated, and as part of the study, the time spent preparing and administering product was recorded for bypassing agent (BPA) infusions. The aim of this manuscript is to present the results of the analysis of the time spent preparing and administering a single dose of either rFVIIa or plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC). Diaries were completed for 18 adult patients and 19 caregivers of 21 children with 176 BPA-treated bleeding episodes and 1,350 BPA infusions (1,270 rFVIIa, 80 pd-aPCC). The median preparation and administration times were 5.0 minutes and 5.0 minutes for rFVIIa and 29.0 minutes and 24.5 minutes for pd-aPCC, respectively. Preparation and administration times were significantly shorter with rFVIIa than pd-aPCC (P<0.0001). The significantly shorter combined preparation and administration time of rFVIIa, taking into consideration the faster-than-recommended aPCC infusion rates, suggests that rFVIIa permits a rapid and safe initiation of treatment once a bleeding episode is identified and a decision is made to treat at home. PMID:25187744

  17. Mixing and administration times of bypassing agents: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE).

    PubMed

    Maahs, Jennifer; Donkin, Jennifer; Recht, Michael; Cooper, David L

    2014-01-01

    DOSE (Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia) was a prospective, observational diary study designed to evaluate the use of bypassing agents in patients prescribed recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as first-line treatment in the home setting. Patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and caregivers participated, and as part of the study, the time spent preparing and administering product was recorded for bypassing agent (BPA) infusions. The aim of this manuscript is to present the results of the analysis of the time spent preparing and administering a single dose of either rFVIIa or plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC). Diaries were completed for 18 adult patients and 19 caregivers of 21 children with 176 BPA-treated bleeding episodes and 1,350 BPA infusions (1,270 rFVIIa, 80 pd-aPCC). The median preparation and administration times were 5.0 minutes and 5.0 minutes for rFVIIa and 29.0 minutes and 24.5 minutes for pd-aPCC, respectively. Preparation and administration times were significantly shorter with rFVIIa than pd-aPCC (P<0.0001). The significantly shorter combined preparation and administration time of rFVIIa, taking into consideration the faster-than-recommended aPCC infusion rates, suggests that rFVIIa permits a rapid and safe initiation of treatment once a bleeding episode is identified and a decision is made to treat at home. PMID:25187744

  18. Re-entry Women Involved in Women's Studies. Women's Studies Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Blanche Glassman

    This monograph is part of a series of reports focusing on women's studies in higher education. After summarizing the historical growth of continuing education for women and women's studies, this monograph describes the implementation of a study by the U.S. National Institute of Education on re-entry women and the field of women's studies.

  19. Critical design aspects involved in the study of Paneth cells and the intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Michael T; Carroll, Ian M; Gulati, Ajay S

    2014-01-01

    Paneth cells are long-lived secretory cells that reside in the base of the crypts of Lieberkhn of the small intestine. They produce an arsenal of molecules that are involved in numerous biological processes, ranging from the control of gut microbial populations to supporting the intestinal stem cell niche. Because of these important functions, Paneth cell abnormalities are becoming implicated in a variety of disease processes. As such, it is necessary to establish parameters that will allow for the comprehensive study of Paneth cells in health and disease. In this addendum, we highlight critical design aspects involved in the study of Paneth cells and their downstream effects on the intestinal microbiota. The importance of this approach is demonstrated by our recent findings that Nod2 does not regulate mouse Paneth cell antimicrobial function, in contrast to previous reports. This work defines key issues to consider when studying Paneth cells in mouse systems. PMID:24637592

  20. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  1. The Observation and Study of Shallow-contact Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.-J.; Qian, S.-B.

    2009-08-01

    The shallow-contact binary is a system with low degree of contact, short orbital period and late spectral type. It is a bridge to connect detached binary system, semi-detached binary system with contact binary system. The study of the common convective envelope (CCE) of shallow-contact binary system is important to know how the CCE comes into being because the CCE of shallow-contact binary system is very thin. We have observed several systems (e.g. RV Psc, AW Vir, II CMa, AD Cnc). And we study their basic parameters using W-D method. The period studies will help us to understand their structure and evolution.

  2. Studies of waves in sunspots using spectropolarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Gordon A.; Rajaguru, S. P.

    2011-08-01

    We observe the acoustic velocity oscillations in and near active region NOAA 10960 on 8 June, 2007 using observations from the IBIS instrument at the Dunn Solar Telescope at NSO/Sacramento Peak and simultaneous Hinode BFI/SP data. Inversions were performed on the spectropolarimetric datasets in order to get magnetic field information for the AR. A time series of Doppler maps from line bisectors and Stokes V zero-crossing was constructed and allowed us to construct power maps for the AR. Past works by various authors have shown that acoustic power in the solar atmosphere is strongly influenced by magnetic field strength and inclination. Our study also explores this, but in addition, we also discuss the role of oscillations due to purely magnetized gas in the photosphere. Our preliminary results for this study are presented.

  3. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  4. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  5. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: β-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  6. Drug-involved Mexican-origin girls' HIV prevention needs: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Vera; Dustman, Patricia; Williams, Tiffany

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to collect data to inform the development of an HIV prevention program for drug-involved Mexican-origin (MO) adolescent girls. Eighteen in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with drug-involved MO girls in addition to focus group discussions with nineteen other drug-involved MO girls and eight clinical service providers in 2009-2010. Emergent themes indicated that HIV prevention programs for drug-involved MO girls should be girl-centered, focused on relationship development, and include trained peer facilitators who share the same cultural and "street" background as the girls. The program should omit scare tactics associated with risky sexual behaviors and emphasize individual empowerment skills useful to negotiate sexual decisions successfully. In addition, a girl-centered intervention for MO girls should address important concerns for this group, including resistance skills and strategies regarding relationships with older men, teenage motherhood, sexual infidelity, sexual coercion, and dating violence. Intervention activities should also be interactive with an emphasis on guiding girls as they learn to critically assess personal risk while at the same time learning skills and resources to address these issues in real life. PMID:26362876

  7. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  8. The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, Webster; Kendrick, Stephen; Noecker, Charley; Bally, John; Demarines, Julia; Green, James; Oakley, Phillip; Shipley, Ann; Benson, Scott; Oleson, Steve; Content, David; Folta, Dave; Garrison, Sharon; Gendreau, Keith; Hartman, Kate; Howard, Joseph; Hyde, Tupper; Lakins, Darryl; Leitner, Jesse; Leviton, Douglas; Luquette, Rich; Oegerley, Bill; Richon, Karen; Roberge, Aki; Tompkins, Steve; Tveekrem, June; Woodgate, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Dailey, Dean; Decker, Kent; Dehmohseni, Reza; Gaugh, Brian; Glassman, Tiffany; Haney, Mickey; Hejal, Reem; Lillie, Charles; Lo, Amy; O'Conner, David; Oleas, Gina; Polidan, Ronald; Samuele, Rocco; Shields, Stephen; Shirvanian, James; Soohoo, David; Tinetti, Giovanna; Dorland, Bryan; Dudik, Rachel; Gaume, Ralph; Mason, Brian

    2009-08-01

    We present the results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

  9. Observational and theoretical studies of rich clusters with multiple subcondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies are investigated. The relationship between the properties of individual galaxies and their environment is examined. Perphaps the most remarkable physical result derived from these is the apparent substructure in redishift position space. The distribution of spiral galaxies is quite different from the distribution of the ellipticals. The velocity distribution for the spirals is also substantially broader than the distribution for the ellipticals.

  10. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  11. Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, David E.

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

  12. Clinical signs of ICU syndrome/delirium: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Granberg-Axll, A; Bergbom, I; Lundberg, D

    2001-04-01

    Some clinical signs of the intensive care unit (ICU) syndrome/delirium are probably known, but there may be additional signs that can be observed during the care of ICU patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the clinical signs of the ICU syndrome in relation to patients' reactions and behaviour following the second day of their stay in an ICU. A total of 31 patients were observed during the weaning process and in the days following extubation. Informal dialogues between the patient and the observer, using parts of the questionnaire 'Organic Brain Syndrome Scale' were also carried out. The data was structured in a chronological order and consists of descriptions of patients' behaviour and reactions, together with events, occurrences and environmental circumstances. It was found that the patients showed a great variety of clinical signs that could be related to the ICU syndrome. Such signs were the quality, ability and divergence of speech; talking, movements, bodily position and facial expressions. Several patients also related unreal experiences only occasionally, while others experienced them during longer periods. The clinical signs did not seem to be separate phenomena but were inter-connected and part of a progression, and, therefore must be seen in the overall context and situation. Longer periods of observation and repeated interaction with patients are necessary in order to be aware of onset and clinical signs of the ICU syndrome. PMID:11817445

  13. Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibilitydid the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibilitywas it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consentdid the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, gatekeeping by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

  14. Sustaining patient and public involvement in research: A case study of a research centre

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Hughes, Rhian; Blackburn, Steven; Ong, Bie Nio

    2013-01-01

    The literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of topics. However, one area of investigation that appears under developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper presents a case study of PPI development in one primary care research centre in England, and its approach to making this sustainable using documentary sources and material from a formal evaluation. We provide narrative accounts of the set-up, operation and main processes of PPI, and its perceived impact. PPI requires a long-term perspective with participation and trust growing over time, and both users and researchers learning what approaches work best. PPI is a complex interplay of clarity of purpose, defined roles and relationships, organised support (paid PPI staff) and a well-funded infrastructure. Soft systems are equally important such as flexible and informal approaches to meetings, adapting timetables and environments to meet the needs of lay members and to create spaces for relationships to develop between researchers and lay members that are based on mutual trust and respect. This case study highlights that the right combination of ethos, flexible working practices, leadership, and secure funding goes a long way to embedding PPI beyond ad hoc involvement. This allows PPI in research to be integrated in the infrastructure and sustainable. PMID:26705412

  15. Exploring the Limits to Observational Diffuse Interstellar Band Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2014-02-01

    The status of DIB research (Herbig 1995) has strongly advanced since the DIB conference in Boulder in 1994. In the same year we reported the discovery of two near IR diffuse bands coincident with C60 +, that was confirmed in subsequent years. Since then a number of DIB observational studies have been published such as DIB surveys, measurements of DIB families, correlations and environment dependences as well as DIBs in extra-galactic sources. Resolved substructures were measured and compared to predicted rotational contours of large molecules. Polarisation studies provided constraints on possible carrier molecules and upper limits. DIBs carriers have been linked with several classes of organic molecules observed in the interstellar medium, in particular to the UIR bands (assigned to PAHs), the Extended Red Emission (ERE) or the recently detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME, assigned to spinning dust). In particular fullerenes and PAHs have been proposed to explain some DIBs and specific molecules were searched for in DIB spectra. DIB carriers could be present in various dehydrogenation and ionization states. Experiments in the laboratory and in space contribute to our understanding of the photo-stability of possible DIB carriers. In summary, the status of DIB research in the last 20 years has strongly advanced. We review DIB observational results and their interpretation and introduce the relevant plenary discussion.

  16. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    PubMed Central

    Lvque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schn, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for machine sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

  17. Gender differences in the association between religious involvement and depression: the Cache County (Utah) study.

    PubMed

    Norton, Maria C; Skoog, Ingmar; Franklin, Lynn M; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Zandi, Peter P; Breitner, John C S; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C

    2006-05-01

    We examined the relation between religious involvement, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and major depression in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 4,468 nondemented individuals between the ages of 65 and 100 years who were interviewed in person. In logistic regression models adjusting for demographic and health variables, frequent church attendance was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression in women but increased prevalence in men. Social role loss and the potential impact of organizational power differential by sex are discussed. Though causality cannot be determined here, these findings suggest that the association between religious involvement and depression may differ substantially between men and women. PMID:16670181

  18. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  19. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  20. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  1. From awareness to involvement? A qualitative study of respiratory patients' awareness of health service change.

    PubMed

    Kielmann, Tara; Huby, Guro; Powell, Alison; Sheikh, Aziz; Price, David; Williams, Sian; Pinnock, Hilary

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND Despite the policy rhetoric, patient involvement in health service decisions remains limited. Highlighted barriers include a concern that most patients are unable to see beyond personal aspects of their care in order to contribute meaningfully to health service development, and a perception that professionals do not welcome patient involvement. OBJECTIVES We aimed to explore respiratory patients' awareness of changes in local health service provision and provide insight into health professionals' attitudes to engaging patients. METHODS Nested within an ethnographic study of health service reconfiguration, we recruited 31 patients with a range of respiratory diseases from four case study areas in England and Wales. Data from telephone interviews, illness diaries and focus groups with patients, and interviews with health professionals and managers were transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS Participants were not only aware of trends in health service provision (e.g. emergence of new professional roles, shift from secondary to primary care) but interpreted changes in the light of local and national events. Despite this awareness, none of the patients was formally involved in service development, though some contributed to local voluntary groups. Professionals generally welcomed the need for patients' views to be heard. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Our data give grounds for optimism. Patients are aware of and interested in a broad range of health-related issues. Professionals' motivation to involve patients in service development may be underestimated. Although practical obstacles remain, our findings should encourage the ongoing search for effective models of promoting patient engagement in health-care services. PMID:21029282

  2. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  3. Guidelines to Evaluate Human Observational Studies for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these guidelines to casecontrol and cohort studies on the relation between exposure to benzene and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods We developed a three-tiered framework specific for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and used it to evaluate HOS on the relation between exposure to benzene and AML. Results The developed framework consists of 20 evaluation criteria. A specific focus of the framework was on the quality of exposure assessment applied in HOS. Seven HOS on the relation of benzene and AML were eligible for evaluation. Of these studies, five were suitable for QRA and were ranked based on the quality of the study design, conduct, and reporting on the study. Conclusion The developed guidelines facilitate a structured evaluation that is transparent in its application and harmonizes the evaluation of HOS for QRA. With the application of the guidelines, it was possible to identify studies suitable for QRA of benzene and AML and rank these studies based on their quality. Application of the guidelines in QRA will be a valuable addition to the assessment of the weight of evidence of HOS for QRA. PMID:19079723

  4. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Fast, Danya; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts. PMID:19405977

  5. Incarceration Among Street-Involved Youth in a Canadian Study: Implications for Health and Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Omura, John D; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for incarceration have been well described among adult drug using populations; however, less is known about incarceration among at-risk youth. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Methods From September 2005 to May 2012, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14 – 26 who use illicit drugs. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with recent incarceration defined as incarceration in the previous six months. Results Among 1019 participants, 362 (36%) reported having been recently incarcerated during the study period. In multivariate GEE analysis, homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.60), daily crystal methamphetamine use (AOR= 1.56), public injecting (AOR= 1.33), drug dealing (AOR= 1.48) and being a victim of violence (AOR= 1.68) were independently associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conversely, female gender (AOR= 0.48), lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or two-spirited (LGBTT) identification (AOR= 0.47) and increasing age of first hard drug use (AOR= 0.96) were negatively associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conclusion Incarceration was common among our study sample. Youth who were homeless, used crystal methamphetamine, and engaged in risky behaviors including public injection and drug dealing were significantly more likely to have been recently incarcerated. Structural interventions including expanding addiction treatment and supportive housing for at-risk youth may help reduce criminal justice involvement among this population and associated health, social and fiscal costs. PMID:24405564

  6. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  7. Brain areas involved in acupuncture treatment on functional dyspepsia patients: a PET-CT study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Song, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Xu-Guang; Xie, Hong-Jun; Tang, Yong; Shan, Bao-Ci; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Shu-Guang; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2009-05-29

    Neuroimaging studies on brain responses to acupuncture stimulations have received considerable attention recently. The majority of these studies are centered on healthy controls (HC) and neuropathy, while little work has addressed other disorders. This study aimed to investigate the influence of acupuncture stimulations on brain activities in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Eight FD patients and eight healthy controls (HC) were involved in this study. Each HC received an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan at baseline, while each patient received scans at baseline and after acupuncture stimulations. Manual acupuncture stimulations were performed at ST34 (Liangqiu), ST36 (Zusanli), ST40 (Fenglong) and ST42 (Chongyang) in FD patients. The images were analyzed with the Statistical Parametric Mapping software 2.0. Compared to HC, the FD patients showed a lower glycometabolism in the right orbital gyrus, the left caudate tail and the cingulate gyrus, and a higher glycometabolism in the left inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.005). After acupuncture stimulations, the FD patients showed a glycometabolism decrease in the postcentral gyrus and the cerebella, and an increase in the visual-related cortices(p<0.005). The results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortices and the caudate tail involve in processing gastric perceptions in FD patients and that the deactivation of the primary somatosensory area and the cerebella is contributable to acupuncture stimulation, while activation of the visual-related cortex is a response to pain or acupoint actions. PMID:19429123

  8. Logistic analysis of epidemiologic studies with augmentation sampling involving re-stratification and population expansion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Robbins, Hilary A.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic cross-sectional, case-cohort, or casecontrol studies often select augmentation samples to supplement an existing (baseline) sample, primarily for the two reasons: (1) to increase the sample sizes from certain subdomains of interest that were not originally considered in the design of the baseline study and (2) to obtain samples from an extension of the target population. To address these two objectives, two-stage stratified sample designs are considered, where the stratification based on the expanded population at the second stage is not nested in the first stage strata. The sample weighting and Taylor linearization variance estimation for the two-stage stratified sample designs, involving re-stratification and population expansion, are provided for estimating population totals and logistic regression coefficients. Results from limited simulation studies and a logistic regression analysis of a study of human papillomavirus serology are provided. PMID:24907707

  9. Channelized-ideal observer using LaguerreGauss channels in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subok; Barrett, Harrison H.; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a channelized-ideal observer (CIO) with LaguerreGauss (LG) channels to approximate ideal-observer performance in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach is employed to determine the performance of both the ideal observer and the CIO using a large number of LG channels. Our results indicate that the CIO with LG channels can approximate ideal-observer performance within error bars, depending on the imaging system, object, and channel parameters. The CIO also outperforms a channelized-Hotelling observer using the same channels. In addition, an alternative approach for estimating the CIO is investigated. This approach makes use of the characteristic functions of channelized data and employs an approximation method to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The alternative approach provides good estimates of the performance of the CIO with five LG channels. However, for large channel cases, more efficient computational methods need to be developed for the CIO to become useful in practice. PMID:18059906

  10. Channelized-ideal observer using Laguerre-Gauss channels in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal.

    PubMed

    Park, Subok; Barrett, Harrison H; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A; Myers, Kyle J

    2007-12-01

    We investigate a channelized-ideal observer (CIO) with Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels to approximate ideal-observer performance in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach is employed to determine the performance of both the ideal observer and the CIO using a large number of LG channels. Our results indicate that the CIO with LG channels can approximate ideal-observer performance within error bars, depending on the imaging system, object, and channel parameters. The CIO also outperforms a channelized-Hotelling observer using the same channels. In addition, an alternative approach for estimating the CIO is investigated. This approach makes use of the characteristic functions of channelized data and employs an approximation method to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The alternative approach provides good estimates of the performance of the CIO with five LG channels. However, for large channel cases, more efficient computational methods need to be developed for the CIO to become useful in practice. PMID:18059906

  11. A model study of factors involved in adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to meat.

    PubMed Central

    Piette, J P; Idziak, E S

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model meat surfaces (tendon slices). Adhesion was fast (less than 2.5 min) and was not suppressed by killing the cells with UV, gamma rays, or heat, indicating that physiological activity was not required. In various salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2), adhesion increased with increasing ionic strength up to 10 to 100 mM, suggesting that, at low ionic strengths, electrostatic interactions were involved in the adhesion process. At higher ionic strengths (greater than 10 to 100 mM) or in the presence of Al3+ ions, adhesion was sharply reduced. Selectively blocking of carboxyl or amino groups at the cell surface by chemical means did not affect adhesion. These groups are therefore not directly involved in an adhesive bond with tendon. Given a sufficient cell concentration (10(10) CFU.ml-1) in the adhesion medium, the surface of tendon was almost entirely covered with adherent bacteria. This suggests that if the adhesion is specific, the attachment sites on the tendon surface must be located within collagen or proteoglycan molecules. Images PMID:1444387

  12. Observational study of sites of triggered star formation. CO and mid-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, J. S.; Morgan, L. K.; Thompson, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Context: Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are isolated molecular clouds located on the edges of evolved HII regions. Star formation within these clouds may have been triggered through the propagation of photoionisation-induced shocks driven by the expansion of the HII region. Aims: The main focus of this paper is to investigate the current level of star formation within a sample of southern hemisphere BRCs and evaluate to what extent, if any, star formation may have been triggered. Methods: In this paper we present the results of a programme of position-switched CO observations towards 45 southern BRCs. The 12CO, 13CO and C18O J = 1-0 rotational transitions were simultaneously observed using the 22-m Mopra telescope. We complement these observations with archival mid-infrared data obtained from the MSX and Spitzer, as well as submillimetre and radio data previously reported in the literature. Combining all of the available data with the observations presented here allows us to build up a comprehensive picture of the current level of star formation activity within a significant number of BRCs. Results: Analysis of the CO, mid-infrared and radio data result in the clouds being divided into three distinct groups: a) clouds that appear to be relatively unaffected by the photoionisation from the nearby OB star(s); b) clouds that show evidence of significant interaction between the molecular material and the HII regions; c) clouds towards which no CO emission is detected, but are associated with strong ionisation fronts; these are thought to be examples of clouds undergoing an ionisation flash. We refer to these groups as spontaneous, triggered, and zapped clouds, respectively. Comparing the physical parameters of spontaneous and triggered samples we find striking differences in luminosity, surface temperature and column density with all three quantities significantly enhanced for the clouds considered to have been triggered. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for star formation within the triggered sample by way of methanol and H2O masers, embedded mid-infrared point sources and CO wings, however, we find evidence of ongoing star formation within only two of the spontaneous sample. Conclusions: We have used CO, mid-infrared and radio data to identify 24 of the 45 southern BRCs that are undergoing a strong interaction with their HII region. We can therefore exclude the other 21 sources (~50%) from future studies of triggered star formation. Fourteen of the 24 interacting BRCs are found to be associated with embedded mid-infrared point sources and we find strong evidence that these clouds are forming stars. The absence of mid-infrared sources towards the remaining ten clouds and the lack of any other evidence of star formation within these clouds leads us to conclude that these represent an earlier evolutionary stage of star formation. Figure 9 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. An observational study of salt fluxes in Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Chant, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    An observational study was conducted in Delaware Bay during the summer of 2011 aiming to quantify the different mechanisms driving the salt flux in this system. Seven moorings, equipped with bottom-mounted ADCPs and CT sensors at difference depths, were deployed across a section of the estuary. The total area-averaged and tidal-averaged salt flux was decomposed in three different contributions: the advective salt flux that represents the flux caused by river input and meteorological-induced flows, the steady shear dispersion that is the salt flux driven by the estuarine exchange flow, and the tidal oscillatory salt flux that is induced by the tidal currents. The advective salt flux dominated over the steady shear dispersion and tidal oscillatory salt flux, because it was driven mainly by changes in sea surface height associated with wind-driven setup and setdown. The steady shear dispersion was always positive and presented a spring/neap variability that was consistent with a two-layer exchange flow. On the other hand, the tidal oscillatory salt flux fluctuated between positive and negative values, but increased around a strong neap tide and decreased on the following spring tide. This variability is contrary to previous parameterizations, whereby the tidal salt flux is proportional to the amplitude of the tidal currents. The observational estimate was compared to a parameterization that relates tidal salt flux as proportional to tidal current amplitude and stratification. The observational estimate agreed with this new parameterization when the river discharge was relatively constant.

