These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Miltefosine treatment of Leishmania major infection: an observational study involving Dutch military personnel returning from northern Afghanistan.  

PubMed

In a retrospective, observational study involving 34 patients with Leishmania major infection, 31 of whom had experienced unsuccessful treatment with intralesional antimony (ilSb(v)), miltefosine proved effective. Thirty patients experienced cure after receipt of miltefosine, 3 after receipt of additional ilSb(v), and 1 after 28 daily intravenous injections of antimony. Temporary diminution of ejaculate volume was reported by 21 patients. PMID:19951107

van Thiel, P P A M; Leenstra, T; Kager, P A; de Vries, H J; van Vugt, M; van der Meide, W F; Bart, A; Zeegelaar, J E; van der Sluis, A; Schallig, H D F H; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; de Vries, P J

2010-01-01

2

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

3

Parent and Community Involvement: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a description of a case study of parent and community involvement and the impact of that involvement on education. The study is based upon the observations, interviews, and reflections of the writer in one elementary school as a plan was implemented to increase parent and community involvement in that school. The primary methods of data collection were

Cynthia Crites

2008-01-01

4

Observing Task and Ego Involvement in a Club Volleyball Setting  

E-print Network

suggested that the parents and the players both identified as task involved individuals, implying that their motivations lie in improving skills relative to the sport instead of becoming the best athlete relative to others on the court. The study results...

Schwarzlose, Tori

2013-04-30

5

Are natural killer cells involved in multiple sclerosis etiology? Evidences from NKp46/NCR1 receptor modulation in an observational study.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated in many autoimmune diseases but their role in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains still unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression levels of a NK cell receptor (NCR1) in patients with diagnosis of MS. Particularly, the study took into account patients undergoing pharmacological therapy with interferon-beta or natalizumab and patients never treated since first-time diagnosed for MS. Expression levels of NCR1 receptor were evaluated in protein extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells performing western blot analysis. Our results show that MS patients display higher NCR1 expression levels than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with a first diagnosis of MS display the highest level of NCR1 when compared with patients pharmacologically treated with interferon-beta or natalizumab. Therefore, pharmacologically treated MS patients show a modulated NK cell expression. PMID:25115502

Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

2014-10-15

6

Studies involving low protein broiler diets  

E-print Network

STUDIES INVOLVING L(% PROTEIN BROILER DIETS A Thesis by David Palmer Parkin Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject...: Poultry Science STUDIES INVOLVING LS& PROTEIN BROILER DIETS A Thesis by David Palmer Parkin Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit e) ead of. Departmen Me er) (Member) (Memb ) May 1971 ABSTRACT Studies Involving Low Protein...

Parkin, David Palmer

2012-06-07

7

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2011-07-01

8

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2010-07-01

9

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2012-07-01

11

'Elder Abuse' Often Involves Finances, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. 'Elder Abuse' Often Involves Finances, Study Finds Family members are frequently the culprits, ... making meals often provide others access to their finances. SOURCE: Springer, news release, July 30, 2014 HealthDay ...

12

Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

Kaplan, Daniel

2013-01-01

13

Environmental science and ecology involve studies  

E-print Network

Environmental science and ecology involve studies of the biosphere, hydro- sphere, and lithosphere in environmental science is conducted on spatial scales varying from a single algal cell to the Earth as a whole facilitates unique investigation of environmental science from atomic to global levels. Recently funded by CFI

Christensen, Dan

14

Studies That Observe Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... trying to guess at the cause and even writing about it as if the guess were fact. For instance, there were studies some years ago that linked gum disease with heart attacks. News reports talked about this link, with many theories about ...

15

Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

2012-01-01

16

Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.  

PubMed

We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect. PMID:20164574

de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

2010-01-01

17

Neural representations involved in observed, imagined, and imitated actions are dissociable and hierarchically organized.  