  14. How Safe Do Teenagers Behave on Facebook? An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (1318) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  15. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  16. A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. Design and Setting: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Participants: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. Data Analysis: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protégé initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protégé having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. Conclusions: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protégé. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and the mentor. A mentoring relationship is complex and involves the coalescence of both interpersonal and educational aspects of an affiliation. As a professional-socialization tactic, mentoring offers students a way to anticipate the future professional role in a very personal and meaningful way. PMID:15592607

  17. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  18. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  19. Hemoglobin aggregates studied under static and dynamic conditions involving the formation of nanobacteria-like structures.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jeramy L R; Jones, Riland L; Manning, Thomas J; Nienow, James; Phillips, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    Laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study hemoglobin in the aqueous phase. The impact that salts [NaCl, Ca?(PO?)?] and iron oxide nanoparticles have on the hemoglobin size are also studied. The first set of experiments examined hemoglobin aggregates in the aqueous phases in the presence of salts and nanoparticles. Aqueous phase samples were then dehydrated and examined using SEM. The resulting structures resemble those observed in nanobacteria studies conducted in other labs. This study demonstrates that aggregates of hemoglobin and various salts found in a physiological environment can produce structures that resemble nanobacteria. PMID:22750818

  20. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  1. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano Lc; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate. PMID:26379011

  2. Transgenic Studies on the Involvement of Cytokinin and Gibberellin in Male Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R. Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M.; Hanson, Doris D.; Malloy, Kathleen P.; Ness, Linda A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

  3. Muscle involvement in leprosy. Study of the anterior tibial muscle in 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Werneck, L C; Teive, H A; Scola, R H

    1999-09-01

    The involvement of skeletal striated muscle in leprosy is considered secondary due to peripheral neuropathy, but some studies point it to a primary muscle lesion. In order to investigate the muscle involvement in leprosy, we studied 40 patients (lepromatous 23, tuberculoid 13, borderline 2 and indeterminate 2). The motor nerve conduction of the peroneal nerves had a reduction of the velocity, decreased compound muscle action potential and sometimes absence of potentials. The electromyographic study of the anterior tibial muscle showed signs of recent and chronic denervation in 77.5% of the cases and no myopathic potentials. The anterior tibial muscle biopsy revealed denervation in 45% of the cases, interstitial inflammatory myopathy in 30% and mixed (myopathic and neuropathic) pattern in 12.5%. Acid fast bacillus was detected in 25% of the cases, always in the interstitial tissue. Inflammatory reaction was present in the interstitial space and in patients with the lepromatous type. The histological findings clearly defined the presence of the so-called "Leprous Interstitial Myositis" on the top of denervation signs. PMID:10751905

  4. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal, gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.

  5. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more » gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  6. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter) was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3%) eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%); screening for hypertension (81.8%), diabetes (76.0%) and dyslipidemia (56.9%); and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%); however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively). The main barriers to the provision of these services in current practice were lack of: time (86.1%), coordination with other health care professionals (61.1%), staff or resources (57.2%), financial compensation (50.8%), and clinical tools (45.5%). Conclusions Although community pharmacists think they should play a significant role in health promotion and prevention, they recognize a wide gap between their ideal and actual levels of involvement. The efficient integration of primary-care pharmacists and pharmacies into public health cannot be envisioned without addressing important organizational barriers. PMID:22420693

  7. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb) and non-biological (abstract object) movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes). Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brains ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions, activations were elicited in cerebral areas involved in visual perception, sensory integration, recognition of movement, re-mapping on the somatosensory and motor cortex, storage in memory, and response control. Results from the congruent vs. incongruent trials revealed greater activity for the former condition than the latter in a network including cingulate cortex, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus that are involved in the go-signal and in decision control. Results on healthy subjects would suggest the appropriateness of an abstract visual feedback provided during motor training. The task contributes to highlight the potential of fMRI in improving the understanding of visual motor processes and may also be useful in detecting brain reorganisation during training. PMID:22828181

  8. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (1829 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (?30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of InvolveMENt emerged. PMID:24639900

  9. Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabr, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potort, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

  10. Arctic Sea ice studies with passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to improve sea ice concentration determinations from passive microwave space observations; (2) to study the role of Arctic polynyas in the production of sea ice and the associated salinization of Arctic shelf water; and (3) to study large scale sea ice variability in the polar oceans. The strategy is to analyze existing data sets and data acquired from both the DMSP SSM/I and recently completed aircraft underflights. Special attention will be given the high resolution 85.5 GHz SSM/I channels for application to thin ice algorithms and processes studies. Analysis of aircraft and satellite data sets is expected to provide a basis for determining the potential of the SSM/I high frequency channels for improving sea ice algorithms and for investigating oceanic processes. Improved sea ice algorithms will aid the study of Arctic coastal polynyas which in turn will provide a better understanding of the role of these polynyas in maintaining the Arctic watermass structure. Analysis of satellite and archived meteorological data sets will provide improved estimates of annual, seasonal and shorter-term sea ice variability.

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  12. A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  13. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  14. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

    1984-11-01

    The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

  15. Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

  16. A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Guilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuhua; Wang, Dongli

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of strong ionospheric scintillations with S4>=0.2 was studied using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at Guilin (25.29N, 110.33E; geomagnetic: 15.04N, 181.98E), a station located near the northern crest of equatorial anomaly in China. The results are presented for data collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The results show that amplitude scintillations occurred only during the first five months of the considered years. Nighttime amplitude scintillations, observed mainly in the south of Guilin, always occurred with phase scintillations, total electron content (TEC) depletions, and Rate Of change of TEC (ROT) fluctuations. However, TEC depletions and ROT fluctuations were weak during daytime amplitude scintillations, and daytime amplitude scintillations usually occurred in most of the azimuth directions. GPS scintillation/TEC observations recorded at Guilin and signal-to-noise-ratio measurements obtained from GPS-COSMIC radio occultation indicate that nighttime and daytime scintillations are very likely caused by ionospheric F region irregularities and sporadic E, respectively.

  17. Positive Facial Affect – An fMRI Study on the Involvement of Insula and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala. PMID:23990890

  18. Involvement of AMPA receptors in posterior locomotor activity in the rabbit: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, A; Corio, M; Bouc, A M; Viala, D

    1998-02-01

    Although AMPA receptors are known to be widely involved in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission at the spinal level, very little is known about their role in modulating motor activity in mammals. In curarized decerebrate or spinalized rabbit preparations, fictive locomotion was monitored on hindlimb nerves after either activation or blockade of AMPA receptors. In decerebrate preparations, the administration of the antagonist, NBQX (3.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the agonist, AMPA (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) produced, in both cases, a depression of locomotor activities induced by stimulation of cutaneous afferents (evoked locomotor activity). This potent effect was transient with AMPA (recovery after 20 min) and followed by the occurrence of spontaneous locomotor sequences, while no recovery was observed with NBQX treatment. In spinal preparations where a continuous 'spontaneous' locomotor activity resulted from the pharmacological activation of noradrenergic descending pathways (nialamide-DOPA pretreatment), the same drugs injected at higher doses (5 mg/kg NBQX i.p. and 1 mg/kg AMPA i.v.) only weakly affected the frequency of 'spontaneous' and evoked locomotor bursts while they exerted inhibitory and facilitatory effects on the burst amplitude respectively. The results suggest that AMPA receptors are involved at spinal level: 1) in direct mediation of cutaneous afferent excitatory effects on the posterior locomotor generators (pLG); 2) in indirect mediation of a supraspinal descending inhibition controlling, likely presynaptically, the cutaneous afferent activation; and 3) in transmission to motoneurons of the output signals from the pLG. Finally, tight spinal interactions between potent descending noradrenergic pathways and spinal AMPA neurotransmission were disclosed. PMID:9638591

  19. Cross-validation study of the personality aspects of involvement in pilot-error accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M G; Hofmann, M A; Neese, T A

    1976-02-01

    Pilot-error accidents have dominated accident statistics consistently from the 1940s to the present. Sanders and Hofmann (3) found that three factors from Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) significant differences (p less than 0.05) between pilot-error accident groups and were used to correctly classify 86% of the aviators tested as to their previous pilot-error accident involvement. There were 66 aviators given the 16 PF in the present study in an attempt to cross-validate the findings reported in the original study. The results indicate that the personality factors did not significantly discriminate between the pilot-error accident groups. The primary personality differences between the present sample and the original sample were due to variations in the pilot-error accident-free groups. The findings indicate that individual differences in personality characterstics of the aviators prevent consistent identification of traits associated with pilot-error groups. PMID:1252212

  20. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  1. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. PMID:25623499

  2. Effect of Supervised Students' Involvement on Diagnostic Accuracy in Hospitalized Medical Patients A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Herter, Dorothea Adelheid; Wagner, Robert; Holderried, Friederike; Fenik, Yelena; Riessen, Reimer; Weyrich, Peter; Celebi, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Background During internships most medical students engage in history taking and physical examination during evaluation of hospitalized patients. However, the students' ability for pattern recognition is not as developed as in medical experts and complete history taking is often not repeated by an expert, so important clues may be missed. On the other hand, students' history taking is usually more extensive than experts' history taking and medical students discuss their findings with a Supervisor. Thus the effect of student involvement on diagnostic accuracy is unclear. We therefore compared the diagnostic accuracy for patients in the medical emergency department with and without student involvement in the evaluation process. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients in the medical emergency department were assigned to evaluation by either a supervised medical student or an emergency department physician. We only included patients who were admitted to our hospital and subsequently cared for by another medical team on the ward. We compared the working diagnosis from the emergency department with the discharge diagnosis. A total of 310 patients included in the study were cared for by 41 medical students and 21 emergency department physicians. The working diagnosis was changed in 22% of the patients evaluated by physicians evaluation and in 10% of the patients evaluated by supervised medical students (p?=?.006). There was no difference in the expenditures for diagnostic procedures, length of stay in the emergency department or patient comorbidity complexity level. Conclusion/Significance Involvement of closely supervised medical students in the evaluation process of hospitalized medical patients leads to an improved diagnostic accuracy compared to evaluation by an emergency department physician alone. PMID:22984578

  3. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  4. Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, M. G.

    1988-12-01

    This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

  5. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  6. CASSCF Computational Study of Pseudopericyclic Character in Electrocyclic Rearrangements Involving Heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Bierzynski, Irena R; Settle, Cassandra A; Kreiman, Henry W; Duncan, James A

    2016-01-15

    The Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) computational method, with the 6-31G* basis set, was used to examine six electrocyclic rearrangements, each involving a 1,2,4,6-heptatetraene skeleton with two variously located oxygen and/or nitrogen heteroatoms, as a way to determine which, if any, are pseudopericyclic as opposed to pericyclic. Primarily through the close examination of the active space orbitals, but also considering transition structure geometries and activation energies, it was concluded that rearrangements 3 ? 4, 5 ? 6, 7 ? 8, and 9 ? 10 are pseudopericyclic with two orbital disconnections each, whereas the 13 ? 14 and 15 ? 16 rearrangements are pericyclic. Our conclusions agreed with those of others in two of the four cases that had been studied previously by density functional theory (3 ? 4 and 7 ? 8) but ran contrary to the previous conclusions that the 5 ? 6 rearrangement is pericyclic and that the 15 ? 16 rearrangement is pseudopericyclic. Our results are also compared and contrasted to previous similar ones of ours involving the 3 ? 4 electrocyclization (essentially pericyclic), the 11 ? 12 [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement (pseudopericyclic), and similar [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangements (all pericyclic), and detailed rationales for these latest results are provided. PMID:26651158

  7. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  8. Evidence of clinical competence by simulation, a hermeneutical observational study.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from theory to practise easier in nursing education through simulation is widely implemented all over the world, and there is research evidence of the positive effects of simulation. The pre-understanding for this study is based on a definition of clinical competence as encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and developing, and the hypothesis is that these categories should appear in simulated situations. The aim of the study was to explore the forms and expressions of clinical competence in simulated situations and furthermore to explore if and how clinical competence could be developed by simulation. An observational hermeneutic study with a hypothetic-deductive approach was used in 18 simulated situations with 39 bachelor degree nursing students. In the situations, the scenarios, the actors and the plots were described. The story told was "the way from suffering to health" in which three main plots emerged. The first was, doing as performing and knowing, which took the shape of knowing what to do, acting responsibly, using evidence and equipment, appearing confident and feeling comfortable, and sharing work and information with others. The second was, being as encountering the patient, which took the shape of being there for him/her and confirming by listening and answering. The third plot was becoming as maturing and developing which took the shape of learning in co-operation with other students. All the deductive categories, shapes and expressions appeared as dialectic patterns having their negative counterparts. The study showed that clinical competence can be made evident and developed by simulation and that the challenge is in encountering the patient and his/her suffering. PMID:26763209

  9. Phytoplankton dynamics studying using observation and biophysical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi

    Continental shelf phytoplankton bloom dynamics are associated with meteorological, oceanographic and coastal forcing mechanisms. Mixing related to stratification and de-stratification is a key process of the physical environment that can control the timing and magnitude of blooms. Using data from satellite, coastal ocean observatory and bio-physical model, this study investigated the seasonal and decadal variability of chlorophyll in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and how different forcing mechanisms affect the phytoplankton bloom. The temporal and spatial distribution of chlorophyll a in the MAB was quantified using satellite data collected by the Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The MAB undergoes a fall-winter bloom in the middle-outer shelf region and spring bloom in the shelf-break region. The interannual variability of bloom magnitude is associated with wind-induced mixing. Mixing has been recognized as having an important role in influencing underwater light and nutrient budgets and thus regulating phytoplankton bloom. The ratio of light over mixed layer depth (MLD) was used to determine the trade-off effects of mixing on phytoplankton bloom activity. We find that a critical light value around 60 (W m-2) for the shelf region and 150 (W m-2) for the shelf-break front region in promoting maximum phytoplankton biomass and there is a predictable linear regression relationship between the critical light value and depth. The bio-physical model identified the wind-induced mixing, net heat flux and river run-off are the most important factors influencing water column stability. Sensitivity studies showed that the timing of the destratification and initiation of fall bloom was closely related to the wind forcing. The river's role in bringing buoyancy was significant in increasing phytoplankton bloom. The decadal declines in the seasonal satellite estimates of chlorophyll a&barbelow; concentrations have been observed in the fall and winter in the MAB and are hypothesized to reflect shifts in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) that alters wind stress, river discharge, and net heat flux. This work prototypes the integration of observation and modeling in a coastal environment and demonstrates the use of 3D coupled physical-biological model forced with realistic atmospheric forcing to study the phytoplankton dynamics in the MAB.

  10. Observation of interactive behavior increases corticospinal excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Mori, Hirotaka; Kushiro, Keisuke; Uehara, Shintaro

    2015-11-01

    In humans, observation of others' behaviors increases corticospinal excitability (CSE), which is interpreted in the contexts of motor resonance and the "mirror neuron system" (MNS). It has been suggested that observation of another individual's behavior manifests an embodied simulation of his/her mental state through the MNS. Thus, the MNS may involve understanding others' intentions of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions (i.e., social cognition), and may therefore exhibit a greater response when observing human-interactive behaviors that require a more varied and complex understanding of others. In the present study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the primary motor cortex of participants observing human-interactive behaviors between two individuals (c.f. one person reaching toward an object in another person's hand) and non-interactive individual behavior (c.f. one person reaching toward an object on a dish). We carefully controlled the kinematics of behaviors in these two conditions to exclude potential effects of MNS activity changes associated with kinematic differences between visual stimuli. Notably, motor evoked potentials, that reflect CSE, from the first dorsal interosseous muscle exhibited greater amplitude when the participants observed interactive behaviors than when they observed non-interactive behavior. These results provide neurophysiological evidence that the MNS is activated to a greater degree during observation of human-interactive behaviors that contain additional information about the individuals' mental states, supporting the view that the MNS plays a critical role in social cognition in humans. PMID:26432377

  11. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  12. An Observational Study of Pulsations in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Henson, Gary D.; Hillwig, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    We have been carrying out a long-term monitoring program to study the light variability in proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). PPNe are post-Asymptotic Giant Branch objects in transition between the AGB and PN phases in the evolution of low and intermediate-mass stars. As such, it is not surprising that they display pulsational variability. We have been carrying out photometric monitoring of 30 of these at the Valparaiso University campus observatory over the last 20 years, with the assistance of undergraduate students. The sample size has been enlarged over the past six years by observations made using telescopes in the SARA consortium at KPNO and CTIO. Periods have been determined for those of F-G spectral types. We have also enlarged the sample with PPNe from outside the Milky Way by determining periods of eight PPNe in the lower metalicity environment of the Magellanic Clouds. Periods for the entire sample range from 35 to 160 days. Some clear patterns have emerged, with those of higher temperature possessing shorter periods and smaller amplitudes, indicating a reduction in period and pulsation amplitude as the objects evolve. Radial velocity monitoring of several of the brightest of these has allowed us to document their changes in brightness, color, and size during a pulsation cycle. The results of this study will be presented. This research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (most recently AST 1413660), with additional student support from the Indiana Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Observational study of contracts processing at 29 CTSA sites.

    PubMed

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-08-01

    We measured contracts final negotiation (FN) and full execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of master agreements (MAs) and previously negotiated terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p < 0) and 22 days (p < 0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p < 0.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study start-up time by examining causes of variation and outliers. PMID:23919362

  14. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

  15. [A clinical study on urethral recurrence observed after cystectomy].

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, R; Asakawa, M; Yoshihara, H; Sakamoto, W; Iseki, T; Nakatani, T; Wada, S; Kishimoto, T; Maekawa, M

    1990-10-01

    A clinical study was made on 108 male patients who underwent cystectomy. The posterior urethra and partial anterior urethra were removed in 47 cases, half of the perpendicular urethra was removed in 13 cases and the anterior urethra up to the fossa navicularis was removed in 48 cases. Out of 60 cases without urethrectomy, urethral recurrence was observed in 13 cases (21.7%), while no recurrence was observed in the cases treated with urethrectomy. The average period of time from cystectomy to urethral recurrence was 24.7 months (11-39 months). Urethral cancer of such early stages as pIa and pIb were found in 3 and 6 cases, respectively. Stage pT2 was found in 4 cases. Grade 1 cancer was found in 3 cases, grade 2, in 5 cases, and 3 in 5 cases. The proximal end of the perpendicular urethra was found to be the most frequent site for recurrence with 11 cases exhibiting recurrence at this location and 2 cases at the mid-portion of the perpendicular urethra. Many cases exhibited multiple recurrence of tumor of visually grayish, velvety and non-papillary type which was histologically all transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor with higher grade tended to cause urethral cancer recurrence with higher grade. Bladder tumors at multiple locations from the trigone to the lateral and posterior walls tended to cause recurrence in the urethra (p less than 0.05). Of all the cases, 10 cases underwent urethrectomy and 2 cases penectomy. 12 cases received chemotherapy and 5 cases radiation therapy as postoperative adjuvant treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2273704

  16. Why Rudolphs nose is red: observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Clauss sleigh, is due to the presence of a highly dense and rich nasal microcirculation. Design Observational study. Setting Troms, Norway (near the North Pole), and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Five healthy human volunteers, two adult reindeer, and a patient with grade 3 nasal polyposis. Main outcome measures Architecture of the microvasculature of the nasal septal mucosa and head of the inferior turbinates, kinetics of red blood cells, and real time reactivity of the microcirculation to topical medicines. Results Similarities between human and reindeer nasal microcirculation were uncovered. Hairpin-like capillaries in the reindeers nasal septal mucosa were rich in red blood cells, with a perfused vessel density of 20 (SD 0.7) mm/mm2. Scattered crypt or gland-like structures surrounded by capillaries containing flowing red blood cells were found in human and reindeer noses. In a healthy volunteer, nasal microvascular reactivity was demonstrated by the application of a local anaesthetic with vasoconstrictor activity, which resulted in direct cessation of capillary blood flow. Abnormal microvasculature was observed in the patient with nasal polyposis. Conclusions The nasal microcirculation of reindeer is richly vascularised, with a vascular density 25% higher than that in humans. These results highlight the intrinsic physiological properties of Rudolphs legendary luminous red nose, which help to protect it from freezing during sleigh rides and to regulate the temperature of the reindeers brain, factors essential for flying reindeer pulling Santa Clauss sleigh under extreme temperatures. PMID:23247980

  17. Study of immune cells involved in the antitumor effect of kefir in a murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    de Moreno de Leblanc, A; Matar, C; Farnworth, E; Perdign, G

    2007-04-01

    Administration of kefir and a kefir cell-free fraction (KF) to mice injected with breast tumor cells produced, locally in the mammary gland, different profiles of cells secreting cytokines. Here, the immune cell populations in mammary glands affected by the cyclic consumption of kefir or KF for 2 or 7 d were evaluated using a breast tumor model. Apoptosis was also assayed as another mechanism involved in tumor growth delay. The rate development of tumor cells, IgA(+) cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was monitored in mammary gland tissues. The number of Bcl-2(+) cells in the mammary gland was compared with the apoptosis observed in the tumor. Two-day cyclical administration of both products delayed tumor growth and increased the number of IgA(+) cells in the mammary gland. Changes in the balance between CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the mammary gland were observed in mice from the group fed KF cyclically for 2 d, such that the number of CD4+ cells increased when the number of CD8+ cells remained constant. Mice that received 2-d cyclic administration of KF showed significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells and decreases in Bcl-2(+) cells in the mammary gland, compared with the tumor control group. The present study allows a better understanding of the mechanisms (immune and nonimmune) involved in the antitumor effect observed in mice administered kefir or KF. The importance of nonmicrobial components released during milk fermentation to obtain the beneficial antitumor effects is also reported. PMID:17369232

  18. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.231.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.191.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  19. A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

  20. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

  1. A large Italian observational multicentre study on vascular ulcers of the lower limbs (Studio Ulcere Vascolari).

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Alessandro; Antignani, Pier L; Di Salvo, Michelangelo; Failla, Giacomo; Guarnera, Giorgio; Mosti, Giovanni; Ricci, Elia

    2016-02-01

    An observational study of 2 years was promoted by the Italian Association for Cutaneous Ulcers (AIUC) in order to monitor the epidemiology of leg ulcers, the trend of healing and the more frequent therapeutic approaches in lower limb ulcers. Fifty-nine sites in 14 different Italian regions involved in the study, with 1333 enrolled patients (1163 patients fully evaluated and followed up for 9 months). A prevalence of females (62%) was observed with a mean age of 70 years and a high rate of hypertension (62%), diabetes (38%) and obesity (29%). Venous ulcer was most frequent (55%), followed by mixed (25%) and diabetic (8·3%) ulcers. Basically, all patients received a local therapy (LT) (compression and advanced local therapies), while 63% of patients have an associated systemic pharmaceutical treatment. Ulcer healing rates progressively increased throughout the study and despite the type of observational study does not allow conclusions on the treatment, it was observed that the patients receiving additional systemic drugs were associated with a more rapid acceleration of healing rates of ulcers compared to LT alone (3 months: 39·7% versus 29·2%; 6 months: 62·0% versus 47·0%; 9 months: 74·7% versus 63·8%). In particular, the Studio Ulcere Vascolari (SUV) study showed that a combination treatment with sulodexide and compression therapy allows for a greater increase in the healing rates in venous ulcers. PMID:24618175

  2. Regulatory considerations in the design of comparative observational studies using propensity scores.

    PubMed

    Yue, Lilly Q

    2012-01-01

    In the evaluation of medical products, including drugs, biological products, and medical devices, comparative observational studies could play an important role when properly conducted randomized, well-controlled clinical trials are infeasible due to ethical or practical reasons. However, various biases could be introduced at every stage and into every aspect of the observational study, and consequently the interpretation of the resulting statistical inference would be of concern. While there do exist statistical techniques for addressing some of the challenging issues, often based on propensity score methodology, these statistical tools probably have not been as widely employed in prospectively designing observational studies as they should be. There are also times when they are implemented in an unscientific manner, such as performing propensity score model selection for a dataset involving outcome data in the same dataset, so that the integrity of observational study design and the interpretability of outcome analysis results could be compromised. In this paper, regulatory considerations on prospective study design using propensity scores are shared and illustrated with hypothetical examples. PMID:23075022

  3. Systematic review of genetic association studies involving histologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272

  4. Studies on Cu(II) ternary complexes involving an aminopenicillin drug and imidazole containing ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regupathy, Sthanumoorthy; Nair, Madhavan Sivasankaran

    2010-02-01

    Equilibrium studies on the ternary complex systems involving ampicillin (amp) as ligand (A) and imidazole containing ligands viz., imidazole (Him), benzimidazole (Hbim), histamine (Hist) and histidine (His) as ligands (B) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4) show the presence of CuABH, CuAB and CuAB 2. The proton in the CuABH species is attached to ligand A. In the ternary complexes the ligand, amp(A) binds the metal ion via amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atom. The CuAB (B = Hist/His)/CuAB 2 (B = Him/Hbim) species have also been isolated and the analytical data confirmed its formation. Non-electrolytic behavior and monomeric type of chelates have been assessed from their low conductance and magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and vibrational spectral results were interpreted to find the mode of binding of ligands to metal and geometry of the complexes. This is also supported by the g tensor values calculated from ESR spectra. The thermal behaviour of complexes were studied by TGA/DTA. The redox behavior of the complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage study of the complexes show higher activity for ternary complexes.

  5. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Behr, M; Thollon, L

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  6. Association between day of delivery and obstetric outcomes: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bottle, A; Aylin, P

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the association between day of delivery and measures of quality and safety of maternity services, particularly comparing weekend with weekday performance? Methods This observational study examined outcomes for maternal and neonatal records (1?332?835 deliveries and 1?349?599 births between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2012) within the nationwide administrative dataset for English National Health Service hospitals by day of the week. Groups were defined by day of admission (for maternal indicators) or delivery (for neonatal indicators) rather than by day of complication. Logistic regression was used to adjust for case mix factors including gestational age, birth weight, and maternal age. Staffing factors were also investigated using multilevel models to evaluate the association between outcomes and level of consultant presence. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality andfor both neonate and motherinfections, emergency readmissions, and injuries. Study answer and limitations Performance across four of the seven measures was significantly worse for women admitted, and babies born, at weekends. In particular, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.3 per 1000 babies delivered at weekends, 0.9 per 1000 higher than for weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.13). No consistent association between outcomes and staffing was identified, although trusts that complied with recommended levels of consultant presence had a perineal tear rate of 3.0% compared with 3.3% for non-compliant services (adjusted odds ratio 1.21, 1.00 to 1.45). Limitations of the analysis include the method of categorising performance temporally, which was mitigated by using a midweek reference day (Tuesday). Further research is needed to investigate possible bias from unmeasured confounders and explore the nature of the causal relationship. What this study adds This study provides an evaluation of the weekend effect in obstetric care, covering a range of outcomes. The results would suggest approximately 770 perinatal deaths and 470 maternal infections per year above what might be expected if performance was consistent across women admitted, and babies born, on different days of the week. Funding, competing interests, data sharing The research was partially funded by Dr Foster Intelligence and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre in partnership with the Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Healthcare Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London. WLP was supported by the National Audit Office. PMID:26602245

  7. Study of the effector mechanism involved in the production of haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine in rat passive anaphylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Pelln, M. I.; Steil, A. A.; Furi, V.; Snchez Crespo, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effector mechanism of intestinal necrosis in rat anaphylaxis was studied following several complementary approaches: (i) the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) belonging to different classes (IgG1, IgG2b and IgE anti-DNP), (ii) the assay of mediators, and (iii) the use of pharmacological tools. 2. Lethality and haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine were observed in IgE-sensitized rats, whereas IgG mAb produced milder physiological disturbances. 3. Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis reduced the drop of systemic blood pressure (BP) and the extent of protein-rich plasma exudation but it did not influence the haemorrhagic component of intestinal necrosis. 4. The antihistamine, pyrilamine, partially diminished the haemorrhagic component of the intestinal necrosis. 5. The involvement of mediators related to platelet-activating factor (PAF) was studied by examining the pharmacological effects of these autacoids and of PAF-receptor antagonists (PCA4248, UR12460 and BB823). PAF induced intestinal lesions similar to those observed in IgE-sensitized rats and PAF-receptor antagonists markedly decreased haemorrhage in IgE-sensitized rats. 6. PAF levels were transiently increased after dinitrophenol (DNP)- bovine serum albumin (BSA) challenge in the small intestine of IgE-sensitized rats. 7. These data stress differences in the outcome of anaphylaxis related to the type of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins that are involved. IgE is the antibody class that elicits the most severe response due to the activation of mast cells via Fc epsilon RI (surface receptors that bind IgE antibodies with high affinity), and the only one able to produce intestinal haemorrhagic necrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7952870

  8. Sharing decisions in consultations involving anti-psychotic medication: a qualitative study of psychiatrists' experiences.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Chaplin, Robert; Lelliott, Paul; Quirk, Alan

    2006-06-01

    In psychiatry, and in treating people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in particular, there are obstacles to achieving concordant, shared decision making and in building a co-operative therapeutic alliance where mutual honesty is the norm. Studies of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have revealed critical views of medical authority, particularly over the issue of enforced compliance with antipsychotic medication. Psychiatrists are known to place particular value on such medication. This qualitative study reports the views of 21 general adult psychiatrists working in UK about their experiences of consultations involving discussion of antipsychotic medication. Interviewees reported a general commitment to achieving concordant relationships with patients and described a number of strategies they used to promote this. In this respect, their self-perception differs from the picture of authoritarian practice painted by critics of psychiatry, and by some studies reporting patients' views. Interviewees also described obstacles to achieving concordance, including adverse judgements of patients' competence and honesty about their medication use. Explaining the adverse effects of medication was perceived to discourage some patients from accepting this treatment. Moments of strategic dishonesty were reported. Psychiatrists perceived that trust could be damaged by episodes of coercion, or by patients' perception of coercive powers. We conclude that a self-perception of patient-centredness may not preclude psychiatrists from fulfilling a social control function. PMID:16343722

  9. Study of cytokines involved in the prevention of a murine experimental breast cancer by kefir.

    PubMed

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Matar, C; Farnworth, E; Perdigon, G

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that compounds released during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus helveticus are implicated in the antitumour effect of this product. Here the effects of the consumption, during 2 or 7 days, of kefir or kefir cell-free fraction (KF) on the systemic and local immune responses in mammary glands and tumours using a murine hormone-dependent breast cancer model were studied. In the tumour control group, mice did not receive these products. At the end of the feeding period, mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells in the mammary gland. Four days post-injection, they received kefir or KF on a cyclical basis. Rate of tumour development, cytokines in serum; mammary gland tissue, and tumour isolated cells were monitored. Two-day cyclical administration of both products delayed tumour growth. Both kefir and KF increased IL-10 in serum and decreased IL-6(+) cells (cytokine involved in oestrogen synthesis) in mammary glands. Two-day cyclical administration of KF increased IL-10(+) cells in mammary glands and in tumours and decreased IL-6(+) cells in tumour. This study demonstrated the modulatory capacity of KF on the immune response in mammary glands and tumours and the importance of the administration period to obtain this effect. PMID:16697655

  10. Dalfampridine in patients with downbeat nystagmus--an observational study.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jens; Feil, Katharina; Bardins, Stanislav; Teufel, Julian; Spiegel, Rainer; Kalla, Roger; Schneider, Erich; Jahn, Klaus; Schniepp, Roman; Strupp, Michael

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dalfampridine, the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine, on slow phase velocity (SPV) and visual acuity (VA) in patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and the side effects of the drug. In this proof-of-principle observational study, ten patients received dalfampridine 10 mg bid for 2 weeks. Recordings were conducted at baseline, 180 min after first administration, after 2 weeks of treatment and after 4 weeks of wash-out. Mean SPV decreased from a baseline of 2.12 deg/s 1.72 (mean SD) to 0.51 deg/s 1.00 180 min after first administration of dalfampridine 10 mg and to 0.89 deg/s 0.75 after 2 weeks of treatment with dalfampridine (p < 0.05; post hoc both: p < 0.05). After a wash-out period of 1 week, mean SPV increased to 2.30 deg/s 1.6 (p < 0.05; post hoc both: p < 0.05). The VA significantly improved during treatment with dalfampridine. Also, 50 % of patients did not report any side effects. The most common reported side effects were abdominal discomfort and dizziness. Dalfampridine is an effective treatment for DBN in terms of SPV. It was well-tolerated in all patients. PMID:23589193

  11. Observed wave characteristics during growth and decay: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, C. V. K.; Baba, M.

    1996-10-01

    Observed 1-h time series data on sea surface waves in the shelf waters off Goa, west coast of India (depth 80 m), during 17-24 March 1986, are analyzed with reference to the prevailing synoptic winds to understand wave growth and decay aspects. Wind speeds ( U10) ranged from 0 to 11.5 m s -1, whereas significant wave height ( Hs) varied between 0.6 and 2.3 m. Cross-correlation analysis between U10 and Hs revealed a time-lag of 4 h. A relationship is obtained between wave steepness ( H s/L ) and wave age ( C/U10) viz. Log 10( H s/L = -0.53 Log 10( C/U 10) - 1.385. Phillips' hypothesis of f-5 formula for equilibrium range of wave spectrum and relationship between non-dimensional energy ( E * = Eg 2/U *4) and non-dimensional peak frequency ( v * = U *f m/g ) are studied. Correlation of non-dimensional wave parameters ( E * and v *) using the present data showed a better aereement with Hasselmann et al. (1976) when comnared to Toba (1978).

  12. Observational Buoy Studies of Coastal Air-Sea Fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Paul A.; Davidson, Kenneth L.

    2003-02-01

    Recent advancements in measurement and analysis techniques have allowed air-sea fluxes to be measured directly from moving platforms at sea relatively easily. These advances should lead to improved surface flux parameterizations, and thus to improved coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. The Naval Postgraduate School has developed a `flux buoy' (FB) that directly measures air-sea fluxes, mean meteorological parameters, and one-dimensional and directional wave spectra. In this study, the FB instrumentation and data analysis techniques are described, and the data collected during two U.S. east coast buoy deployments are used to examine the impact of atmospheric and surface wave properties on air-sea momentum transfer in coastal ocean regions. Data obtained off Duck, North Carolina, clearly show that, for a given wind speed, neutral drag coefficients in offshore winds are higher than those in onshore winds. Offshore wind drag coefficients observed over the wind speed range from 5 to 21 m s1 were modeled equally well by a linear regression on wind speed, and a Charnock model with a constant of 0.016. Measurements from an FB deployment off Wallops Island, Virginia, show that neutral drag coefficients in onshore winds increase as the wind-wave direction differences increase, especially beyond ±60°.

  13. A European Network for Atmospheric Hydrogen observations and studies: EUROHYDROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A.; Engel, A.

    2008-12-01

    and the EuroHydros team In a future energy supply chain, molecular hydrogen is expected to play an increasingly important role as a carrier of energy for mobile applications, in particular in the automotive sector. Such an increased use of molecular hydrogen is prone to lead to additional emissions into the atmosphere, due to leakages in the supply chain. While molecular hydrogen does not influence the radiation budget of the atmosphere directly, it affects its oxidation capacity, through reaction with the OH radical. This in turn leads to an increased atmospheric lifetime of many atmospheric constituents (e.g. Methane), making H2 an indirect greenhouse gas. An increase of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere also leads to increasing H2O in the stratosphere, influencing the radiation budget of the atmosphere and ozone chemistry. In the light of these uncertainties, a thorough understanding of hydrogen in the atmosphere is necessary, and, most notably, a good understanding of the present day global distribution and budget of atmospheric hydrogen. The EU funded project Eurohydros aims at improving the understanding of the budget of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere through a combination of atmospheric monitoring, source-sink studies and modelling work. In this presentation we focus on the observational network, showing first results from different European and Global sites, from the calibration of the data sets and a first intercomparison experiment.

  14. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This study is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such studies.

  15. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

  16. A Study of Student Teaching Using Direct Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Joan G.; Coker, Homer

    Thirty-three student teachers were observed in elementary school classrooms to determine if they manifested 16 interactive behaviors identified as desirable by college of education faculty. Teaching assistants used the Georgia Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness (GATE), an instrument which requires the observers to objectively record, but not

  17. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy cloud cover and bright moonlight). Furthermore, the change detection procedure only works when power blackouts happen or still persist at night at the time of an OLS overpass. In some cases (e.g. Hurricane Katrina) it has been possible to track the gradual recovery of power by repeating the procedure on nights following a disaster event. In this paper several examples of successful power blackout detection following natural disasters including hurricanes (e.g. Isabel 2003 and Wilma 2005 in the USA) and earthquakes (e.g. Gujarat Earthquake 2001 in India) will be presented, whereas overlaid hurricane paths and earthquake epicenters serve as landmarks and indicate locations around the potential highest impact. Disaster impact assessment and post-disaster research is strongly related to impacts on population, related infrastructure and activities (Kerle et al. 2005, Zhang and Kerle 2008). In particular in the case of emergency management and response humans are the main actors and first-pass assessment of affected population and locations of affected areas are essential. Space-based power blackout detection, as described above, has the potential to delineate the spatial extent of the disaster impact. Overlaying the respective OLS data with regional population data such as LandScan (Dobson et al. 2000) or Gridded Population of the World (CIESIN and CIAT 2005) allows estimating a potential number of affected people. Without a doubt such estimates comprise a considerable number of uncertainties. However, the capability of providing the information in near-real time as offered by using DMSP-OLS makes the presented approach very valuable for emergency and disaster managers worldwide. REFERENCES Center for International Earth Science Information Network CIESIN at Columbia University, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical CIAT (2005). Gridded Population of the World Version 3 (GPWv3). Palisades, NY: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw (last visited 01/08/2009). Dobson, J.E., E.A. Bright, P.R. Coleman, R.C. Durfee, and B.A. Worley (2000) LandScan: A Global Population Database for Estimating Populations at Risk. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 66(7), 849-857. Elvidge, C.D., K.E. Baugh, V.R. Hobson, E.A. Kihn, and H.W. Kroehl (1998) Detection of Fires and Power Outages Using DMSP-OLS Data. In: Lunetta, R.S., and Elvidge, C.D. (eds.) Remote Sensing Change Detection: Environmental Monitoring Methods and Applications. Ann Arbor Press, pp 123-135. Elvidge, C.D., C. Aubrecht, K. Baugh, B. Tuttle, and A.T. Howard (2007) Satellite detection of power outages following earthquakes and other events. 3rd International Geohazards Workshop. GEO & IGOS Geohazards. Proceedings. ESA/ESRIN, Frascati (Rome), Italy, November 6-9, 2007. Kerle, N., R. Stekelenburg, F. van den Heuvel, and B.G.H. Gorte (2005) Near - real time post - disaster damage assessment with airborne oblique video data. In: van Oosterom, P.J.M., Zlatanova, S., and Elfriede, M. (eds.) Geo-information for disaster management Gi4DM : Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Geo-Information for Disaster Management. Berlin: Springer, pp 337-353. Zhang, Y., and N. Kerle (2008) Satellite remote sensing for near-real time data collection. In: Zlatanova, S., Li, J. (eds.) Geospatial information technology for emergency response. Berlin: Springer, pp 75-102.

  18. Differential involvement of cortical and cerebellar areas using dominant and nondominant hands: An FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; D'Angelo, Egidio; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2015-12-01

    Motor fMRI studies, comparing dominant (DH) and nondominant (NDH) hand activations have reported mixed findings, especially for the extent of ipsilateral (IL) activations and their relationship with task complexity. To date, no study has directly compared DH and NDH activations using an event-related visually guided dynamic power-grip paradigm with parametric (three) forces (GF) in healthy right-handed subjects. We implemented a hierarchical statistical approach aimed to: (i) identify the main effect networks engaged when using either hand; (ii) characterise DH/NDH responses at different GFs; (iii) assess contralateral (CL)/IL-specific and hemisphere-specific activations. Beyond confirming previously reported results, this study demonstrated that increasing GF has an effect on motor response that is contextualised also by the use of DH or NDH. Linear analysis revealed increased activations in sensorimotor areas, with additional increased recruitments of subcortical and cerebellar areas when using the NDH. When looking at CL/IL-specific activations, CL sensorimotor areas and IL cerebellum were activated with both hands. When performing the task with the NDH, several areas were also recruited including the CL cerebellum. Finally, there were hand-side-independent activations of nonmotor-specific areas in the right and left hemispheres, with the right hemisphere being involved more extensively in sensori-motor integration through associative areas while the left hemisphere showing greater activation at higher GF. This study shows that the functional networks subtending DH/NDH power-grip visuomotor functions are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct and this should be taken into consideration when performing fMRI studies, particularly when planning interventions in patients with specific impairments. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5079-5100, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26415818

  19. Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Fadiga, L; Fogassi, L; Pavesi, G; Rizzolatti, G

    1995-06-01

    1. We stimulated the motor cortex of normal subjects (transcranial magnetic stimulation) while they 1) observed an experimenter grasping 3D-objects, 2) looked at the same 3D-objects, 3) observed an experimenter tracing geometrical figures in the air with his arm, and 4) detected the dimming of a light. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from hand muscles. 2. We found that MEPs significantly increased during the conditions in which subjects observed movements. The MEP pattern reflected the pattern of muscle activity recorded when the subjects executed the observed actions. 3. We conclude that in humans there is a system matching action observation and execution. This system resembles the one recently described in the monkey. PMID:7666169

  20. An Observational Study of Algol-Type Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Algol-Type binary systems are a subtype of binary systems. Their unique semi-detached structure leads to have abundant physical phenomena, including the dramatically distorted donor star, strong magnetic activities, various ways of mass transfer, the evolution stage quite different from that of single stars, and specific formation tracks. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental physics of light curves, as well as the models or programs used in the past. We show the influence of different parameters on the light curves, including the inclination, temperature, abundance, surface gravity, the third light, radius, orbital eccentricity, and the argument of periastron. Based on the current catalog of Algols, we investigate their statistic characteristics. We observe three Algols and analyze the data in detail. The results are as follows: (1)Our statistical analyses of Algols support the previous suggestion that most of the detached component stars are main sequence stars. The distribution of the mass ratio agrees to our calculated critical value of the mass ratio for Algols. We suggest that there could be a lower limit of the radius ratio. We also show that there are good correlations among the temperature, luminosity, radius, and the mass of the component stars. (2) The binary FG Gem is observed, and the data are analyzed. Based on the solutions of large combinations of the temperature and luminosity, we use a new age-comparing method to show that the FG Gem is a semi-detached system, and a new temperature-searching method to get a better estimate of the temperature of the detached component star. We suggest that a combination of the intermittent mass flow and the continuous magnetic braking can explain its orbital period change. (3) Taking the VV Vir as an example, we discuss some properties of the mass flow in a semi-detached binary. Some of them can reflect the common characteristics of the mass flows in the Algol systems, e.g., the radius of the mass flow is very small, so is its impact spot. If the mass transfer rate is high, the energy transfer rate can be comparable to the intrinsic luminosity of the detached component star. The position of the impact spot can be determined by the orbital period, mass ratio, and the dimensionless potential. The temperature of the impact spot is very high, and it can be directly reflected by the humps on the light curves. (4) We discover a rare Algol binary V753 Mon, which is just in the process of mass ratio inversion. The mass ratio of this binary is very close to one, and the key evolutional stage provides an important observational source for the theoretical studies of binary evolution. (5) We introduce the light curve models and the related physical factors, including the shape of the orbit, the shape of the stars, gravity brightening, atmosphere model, limb darkening, reflection effect, eclipse effect, the third body and its third light, dark spots and magnetic effect, hot spots, asteroseismology, atmospheric eclipse, and circumstellar matter. The light curve analysis programs are presented. We analyze the parameters and show the relevant results, including the orbital inclination, surface temperature, metal abundance, gravity acceleration, the third light, stellar radius (expressed by the surface potential), the eccentricity of the orbit, and anomaly.

  1. A Study of the Extratropical Tropopause from Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu Meir

    The extratropical tropopause is a familiar feature in meteorology; however, the understanding of the mechanisms for its existence, formation, maintenance and sharpness is still an active area of research. Son and Povalni (2007) used a simple general circulation model to produce the TIL (Tropopause Inversion Layer), and they found that the extratropical tropopause is more sensitive to the change of the horizontal resolution than to the change of the vertical resolution. The extratropical tropopause is sharper and lower in higher horizontal resolution. They also successfully mimicked the seasonal variation of the extratropical tropopause by changing the Equator-to-Pole temperature difference. They found these features of the extratropical tropopause, but they did not explain why these features were seen in their simplified model. In this research, we try to explain why these features of the extratropical tropopause are seen from both observations and the models. I have shown in my MS thesis that the distance from the jet is more associated with the extratropical tropopause than is the upper tropospheric relative vorticity (Wirth, 2001) from observations. In this research, the reproduction of the work is done from both the idealized and the full model run, and the results are similar to those from the observations, which show that even on synoptic time scales, the distance from the jet is more important in determining the extratropical tropopause height than is the upper tropospheric relative vorticity. It also explains the seasonal variations of the extratropical tropopause since the jet is more poleward in summer than in winter (the Equator-to-Pole temperature difference is smaller in summer than in winter), thus there is larger area at south of the jet which means the extratropical tropopause is sharper and higher at midlatitudes in summer than in winter. We believe that baroclinic mixing of PV is the key factor that sharpens the extratropical tropopause, and adequate horizontal resolution is needed to resolve the baroclinic mixing and the small-scale filamentary structures. We used many methods in this study to show that there is more baroclinic activity seen in higher horizontal resolution. We also compared the correlations of the tropopause height with three variations in different quantities (PV fluxes, the upper tropospheric vorticity, and heat fluxes), and found that the correlations of the tropopause height and PV fluxes are the highest among the three. Thus, we conclude that baroclinic mixing is the most important factor that controls the extratropical tropopause sharpness. This also explains why the extratropical tropopause is sharper at midlatitudes when higher horizontal resolution is used (see figure 2.4 in the thesis and figure 2 in Son and Polvani's (2007)) since there is more baroclinic activity in the higher horizontal resolution models. Since there is more baroclinic activity seen in higher horizontal resolution, the baroclinic eddy drag is larger, which intensifies the thermally direct cell. The stronger thermally direct cell with higher horizontal resolution has greater downward motion in higher latitudes, and thus lowers the extratropical tropopause more in higher horizontal resolution models, which explains why the extratropical tropopause is lower in higher horizontal than in lower horizontal resolution models, as in Son and Polvani's (2007) paper.