PubMed

The fact that action observation, motor imagery and execution are associated with partially overlapping increases in parieto-frontal areas has been interpreted as evidence for reliance of these behaviors on a common system of motor representations. However, studies that include all three conditions within a single paradigm are rare, and consequently, there is a dearth of knowledge concerning the distinct mechanisms involved in these functions. Here we report key differences in neural representations subserving observation, imagery, and synchronous imitation of a repetitive bimanual finger-tapping task using fMRI under conditions in which visual stimulation is carefully controlled. Relative to rest, observation, imagery, and synchronous imitation are all associated with widespread increases in cortical activity. Importantly, when effects of visual stimulation are properly controlled, each of these conditions is found to have its own unique neural signature. Relative to observation or imagery, synchronous imitation shows increased bilateral activity along the central sulcus (extending into precentral and postcentral gyri), in the cerebellum, supplementary motor area (SMA), parietal operculum, and several motor-related subcortical areas. No areas show greater increases for imagery vs. synchronous imitation; however, relative to synchronous imitation, observation is associated with greater increases in caudal SMA activity than synchronous imitation. Compared to observation, imagery increases activation in pre-SMA and left inferior frontal cortex, while no areas show the inverse effect. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses reveal that areas involved in bimanual open-loop movements respond most to synchronous imitation (primary sensorimotor, classic SMA, and cerebellum), and less vigorously to imagery and observation. The differential activity between conditions suggests an alternative hierarchical model in which these behaviors all rely on partially independent mechanisms. PMID:22005592

Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

2012-02-01

18

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2012-07-01

19

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2011-07-01

21

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2010-07-01

22

21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these experiments, tests of the positional accuracy, system sensitivity, and receiver response are inherent in this series of experiments. The MRT was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

2000-12-01

23

Observational studies of Saturn's rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several noteworthy phenomena in Saturn's rings were investigated which have until now received an inadequate amount of attention. Among these are the periodic variation of the spokes in the B ring and eccentric features throughout the rings. One of the major discoveries by Voyager was the existence of eccentric features within the predominantly circular rings of Saturn. Several of these nonaxisymmetric features are narrow elliptical rings which share many characteristics with the rings of Uranus. In recent work, two narrow ringlets were added to the list of eccentric features in the rings of Saturn. Voyager imaging and occultation data are now in hand, as well as image-processing software which allows accurate absolute positional measurements to be made in Voyager imaging data. Work is in progress to re-examine this region of Saturn's rings and to study the possibility of a dynamical interaction between the outer B ring edge, the Huygens ringlet and the nearby Mimas 2:1 resonance. An understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of this region promises to yield important clues to a matter of great interest in both theoretical and observation ring studies.

Porco, Carolyn C.

1987-01-01

24

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

25

Calibrating sensitivity analyses to observed covariates in observational studies.  

PubMed

In medical sciences, statistical analyses based on observational studies are common phenomena. One peril of drawing inferences about the effect of a treatment on subjects using observational studies is the lack of randomized assignment of subjects to the treatment. After adjusting for measured pretreatment covariates, perhaps by matching, a sensitivity analysis examines the impact of an unobserved covariate, u, in an observational study. One type of sensitivity analysis uses two sensitivity parameters to measure the degree of departure of an observational study from randomized assignment. One sensitivity parameter relates u to treatment and the other relates u to response. For subject matter experts, it may be difficult to specify plausible ranges of values for the sensitivity parameters on their absolute scales. We propose an approach that calibrates the values of the sensitivity parameters to the observed covariates and is more interpretable to subject matter experts. We will illustrate our method using data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and blood lead levels. PMID:24328711

Hsu, Jesse Y; Small, Dylan S

2013-12-01

26

Usability evaluation in Virtual Environments through empirical studies involving users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly justifies the relevance of empirical studies involving users (either controlled or exploratory experiments) as methods that should be used to study and evaluate usability in Virtual Environments. The paper also briefly presents some examples of such experiments that have been performed in order to study user performance while navigating in a Virtual Environment in different platforms.

Beatriz Sousa Santos; Paulo Dias; Paulo Santos; Samuel Silva; Carlos Ferreira

27

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

28

Involvement of the superior temporal cortex in action execution and action observation.  