  2. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  3. Course of Dermal Ulcers and Musculoskeletal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis Patients in the Scleroderma Lung Study

    PubMed Central

    Au, Karen; Mayes, Maureen D.; Maranian, Paul; Clements, Philip J.; Khanna, Dinesh; Steen, Virginia D.; Tashkin, Donald; Roth, Michael D.; Elashoff, Robert; Furst, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in vascular and musculoskeletal involvement in subjects in the Scleroderma Lung Study (SLS), a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing placebo treatment to oral cyclophosphamide for 1 year in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with interstitial lung disease. Subjects were then followed off study agent for an additional 12 months. Methods The following parameters were noted at baseline and every 6 months for each patient: digital tip ulcers, other dermal ulcers, joint swelling, joint tenderness, large joint contractures, muscle tenderness, muscle weakness, oral aperture, hand extension, and fist closure. Results 158 patients were enrolled from 13 centers in the United States; 79 were randomized to the cyclophosphamide group (CYC) and 79 to the placebo group. There were no differences in dermal ulcer and musculoskeletal measures between CYC and placebo groups at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Improvement in FVC % predicted was associated with improvement in Rodnan skin score (P<0.05) at 12 and 24 months, and with increased mean oral aperature at 24 months (P=0.005). Conclusions These data document the frequency and course of these vascular and musculoskeletal features over time, thus providing essential information for sample size calculations and magnitude of effect in future clinical trials. There was no treatment effect of cyclophosphamide on the vascular and musculoskeletal features described. PMID:20740615

  4. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear bone malformations with posterior labyrinth involvement: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Palomeque Vera, Juan Miguel; Platero Sánchez-Escribano, María; Gómez Hervás, Javier; Fernández Prada, María; González Ramírez, Amanda Rocío; Sainz Quevedo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Inner ear bone malformations are one cause of profound sensorineural hearing loss. This investigation focused on those affecting the posterior labyrinth, especially enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, which is associated with fluctuating and progressive hearing loss. The objectives of this study were to analyze the behavior of the electrical stimulation, auditory functionality and linguistic development in patients with inner ear malformations involving the posterior labyrinth. The study included ten patients undergoing cochlear implantation (cases: five with enlarged vestibular aqueduct, two with vestibular aqueduct stenosis/aplasia, and three with semicircular canal disorders). Post-implantation, data were gathered on the electrical stimulation threshold and maximum comfort levels and on the number of functioning electrodes. Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech (EARS) subtests were used to assess auditory functionality and language acquisition at 6, 12, and 24 months post-implantation. Results were compared with findings in a control group of 28 cochlear implantation patients without these malformations. No significant differences were found between case and control groups in electrical stimulation parameters; auditory functionality subtest scores were lower in cases than controls, although the difference was only statistically significant for some subtests. In conclusion, cochlear implantation patients with posterior labyrinth bone malformations and profound hearing loss, including those with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, showed no significant difference in electrical stimulation threshold with controls. Although some auditory functionality test results were lower in cases than in controls, cochlear implantation appears to be beneficial for all patients with these malformations. PMID:25971996

  5. Functional Proteomics Study Reveals SUMOylation of TFII-I is Involved in Liver Cancer Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Chen, Yalan; Cai, Lili; Xu, Changming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yanmei; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jinke; Xie, Hongwei; Zhong, Fan; He, Fuchu

    2015-06-01

    SUMOylation has emerged as a new regulatory mechanism for proteins involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. However, the detailed function of SUMOylation in liver cancer is still elusive. This study reveals that the SUMOylation-activating enzyme UBA2 is highly expressed in liver cancer cells and clinical samples. Silencing of UBA2 expression could to some extent suppress cell proliferation. To elucidate the function of UBA2, we used a large scale proteomics strategy to identify SUMOylation targets in HepG2 cells. We characterized 827 potential SUMO1-modified proteins that were not present in the control samples. These proteins were enriched in gene expression processes. Twelve candidates were validated as SUMO1-modified proteins by immunoprecipitation-Western blotting. We further characterized SUMOylated protein TFII-I that was identified in this study and determined that TFII-I was modified by SUMO1 at K221 and K240. PIAS4 was an E3 ligase for TFII-I SUMOylation, and SENP2 was responsible for deSUMOylating TFII-I in HepG2 cells. SUMOylation reduced TFII-I binding to its repressor HDAC3 and thus promoted its transcriptional activity. We further show that SUMOylation is critical for TFII-I to promote cell proliferation and colony formation. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of SUMOylation in liver cancer development. PMID:25869096

  6. Responsibility Study: Main Illicit Psychoactive Substances Among Car Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Gadegbeku, Blandine; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, in France, before considering modifications in drug legislation, the government requested a study of the effect of illicit drugs on the risk of road crashes. It implemented a systematic screening of illicit drugs for all drivers involved in fatal crashes between October 2001 and September 2003. Within the European DRUID project, the study was restricted to car drivers. The project reported here is a responsibility analysis and, as such, it belongs to the framework of case-control studies; the outcome of interest is “being responsible for a fatal crash”. It was assessed with a method adapted from Robertson and Drummer. Cases are the 4,946 car drivers who are responsible for the crash; controls are the 1,986 car drivers selected from the non-responsible car drivers, in a way that makes the control group similar to the general driving population. The effect of cannabis on fatal crash responsibility is significant after adjustment for age, sex and alcohol: adjusted odds ratio is 1.89 [1.43–2.51]. The dose-response effect is significant (p=0.0001). For alcohol (≥0.1 g/l), the adjusted odds ratio for responsibility is 8.39 [6.95–10.11]. No interaction was found between alcohol and cannabis. For amphetamine, cocaine and opiates, adjusted odds ratios were not significantly different from 1. However the statistical power is low. The study finds similar odds ratios for alcohol as previously published. For cannabis, the significant odds ratio together with the significant dose-response effect indicates a causal relationship between cannabis and road crashes. A multiplicative effect between cannabis and alcohol was noted. PMID:22105404

  7. Chloracne--study of an outbreak with new clinical observations.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, A J; Gawkrodger, D J; Walker, A E

    1993-11-01

    A recent outbreak of chloracne in 17 workers is reported at a plant manufacturing dichloroaniline derivatives. Comedones developed 6-12 weeks after accidental exposure to the chloracnegenic contaminants and were present in every case. Cutaneous xerosis and a folliculitis, previously only rarely described as manifestations of chloracne, were noted in half the patients. The pathogenesis of these lesions is uncertain but may involve a disorder of keratinization. PMID:8252789

  8. Increasing Parent Involvement among Head Start Families: A Randomized Control Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoatche, Kendall Jeffries; Bradley-Klug, Kathy L.; Ogg, Julia; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) during preschool has been linked with strong pre-literacy skills, acquisition of mathematical skills, well-developed social skills, and positive attitudes toward school. Parents' active involvement in their children's learning is a recommended strategy in engaging families in children's education experiences. The purpose of

  9. Increasing Parent Involvement among Head Start Families: A Randomized Control Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoatche, Kendall Jeffries; Bradley-Klug, Kathy L.; Ogg, Julia; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) during preschool has been linked with strong pre-literacy skills, acquisition of mathematical skills, well-developed social skills, and positive attitudes toward school. Parents' active involvement in their children's learning is a recommended strategy in engaging families in children's education experiences. The purpose of…

  10. An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants

  11. An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

  12. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  13. Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study

    PubMed Central

    Airla, Nina; Zeitlin, Rainer; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Järvinen, Otso; Venermo, Maarit; Partio, Teemu; Saarinen, Jukka; Somppi, Taija; Suominen, VeliPekka; Virkkunen, Jyrki; Hautalahti, Juha; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kähönen, Mika; Mennander, Ari; Kytömäki, Leena; Soini, Juhani T.; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V–VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6) using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05), 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25). Conclusions This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds. PMID:22509262

  14. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior frontal cortex when producing a single syllable or phoneme and increased cerebellar activity for consonantvowel syllables compared with steady-state vowels. Method Sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to collect data from 10 right-handed speakers of American English while producing isolated monosyllables (e.g., ba, oo). Data were analyzed using both voxel-based and participant-specific anatomical region-of-interestbased techniques. Results Overt production of single monosyllables activated a network of brain regions, including left ventral premotor cortex, left posterior inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral supplementary motor area, sensorimotor cortex, auditory cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Paravermal cerebellum showed greater activity for consonant-vowel syllables compared to vowels. Conclusions The finding of left-lateralized premotor cortex activity supports the DIVA model prediction that this area contains cell populations representing syllable motor programs without regard for semantic content. Furthermore, the superior paravermal cerebellum is more active for consonantvowel syllables compared with vowels, perhaps due to increased timing constraints for consonant production. PMID:18664692

  15. Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for substance-exposed infants. This paper describes services used by VIP-RI participants and child welfare outcomes. Methods Data collected during the first four years of VIP-RI were used to identify characteristics of program participants, services received, and child welfare outcomes: closed child welfare cases, reunification with biological mothers and identified infant permanent placements. Descriptive Results Medical and financial services were associated with positive child welfare outcomes. Medical services included family planning, pre- and post-natal care and HIV test counseling. Financial services included assistance with obtaining entitlement benefits and receiving tangible support such as food and clothing. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest services that address basic family needs were related to positive child welfare outcomes. The provision of basic services, such as health care and financial assistance through entitlement benefits and tangible donations, may help to establish a foundation so mothers can concentrate on recovery and parenting skills. Identification of services for perinatal substance users that are associated with more successful child welfare outcomes has implications for the child welfare system, treatment providers, courts and families. PMID:20807432

  16. Observations of the magnetospheric boundary layers. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    Results on magnetospheric boundary layers are reviewed, emphasizing their dynamical importance based on hot plasma observations, energetic particle signatures, heavy ion contributions and the effects of wave-particle interactions. Satellite plasma observations show that 1% to 2% of the oncoming solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere and is initially transported within the magnetospheric boundary layer. Some of this boundary layer plasma is entrained within the Earth's magnetotail where it can be accelerated. Tests are needed to determine the relative contributions of the primary acceleration processes whose effects are especially evident in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  17. Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

  18. The evolution of community involvement in public health community-based efforts: a case study.

    PubMed

    Payne, C A

    2001-01-01

    It is the opinion of many practitioners and analysts of public health efforts that community involvement is necessary to improve local health status. The nature of community involvement, however, can vary among projects, among sites in the same project and through time in the same site. Clear conceptions of community involvement assist in foreseeing the potential activities, outcomes and challenges of any particular community-based effort. Himmelman's concepts of community betterment and community empowerment offer a useful framework when community-involvement entails the direct participation of local organizations and constituencies. These two concepts are the ends of a continuum whereby in the movement from a community betterment to a community empowerment effort, there is an increase in community ownership and self-determination over all aspects of a project. This paper presents an empirical investigation of one community-based public health effort which instances a movement from community betterment to community empowerment. PMID:11707025

  19. [Involved factors in stability of children's asthma. A study of 150 children in Mahdia].

    PubMed

    Boussoffara, Raoudha; Mechri, Amor; Knani, Jalel; Slama, Raoudha; Ben Salem, Neila; Tabka, Zouhair; Ben Salem, Kamel; Sfar, Habib; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar

    2003-03-01

    In order to reduce the mortality and morbidity by asthma in perpetual increasing, taking in charge of asthmatic child must be general (therapeutic and educative) with the intention to stabilize il cause of the lack of curing ait. The aim of our work was to determinate the factors in stability of asthma. Our study was retrospective, inducing 150 asthmatic children regularly observed since at least 6 months and more than 4 years old: 77 of them was judged stable and 73 unstable. Stable asthma concerned insignificatively children who are more than 8 year old, from urban areas, unexposed to tobacco living is sunny homes and when there is no associated factors like effort asthma and gastro-oesophagien reflux. Instability of asthma has been in significantly correlated with the initial severity and non adaption to treatment. PMID:12793070

  20. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. PMID:26835842

  1. Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Study of the Histopathologic Characteristics and Surface Morphologies of Glottic Carcinomas With Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Li, Zenghong; Luo, Jie; Liao, Bing; Yang, Zhiyun; Liu, Qihong; Wang, Bin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-07-01

    This article explores the features and the role of the anterior vocal commissure (AVC) structure and the surface morphologies of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement to provide a reference for the selection of transoral carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery. A total of 31 cases of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 were included. All patients underwent electronic laryngoscopic examinations and computed tomography scans to determine the surface morphology. After surgery, the tumor specimens were resected integrally, and axial serial sections parallel to the plane of vocal cords were taken to explore the features and possible invasion paths of the glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement. The rates of involvement of the supraglottis and subglottis were 71.4% and 14.8%, respectively, via the AVC. The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral or bilateral vocal cords without involvement of the vocal muscle in the AVC region (IVM) or the cartilage was present in 15 cases (48.4%). The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral and bilateral vocal cords occurred in 16 cases (51.6%) with the IVM in 13 cases and the involvement of the intermediate lamina of the thyroid cartilage (ITC) in 8 cases. The involvement of the ITC was associated with the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region (P < 0.05). Among the pushing carcinomas, 15 of 21 (71.4%) presented with well-defined tumor mass, and 8 of 10 (80.0%) infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests that were often surrounded by fibrosis (P < 0.05). The AVC is an important path of invasion of subglottic in glottic carcinomas but less so for suparglottic. The Broyles' ligaments acted as a barrier against the spread of the tumors to the thyroid cartilage, but this role was obviously weaken by the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region. The infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests in fibrous tissue. When CO2 laser microsurgery is considered as a treatment option, these facts should be kept in mind. PMID:26200618

  3. Study of the Histopathologic Characteristics and Surface Morphologies of Glottic Carcinomas With Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Li, Zenghong; Luo, Jie; Liao, Bing; Yang, Zhiyun; Liu, Qihong; Wang, Bin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the features and the role of the anterior vocal commissure (AVC) structure and the surface morphologies of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement to provide a reference for the selection of transoral carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery. A total of 31 cases of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 were included. All patients underwent electronic laryngoscopic examinations and computed tomography scans to determine the surface morphology. After surgery, the tumor specimens were resected integrally, and axial serial sections parallel to the plane of vocal cords were taken to explore the features and possible invasion paths of the glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement. The rates of involvement of the supraglottis and subglottis were 71.4% and 14.8%, respectively, via the AVC. The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral or bilateral vocal cords without involvement of the vocal muscle in the AVC region (IVM) or the cartilage was present in 15 cases (48.4%). The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral and bilateral vocal cords occurred in 16 cases (51.6%) with the IVM in 13 cases and the involvement of the intermediate lamina of the thyroid cartilage (ITC) in 8 cases. The involvement of the ITC was associated with the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region (P?involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region. The infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests in fibrous tissue. When CO2 laser microsurgery is considered as a treatment option, these facts should be kept in mind. PMID:26200618

  4. Sea ice climatology, variations and teleconnections: Observational and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping

    Hypotheses, models and observations suggest that sea ice plays an important role in the local, regional and global climate through a variety of processes across a full range of scales. However, our documentation and understanding of the nature of the polar-extrapolar climate teleconnections and their underlying causal and mechanistic links are still rudimentary, and the largest disagreements among model simulations of present and future climate are in the polar regions. In an effort to address these issues, we evaluated the simulated Antarctic sea ice variability and its climate teleconnections in three coupled global climate models (GISS, NCAR and GFDL) as compared to the observations. All the models capture the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like phenomenon to some degree, although almost all the models miss some observed linkages. The GISS and NCAR models also capture the observed Antarctic Dipole and meridional banding structure through the Pacific. The Antarctic sea ice regions showing the strongest sensitivity to global teleconnections differ among the models and between the models and observations. We then proposed that the changes of the regional mean meridional atmospheric circulation (the regional Ferrel Cell) are one such mechanism leading to the covariability of the ENSO and Antarctic Dipole by modulating the mean meridional heat flux using the observational data. To more accurately represent sea ice simulations and associated feedbacks with the atmosphere and the ocean, the GISS coupled model was used to investigate the sensitivity of sea ice to the following physical parameterizations: (a) two sea ice dynamics (cavitating fluid and viscous-plastic), (b) the specification of oceanic isopyncal mixing coefficients in the Gent and McWillams isopyncal mixing, (c) the Wajsowicz viscosity diffusion, (d) surface albedo, (e) the penetration of solar radiation in sea ice, (f) effects of including a sea ice salinity budget, and (g) the ice-ocean boundary interactions. The atmospheric responses associated with sea ice changes were discussed. Based on these experiments, a series of composite experiments with the aforementioned parameterizations were also investigated. While improvements are seen overall, there are some unrealistic aspects that will require further improvements to the sea ice and ocean components. Finally, the GISS coupled model's ability to represent observed Antarctic sea ice variability and its global teleconnections was re-evaluated in a composite run with the improved sea ice and ocean processes.

  5. An Exploration of Perceptual and Cognitive Processes Involved in Piano Study with Implications for Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Dorothy Cordes

    The perceptual and cognitive processes involved in learning to play the piano are examined as sources of confusion and problems which might be encountered by the young learning disabled piano student. The paper is reported to be based on personal observations during private piano instruction, published and unpublished literature, and a summer

  6. Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, Joo Claudio Gonalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mnica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

  7. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kozue; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Villena, Julio; Chiba, Eriko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Saito, Tadao; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4(+)CD25(high) Foxp3(+) lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-?B, p38 MAPK and PI3?K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  8. Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

  9. A knowledge synthesis of patient and public involvement in clinical practice guidelines: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lgar, France; Boivin, Antoine; Weijden, Trudy van der; Packenham, Christine; Tapp, Sylvie; Burgers, Jako

    2009-01-01

    Background Failure to reconcile patient preferences and values as well as social norms with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommendations may hamper their implementation in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients and public involvement programs (PPIP) in CPGs development and implementation. This study aims at identifying what it is about PPIP that works, in which contexts are PPIP most likely to be effective, and how are PPIP assumed to lead to better CPGs development and implementation. Methods and design A knowledge synthesis will be conducted in four phases. In phase one, literature on PPIP in CPGs development will be searched through bibliographic databases. A call for bibliographic references and unpublished reports will also be sent via the mailing lists of relevant organizations. Eligible publications will include original qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods study designs reporting on a PPIP pertaining to CPGs development or implementation. They will also include documents produced by CPGs organizations to describe their PPIP. In phase two, grounded in the program's logic model, two independent reviewers will extract data to collect information on the principal components and activities of PPIP, the resources needed, the contexts in which PPIP were developed and tested, and the assumptions underlying PPIP. Quality assessment will be made for all retained publications. Our literature search will be complemented with interviews of key informants drawn from of a purposive sample of CPGs developers and patient/public representatives. In phase three, we will synthesize evidence from both the publications and interviews data using template content analysis to organize the identified components in a meaningful framework of PPIP theories. During a face-to-face workshop, findings will be validated with different stakeholder and a final toolkit for CPGs developers will be refined. Discussion The proposed research project will be among the first to explore the PPIP in CPGs development and implementation based on a wide range of publications and key informants interviews. It is anticipated that the results generated by the proposed study will significantly contribute to the improvement of the reconciliation of CPGs with patient preferences and values as well as with social norms. PMID:19497114

  10. Periodontal Disease and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Deng, Ai-Ping; Li, Cheng; Xia, Ling-Yun; Niu, Yu-Ming; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association of periodontal disease (PD) with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and HNC risk. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and HNC risk published up to March 23, 2013. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results We obtained seven observational studies involving two cohort and six case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a significant association between PD and HNC risk (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.1.68 - 4.14; p < 0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroup analyses based on adjustment for covariates, study design, PD assessment, tumor site, and ethnicity also revealed a significant association. Conclusions Based on currently evidence, PD is probably a significant and independent risk factor of HNC. PMID:24194957

  11. LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, Nicola; Norris, Jay

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

  12. In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Julio A; Vlez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2012-02-20

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) [As(III)+As(V)] is a drinking water contaminant, and human exposure to these arsenic species has been linked with a wide range of health effects. The main path of exposure is the oral route, and the intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier that iAs must cross in order to be absorbed. However, there is a lack of information about intestinal iAs absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of certain transporters [glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), aquaporins (AQPs), and phosphate transporters (NaPi and PiT)] in intestinal absorption of As(V) and As(III), using the Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium. For this purpose, the effects of chemical inhibition and gene silencing of the transporters of interest on iAs uptake were evaluated, and also the differential expression of these transporters after treatment with iAs. The results show that chemical inhibition using rifamycin SV (OATP inhibitor), phloridzin (SGLT inhibitor), phloretin (GLUT and AQP inhibitor), and copper sulfate (AQP inhibitor) leads to a significant reduction in the apparent permeability and cellular retention of As(III). RT-qPCR indicates up-regulation of GLUT2, GLUT5, OATPB, AQP3, and AQP10 after exposure to As(III), while exposure to As(V) increases the expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, especially NaPiIIb. Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs. PMID:22214486

  13. Observations on ion track structure in semiconductors : a phenomenological study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selva, L. E.; Wallace, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    An ion track structure model at the nanometer scale is presented. The model is based on electrostatic principles and is supported by observed experimental results conducted on power MOSFETs. The model predicts the existence of a transient induced electric field following the passage of an energetic heavy ion. There are two segments to the field (a radial and an axial component). It is the interaction of this transient electric field with the local environment that can trigger a catastrophic failure.

  14. Observational Studies of the Formation and Evolution of Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Dense cores are the simplest star-forming sites. They represent the end point of the fragmentation hierarchy that characterizes molecular clouds, and they likely control the efficiency of star formation via their relatively low numbers. Recent continuum observations of entire molecular clouds show that dense cores often lie along large-scale filamentary structures, suggesting that the cores form by some type of fragmentation process in a close-to-cylindrical geometry. To understand the exact formation mechanism of cores, additional kinematic information is needed, and this requires observations made using molecular-line tracers of both the dense cores and their surrounding cloud material. In this talk, I will present some of the most recent efforts to clarify the kinematic structure of core-forming regions, like those in the nearby Taurus molecular cloud. These observations show that the filamentary structures seen in clouds are often more complex than suggested by the maps of continuum emission, and that consist of multiple fiber-like components having different velocities and sonic internal motions. These components likely arise from turbulent fragmentation of the large scale flows that generate the filamentary structures. While not all these fiber-like components further fragment to form dense cores, a small group does so, likely by gravitational instability, and produces characteristic chain-like groups of dense cores that further evolve toward star formation.

  15. Studying Rain Rate from Space and Ground Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, Eyal

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of rain rates (R) is of great interest in many fields. For example, hydrological applications such as flood forecasting depend on an accurate representation of the excess rainfalldriven by Rthat does not infiltrate the soil. It is also of great concern to radio wave propagationthe theme of this symposium. Probability distribution functions (pdf) of R can now be obtained from spaceborne radar observations. Effort to evaluate these pdfs using ground observations is presented. The evaluation of instantaneous rainfall products and rain rate estimates from space is quite a challenge. Scatter plots of pixel-by-pixel comparisons of space-based R estimates with ground-based radar R estimates are extremely noisy because of sample volume discrepancies, timing and navigation mismatches, and uncertainties in the observed-radar reflectivity rain-rate Ze-R relations. Furthermore, comparisons of rainfall over daily, weekly or even monthly time scales suffer from the temporal sampling errors of the satellite where the revisit time is on the order of hours or days (e.g., the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission [TRMM] satellite, the future Global Precipitation Measurement [GPM] mission satellite). Consequently, an alternative approach of comparing space-based radar pdfs with pdfs derived from co-located ground-based radar observations is attractive for evaluating satellite-based precipitation products, such as those from TRMM precipitation radar (PR). We will present comparisons of R estimates from the TRMM PR and co-located data from gauge-adjusted ground-based radar (WSR-88D) estimates obtained during nine years of observations. These results provide an overview of how well the satellite retrieved estimatesbased on the new NASA TRMM radar rainfall productscompare to the ground-based estimates. These comparisons are part of a new framework for global verification of space-borne radar estimates of precipitation based on comparing pdfs of R. The framework demonstrates how a hydrologic approach that uses statistical properties of precipitation to estimate the uncertainties can be combined with a meteorological approach that uses physical properties of rainfall. The presentation provides insights into the uncertainties in space-based and ground-based radar estimates of rain rate distributions, and a discussion of opportunities and challenges to determine and reduce these uncertainties. This presentation combines results which are summarized in [1], [2], and [3]. Examples of comparison are provided in the following figures.

  16. Involvement of the audiovestibular system in multiple sclerosis. An otoneurologic and audiologic study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, R

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high: only one patient exhibited normal results in all the tests used. The abnormalities most often encountered were those of smooth pursuit (96%), followed by saccadic eye movements (76%), optokinetic nystagmus (53 %), and abnormalities in the caloric reactions such as dysrhythmia (40%) and defective visual suppression of the nystagmus (43%). When comparing the results obtained with ENG with those of clinical findings seen during the neuro-ophthalmologic examination, a good intercorrelation was found. Yet, in many ENG tests a number of cases with subclinical abnormalities only, were observed, which stresses the importance of exact and objective methods for the registration of eye movements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3872551

  17. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  18. Observation and studies of double J /? production at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besanon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Prez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Dliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Faur, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garca-Gonzlez, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grnendahl, S.; Grnewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffr, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaa-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martnez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Ptroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Snchez-Hernndez, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present the observation of doubly produced J /? mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in p p collisions at ?{s }=1.96 TeV . The production cross section for both singly and doubly produced J /? mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1 fb-1 . For the first time, the double J /? production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section ?eff, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  19. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  20. How instructions modify perception: An fMRI study investigating brain areas involved in attributing human agency

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, James; Gowen, Emma; Miall, R. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural studies suggest that the processing of movement stimuli is influenced by beliefs about the agency behind these actions. The current study examined how activity in social and action related brain areas differs when participants were instructed that identical movement stimuli were either human or computer generated. Participants viewed a series of point-light animation figures derived from motion-capture recordings of a moving actor, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor patterns of neural activity. The stimuli were scrambled to produce a range of stimulus realism categories; furthermore, before each trial participants were told that they were about to view either a recording of human movement or a computer-simulated pattern of movement. Behavioural results suggested that agency instructions influenced participants' perceptions of the stimuli. The fMRI analysis indicated different functions within the paracingulate cortex: ventral paracingulate cortex was more active for human compared to computer agency instructed trials across all stimulus types, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex was activated more highly in conflicting conditions (human instruction, low realism or vice versa). These findings support the hypothesis that ventral paracingulate encodes stimuli deemed to be of human origin, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex is involved more in the ascertainment of human or intentional agency during the observation of ambiguous stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of prior instructions or beliefs on movement processing and the role of the paracingulate cortex in integrating prior knowledge with bottom-up stimuli. PMID:20398769

  1. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  2. Responses of the human motor system to observing actions across species: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    White, Nicole C; Reid, Connor; Welsh, Timothy N

    2014-10-22

    Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics. PMID:25463135

  3. A Observational Study of the Internal Structure of Airmass Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsmill, David Edmund

    The internal structure of airmass thunderstorms is examined with Doppler and dual-polarization radar, photographic and rawinsonde data from the 1986 MIST project. A kinematic, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of one well documented case shows a life cycle which closely resembles the Byers and Braham model for airmass storms. Other less detailed cases, examined to supplement this analysis, largely confirm these findings. However, several phenomena never documented for this storm-type are discussed. One of these is a midlevel inflow, which in one case caused a visible constriction in a storm cloud. This inflow appears to arise from the mass compensation required when a strong updraft driven by buoyancy from glaciation forms above a weaker updraft loaded down by the precipitation core. A downdraft at midlevels with an associated "weak-echo" trench is also observed. Its origin appears related to a shear induced wake entrainment process. In addition, microburst intensity surface outflows are observed. The downdrafts responsible for these events appear to be restricted to low levels and to be separate from the midlevel downdraft. One case shows this type of downdraft to be initiated by precipitation loading and intensified by negative thermal buoyancy. In light of these new features, the Byers and Braham model of the cumulus, mature and dissipating stages is reexamined.