PubMed

The role of the superior temporal sulcus (STs) in action execution and action observation remains unsettled. In an attempt to shed more light on the matter, we used the quantitative method of (14)C-deoxyglucose to reveal changes in activity, in the cortex of STs and adjacent inferior and superior temporal convexities of monkeys, elicited by reaching-to-grasp in the light or in the dark and by observation of the same action executed by an external agent. We found that observation of reaching-to-grasp activated the components of the superior temporal polysensory area [STP; including temporo-parieto-occipital association area (TPO), PGa, and IPa], the motion complex [including medial superior temporal area (MST), fundus of superior temporal area (FST), and dorsal and ventral parts of the middle temporal area (MTd and MTv, respectively)], and area TS2. A significant part of most of these activations was associated with observation of the goal-directed action, and a smaller part with the perception of arm-motion. Execution of reaching-to-grasp in the light-activated areas TS2, STP partially and marginally, and MT compared with the fixation but not to the arm-motion control. Consequently, MT-activation is associated with the arm-motion and not with the purposeful action. Finally, reaching-to-grasp in complete darkness activated all components of the motion complex. Conclusively, lack of visibility of our own actions involves the motion complex, whereas observation of others' actions engages area STP and the motion complex. Our previous and present findings together suggest that sensory effects are interweaved with motor commands in integrated action codes, and observation of an action or its execution in complete darkness triggers the retrieval of the visual representation of the action. PMID:24990920

Kilintari, Marina; Raos, Vassilis; Savaki, Helen E

2014-07-01

29

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

1998-01-01

30

Carer involvement with drug services: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: ‘Current levels of involvement’, ‘Use of the term carer’ and ‘Opportunities for change?’ Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term ‘carer’ was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the ‘same but different’ from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899

Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie

2013-01-01

31

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

King, Michael D.

2003-01-01

32

Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patient’s depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the low level model. However, this result was highly uncertain, as shown by the confidence intervals. Conclusions Classification of patients’ depressive state was feasible, but time consuming, using the classification framework proposed. Further validation of the framework is required. Unlike the analyses of diabetes and obesity management, no significant differences in the proportion of depression-free days or health service costs were found between the alternative levels of practice nurse involvement. PMID:24422622

2014-01-01

33

Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

Kimball, Colette

2005-01-01

34

A Case Study of Gambling Involvement and Its Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling has attracted minimal recent research in leisure studies. Focusing on Indigenous Australian gambling, this article draws on theoretical frameworks in leisure and gambling to develop gambling involvement profiles. Using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed. Thematic analysis generated three typical gambler profiles—light, binge and heavy gamblers—distinguishable by different gambling behaviors, motivations and consequences. Analysis of the dimensions of

Nerilee Hing; Helen Breen; Ashley Gordon

2012-01-01

35

DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN  

E-print Network

to the individual participant. Equivalent categories appear in the FDA regulations at 21 CFR 50 Subpart D, and are to be applied to all FDA-regulated clinical investigations that will include children as participants. I1 DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN 05/31/2011 DHHS regulations limit

36

DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN  

E-print Network

to the individual participant. Equivalent categories appear in the FDA regulations at 21 CFR 50 Subpart D, and are to be applied to all FDA-regulated clinical investigations that will include children as participants. I1 DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN 06/05/2014 DHHS regulations limit

37

Atlo-epistropheal involvement in oligoarthritis subset of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): observation of five cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine involvement is not unusual in rheumatoid arthritis in adults and in polyarticular and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cervical spine involvement, particularly atlo-epistropheal (also known as atlo-oxoid or atlanto-axial) involvement, has not been reported commonly in either the persistent or extended form of oligoarticular JIA. We report five cases of children with oligoarticular JIA who developed atlo-epistropheal involvement

A. Salmaso; A. Lurati; B. Teruzzi; G. De Marco; M. Gattinara; I. Pontikaki; V. Gerloni

38

Observational Studies of Retarded Children with Multiple Stereotyped Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three relatively long-term observational studies, involving seven retarded preschool children, each of whom exhibited multiple stereotypes, were conducted to determine the extent to which the type of activity or setting had any effect upon the rates of stereotyped movements. (Author)

Baumeister, Alfred A.; And Others

1980-01-01

39

Observational Studies: Cohort and Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Observational studies are an important category of study designs. To address some investigative questions in plastic surgery, randomized controlled trials are not always indicated or ethical to conduct. Instead, observational studies may be the next best method to address these types of questions. Well-designed observational studies have been shown to provide results similar to randomized controlled trials, challenging the belief that observational studies are second-rate. Cohort studies and case-control studies are two primary types of observational studies that aid in evaluating associations between diseases and exposures. In this review article, we describe these study designs, methodological issues, and provide examples from the plastic surgery literature. PMID:20697313

Song, Jae W.; Chung, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

40

A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

Stammer, Detlef

2003-01-01

41

Direct observation of a borane–silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon–hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This ‘metal-free’ hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si–H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si–H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si–H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si–H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free ‘frustrated-Lewis-pair’ hydrosilylation reactions.