  4. Direct observation, study and control of molecular super rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander; Hepburn, John; Milner, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with or exceeds the molecular bond strength are known as ``super rotors''. It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. We demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular super rotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an ``optical centrifuge'' is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultra-broad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N = 95 in oxygen and N = 60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular super rotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, inter-molecular collisions and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

  5. A comparative study between a high-gain interconnected observer and an adaptive observer applied to IM-based WECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naifar, Omar; Boukettaya, Ghada; Oualha, Abdelmajid; Ouali, Abderrazak

    2015-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of the potentialities of induction motor sensorless strategies in speed control applications. A comparison study is carried out between two observation approaches dedicated to speed control strategies of induction machine (IM)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) under parametric variations, such as: i) the adaptive observer approach, which is based on the speed adaptation law and ii) the interconnected observer, that offers robustness and stability of the system with reduced CPU time. The comparison study is achieved considering four performance criteria: stability, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine inductances, robustness with respect to the variations of the machine resistances, feasibility of the torque estimation. It has been found that the introduced interconnected observer exhibits a higher performance than the traditional adaptive one, with respect to the above-cited comparison criteria.

  6. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-01-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  7. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-03-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  8. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with

  9. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in

  10. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  11. Paternal Involvement in Childrearing and the School Performance of Ojibwa Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Edith; And Others

    Seventeen Ojibwa families were examined to identify: (1) the relationship between quantity and quality of father involvement in childrearing and children's academic and social school performance; and (2) antecedents to father's participation. The sample from Bay Mills Reservation in Michigan, was comprised of families containing 2 adults and a

  12. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on

  13. Considerations for Studying Father Involvement in Early Childhood among Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Over the last three decades there has been a notable increase in interest about fathers and their role in the socioemotional, academic, and cognitive development of young children. Concurrently, there has been a shift in this nation's ethnic minority demography, where Latinos are now the nation's largest minority group. The father-involvement

  14. Employer Involvement: A Study of Public and Private Sector Linkages to Youth Programs. Occasional Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven D.

    The data presented in this report provide insight into employer involvement at 29 Exemplary In-School Demonstration Projects. Twenty of these programs actively sought work experiences for their youth participants, and an additional six programs contained work experience components that did not necessitate employer identification/participation. The…

  15. A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

  16. Using Technology to Enhance Research-Based Best Practices for Increasing Parental Involvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established guidelines pertaining to student achievement and included requirements regarding parental involvement and communication between the school and home. Various issues stand in the way of realizing the level of parental engagement desired by educators and ordered by NCLB. Parental participation

  17. Family and Differential Involvement with Marihuana: A Study of Suburban Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tec, Nechama

    1970-01-01

    Results point to a negative association between degree of involvement with marihuana and: (1) quality of parental models; (2) high amount of recognition received within the family; (3) perceptions of the family as warm and not simply controlling and/or indifferent; (4) subjective feelings of satisfaction and the ability to rely upon the family as

  18. Computational Estimation in the Primary School: A Single Case Study of One Teacher's Involvement in a Professional Learning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula; Hackling, Mark; Swan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial analysis of a study of a professional learning intervention. Using a case study design it was possible to describe one teacher's involvement in this research. The study revealed how the teacher's beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge of computational estimation was altered as a result of participating in the

  19. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment

  20. The Influence of Father Education Programs on the Levels of Father Involvement with Children: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Necdet; Erkan, Semra

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the effects of father education programs on the levels of their involvement with their children aged 2 to 9. The study group comprised 14 fathers who participate in a father education program. The study employed the pre-test-posttest design. Data were collected by using Father Interview Forms. The independent variable of

  1. Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition. PMID:23580364

  2. Study of the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    lvarez, Ezequiel; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Justiniano-Basaran, Hlne; Lugnier, Claire; Orallo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1??M1?mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1??M), high extracellular KCl (60?mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1??M) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+-free solution, EGCG (1??M1?mM) relaxed 1??M PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1??M1?mM) did not affect the 1??M okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10??M), tetraethylammonium (2?mM) or charybdotoxin (100?nM) plus apamin (500?nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5?mM Ca2+-containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+-free high KCl 60?mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100??M) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100?nM) and KCl (60?mM) in 1.5?mM CaCl2-containing solution and by ANG II (100?nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100??M) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1??M) and high KCl (60?mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50?17) and on PDE1 (IC50?25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:16299547

  3. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    PubMed

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety. PMID:21067673

  4. Premature graduation of children in child restraint systems: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Vesentini, Lara; Willems, Bert

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) in Flanders (Belgium). Observations were conducted at a random sample of primary school and recreation areas. In total 1376 children were observed. A logistic regression model was constructed in order to determine the variables involved. The parameter-estimates of this model have shown that children are more often restrained when the driver buckles up, the ride takes less than 1h, the children are younger, the children sit in the front seat of the car, a recreational area is the destination of the trip and there are less than five children in the car. Also premature graduation to CRS was analysed. More than half of the children are not appropriately restrained, according to their age, weight or height. Improper shoulder belt use (putting the shoulder belt behind the back or under the arm) was observed in 8.99% of the children being restrained with high back booster seats, in 32.73% of the children being restrained with backless booster seats and finally in 19.07% of the children being restrained with seat belts. The risk of incorrectly using the shoulder belt increases when children are prematurely graduated in a CRS. The results are discussed in the light of other studies on this matter. PMID:17854572

  5. Paternal involvement and fetal morbidity outcomes in HIV/AIDS: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N=4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (<35 years old), and unmarried with at least a high school education (p<.01). They were also more likely to have a history of drug (p<.01) and alcohol (p=.02) abuse. These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Infants of HIV-positive mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.05-2.82; PTB: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897

  6. The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon

    2006-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

  7. Procedural elements involved in maintaining bioanalytical data integrity for good laboratory practices studies and regulated clinical studies.

    PubMed

    James, Christopher A; Hill, Howard M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes procedural elements involved in ensuring the integrity of bioanalytical data. These elements can be divided into 3 areas. First, there are those ensuring the integrity of the analyte until analysis, through correct sample collection, handling, shipment, and storage procedures. Incorrect procedures can lead to loss of analyte via instability, addition of analyte through contamination or instability of related metabolites, or changes in the matrix composition that may adversely affect the performance of the analytical method. Second, the integrity of the sample identity needs to be maintained to ensure that the final result reported relates to the individual sample that was taken. Possible sources of error include sample mixup or mislabeling, or errors in data handling. Finally, there is the overall integrity of the documentation that supports the analysis, and any prestudy validation of the method. This includes a wide range of information, from paper and electronic raw data, through standard operating procedures and analytical procedures and facility records, to study plans and final reports. These are critical to allow an auditor or regulatory body to reconstruct the study. PMID:17614354

  8. Presentation of continuous outcomes in randomised trials: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterise the percentage of available outcome data being presented in reports of randomised clinical trials with continuous outcome measures, thereby determining the potential for incomplete reporting bias. Design Descriptive cross sectional study. Data sources A random sample of 200 randomised trials from issues of 20 medical journals in a variety of specialties during 200709. Main outcome measures For each papers best reported primary outcome, we calculated the fraction of data reported using explicit scoring rules. For example, a two arm trial with 100 patients per limb that reported 2 sample sizes, 2 means, and 2 standard deviations reported 6/200 data elements (1.5%), but if that paper included a scatterplot with 200 points it would score 200/200 (100%). We also assessed compliance with 2001 CONSORT items about the reporting of results. Results The median percentage of data reported for the best reported continuous outcome was 9% (interquartile range 326%) but only 3.5% (37%) when we adjusted studies to 100 patients per arm to control for varying study size; 17% of articles showed 100% of the data. Tables were the predominant means of presenting the most data (59% of articles), but papers that used figures reported a higher proportion of data. There was substantial heterogeneity among journals with respect to our primary outcome and CONSORT compliance. Limitations We studied continuous outcomes of randomised trials in higher impact journals. Results may not apply to categorical outcomes, other study designs, or other journals. Conclusions Trialists present only a small fraction of available data. This paucity of data may increase the potential for incomplete reporting bias, a failure to present all relevant information about a studys findings. PMID:23249670

  9. Is Sonic Hedgehog Involved in Human Fracture Healing? - A Prospective Study on Local and Systemic Concentrations of SHH

    PubMed Central

    Eipeldauer, Stefan; Thomas, Anita; Hoechtl-Lee, Leonard; Kecht, Mathias; Binder, Harald; Koettstorfer, Julia; Gregori, Markus; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a new signalling pathway in bone repair. Evidence exist that SHH pathway plays a significant role in vasculogenesis and limb development during embryogenesis. Some in vitro and animal studies has already proven its potential for bone regeneration. However, no data on the role of SHH in the human fracture healing have been published so far. Methods Seventy-five patients with long bone fractures were included into the study and divided in 2 groups. First group contained 69 patients with normal fracture healing. Four patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group. 34 volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 1 year following a standardized time schedule. In addition, SHH levels were measured in fracture haematoma and serum of 16 patients with bone fractures. Results Fracture haematoma and patients serum both contained lower SHH concentrations compared to control serum. The comparison between the patients' serum SHH level and the control serum revealed lower levels for the patients at all measurement time points. Significantly lower concentrations were observed at weeks 1 and 2 after fracture. SHH levels were slightly decreased in patients with impaired fracture healing without statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study to report local and systemic concentration of SHH in human fracture healing and SHH serum levels in healthy adults. A significant reduction of the SHH levels during the inflammatory phase of fracture healing was found. SHH concentrations in fracture haematoma and serum were lower than the concentration in control serum for the rest of the healing period. Our findings indicate that there is no relevant involvement of SHH in human fracture healing. Fracture repair process seem to reduce the SHH level in human. Further studies are definitely needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25501422

  10. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  11. Involving relatives in relapse prevention for bipolar disorder: a multi-perspective qualitative study of value and barriers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Managing early warning signs is an effective approach to preventing relapse in bipolar disorder. Involving relatives in relapse prevention has been shown to maximize the effectiveness of this approach. However, family-focused intervention research has typically used expert therapists, who are rarely available within routine clinical services. It remains unknown what issues exist when involving relatives in relapse prevention planning delivered by community mental health case managers. This study explored the value and barriers of involving relatives in relapse prevention from the perspectives of service users, relatives and care-coordinators. Methods Qualitative interview study nested within a randomized controlled trial of relapse prevention for individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposive sample of 52 participants comprised service users (n = 21), care coordinators (n = 21) and relatives (n = 10). Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results All parties identified benefits of involving relatives in relapse prevention: improved understanding of bipolar disorder; relatives gaining a role in illness management; and improved relationships between each party. Nevertheless, relatives were often discouraged from becoming involved. Some staff perceived involving relatives increased the complexity of their own role and workload, and some service users valued the exclusivity of their relationship with their care-coordinator and prioritized taking individual responsibility for their illness over the benefits of involving their relatives. Barriers were heightened when family relationships were poor. Conclusions Whilst involving relatives in relapse prevention has perceived value, it can increase the complexity of managing bipolar disorder for each party. In order to fully realize the benefits of involving relatives in relapse prevention, additional training and support for community care coordinators is needed. Trial registration ISRCTN41352631 PMID:22044486

  12. Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2005-01-01

    During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

  13. The Foreigner Talk of a Family Physician: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dana Kristine

    A study analyzed the characteristics of one male physician's foreigner talk over the telephone with non-native speakers (NNSs) of English and compared it to that of native speakers (NSs). The conversations all related to requests that patients come into the office for a periodic, preventative physical exam. Data came from tape recordings of the…

  14. An Observational Study of Co-Rumination in Adolescent Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Glick, Gary C.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' "tendency" to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of…

  15. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different

  16. Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video

  17. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  18. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different…

  19. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on

  20. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  1. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

  2. Predicting Three Dimensions of Residential Curbside Recycling: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskamp, Stuart; Burkhardt, Rachel L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Hurin, Sharrilyn; Zelezny, Lynnette

    1998-01-01

    Three dependent variables of household recycling behavior were studied in a suburban community over eight weeks, 10 independent variables serving as predictors. Results indicate that many of the independent variables that predicted recycling behavior in past research have weaker relationships in current, more convenient curbside programs.

  3. Physician spending and subsequent risk of malpractice claims: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay; Seabury, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is a higher use of resources by physicians associated with a reduced risk of malpractice claims? Methods Using data on nearly all admissions to acute care hospitals in Florida during 2000-09 linked to malpractice history of the attending physician, this study investigated whether physicians in seven specialties with higher average hospital charges in a year were less likely to face an allegation of malpractice in the following year, adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, and diagnosis. To provide clinical context, the study focused on obstetrics, where the choice of caesarean deliveries are suggested to be influenced by defensive medicine, and whether obstetricians with higher adjusted caesarean rates in a year had fewer alleged malpractice incidents the following year. Study answer and limitations The data included 24?637 physicians, 154?725 physician years, and 18?352?391 hospital admissions; 4342 malpractice claims were made against physicians (2.8% per physician year). Across specialties, greater average spending by physicians was associated with reduced risk of incurring a malpractice claim. For example, among internists, the probability of experiencing an alleged malpractice incident in the following year ranged from 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 1.7%) in the bottom spending fifth ($19?725 (12?800; 17?400) per hospital admission) to 0.3% (0.2% to 0.5%) in the top fifth ($39?379 per hospital admission). In six of the specialties, a greater use of resources was associated with statistically significantly lower subsequent rates of alleged malpractice incidents. A principal limitation of this study is that information on illness severity was lacking. It is also uncertain whether higher spending is defensively motivated. What this study adds Within specialty and after adjustment for patient characteristics, higher resource use by physicians is associated with fewer malpractice claims. Funding, competing interests, data sharing This study was supported by the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health (grant 1DP5OD017897-01 to ABJ) and National Institute of Aging (R37 AG036791 to JB). The authors have no competing interests or additional data to share. PMID:26538498

  4. Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, J. , Boston, MA ); Schweitzer, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

  5. Defending the end zone: studying the players involved in protecting chromosome ends

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Suzanne S.; Chang, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The linear nature of eukaryotic chromosomes leaves natural ends susceptible to triggering DNA damage responses. Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures that comprise the “end zone” of chromosomes. Besides having a specialized sequences and structures, there are six resident proteins at telomeres that play a prominent role in protecting chromosome ends. In the review, we will discuss this team of proteins called shelterin and how they are involved in regulating DNA damage signaling, repair and replication at telomeres. PMID:20579983

  6. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods. PMID:26793137

  7. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods. PMID:26793137

  8. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-01-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  9. Nurses' views on their involvement in euthanasia: a qualitative study in Flanders (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    de Casterl, B Dierckx; Verpoort, C; De Bal, N; Gastmans, C

    2006-01-01

    Background Although nurses worldwide are confronted with euthanasia requests from patients, the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in euthanasia remain unclear. Objectives In depth exploration of the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in the entire care process surrounding euthanasia. Design A qualitative Grounded Theory strategy was used. Setting and participants In anticipation of new Belgian legislation on euthanasia, we conducted semistructured interviews with 12 nurses working in a palliative care setting in the province of Vlaams?Brabant (Belgium). Results Palliative care nurses believed unanimously that they have an important role in the process of caring for a patient who requests euthanasia, a role that is not limited to assisting the physician when he is administering life terminating drugs. Nurses' involvement starts when the patient requests euthanasia and ends with supporting the patient's relatives and healthcare colleagues after the potential life terminating act. Nurses stressed the importance of having an open mind and of using palliative techniques, also offering a contextual understanding of the patient's request in the decision making process. Concerning the actual act of performing euthanasia, palliative care nurses saw their role primarily as assisting the patient, the patient's family, and the physician by being present, even if they could not reconcile themselves with actually performing euthanasia. Conclusions Based on their professional nursing expertise and unique relationship with the patient, nurses participating as full members of the interdisciplinary expert team are in a key position to provide valuable care to patients requesting euthanasia. PMID:16574869

  10. Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

  11. Delays and interruptions in the acute medical unit clerking process: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Thomas D; Mackridge, Adam J; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It is recommended that patients are seen within 4?h of arrival in Acute Medical Units in English hospitals. This study explored the frequency and nature of interruptions and delays potentially affecting the duration of the Acute Medical Unit admission process and the quality of care provided. Design The admission process was directly observed for patients admitted to the Acute Medical Unit over four one-week periods, November 2009 to April 2011. Setting UK teaching hospital Acute Medical Unit. Participants Hospital staff n?=?36. Main outcome measures Patient waiting times, duration of clerking, number of interruptions and/or delays. Results Thirty-five doctors and one nurse practitioner were observed admitting 71 medical patients, 48/71 (68%) patients were clerked within 4?h of arrival. A delay and/or interruption affected 49/71 (69%) patients. Sixty-six interruptions were observed in 36/71 (51%) of admissions, of these 19/36 (53%) were interrupted more than once. The grade of doctor had no bearing on the frequency of interruption; however, clerking took significantly longer when interrupted; overall doctors grade ST1 and above were quicker at clerking than foundation doctors. Delays affected 31/71 (44%) of admissions, 14/31 (45%) involved X-rays or ECGs; other causes of delays included problems with equipment and computers. Conclusion Interruptions and delays regularly occurred during the admission process in the study hospital which impacts adversely on patient experience and compliance with the recommended 4-h timeframe, further work is required to assess the impact on patient safety. Data obtained from this observational study were used to guide operational changes to improve the process. PMID:26877881

  12. Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

    Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

  13. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

  14. Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

  15. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; KATZ, ELIZABETH C.; RHODES, ANNE G.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.; O'CONNELL, DANIEL J.; FRISMAN, LINDA K.; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; FLETCHER, BENNETT W.; LITT, MARK D.; CLARKE, JENNIFER; MARTIN, STEVEN S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with treatment objectives. The Step'n Out study will randomize 450 drug-involved parolees to collaborative behavioral management or usual parole. Follow-up at 3-and 9-months will assess primary outcomes of rearrest, crime and drug use. If collaborative behavioral management is effective, its wider adoption could improve the outcomes of community reentry of drug-involved ex-offenders. PMID:19809591

  16. Observational Study and Parameterization of Aerosol-fog Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J.; Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Fang, C.; Su, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that human activities such as increased aerosols affect fog occurrence and properties significantly, and accurate numerical fog forecasting depends on, to a large extent, parameterization of fog microphysics and aerosol-fog interactions. Furthermore, fogs can be considered as clouds near the ground, and enjoy an advantage of permitting comprehensive long-term in-situ measurements that clouds do not. Knowledge learned from studying aerosol-fog interactions will provide useful insights into aerosol-cloud interactions. To serve the twofold objectives of understanding and improving parameterizations of aerosol-fog interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, this study examines the data collected from fogs, with a focus but not limited to the data collected in Beijing, China. Data examined include aerosol particle size distributions measured by a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X), fog droplet size distributions measured by a Fog Monitor (FM-120), Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN), liquid water path measured by radiometers and visibility sensors, along with meteorological variables measured by a Tethered Balloon Sounding System (XLS-?) and Automatic Weather Station (AWS). The results will be compared with low-level clouds for similarities and differences between fogs and clouds.

  17. Summary of Epidemiology Studies or Activities Involving Workers at the Savannah River Site or the Surrounding Public: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.T.

    2002-10-18

    There have been numerous health studies or related activities over time that have involved workers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or the surrounding public. While most of these epidemiology studies or activities have been performed by external agencies, it has proved useful to provide interested parties an overall summary of such activities. The first such summary was provided in an October 1998 report. The 1998 summary was updated in a February 2000 report. This report provides an update on the status or findings of epidemiology studies or activities involving SRS workers or the surrounding public, as an update to the previous summaries.

  18. Complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context: an observational prospective study (CIAOW Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) has designed the CIAOW study in order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community- and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context. The CIAOW study (Complicated Intra-Abdominal infection Observational Worldwide Study) is a multicenter observational study currently underway in 57 medical institutions worldwide. The study includes patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections. This preliminary report includes all data from almost the first two months of the six-month study period. Patients who met inclusion criteria with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the study. 702 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range 18–98) were enrolled in the study. 272 patients (38.7%) were women and 430 (62.3%) were men. Among these patients, 615 (87.6%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 87 (12.4%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Generalized peritonitis was observed in 304 patients (43.3%), whereas localized peritonitis or abscesses was registered in 398 (57.7%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 10.1% (71/702). The final results of the CIAOW Study will be published following the conclusion of the study period in March 2013. PMID:23286785

  19. Active Commuting to Elementary School and Adiposity: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth-grade adiposity. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (n=7938). Enrollment in kindergarten (19981999) was nationally representative of the United States and follow-up occurred in 2004. Kindergarten ACS was the main exposure variable and fifth-grade BMI z-score was the main outcome measure. Covariates included (1) neighborhood safety and BMI z-score in kindergarten and (2) demographics (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, single- vs. two-parent households, region of country, and urbanicity in fifth grade). Three interactions were included: school travel*neighborhood safety; school travel*BMI z-score (kindergarten); and school travel*socioeconomic status. Analysis of covariance accounted for the complex sampling design. Results: Kindergarten ACS was associated with lower BMI z-score in fifth grade. The interaction of school travel*neighborhood safety indicated that children from less-safe neighborhoods who did ACS in kindergarten had a lower fifth-grade BMI z-score (p<0.05) than their peers who did not do ACS in kindergarten (i.e., in terms of BMI, this difference was ?0.49?kg/m2 for children of average height in less-safe neighborhoods). Conclusion: Among children from less-safe neighborhoods, kindergarten ACS independently predicted lower BMI z-score in fifth grade among a national US cohort. Interventions and policies to increase ACS among young children, especially from unsafe neighborhoods, are warranted and should address parents' safety concerns. PMID:24443901

  20. Alcohol-Related Fracture Admissions: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, G; Thompson, NW

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In April 2011 the NI public health agency estimated that alcohol misuse generates overall annual healthcare costs of £122.2m. There is currently a paucity of data regarding the burden of alcohol-related fractures on the provinces Trauma and Orthopaedic service. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 104 patients over a 12 month period was performed. Data collected using the Fractures Outcomes and Research Database included: age, gender, smoking status, weekly alcohol intake, mechanism of injury and subsequent treatment. Results Alcohol related fractures accounted for 6.1% of all acute fractures admissions in the 12 month period. 73% were male, with a bimodal age distribution. The majority of patients were classed as social drinkers; however a significant proportion (23.1%) were alcohol dependent. 62.5% of patients were smokers at the time of admission. 95% of patients suffered a single injury which was commonly secondary to a simple mechanical fall (53.8%). The majority of patients sustained lower limb injuries, with 30.8% of these being ankle fractures. Conclusion In conclusion, our study has identified that alcohol-related trauma creates a significant financial burden on the NHS. It is likely that the incidence of alcohol related fracture is higher than documented in this study. We advocate the assessment of patients using the AUDIT-C score to assess for at risk drinking behaviour in those presenting with an alcohol related fracture. PMID:26170483

  1. An observational and theoretical study of Colorado lee cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1990-01-01

    A cyclogenesis event that occurred over Colorado in early March of 1981 is the focus of this study. Two features that seemed to play a role in storm initiation were a traveling upper troposphere disturbance associated with an undulation on the subtropical front and a warm-cored shallow surface trough that was guided along the eastern slope of the Rockies from Canada to Colorado. The arrival of the latter feature initiated a sudden shift of the surface flow from upslope to downslope on the eastern side of the continental divide. A time-dependent quasi-geostrophic model was used to study the interaction of the traveling short wave and a broad topographic surface ridge in the presence of a baroclinic mainly westerly background flow. Westerly and easterly background surface winds were used to determine whether the surface trough arrival had any influence on the vigor of lee cyclogenesis initiated by the upper troposphere short-wave trough. With surface westerlies rapid cyclogenesis occurred, while with surface easterlies little cyclogenesis was found to the east of the Rockies. Thus, the shallow surface trough's arrival seemed to be crucial to storm initiation. These findings were based on a linear model. It is shown, however, that the height of the Rockies necessitates the inclusion of finite amplitude effects associated with the lower boundary into the model.

  2. Involvement of the NO-cGMP-K(ATP) channel pathway in the mesenteric lymphatic pump dysfunction observed in the guinea pig model of TNBS-induced ileitis.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Ryan; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2013-03-15

    Mesenteric lymphatic vessels actively transport lymph, immune cells, fat, and other macromolecules from the intestine via a rhythmical contraction-relaxation process called lymphatic pumping. We have previously demonstrated that mesenteric lymphatic pumping was compromised in the guinea pig model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ileitis, corroborating clinical and experimental observations of a dilated and/or obstructed phenotype of these vessels in inflammatory bowel disease. Many mediators released during the inflammatory process have been shown to alter lymphatic contractile activity. Among them, nitric oxide (NO), an inflammatory mediator abundantly released during intestinal inflammation, decreases the frequency of lymphatic contractions through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of NO and K(ATP) channels in the lymphatic dysfunction observed in the guinea pig model of TNBS-induced ileitis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that expression of Kir6.1, SUR2B, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNAs was significantly upregulated in TNBS-treated animals. Pharmacological studies performed on isolated, luminally perfused mesenteric lymphatic vessels showed that the K(ATP) channels blocker glibenclamide, the selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W, and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) significantly improved lymphatic pumping in quiescent lymphatic vessels from TNBS-treated animals. Membrane potential measurement with intracellular microelectrodes revealed that vessels from TNBS-treated animals were hyperpolarized compared with their sham counterpart and that the hyperpolarization was significantly attenuated in the presence of glibenclamide and ODQ. Our findings suggest that NO and K(ATP) play a major role in the lymphatic contractile dysfunction that occurred as a consequence of the intestinal inflammation caused by TNBS. PMID:23275612

  3. Observational study of ozone pollution at a rural site in the Yangtze Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Vincent T. F.; Wang, T.

    Ozone and related trace gases (CO, NO x, and SO 2) were measured from June 1999 to July 2000 at a rural site in the Yangtze Delta of China, a region of intensive anthropogenic activity. Elevated ozone levels were frequently observed during the study period, with the highest frequency in late spring and early summer. Over a 1 yr period, 21 d were found to have ozone concentrations exceeding the new US 8-h 80 ppb health standard. Calculation of the "SUM06" exposure index also shows relatively high (>15 ppm h) values for each season except winter. At these levels ozone may have adverse effects on human health as well as agricultural crops. Analysis of meteorological data shows that the high ozone days were associated with large-scale stagnation, intense solar radiation, and minimum rainfall. Large-scale back trajectories indicate a slow-moving/re-circulating airmass during the episodic days. Examination of chemical data shows that the observed daytime high ozone concentrations were due to downward mixing of ozone-rich air, in situ photochemical formation, and in some cases, advection to the site of aged plumes. The very high CO levels (and high CO to NO x ratios) were found to coincide with many of the ozone episodes, suggesting a contribution from sources of emission involving incomplete combustion. It is suggested that the burning of biomass (e.g., biofeuls and crop residues) may be an important source for the observed high CO and O 3 values.

  4. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥3 mm without visible heart activity presenting after 70 days’ gestation (87/87 specificity: 100%, 95.8% to 100%). The following were indicative of miscarriage at a repeat scan: initial scan and repeat scan after seven days or more showing an embryo without visible heart activity (103/103 specificity: 100%, 96.5% to 100%), pregnancies without an embryo and mean gestational sac diameter <12 mm where the mean diameter has not doubled after 14 days or more (478/478 specificity: 100%, 99.2% to 100%), pregnancies without an embryo and mean gestational sac diameter ≥12 mm showing no embryo heartbeat after seven days or more (150/150 specificity: 100%, 97.6% to 100%). Conclusions Recently changed cut-off values of gestational sac and embryo size defining miscarriage are appropriate and not too conservative but do not take into account gestational age. Guidance on timing between scans and expected findings on repeat scans are still too liberal. Protocols for miscarriage diagnosis should be reviewed to account for this evidence to avoid misdiagnosis and the risk of terminating viable pregnancies. PMID:26400869

  5. An observational study of stratocumulus entrainment and thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The stratocumulus (SC) entrainment and thermodynamics are studied using data from the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus (DYCOMS) experiment. The rate of entrainment of air from the free troposphere into the cloud-topped PBL is estimated using a technique based on the measurement of ozone flux and mean distribution. The average measured value of entrainment rate was found to be 3.0 mm/s with a range of 1.0 to 5.0 mm/s for cloudy cases. Thermodynamic budgets are constructed for eight DYCOMS cases. It was found that the divergence of the solar radiative flux is an important component of the boundary-layer energetics during midday, the factor which must be accounted for in mixed-layer models. The net longwave radiative flux profiles show good agreement with theoretical models, but an unambiguous partitioning of the flux divergence between inversion and mixed layers could not be established.

  6. Sex differences in selection of pacemakers: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Schppel, Reinhart; Bchele, Gisela; Batz, Lothar; Koenig, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of patients sex on selection of pacemakers. Design: Retrospective univariate and multivariate analysis of a large database. Setting: German central pacemaker register. Subjects: Records collected at the register for 1992 and 1993 (n=31?913), covering 64% of all implantations in Germany. Main outcome measure: Probability of receiving a single chamber, dual chamber, or rate responsive pacemaker in relation to sex. Results: Univariate analysis showed that women were more likely to receive single chamber pacemakers and less likely to receive dual chamber or rate responsive systems than men. After demographic and clinical variables were controlled for, women were still more likely to receive a single chamber system (atrial pacing: odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 1.07; ventricular pacing: 0.85, 0.80 to 0.92) and less likely to receive a dual chamber (1.20, 1.12 to 1.30) or a rate responsive system (1.26, 1.17 to 1.37) than men. Conclusions: The data suggest sex differences in the selection of a pacemaker system which cannot be explained by the underlying cardiac disorder. Further research is needed to evaluate why guidelines for implanting pacemakers are not better adhered to. Key messages Use of pacemakers varies despite guidelines, and the reasons for this are unclear In this study women were more likely to receive single chamber pacemakers and less likely to receive dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers than men Demographic and clinical variables cannot fully explain these differences Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of sex and other non-medical variables on the selection of pacemakers PMID:9582133

  7. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mlanie; Rousset, Stphane; Rmy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by online self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structuresknown for being involved in allocentric environmental codingdemonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

  8. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mlanie; Rousset, Stphane; Rmy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by "online" self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures-known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding-demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

  9. Conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jan; Neale, Joanne; Bloor, Michael; Jenkins, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper examines client/staff conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making. Methods Seventy-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with new treatment clients in two residential and two community drug treatment agencies. Fifty-nine of these clients were interviewed again after twelve weeks. Twenty-seven interviews were also conducted with staff, who were the keyworkers for the interviewed clients. Results Drug users did not expect, desire or prepare for conflict at treatment entry. They reported few actual conflicts within the treatment setting, but routinely discussed latent conflicts – that is, negative experiences and problematic aspects of current or previous treatment that could potentially escalate into overt disputes. Conflict resulted in a number of possible outcomes, including the premature termination of treatment; staff deciding on the appropriate outcome; the client appealing to the governance structure of the agency; brokered compromise; and staff skilfully eliciting client consent for staff decisions. Conclusion Although the implementation of user involvement in drug treatment decision-making has the potential to trigger high levels of staff-client conflict, latent conflict is more common than overt conflict and not all conflict is negative. Drug users generally want to be co-operative at treatment entry and often adopt non-confrontational forms of covert resistance to decisions about which they disagree. Staff sometimes deploy user involvement as a strategy for managing conflict and soliciting client compliance to treatment protocols. Suggestions for minimising and avoiding harmful conflict in treatment settings are given. PMID:18837989

  10. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying neural computations. PMID:26150782

  11. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying neural computations. PMID:26150782

  12. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundstrm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID:24348365

  13. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID:24348365

  14. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5‧-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)]3+ below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log β11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3 ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al3+ at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al3+ from Fe3+ and Cr3+ via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al3+ and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe3+ and Cr3+. Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies.

  15. Tongue Inspection in TCM: Observations in a Study Sample of Patients Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michelle; Quinn, Jessica; Capili, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical snapshot of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ?3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications. PMID:24761186

  16. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow for health care personnel to screen for high-risk children and intervene before it is too late. Screening could also be done in the schools and organized after school activities. Parenting classes have been shown to be an effective intervention strategy by decreasing parental stress and potential for abuse, but there has been limited research done on this approach. Parenting classes can be part of the corrective actions for parents found to be neglectful or abusive, but parenting classes may also be useful as a preventative measure, being taught in schools or readily available in higher-risk communities. More research has to be done to better define child abuse and neglect so that it can be effectively addressed and treated. PMID:25398462

  17. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; Zaiden, Robert; Slayton, William; Sandler, Eric; Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W.; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes were similar to those of conventional photon therapy.

  18. Extra- and intracranial cerebral vasculitis in giant cell arteritis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Larivire, Delphine; Sacre, Karim; Klein, Isabelle; Hyafil, Fabien; Choudat, Laurence; Chauveheid, Marie-Paule; Papo, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing giant cell arteritis (GCA) in patients with stroke may be challenging. We aimed to highlight the clinical spectrum and long-term follow-up of GCA-specific cerebrovascular accidents. Medical charts of all patients followed in a French Department of Internal Medicine for GCA between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with cerebrovascular accidents at GCA diagnosis were included. Diagnosis of GCA was based on American College of Rheumatology criteria. Transient ischemic attacks and stroke resulting from an atherosclerotic or cardioembolic mechanism were excluded. Clinical features, GCA-diagnosis workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data were analyzed. From January 2008 to January 2014, 97 patients have been followed for GCA. Among them, 8 biopsy-proven GCA patients (mean age 707.8 years, M/F sex ratio 3/1) had stroke at GCA diagnosis. Six patients reported headache and visual impairment. Brain MR angiography showed involvement of vertebral and/or basilar arteries in all cases with multiple or unique ischemic lesions in the infratentorial region of the brain in all but one case. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement was observed in 4 cases including 2 cases with cerebral angiitis. Long lasting lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences were observed in 1 case. All patients received steroids for a mean of 28.112.8 months. Side effects associated with long-term steroid therapy occurred in 6 patients. Relapses occurred in 4 patients and required immunosuppressive drugs in 3 cases. After a mean follow-up duration of 36.416.4 months, all but 1 patient achieved complete remission without major sequelae. The conjunction of headache with vertebral and basilar arteries involvement in elderly is highly suggestive of stroke associated with GCA. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement with cerebral angiitis associated with long lasting brain lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences may occur in GCA. Both frequent relapses and steroid-induced side effects argue for the use of immunosuppressive agents combined with steroids as first-line therapy. PMID:25526454

  19. Longitudinal analyses of early lesions by fluorescence: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandon, A; Ando, M; Gomez, G F; Garcia-Corretjer, M; Eckert, G J; Santiago, E; Katz, B P; Zero, D T

    2013-07-01

    Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this study, we aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parameters--area (A [mm(2)]), fluorescence loss (F [%]), and Q [% mm(2)]--obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians and examined them at baseline and regular intervals over 48 months according to the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), yearly radiographs, and QLF. QLF images from surfaces with ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 at baseline that progressed (N = 2,191) to cavitation (ICDAS 5/6) or fillings and surfaces that did not progress to cavitation/fillings (N = 4,141) were analyzed independently for A, F, and Q. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare means and slopes (changes over time) between surfaces that progressed and those that did not. QLF A, F, and Q increased at a faster rate for surfaces that progressed than for surfaces that did not progress (p = .0001), regardless of type of surface or baseline ICDAS score. AUC for ICDAS ranged from 0.65 to 0.80, but adding QLF information improved AUC (0.82-0.87, p < .0005). We concluded that faster changes in QLF variables can indicate lesion progression toward cavitation and be more clinically relevant than actual QLF values. PMID:23690351

  20. Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Garca, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; Lpez-Fernndez, Mara T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaqun; Lpez-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrs-Tortajada, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmothers pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14.9) and during the mother pregnancies OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.13.3) were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmothers and mothers pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

  1. Temporomandibular Disorders in Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by absence of any lesions and burning of the oral mucosa associated to a sensation of dry mouth and/or taste alterations. The purpose of our study is to estimate signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in patients with BMS and to investigate for the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four BMS patients were enrolled; BMS subtype was established according to the classification of Lamey. After a gnathological evaluation, according to the protocol of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders, patients were classified by RDC/TMD criteria. The data were compared and analyzed using a chi-square test to describe the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. RESULTS: 65.9% the BMS patients showed disorders classified as primary signs and symptoms of TMD according to RDC / TMD criteria, and 72.7% showed parafunctional habits. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p = 0.035) between BMS and TMD. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that there is a possible relationship not yet well understood between BMS and TMD, may be for neurophatic alterations assumed for BMS that could be also engaged in TMD pathogenesis. PMID:24273452

  2. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kbler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p=0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80mm Hg (68-88), (p=0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1?g/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p=0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24h after endotoxin elimination (p=0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients. PMID:26093653

  3. Characterizing Suicide in Toronto: An Observational Study and Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Streiner, David L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether people who have died from suicide in a large epidemiologic sample form clusters based on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Method: We conducted a coroner’s chart review for 2886 people who died in Toronto, Ontario, from 1998 to 2010, and whose death was ruled as suicide by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. A cluster analysis using known suicide risk factors was performed to determine whether suicide deaths separate into distinct groups. Clusters were compared according to person- and suicide-specific factors. Results: Five clusters emerged. Cluster 1 had the highest proportion of females and nonviolent methods, and all had depression and a past suicide attempt. Cluster 2 had the highest proportion of people with a recent stressor and violent suicide methods, and all were married. Cluster 3 had mostly males between the ages of 20 and 64, and all had either experienced recent stressors, suffered from mental illness, or had a history of substance abuse. Cluster 4 had the youngest people and the highest proportion of deaths by jumping from height, few were married, and nearly one-half had bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Cluster 5 had all unmarried people with no prior suicide attempts, and were the least likely to have an identified mental illness and most likely to leave a suicide note. Conclusions: People who die from suicide assort into different patterns of demographic, clinical, and death-specific characteristics. Identifying and studying subgroups of suicides may advance our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of suicide and help to inform development of more targeted suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24444321

  4. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  5. An autopsy study of a familial oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) with distal spread and neurogenic involvement.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H P; Krause, K H

    1981-01-01

    An 81-year-old man from a family with a history of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) involving 6 members over 4 generations is described. The patient first noted drooping of his eyelids at the age of 65. Dysphagia and dysarthria occurred soon thereafter. At age 78, impairment of gait developed and progressive wasting occurred in the limbs with an initial distal distribution. Electromyography of several limb muscles displayed a mixed myopathic and neurogenic pattern with giant potentials. Examination at autopsy revealed slight loss of neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord, with scanty ghost cells, neuronophagia, and central chromatolysis. By light microscopy the limb muscles showed moderate small-group atrophy with severe myopathy and target fibers. The viscerocranial muscles, including the ocular, vocal, and tongue muscles, demonstrated only myopathic change with the typical features of progressive muscular dystrophy. Advanced replacement by fibrous connective tissue and fat had occurred in both the viscerocranial and the lower limb muscles. The significance of neurogenic involvement in OPMD is discussed. PMID:7254232

  6. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  7. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and inflation ratio weaning. Methods Cerebral blood flow was measured using transcranial Doppler, in a convenience sample of twenty patients requiring balloon counterpulsation for refractory cardiogenic shock (N = 7) or a single inotrope to maintain mean arterial pressure following an elective placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump for cardiac surgery (N = 13). Simultaneous blood pressure at the aortic root was recorded via the intra-aortic balloon pump. Cerebral blood flow velocities were recorded for six minute intervals at a 1:1 balloon inflation-ratio (augmentation of all cardiac beats) and during progressive reductions of the inflation-ratio to 1:3 (augmentation of one every third cardiac beat). Real time comparisons of peak cerebral blood flow velocities with systolic blood pressure were performed using cross-correlation analysis. The primary endpoint was assessment of cerebral autoregulation using the time delay between the peak signals for cerebral blood flow velocity and systolic blood pressure, according to established criteria. The variability of cerebral blood flow was also assessed using non-linear statistics. Results During the 1:1 inflation-ratio, the mean time delay between aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow was -0.016 seconds (95% CI: -0.023,-0.011); during 1:3 inflation-ratio mean time delay was significantly longer at -0.010 seconds (95% CI: -0.016, -0.004, P < 0.0001). Finally, upon return to a 1:1 inflation-ratio, time delays recovered to those measured at baseline. During inflation-ratio reduction, cerebral blood flow irregularities reduced over time, whilst cerebral blood flow variability at end-diastole decreased in patients with cardiogenic shock. Conclusions Weaning counterpulsation from 1:1 to 1:3 inflation ratio leads to a progressive reduction in time delays between systolic blood pressure and peak cerebral blood flow velocities suggesting that although preserved, there is a significant delay in the establishment of cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms. In addition, cerebral blood flow irregularities (i.e. surrogate of flow adaptability) decrease and a loss of cerebral blood flow chaotic pattern occurs during the end-diastolic phase of each beat in patients with cardiogenic shock. PMID:20226065

  8. Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively. PMID:22039863

  9. Systematic study of suppression of complete fusion in reactions involving weakly bound nuclei at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Diaz-Torres, Alexis; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions of reactions involving breakup are studied by using the empirical coupled-channel (ECC) model with breakup effects considered. An exponential function with two parameters is adopted to describe the prompt-breakup probability in the ECC model. These two parameters are fixed by fitting the measured prompt-breakup probability or the complete fusion cross sections. The suppression of complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier is studied by comparing the data with the predictions from the ECC model without the breakup channel considered. The results show that the suppression of complete fusion is roughly independent of the target for the reactions involving the same projectile.

  10. A Computational Study of the Interaction and Polarization Effects of Complexes Involving Molecular Graphene and C60 or a Nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Otero, Nicols; Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Pouchan, Claude; Papadopoulos, Manthos G

    2016-01-21

    A systematic analysis of the molecular structure, energetics, electronic (hyper)polarizabilities and their interaction-induced counterparts of C60 with a series of molecular graphene (MG) models, CmHn, where m = 24, 84, 114, 222, 366, 546 and n = 12, 24, 30, 42, 54, 66, was performed. All the reported data were computed by employing density functional theory and a series of basis sets. The main goal of the study is to investigate how alteration of the size of the MG model affects the strength of the interaction, charge rearrangement, and polarization and interaction-induced polarization of the complex, C60-MG. A Hirshfeld-based scheme has been employed in order to provide information on the intrinsic polarizability density representations of the reported complexes. It was found that the interaction energy increases approaching a limit of -26.98 kcal/mol for m = 366 and 546; the polarizability and second hyperpolarizability increase with increasing the size of MG. An opposite trend was observed for the dipole moment. Interestingly, the variation of the first hyperpolarizability is relatively small with m. Since polarizability is a key factor for the stability of molecular graphene with nucleobases (NB), a study of the magnitude of the interaction-induced polarizability of C84H24-NB complexes is also reported, aiming to reveal changes of its magnitude with the type of NB. The binding strength of C84H24-NB complexes is also computed and found to be in agreement with available theoretical and experimental data. The interaction involved in C60 B12N12H24-NB complexes has also been considered, featuring the effect of contamination on the binding strength between MG and NBs. PMID:26690053

  11. Analyzing Clustered Data: Why and How to Account for Multiple Observations Nested within a Study Participant?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Erika L.; Fricano-Kugler, Catherine J.; Luikart, Bryan W.; O’Malley, A. James

    2016-01-01

    A conventional study design among medical and biological experimentalists involves collecting multiple measurements from a study subject. For example, experiments utilizing mouse models in neuroscience often involve collecting multiple neuron measurements per mouse to increase the number of observations without requiring a large number of mice. This leads to a form of statistical dependence referred to as clustering. Inappropriate analyses of clustered data have resulted in several recent critiques of neuroscience research that suggest the bar for statistical analyses within the field is set too low. We compare naïve analytical approaches to marginal, fixed-effect, and mixed-effect models and provide guidelines for when each of these models is most appropriate based on study design. We demonstrate the influence of clustering on a between-mouse treatment effect, a within-mouse treatment effect, and an interaction effect between the two. Our analyses demonstrate that these statistical approaches can give substantially different results, primarily when the analyses include a between-mouse treatment effect. In a novel analysis from a neuroscience perspective, we also refine the mixed-effect approach through the inclusion of an aggregate mouse-level counterpart to a within-mouse (neuron level) treatment as an additional predictor by adapting an advanced modeling technique that has been used in social science research and show that this yields more informative results. Based on these findings, we emphasize the importance of appropriate analyses of clustered data, and we aim for this work to serve as a resource for when one is deciding which approach will work best for a given study. PMID:26766425

  12. Home-Based Head Start and Family Involvement: An Exploratory Study of the Associations among Home Visiting Frequency and Family Involvement Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Since 1965, Head Start has stood as a model, two-generational program for promoting developmental competencies among children living in socioeconomic disadvantage for the US and international communities. The cornerstone of Head Start is the promotion of caregivers' involvement in their young children's development and early learning. In

  13. Model studies in cytochrome P-450-mediated toxicity of halogenated compounds: radical processes involving iron porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Brault, D

    1985-01-01

    Haloalkane toxicity originates from attack on biological targets by reactive intermediates derived from haloalkane metabolism by a hemoprotein, cytochrome P-450. Carbon-centered radicals and their peroxyl derivatives are most likely involved. The reactions of iron porphyrin--a model for cytochrome P-450--with various carbon-centered and peroxyl radicals generated by pulse radiolysis are examined. Competition between iron porphyrin and unsaturated fatty acids for attack by peroxyl radicals is pointed out. These kinetic data are used to derive a model for toxicity of haloalkanes with particular attention to carbon tetrachloride and halothane. The importance of local oxygen concentration and structural arrangement of fatty acids around cytochrome P-450 is emphasized. PMID:3007100

  14. Differences in working memory involvement in analytical and creative tasks: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lavric, A; Forstmeier, S; Rippon, G

    2000-06-01

    If, as suggested, creative (insight) problem solving is less systematic and employs less planning than analytical problem solving, the former requires substantially less working memory (WM) than the latter. Subjects simultaneously solved problems and counted auditory stimuli (concurrent WM task), in response to which ERPs were recorded. Counting disrupted analytical, but not creative performance. Peak and time-window average P300 were more frontal during analytical problem solving as compared to insight or counting tones only (control). A PCA extracted two factors in the P3 range, one frontal and one broad left-lateralized, which distinguished analytical from creative problem solving. The findings indicate distinct processing pathways for the two types of tasks with more WM involvement in analytical tasks. PMID:10852211

  15. Possible involvement of histamine in muscular fatigue in temporomandibular disorders: animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Tabata, T; Huh, J I; Inai, T; Tsuboi, A; Sasaki, K; Endo, Y

    1999-03-01

    As an approach to clarifying the molecular basis of pain and fatigue in muscles involved in temporomandibular disorders, we examined the activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme which forms histamine, in the masseter muscles of mice. In the resting muscle, HDC activity was very low. Direct electrical stimulation of the muscle markedly elevated HDC activity. HDC activity rose within 3 hrs of the electrical stimulation, peaked at 6 to 8 hrs, and then gradually declined. Intraperitoneal injection of a small amount of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (from 1 to 10 microg/kg) produced a similar elevation of HDC activity in the masseter muscle. We also examined the effect of an antihistamine, chlorphenylamine (CP), on temporomandibular disorders in humans and compared it with that of an anti-inflammatory analgesic, flurbiprofen (FB). Two groups received one or the other of the drugs daily for 7 days, and they were asked about their signs and symptoms before and after the treatment. A positive evaluation of their treatment was made by 74% of the CP group, but by only 48% of the FB group. Although the effects of CP on the limitation of mouth-opening and on joint noise were negligible, about 50% of the CP group answered positively concerning the drug's effect on spontaneous pain or pain induced by chewing or mouth-opening. The positive evaluation for CP (50%) in relieving associated symptoms (headache or shoulder stiffness) was significantly greater than for FB (13%). FB showed effectiveness similar to but sometimes weaker than that of CP on several symptoms. On the basis of these and previous results and the known actions of histamine, we propose that the histamine newly formed following the induction of HDC activity, which is itself mediated by IL-1, may be involved in inducing pain and, possibly, stiffness in muscles in temporomandibular disorders. PMID:10096452

  16. Renal Involvement in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Maripuri, Saugar; Grande, Joseph P.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Matteson, Eric L.; Donadio, James V.

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: Renal pathology and clinical outcomes in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) who underwent kidney biopsy (KB) because of renal impairment are reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Twenty-four of 7276 patients with pSS underwent KB over 40 years. Patient cases were reviewed by a renal pathologist, nephrologist, and rheumatologist. Presentation, laboratory findings, renal pathology, initial treatment, and therapeutic response were noted. Results: Seventeen patients (17 of 24; 71%) had acute or chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) as the primary lesion, with chronic TIN (11 of 17; 65%) the most common presentation. Two had cryoglobulinemic GN. Two had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Twenty patients (83%) were initially treated with corticosteroids. In addition, three received rituximab during follow-up. Sixteen were followed after biopsy for more than 12 mo (median 76 mo; range 17 to 192), and 14 of 16 maintained or improved renal function through follow-up. Of the seven patients presenting in stage IV chronic kidney disease, none progressed to stage V with treatment. Conclusions: This case series supports chronic TIN as the predominant KB finding in patients with renal involvement from pSS and illustrates diverse glomerular lesions. KB should be considered in the clinical evaluation of kidney dysfunction in pSS. Treatment with glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive agents appears to slow progression of renal disease. Screening for renal involvement in pSS should include urinalysis, serum creatinine, and KB where indicated. KB with characteristic findings (TIN) should be considered as an additional supportive criterion to the classification criteria for pSS because it may affect management and renal outcome. PMID:19679669

  17. Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Children with Dengue by Serial Echocardiographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kirawittaya, Tawatchai; Yoon, In-Kyu; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Green, Sharone; Ennis, Francis A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Rothman, Alan L.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined. Methods and Principal findings We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty one dengue cases were enrolled. On the day of enrollment, dengue cases that already developed plasma leakage had lower cardiac index (2695 (127) vs 3188 (75) (L/min/m2), p = .003) and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (.413 (.021) vs .328 (.026), p = .021) and systemic vascular resistance (2478 (184) vs 1820 (133) (dynes·s/cm5), p = .005) compared to those without plasma leakage. Early diastolic wall motion of the left ventricle was decreased in dengue cases with plasma leakage compared to those without. Decreased left ventricular wall motility was more common in dengue patients compared to non-dengue cases particularly in cases with plasma leakage. Differences in cardiac function between DF and DHF were most pronounced around the time of plasma leakage. Cardiac dysfunction was transient and did not require treatment. Transient elevated troponin-T levels were more common in DHF cases compared to DF (14.5% vs 5%, p = 0.028). Conclusions Transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was common in children hospitalized with dengue and related to severity of plasma leakage. The functional abnormality spontaneously resolved without specific treatment. Cardiac structural changes including myocarditis were uncommon. PMID:26226658

  18. The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study

    SciTech Connect

    Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

    1983-06-01

    The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

  19. How to Improve the Implementation of Academic Clinical Pediatric Trials Involving Drug Therapy? A Qualitative Study of Multiple Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Delphine; Bourdon, Olivier; Abdoul, Hendy; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Brion, Françoise; Tibi, Annick; Alberti, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The need for encouraging pediatric drug research is widely recognized. However, hospital-based clinical trials of drug treatments are extremely time-consuming, and delays in trial implementation are common. The objective of this qualitative study was to collect information on the perceptions and experience of health professionals involved in hospital-based pediatric drug trials. Methods Two independent researchers conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with principal investigators (n = 17), pharmacists (n = 7), sponsor representatives (n = 4), and drug regulatory agency representatives (n = 3) who participated in institutionally sponsored clinical trials of experimental drugs in pediatric patients between 2002 and 2008. Results Dissatisfaction was reported by 67% (16/24) of principal investigators and pharmacists: all 7 pharmacists felt they were involved too late in the trial implementation process, whereas 11 (65%) principal investigators complained of an excessive regulatory burden and felt they were insufficiently involved in the basic research questions. Both groups perceived clinical trial implementation as burdensome and time-consuming. The sponsor and regulatory agency representatives reported a number of difficulties but were not dissatisfied. Conclusions The heavy burden related to regulatory requirements, and suboptimal communication across disciplines involved, seem to be the main reasons for the major delays in pediatric drug trial implementation. The pharmaceutical aspects are intrinsically tied to trial methodology and implementation and must therefore be examined, in particular by involving Clinical Research Pharmacists at early stages of study conception. PMID:23724056

  20. A study involving mordenite, titanate nanotubes, perfluoroalkoxy polymers, and ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Shaneela

    Zeolites and molecular sieves are finding applications in many areas of catalysis due to appreciable acid activity, shape selectivity, and ion-exchange capacity, as they possess an unbalanced framework charge. For catalytic applications, zeolites become more valuable as the ratio of SiO2/Al2O 3 increases. Acid resistance and thermal stability of zeolite are both improved with increasing SiO2/Al2O3. This part of the thesis deals with the control of morphology focused on decreasing the crystal diameter of mordenite zeolite and to increase the SiO2/Al 2O3 ratio by changing synthesis conditions. A high SiO 2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR15) of mordenite was prepared in a very short reaction time. We studied the role of hydroxide in the crystallization of the mordenite as a structure director, nucleation time modifier, and crystallite aggregate enhancer. The formation of nano-aggregates of mordenites was greatly enhanced using a combination of alcohol additives and conventional heating. Mordenite nucleation was also increased without using alcohols when microwave heating was employed, but the alcohols further accelerated the nucleation process. The different heating techniques affected the morphology; microwave heating produced crystallites of 40 nm, while the conventional hydrothermal method formed larger size crystallites of 88 nm. We controlled the size and shape of the mordenite crystals because they have important implications in hydrocarbon conversion and separation processes. Mordenite synthesized showed jellyfish, acicular, flower, and wheat grain like structures. In the second part of this thesis, a phase transition was successfully achieved from TiO2 particles to titanate nanotubes by the breakage of Ti-O bonds and the creation of oxygen vacancies without using expensive precursors, high temperatures, high chemical concentrations of alkaline solutions, and long synthesis times. A combination of anatase nano-particles/titanate nano-tubes was synthesized using TiO2 (anatase) and a temperature of only 100C. When TiO2 (P-25) was used with the same concentration of alkaline solution (1 molar NaOH), the same processing time of 12 hours, and a higher temperature at 110C, only titanate nano-tubes were observed. The linkages of 'Ti-O' play a very important role in the structural features of different phases. Two crystalline phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) were synthesized as products in the case of TiO 2 (anatase) and one crystalline phase (monoclinic) for products of TiO 2 (P-25). The third part of the thesis concerns surface modification of hydrophobic fluoropolymers that have low surface energies and are very difficult to metallize. Surface modification was done to enhance surface roughness and hence to boost surface energy for metallization processes. We used low impact, environmentally friendly non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure to strip off F - ions and replace them with reactive unsaturated hydrocarbon functionalities such as CH=CH2 on the surface of a polymer. As these hydrocarbon functionalities are reactive with metals, they form composites that have good adhesion between layers of polymer. Due to surface modification, polymeric chains were broken by the loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.33) and the gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.17) using methane/argon plasmas. Methane/hydrogen/argon plasmas on the other hand produced extensive loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.07-0.33) and gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.08-0.16) that was far better than pristine PFA. The surface of PFA was modified by defluorination and oxidation. Further enhancement of COF and COO groups revealed that the surface was modified to a hydrophilic membrane that can further be easily hydrolyzed to COOH in the presence of atmospheric humidity. The last part of the thesis deals with ammonia borane which was studied as a potential source of hydrogen for fuel cells. We analyzed the viability of ammonia borane as a hydrogen carrier compound for fuel cell applications using a thermolysis method. Ammonia borane is an attractive source for hydrogen productio

  1. Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment. PMID:23323203

  2. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeeck, Kirk A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

  3. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  4. Student Involvement as a Vehicle for Empowerment: A Case Study of the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolo; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student

  5. The Role of Leadership and Management in Six Southern Public Health Partnerships: A Study of Member Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Elisa S.; Taber, Shahnaz K.; Breslau, Erica S.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Li, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Research has led to greater understanding of what is needed to create and sustain well-functioning public health partnerships. However, a partnership's ability to foster an environment that encourages broad member involvement in discussions, decision making, and activities has received scant empirical attention. This study examined the

  6. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeeck, Kirk A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major

  7. The Effectiveness of Three Visual Media in Teaching Concepts Involving Specific Attributes in Independent and Traditional Study Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Russell F.; And Others

    Three visual media--sequential still photographs, slides, and motion pictures--were investigated to discover how effectively each of the three help to convey concepts involving time, space, and motion. A total of 594 subjects were selected from an introductory independent-study course in botany and randomly assigned to one of the three…

  8. Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the…

  9. Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the

  10. Tethered chains in poor solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S.; Lee, L.T.; Satija, S.

    1999-02-01

    We have employed Langmuir monolayers of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 to {minus}35thinsp{degree}C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature ({ital T}) over this entire range. However, the variation with {ital T} becomes weak below {minus}20thinsp{degree}C. At the lowest {ital T}, the layer thicknesses are 55{percent}{endash}75{percent} of the values at the theta condition (T{sub {theta}}=22thinsp{degree}C). The contraction of the layer with decreasing {ital T} is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight, and these data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the near surface region over the entire {ital T} range, with the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing {ital T}. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. With decreasing {ital T}, negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayers, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a transition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing {ital T} was observed in the reflectivity for very low PDMS-PS coverage. At high coverage where the submerged blocks are strongly interacting at 22thinsp{degree}C, only a modest decrease in surface pressure is observed over the experimental range of {ital T} despite the strong contraction. This latter result is discussed in terms of the relative contributions of enthalpic and entropic effects to the surface pressure. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Dissection as Inquiry: Using the "Peanut Observation" Activity to Promote a Revised Paradigm of Dissection and Facilitate Student Involvement and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Penny L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the peanut observation activity to teach about the pros and cons of dissection. As an inquiry-based approach, dissection is one way to teach process skills. Lists the progression of the activity as observation, questioning and finding the answer, challenge, discussion, and further examination. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  12. An animal model to study human muscular diseases involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hlne; Warren, Blair E

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondria are producing most of the energy needed for many cellular functions by a process named oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). It is now well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunctions are involved in several pathologies or degenerative processes, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and aging. Animal models are currently used to try to understand the role of mitochondria in human diseases but a major problem is that mitochondria from different species and tissues are variable in terms of regulation. Analysis of mitochondrial function in three species of planarian flatworms (Tricladia, Platyhelminthes) shows that they share a very rare characteristic with human mitochondria: a strong control of oxidative phosphorylation by the phosphorylation system. The ratio of coupled OXPHOS over maximal electron transport capacity after uncoupling (electron transport system; ETS) well below 1.0 indicates that the phosphorylation system is limiting the rate of OXPHOS. The OXPHOS/ETS ratios are 0.62??0.06 in Dugesia tigrina, 0.63??0.05 in D. dorotocephala and 0.62??0.05 in Procotyla fluviatilis, comparable to the value measured in human muscles. To our knowledge, no other animal model displays this peculiarity. This new model offers a venue in which to test the phosphorylation system as a potential therapeutic control point within humans. PMID:22706663

  13. Schistosomin from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: Expression studies suggest no involvement in trematode-mediated castration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Nian, Hong; Wang, Bo; Loker, Eric S.; Adema, Coen M

    2013-01-01

    By inhibiting reproductive hormones, the neuropeptide schistosomin produced by the snail Lymnaea stagnalis plays an essential role in parasitic castration mediated by the schistosome parasite Trichobilharzia ocellata during late stage infection. Here we report on the presence and expression of schistosomin in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a prominent intermediate host of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences from complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from B. glabrata contain a 17 aa signal peptide and a 79 aa mature peptide with 6264% identity to schistosomin from L. stagnalis. Ontogenic expression at the protein and mRNA levels showed that schistosomin was in higher abundance in embryos and juveniles relative to mature snails, suggesting that schistosomin is likely involved in developmental processes, not in reproduction. Moreover, expression data demonstrated that infection with two different digenetic trematodes, S. mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei, did not provoke elevated expression of schistosomin in B. glabrata from early stage infection (4 days post exposure; dpe) to patent infection (up to 60 dpe), by which time parasitic castration has been accomplished. In conclusion, our data suggest that a role of schistosomin in parasitic castration cannot be established in B. glabrata infected with either of two trematode species. PMID:19393164

  14. Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chou, Tai-Li; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2010-11-01

    Numerous music cultures use nonsense syllables to represent percussive sounds. Covert reciting of these syllable sequences along with percussion music aids active listeners in keeping track of music. Owing to the acoustic dissimilarity between the representative syllables and the referent percussive sounds, associative learning is necessary for the oral representation of percussion music. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the neural processes underlying oral rehearsals of music. There were four music conditions in the experiment: (1) passive listening to unlearned percussion music, (2) active listening to learned percussion music, (3) active listening to the syllable representation of (2), and (4) active listening to learned melodic music. Our results specified two neural substrates of the association mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music. First, information integration of heard sounds and the auditory consequences of subvocal rehearsals may engage the right planum temporale during active listening to percussion music. Second, mapping heard sounds to articulatory and laryngeal gestures may engage the left middle premotor cortex. PMID:20727651

  15. Tethered Chains in Poor Solvent Conditions: An Experimental Study Involving Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Lee, L.T.; Majewski, J.; Satija, S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-10-13

    We have employed Langmuir monolayer of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane- polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 "C to -35 `C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature (T) over this entire r~ge. However, the v~iation with T becomes weak below -20 "C. At the ]owest T, the layer thicknesses are contracted 55 % -75 `% of their values at the theta condition (T8 = 22 "C), but are still quite swollen compared to the fully collapsed, nonsolvent limit. The contraction of the layer with decreasing T is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight. These data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the air surface over the entire T range, the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing T. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. Negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayer, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a trruisition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing T was observed in the reflectivity at very low PDMS-PS coverage.

  16. Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth

  17. Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

    This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals

  18. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  19. Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

  20. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative

  1. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  2. The reporting of statistics in medical educational studies: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Desbiens, Norman A

    2007-01-01

    Background There is confusion in the medical literature as to whether statistics should be reported in survey studies that query an entire population, as is often done in educational studies. Our objective was to determine how often statistical tests have been reported in such articles in two prominent journals that publish these types of studies. Methods For this observational study, we used electronic searching to identify all survey studies published in Academic Medicine and the Journal of General Internal Medicine in which an entire population was studied. We tallied whether inferential statistics were used and whether p-values were reported. Results Eighty-four articles were found: 62 in Academic Medicine and 22 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Overall, 38 (45%) of the articles reported or stated that they calculated statistics: 35% in Academic Medicine and 73% in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Conclusion Educational enumeration surveys frequently report statistical tests. Until a better case can be made for doing so, a simple rule can be proffered to researchers. When studying an entire population (e.g., all program directors, all deans, and all medical schools) for factual information, do not perform statistical tests. Reporting percentages is sufficient and proper. PMID:17659082

  3. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings. PMID:25681159

  4. Understanding involvement in surgical orthopaedic randomized controlled trials: A qualitative study of patient and health professional views and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Jeremy; Johnson, Emma; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Background Factors influencing patients' motivations for enrolling in, and their experiences of, orthopaedic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not fully understood. Less is known about healthcare professionals' (HCP) experiences of RCT involvement. Aim This study investigates patients' and HCPs' views and experiences of RCT participation and delivery to inform the planning of future RCTs. Methods Total hip or knee replacement patients (n = 24) participating in the single-center double-blind APEX RCTs of an intra-operative anesthetic intervention and HCPs (n = 15) involved in trial delivery were interviewed. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymized and thematically analyzed. Results Although altruistic reasons for RCT participation were common, patients also weighed up demands of the RCT with the potential benefits of taking part, demonstrating the complex and conditional nature of trial participation. HCPs were interested in RCT involvement as a means of contributing towards advances in medical knowledge and also considered the costs and benefits of RCT involvement. Conclusion Patients and HCPs value involvement in RCTs that they see as relevant and of value, while imposing minimum burden. These findings have important implications for the design of methods to recruit patients to RCTs and for planning how an RCT might best interface with HCP clinical commitments. PMID:26772763

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in Human Whole Blood and Mutagenesis Studies Identify Virulence Factors Involved in Blood Survival

    PubMed Central

    Del Tordello, Elena; Seib, Kate L.; Francois, Patrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serruto, Davide

    2011-01-01

    During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating disease cause by this microorganism. PMID:21589640

  6. Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

  7. Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use) study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ≥3 months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22999494

  8. Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-01-01

    Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy) with special attention to public engagement, and provided a concrete plan to operationalize a strategy for improving public involvement in this, and other, wait time initiatives. PMID:18021393

  9. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  10. Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of patients with chondrosarcoma of bone have an excellent overall survival after local therapy. However, in case of unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease the outcome is poor and limited treatment options exist. Therefore we conducted a survey of clinical phase I or II trials and retrospective studies that described systemic therapy for chondrosarcoma patients. Materials and methods Using PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, the Cochrane controlled trial register and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts a literature survey was conducted. From the identified items, data were collected by a systematic analysis. We limited our search to semi-recent studies published between 2000 and 2013 to include modern drugs, imaging techniques and disease evaluations. Results A total of 31 studies were found which met the criteria: 9 phase I trials, 11 phase II and 8 retrospective studies. In these studies 855 chondrosarcoma patients were reported. The tested drugs were mostly non-cytotoxic, either alone or in combination with another non-cytotoxic agent or chemotherapy. Currently two phase I trials, one phase IB/II trial and three phase II trials are enrolling chondrosarcoma patients. Conclusion Because chondrosarcoma of bone is an orphan disease it is difficult to conduct clinical trials. The meagre outcome data for locally advanced or metastatic patients indicate that new treatment options are needed. For the phase I trials it is difficult to draw conclusions because of the low numbers of chondrosarcoma patients enrolled, and at different dose levels. Some phase II trials show promising results which support further research. Retrospective studies are encouraged as they could add to the limited data available. Efforts to increase the number of studies for this orphan disease are urgently needed. PMID:25126409

  11. Case study involving use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) for acne scars.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Palmisano, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a novel use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA; Sculptra) for the correction of acne scars in an adult patient. The patient, a 60-year-old white woman, had previously been treated for acne scars with CO(2) laser resurfacing, dermabrasion and trichloroacetic acid peels, as well as collagen, calcium hydroxylapatite and hyaluronic acid dermal fillers. These treatment approaches did not provide satisfactory improvement of the patient's acne scars. The latest course of therapy consisted of seven treatment sessions during which injectable PLLA was administered serially into individual scars and depressions in the patient's nasolabial folds, mid-cheeks and chin. Six months after the seventh treatment session, the patient noted an observable improvement in her acne scars. She received touch-up injections 14 months after her seventh treatment. Injectable PLLA was well tolerated, with only minimal swelling for 24-72 hours post-treatment and bruising at injection sites lasting 5-7 days. Given the well-recognized difficulty in treating acne scars, the results of this case suggest that injectable PLLA may provide an improved treatment modality for resolving acne scars. PMID:19340629

  12. Tethered chains in theta solvent conditions: An experimental study involving Langmuir diblock copolymer monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Majewski, J.; Smith, G.S.; Lee, L.T.; Satija, S.

    1998-04-01

    Langmuir monolayers of polydimethylsiloxane-polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at 22{degree}C are employed as a model tethered chain system in theta solvent conditions. The segmental concentration profile of the tethered PS block is obtained over an order of magnitude in both surface density ({sigma}) and molecular weight (M) by neutron reflection. A depletion layer of PS segments is observed at the air{endash}liquid interface which increases with M and is independent of {sigma}. The variation of the tethered layer height with {sigma} and M is consistent with h{approximately}{sigma}{sup 0.18}M{sup 0.74} over the range of reduced surface density ({sigma}{pi}R{sub g}{sup 2}) from 1 to 11. These dependencies, along with the form of the profile, indicate that the asymptotic limit is not achieved for {sigma}{pi}R{sub g}{sup 2}{le}11 in theta solvent conditions. The upper limit of surface density is limited by the interaction of the submerged blocks, which leads to a sharp rise in surface pressure ({Pi}). The increase of {Pi} with {sigma} far exceeds theoretical predictions, even in the asymptotic limit, and is attributed to distortion of chain configurations arising from limited lateral interpenetration. Anchoring energies compare well with differential chain energies at the desorption transition when the surface PDMS blocks are noninteracting. Comparisons are made with results obtained previously in good solvent conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ≤0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ≤0.25 or ≥4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (≤25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

  14. An Action Research Study Involving Motivating Middle School Students' Learning through Online Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falter Thomas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I explored the motivation of middle school students participating in online literature circles facilitated by college students, compared to traditional face-to-face literature circles they previously utilized. Sixty-eight rural, middle school students from two English teachers' classrooms took part in two sets of online literature…

  15. A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…

  16. Student Reactions to Industry Involvement in Case Delivery. Supportive Evidence from Three Distinct Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, R. Anthony

    2001-01-01

    In three related studies, (1) a corporation gave management students a workplace problem for solution; (2) management students conducted a service-learning project in the nonprofit sector; and (3) students consulted on a small business supervisory problem. Experiential learning resulted in more student satisfaction, higher realism, and greater

  17. An Action Research Study Involving Motivating Middle School Students' Learning through Online Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falter Thomas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I explored the motivation of middle school students participating in online literature circles facilitated by college students, compared to traditional face-to-face literature circles they previously utilized. Sixty-eight rural, middle school students from two English teachers' classrooms took part in two sets of online literature

  18. Faculty Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for Distance Study at the University of the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Som

    1987-01-01

    As a regional institution serving the needs of 11 different island nations of the South West Pacific, the University of the South Pacific (USP) is, along with its on-campus face-to-face teaching activity, deeply committed to and reliant on distance study methods. Both of these activities at the university are the principal responsibility of a

  19. A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate

  20. Internationalisation in the Swedish Nurse Education from the Perspective of Teachers Involved: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Wihlborg, Monne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from an interview investigation with teachers in Swedish nurse education especially interested in internationalising the education. The aim has been to study teachers' understandings and experiences of internationalisation against the backdrop of the strong concern for internationalisation expressed in policy documents.

  1. A Study of Selected Variables Involved in the Assessment of Teacher Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Linda K.

    The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers on the Common Examinations of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) in relation to national averages, and (2) determine strengths and weaknesses in the test performance of Louisiana's prospective teachers. Prospective teachers in Louisiana were

  2. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  3. Basic concepts and development of an all-purpose computer interface for ROC/FROC observer study.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Hara, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we initially investigated various aspects of requirements for a computer interface employed in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) observer studies which involve digital images and ratings obtained by observers (radiologists). Secondly, by taking into account these aspects, an all-purpose computer interface utilized for these observer performance studies was developed. Basically, the observer studies can be classified into three paradigms, such as one rating for one case without an identification of a signal location, one rating for one case with an identification of a signal location, and multiple ratings for one case with identification of signal locations. For these paradigms, display modes on the computer interface can be used for single/multiple views of a static image, continuous viewing with cascade images (i.e., CT, MRI), and dynamic viewing of movies (i.e., DSA, ultrasound). Various functions on these display modes, which include windowing (contrast/level), magnifications, and annotations, are needed to be selected by an experimenter corresponding to the purpose of the research. In addition, the rules of judgment for distinguishing between true positives and false positives are an important factor for estimating diagnostic accuracy in an observer study. We developed a computer interface which runs on a Windows operating system by taking into account all aspects required for various observer studies. This computer interface requires experimenters to have sufficient knowledge about ROC/FROC observer studies, but allows its use for any purpose of the observer studies. This computer interface will be distributed publicly in the near future. PMID:22763658

  4. Studies on the mechanisms involved in multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Reiners, J.

    1982-01-01

    Skin tumors can be effectively induced in mice by the repetitive application of a carcinogen. The relative order of sensitivity to complete carcinogenesis is Sencar > CD-1 > C57BL/6 greater than or equal to BALB/c greater than or equal to ICR/Ha Swiss > C3H. Skin tumors in mice can also be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a weak or noncarcinogenic tumor promoter (promotion phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a weak or noncarcinogenic tumor promoter (promotion phase). The relative order of sensitivity to initiation-promotion is Sencar > > CD-1 > ICR/Ha Swiss greater than or equal to Balb/c > C57BL/6 greater than or equal to C3H greater than or equal to DBA/2. The phorbol ester tumor promoters have been shown to have several cellular and biochemical effects on the skin. Of all the observed phorbol ester related effects on the skin, the induction of epidermal cell proliferation, polyamines, prostagladins, and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions appear to correlate the best with promotion. Mezerein, a weak promoter, was found to induce many cellular and biochemical changes similar to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA), especially epidermal hyperplasia and polyamines; however, it was not a potent inducer of dark cells. Although C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant to initiation-promotion by PAH initiation and phorbol ester promotion, they are fairly sensitive to complete carcinogenesis by PAH. This suggests that the C57BL/6 mice are resistant to phorbol ester tumor promotion. Preliminary experiments suggest that C57BL/6 and Sencar mice respond qualitatively but not quantitatively to a single treatment with TPA.

  5. A study on the possible involvement of the PAX3 gene in human neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hol, F.A.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Geurds, M.P.A.

    1994-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are congenital malformations of the central nervous system which are generally attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the molecular defect responsible for the phenotype of the Splotch mouse, a monogenic model system for NTD, was determined. A mutation disrupts the homeodomain of the gene for Pax3. In humans, mutations in the cognate gene for PAX3 can cause Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is associated with NTD. Based on these findings, PAX3 can be regarded as a candidate gene for human NTD. To test this hypothesis we have screened the DNA of 39 familial and 70 sporadic NTD patients for mutations in the coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the PAX3 gene. SSC analysis revealed abnormal bands in exon 2, exon 5, exon 6 and exon 7 in different patients. A missense mutation was identified in exon 6 downstream from the homeodomain in several patients resulting in an amino acid substitution (Thr315Lys) in the protein. However, the same substitution was detected in unaffected controls suggesting no biological significance. Above shifts most likely represent polymorphisms that are irrelevant for NTD. A conspicuous SSC-band shift was observed in exon 5 of one familial patient with spina bifida. Sequencing revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a 5 bp deletion upstream of the homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift, which leads to premature termination of translation. Mild characteristics of WS were detected in several members of the family including the index patient. DNA analysis showed co-segregation of the mutation with these symptoms. Although PAX3 mutations can increase the penetrance of NTD in families with WS, our results show that their presence is not sufficient to cause NTD.

  6. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are

  7. Studies of the involvement of metal ions with several medicinal agents

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.

    1985-01-01

    NMR and CD studies indicate that Mg/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ are able to change the conformation of tetracycline in DMSO solution. This may affect the in vivo effect of tetracycline. Using /sup 23/Na NMR, the formation constant of NaLAS (LAS represents the anion of lasalocid A) was found to be 80 M/sup -1/ which is much smaller than that in less polar solvents. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements were made to study the binding sites of Gd/sup 3 +/ on Las in ChCl/sub 3/-DMF mixed solvent system. No intermediate conformation (between cyclic and open-chain) was found. LAS was found to be a good second-sphere ligand to inert transition-metal amines. NMR studies suggest that LAS is in cyclic conformation when bound to these metal amines. A new method for the synthesis of spin-labeled anticancer Pt(II) complexes was developed. It is very simple and gives high yield of pure spin-labeled Pt(II) complexes.

  8. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a 'refinement that needs refining'. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised. PMID:26480045

  9. Are Husbands Involving in Their Spouses’ Utilization of Maternal Care Services?: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Kyi Mar; Shibanuma, Akira; Oo, Nwe Nwe; Fillman, Toki Jennifer; Saw, Yu Mon; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands’ involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands’ involvement and their spouses’ utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods. Methods A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband’s involvement as well as their spouses’ utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8%) and postnatal care (68.5%). Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%), delivery place (83.6%), and money saving (81.7%) before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5%) and a safe delivery kit (21.1%). In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband’s involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services was found among spouses of husbands who accompanied them to antenatal visits (AOR 5.82, 95% CI, 3.34–10.15) and those who had a well birth plan (AOR 2.42, 95% CI, 1.34–4.39 for antenatal visit and AOR 2.88, 95% CI, 1.52–5.47 for postnatal visit). Conclusion The majority of husbands supported their spouses’ maternal care services use financially; however, they were less involved in birth preparedness and postnatal care. Exposure to maternal health education and their maternal health knowledge were main predictors of their involvement. Women were more likely to use maternal care services when their husbands company them for ANC visits and had a well-birth plan in advance. PMID:26641891

  10. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. METHODS We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. RESULTS In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P?involvement, and higher Gleason score. In the 406 patients in which clinical information was available, PTEN homozygous (P?=?0.009) deletion was associated with worse post-operative recurrence-free survival (number of events?=?189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P?

  11. The Path to Self-Management: A Qualitative Study Involving Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Mark W.; Murdoch, Michelle; Kearney, Anne; Godwin, Marshall; Stefanelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This qualitative study sought to explore older people's experience of ageing with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the natural history of self-management from their points of view. Methods: Eighteen people over age 55 and living with MS for at least 20 years were recruited from an MS clinic and rehabilitation outpatient records. Interviews (6080 min), using open-ended questions, explored participants' lifelong experiences of MS. Following interview transcription, data were coded and analyzed; themes, subthemes, and their relationships were described based on consensus. Results: Participants recounted their diagnosis process, their life experience with MS, and how they eventually accepted their disease, adapted, and moved toward self-management. The findings included vivid descriptions of social relationships, health care interactions, overcoming barriers, and the emotions associated with living with MS. A conceptual model of phases of self-management, from diagnosis to integration of MS into a sense of self, was developed. Conclusions: Study participants valued self-management and described its phases, facilitators, and inhibitors from their points of view. Over years and decades, learning from life experiences, trial and error, and interactions with health care professionals, participants seemed to consolidate MS into their sense of self. Self-determination, social support, strong problem-solving abilities, and collaborative relationships with health professionals aided adaptation and coping. Findings from this study make initial steps toward understanding how MS self-management evolves over the life course and how self-management programmes can help people with MS begin to manage wellness earlier in their lives. PMID:23277680

  12. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Biotelemetry, the remote detection and measurement of an animal function or activity, is widely used in animal research. Biotelemetry devices transmit physiological or behavioural data and may be surgically implanted into animals, or externally attached. This can help to reduce animal numbers and improve welfare, e.g., if animals can be group housed and move freely instead of being tethered to a recording device. However, biotelemetry can also cause pain and distress to animals due to surgery, attachment, single housing and long term laboratory housing. This article explains how welfare and science can be improved by avoiding or minimising these harms. Abstract Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised. PMID:26480045

  13. Fractional gravity studies on the ISS of sensory mechanisms involved in phototropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie; Edelmann, Richard; Millar, Katherine

    The major goals of this research are (1) to better understand cellular mechanisms of pho-totropism in plants and (2) to determine the effects and influence of gravity on light perception in plants. Because of the interfering effect of the strong gravitropic response, microgravity conditions are needed to effectively study phototropism. Experiments performed on the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. We utilized the European Modular Cultivation Sys-tem (EMCS), which has environmental controls for plant growth as well as centrifuges for gravity treatments. TROPI-1 (for tropisms) was successfully performed on the ISS during late 2006. We obtained data on seedlings grown in microgravity and discovered a novel positive phototropic response to red light in hypocotyls of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, one problem encoun-tered during TROPI-1 was low seed germination due to long storage periods (8 months) in flight hardware. Thus, the originally proposed fractional gravity studies were not performed. TROPI-2 provides an opportunity to regain the results from these important fractional gravity experiments. TROPI-2 experiments will provide a better understanding of how plants integrate sensory input from multiple light and gravity perception systems. This information is important for growing plants on long-term space missions as part of life support systems. The fractional gravity studies contain 0.16g (Moon) and 0.38g (Mars) treatments, so information to be obtained is relevant to exploration objectives

  14. Astronomy and religion (1780-1915). Four case studies involving ideas of extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    The present essay discusses four examples of interactions, two from the eighteenth century and two from the nineteenth. All four cases concern the relations between religion and the astronomical claim that intelligent beings exist elsewhere in space. In each of these four cases religious claims influenced astronomy. Cases 3 and 4 share a feature not usually encountered in studies on the interactions of astronomy and religion in that they are instances where not just theistic belief but in fact core doctrines of a specific religion, Christianity, influenced astronomy. I begin by surveying the interactions between religion and the idea of extraterrestrial intelligent life in the early modern period.

  15. A correlation study involving a comparison of professional science teaching standards and student performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schum, Paul A.

    If international report cards were issued today, to all industrialized nations world wide, the United States would receive a "C" at best in mathematics and science. This is not simply a temporary or simple cause and effect circumstance that can easily be addressed. The disappointing truth is that this downward trend in mathematics and science mastery by American students has been occurring steadily for at least the last eight years of international testing, and that there are numerous and varied bases for this reality. In response to this crisis, The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and The National Research Council (NRC) each have proposed relatively consistent, but individual sets of professional science teaching standards, designed to improve science instruction in American schools. It is of extreme value to the scientific, educational community to know if any or all of these standards lead to improved student performance. This study investigates the correlation between six, specific teacher behaviors that are common to these national standards and which behaviors, if any, result in improved student performance, as demonstrated on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT Assessment. These standards focus classroom science teachers on professional development, leading toward student mastery of scientific interpretation, concept development, and constructive relationship building. Because all individual teachers interpret roles, expectations, and guiding philosophies from different lenses, effective professional practice may reflect consistency in rationale and methodology yet will be best evidenced by an examination of specific teaching techniques. In this study, these teaching techniques are evidenced by self-reported teacher awareness and adherence to these consensual standards. Assessment instruments vary widely, and the results of student performance often reflect the congruency of curricular methodology and explicit testing domains. Although the recent educational impetus for change is most notably governed numerically by test scores, the true goal of scientific literacy is in the application of logic. Therefore, the ultimate thematic analysis in this study attempts to relate both educational theory and practice with positive change at the classroom level. The data gathered in this study is insufficient in establishing a significant correlation between adherence to national science teaching standards and student performance on the ACT in Jefferson County, Kentucky, for either public or Catholic school students. However, with respect to mean student scores on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT, there is statistically significant evidence for superior performance of Catholic school students compared with that of public school students in this region.

  16. The measurements technique of balance in opera houses: A study of the sources involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parati, Linda; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The study of the acoustical balance between the singer and the orchestra by means of room acoustical measurements has shown that the directional characteristics of the source on the stage are important. This investigation compares the performance of two directional and one omnidirectional loudspeakers in emulating a soprano voice. Directivity measurements of a soprano singer were carried out in an anechoic chamber and used as a basis for comparison in room acoustic simulations of the Royal Theatre of Copenhagen, the Ankara Congress and Cultural Center, and the Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. In particular, the balance measurement was simulated and the performance of the different sources with respect to the soprano was assessed.

  17. Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

  18. Application of FT-ICR-MS for the study of proton-transfer reactions involving biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Raczy?ska, E D; Gal, J-F; Maria, P-C; Zientara, K; Szelag, M

    2007-11-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, combined with modern ionization (fast atom bombardment , electrospray ionization, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization), fragmentation (collision-induced dissociation, surface-induced dissociation, one-photon ultraviolet photodissociation, infrared multiphoton dissociation, blackbody infrared radiative dissociation, electron-capture dissociation), and separation (high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) techniques is now becoming one of the most attractive and frequently used instrumental platforms for gas-phase studies of biomolecules such as amino acids, bioamines, peptides, polypeptides, proteins, nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides, nucleic acids, saccharides, polysaccharides, etc. Since it gives the possibilities to trap the ions from a few seconds up to thousands of seconds, it is often applied to study ion/molecule reactions in the gas phase, particularly proton-transfer reactions which provide important information on acid-base properties. These properties determine in part the three-dimensional structure of biomolecules, most of their intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and consequently their biological activity. They also indicate the form (unionized, zwitterionic, protonated, or deprotonated) which the biomolecule may take in a nonpolar environment. PMID:17786415

  19. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2014-09-25

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792

  20. Computational study of putative residues involved in DNA synthesis fidelity checking in Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Elias, Angela A; Cisneros, G Andrs

    2014-01-01

    A fidelity-checking site for DNA polymerase I has been proposed based on recent single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer studies. The checking site is believed to ensure proper base pairing of the newly inserted nucleotide. Computational studies have been utilized to predict residues involved in this putative checking site on the Klenow and Bacillus fragments. Here, we employ energy decomposition analysis, electrostatic free energy response, and noncovalent interaction plots to identify the residues involved in the hypothesized checking site in the homologous Klenow fragment from Thermus aquaticus (Klentaq). Our results indicate multiple protein residues that show altered interactions for three mispairs compared to the correctly paired DNA dimer. Many of these residues are also conserved along A family polymerases. PMID:25443954

  1. Proteomic methodological recommendations for studies involving human plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Susan J; Polley, Abigael C J; Mulholland, Francis; Bouwman, Freek G; Heim, Carolin; Rucklidge, Garry J; Johnson, Ian T; Mariman, Edwin C; Daniel, Hannelore; Elliott, Ruan M

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to develop, optimize and validate protocols for blood processing prior to proteomic analysis of plasma, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to determine analytical variation of a single sample of depleted plasma, platelet and PBMC proteins within and between four laboratories each using their own standard operating protocols for 2D gel electrophoresis. Plasma depleted either using the Beckman Coulter IgY-12 proteome partitioning kit or the Amersham albumin and IgG depletion columns gave good quality gels, but reproducibility appeared better with the single-use immuno-affinity column. The use of the Millipore Filter Device for protein concentration gave a 16% ( p < 0.005) higher recovery of protein in flow-through sample compared with acetone precipitation. The use of OptiPrep gave the lowest level of platelet contamination (1:0.8) during the isolation of PBMC from blood. Several proteins (among which are alpha-tropomyosin, fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII A) were identified that may be used as biomarkers of platelet contamination in future studies. When identifying preselected spots, at least three out of the four centers found similar identities for 10 out of the 10 plasma proteins, 8 out of the 10 platelet proteins and 8 out of the 10 PBMC proteins. The discrepancy in spot identifications has been described before and may be explained by the mis-selection of spots due to laboratory-to-laboratory variation in gel formats, low scores on the peptide analysis leading to no or only tentative identifications, or incomplete resolution of different proteins in what appears as a single abundant spot. The average within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the matched spots after automatic matching using either PDQuest or ProteomWeaver software ranged between 18 and 69% for depleted plasma proteins, between 21 and 55% for platelet proteins, and between 22 and 38% for PBMC proteins. Subsequent manual matching improved the CV with on average between 1 and 16%. The average between laboratory CV for each of the matched spots after automatic matching ranged between 4 and 54% for depleted plasma proteins, between 5 and 60% for platelet proteins, and between 18 and 70% for PBMC proteins. This variation must be considered when designing sufficiently powered studies that use proteomics tools for biomarker discovery. The use of tricine in the running buffer for the second dimension appears to enhance the resolution of proteins especially in the high molecular weight range. PMID:18489134

  2. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. PMID:25800405

  3. [Recommendations for Communication and Solicitation of Patients Potentially or Already Involved in Clinical Studies].

    PubMed

    Bilbault, Pascal; Beslay, Nathalie; Carton, Laurence; Duffet, Jean-Pierre; Gueniche, Audrey; Lang, Marie; Menuet, Dominique; Prunier, Hlne; Levy, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The active patient participation in clinical trials is key for a competitive clinical research. Given this, the Health Industry Physicians and Actors Association (AMIPS) has set up a working group to make communication recommendations towards patients. The group was made of patients, investigators and industry sponsors representatives. Efficacious communication is rarely obtained because it is not clear what is possible to do ethically and regulatory and because of technical and financial constraints. After having identified the expectations and limitations for every actor category, the group has summarized all types of communication, in a sort of tool box, before and during the whole of a study. The benefits and regulatory prerequisites such as the submission to the Ethical Committee and to the National Data Information and Freedom Commission (CNIL) as well as the practical feasibility are described for each tool. PMID:25679186

  4. Psychosocial pathways to childhood obesity: a pilot study involving a high risk preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Moore, Elizabeth S; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study adopts a systems theory perspective to explore associations between parent and child factors and children's body mass index (BMI). Forty mothers and their preschool-aged children (3-6years) who were eligible for Head Start were recruited. Measures included demographic risk, maternal depression, negative parenting, children's impulsivity, children's approach to eating, and BMI. Structural Equation Modeling supported a mediating model such that mothers who reported greater demographic risk and more depressive symptoms showed higher rates of negative parenting. In turn, more negative parenting predicted higher child impulsivity ratings, which were related to higher food approach scores. Finally, children who scored higher in food approach had higher BMIs. Tests of sub-models excluding any of the mediating variables indicated a significantly worse fit to the data in each case. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early-onset obesity in high-risk children. PMID:25098723

  5. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    PubMed

    Alves, L; Paixo, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC?? values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. PMID:21767949

  6. NTOS symptoms and mobility: a case study on neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome involving massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Streit, Robin S

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is a neuromuscular condition affecting brachial plexus functionality. NTOS is characterized by paresthesia, pain, muscle fatigue, and restricted mobility in the upper extremity. This study quantified massage therapy's possible contribution to treatment of NTOS. A 24-year-old female with NTOS received eight treatments over 35 days. Treatment included myofascial release, trigger point therapy, cross fiber friction, muscle stripping, and gentle passive stretching. Abduction and lateral rotation at the glenohumeral (GH joint) assessments measured range of motion (ROM). A resisted muscle test evaluated upper extremity strength. The client rated symptoms daily via a visual analog scale (VAS). Findings showed improvement in ROM at the GH joint. VAS ratings revealed a reduction in muscle weakness, pain, numbness, and 'paresthesia'. Results suggest massage may be useful as part of a broad approach to managing NTOS symptoms and improving mobility. PMID:24411148

  7. Multicenter study of piroxicam in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal diseases involving 3011 patients.

    PubMed

    Filho, J L

    1983-01-01

    An open non-comparative study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of piroxicam in patients with acute musculoskeletal disease. A total of 3011 patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 70, were treated with piroxicam: 4 capsules (40 mg) after dinner, on the first two days and two capsules (20 mg) on the following days. Patients were evaluated for a maximum period of 14 days. Assessment of efficacy was made including local pain and limitation of mobility. The patients' self-assessment of pain was also analyzed. A clear improvement in each of the parameters analyzed was found by the third day of treatment. The general self-assessment of efficacy by the patients presented excellent and good results in 97.5%; very similar to the final assessment of efficacy made by the doctors, 91.1%. Adverse reactions were found in 368 patients (12.22%). PMID:6861810

  8. A study on the involvement of GABA-transaminase in MCT induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lingeshwar, Poorella; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Seema; Mishra, Akanksha; Shukla, Shubha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar; Siddiqui, Hefazat H; Hanif, Kashif

    2016-02-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with cardiovascular diseases but its role has not been completely explored in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased SNS activity is distinguished by elevated level of norepinephrine (NE) and activity of γ-Amino butyric acid Transminase (GABA-T) which degrades GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that GABA-T may contribute in pathophysiology of PH by modulating level of GABA and NE. The effect of daily oral administration of GABA-T inhibitor, Vigabatrin (GVG, 50 and 75 mg/kg/day, 35 days) was studied following a single subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) in male SD rats. The pressure and hypertrophy of right ventricle (RV), oxidative stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodelling were assessed after 35 days in MCT treated rats. The expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α was studied in lung tissue. The levels of plasma NE (by High performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector; HPLC-ECD) and lung GABA (by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) were also estimated. GVG at both doses significantly attenuated increased in pressure (35.82 ± 4.80 mm Hg, p < 0.001; 28.37 ± 3.32 mm Hg, p < 0.001 respectively) and hypertrophy of RV, pulmonary vascular remodelling, oxidative stress and inflammation in lungs of MCT exposed rats. GVG also reduced the expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α in MCT treated rats. Increased NE level and decreased GABA level was also reversed by GVG in MCT exposed rats. GABA-T plays an important role in PH by modulating SNS activity and may be considered as a therapeutic target in PH. PMID:26608704

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 as Tool for Functional Study of Genes Involved in Preimplantation Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient gene-editing tool for genome modification of cells and organisms. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in pig embryos have not been studied in depth. Here, we aimed to remove porcine OCT4 function as a model case using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Injection of Cas9 and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) against OCT4 decreased the percentages of OCT4-positive embryos to 3750% of total embryos, while ~100% of control embryos exhibited clear OCT4 immunostaining. We assessed the mutation status near the guide sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, and a portion of blastocysts (20% in exon 2 and 50% in exon 5) had insertions/deletions near protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs). Different target sites had frequent deletions, but different concentrations of sgRNA made no impact. OCT4 mRNA levels dramatically decreased at the 8-cell stage, and they were barely detectable in blastocysts, while mRNA levels of other genes, including NANOG, and CDX2 were not affected. In addition, the combination of two sgRNAs led to large-scale deletion (about 1.8 kb) in the same chromosome. Next, we injected an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) vector targeting the OCT4 exon with Cas9 and sgRNA to create a knockin. We confirmed eGFP fluorescence in blastocysts in the inner cell mass, and also checked the mutation status using PCR and DNA sequencing. A significant portion of blastocysts had eGFP sequence insertions near PAM sites. The CRISPR/CAS9 system provides a good tool for gene functional studies by deleting target genes in the pig. PMID:25775469

  10. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Sarah L.; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Rothberg, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers Design Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion Setting U.S. academic tertiary care hospital Participants Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists Methods A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and sub-themes. Results Twenty-one participants (9 women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasized time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilization (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (e.g. individual/ward), meso-level (e.g. institution) and macro-level (e.g., payor/public policy). Conclusions The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified. PMID:23748192

  11. Study of physical and biological factors involved in the disruption of E. coli by hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation results in flow restriction in a flow system causing rapid pressure fluctuations and significant fluid forces. These can be harnessed to mediate microbial cell damage. Hydrodynamic cavitation was studied for the partial disruption of E. coli and selective release of specific proteins relative to the total soluble protein. The effects of the cavitation number, the number of passes, and the specific growth rate of E. coli on the release of periplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins were studied. At the optimum cavitation number of 0.17 for this experimental configuration, 48% of the total soluble protein, 88% of acid phosphatase, and 67% of beta-galactosidase were released by hydrodynamic cavitation in comparison with the maximum release attained using multiple passes through the French Press. The higher release of the acid phosphatase over the total soluble protein suggested preferred release of periplasmic compounds. This was supported by SDS-PAGE analysis. The absence of micronization of cell material resulting in the potential for ease of solid-liquid separation downstream of the cell disruption operation was confirmed by TEM microscopy. E. coli cells cultivated at a higher specific growth rate (0.36 h(-1)) were more easily disrupted than slower grown cells (0.11 h(-1)). The specific activity of the enzyme of interest released by hydrodynamic cavitation, defined as the units of enzyme in solution per milligram of total soluble protein, was greater than that obtained on release by the French Press, high-pressure homogenization, osmotic shock, and EDTA treatment. The selectivity offered indicates the potential of enzyme release by hydrodynamic cavitation to ease the purification in the subsequent downstream processing. PMID:16739979

  12. Expression and Replication Studies to Identify New Candidate Genes Involved in Normal Hearing Function

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cnovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

  13. Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID): a dynamic birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. Methods and analysis The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2?years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914. PMID:23117571

  14. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p < 0.01). Boys compared to girls expressed a higher level of self-enhancement (means score: 36.5 vs. 35.1; p = 0.03), while girls expressed a higher level of self-transcendence (42.3 vs. 40.7; p = 0.03). The results of multilevel modeling indicates that boys with a higher level of self-enhancement and girls with a higher level of openness to change and a lower level of conservation were more likely to report engagement in problem behaviors. Only two parental values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed. PMID:17605792

  15. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Olm, Christopher A; McMillan, Corey T; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation. PMID:26089786

  16. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    PubMed Central

    Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different i