Houghton, Adrian Y.; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E.; Tuononen, Heikki M.

2014-11-01

42

Pachymeningeal involvement in POEMS syndrome: MRI and histopathological study.  

PubMed

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare plasma cell disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) seems to play a pathogenic role. Peripheral neuropathy is the main neurological feature. Cranial pachymeningitis has occasionally been reported, but no histopathological studies have been performed. The authors extensively evaluated the central nervous system MRI in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age at diagnosis 54.45 years) with POEMS syndrome. In two patients, meningeal histopathology with staining for VEGF and VEGF receptor was performed, and pachymeningeal involvement characterised at histopathological, immunohistochemical and confocal microscopy levels. Nine patients presented with cranial pachymeningitis. One patient suffered from migraine, and none complained of cranial nerve palsies or visual loss. None showed any MRI signs of spinal pachymeningitis. No correlation was found with disease duration and VEGF serum level. Histopathology showed hyperplasia of meningothelial cells, neovascularisation and obstructive vessel remodelling, without inflammation. VEGF and VEGF receptor were strongly coexpressed on endothelium, smooth-muscle cells of arterioles and meningothelial cells. In conclusion, POEMS patients present a high prevalence of meningeal involvement. The histological changes, different from those present in chronic pachymeningitis of other aetiology, suggest a possible VEGF role in the pathogenesis of the meningeal remodelling. PMID:21653206

Briani, Chiara; Fedrigo, Marny; Manara, Renzo; Castellani, Chiara; Zambello, Renato; Citton, Valentina; Campagnolo, Marta; Dalla Torre, Chiara; Lucchetta, Marta; Orvieto, Enrico; Rotilio, Antonino; Marangoni, Sabrina; Magi, Stefania; Pareyson, Davide; Florio, Igor; Pegoraro, Elena; Thiene, Gaetano; Battistin, Leontino; Adami, Fausto; Angelini, Annalisa

2012-01-01

43

A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

Chatterjee, Tapan K.

1990-01-01

44

Direct Observation of Reversible Electronic Energy Transfer Involving an Iridium Center  

PubMed Central

A cyclometalated iridium complex is reported where the core complex comprises naphthylpyridine as the main ligand and the ancillary 2,2?-bipyridine ligand is attached to a pyrene unit by a short alkyl bridge. To obtain the complex with satisfactory purity, it was necessary to modify the standard synthesis (direct reaction of the ancillary ligand with the chloro-bridged iridium dimer) to a method harnessing an intermediate tetramethylheptanolate-based complex, which was subjected to acid-promoted removal of the ancillary ligand and subsequent complexation. The photophysical behavior of the bichromophoric complex and a model complex without the pendant pyrene were studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Reversible electronic energy transfer (REET) is demonstrated, uniquely with an emissive cyclometalated iridium center and an adjacent organic chromophore. After excited-state equilibration is established (5 ns) as a result of REET, extremely long luminescence lifetimes of up to 225 ?s result, compared to 8.3 ?s for the model complex, without diminishing the emission quantum yield. As a result, remarkably high oxygen sensitivity is observed in both solution and polymeric matrices. PMID:24555716

2014-01-01

45

Workplace Education Initiative: Case Studies and Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general observations and specific information in case studies of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on…

Astrein, Bruce; And Others

46

Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

King, Michael D.

2001-01-01

47

Observational studies of roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

48

Father Involvement in Early Head Start Programs: A Practitioners Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all Early Head Start programs funded from 1995-1998 was conducted during the winter of 1999-2000 to determine involvement of fathers in the programs and program outreach to involve fathers. Program representatives from 261 programs completed the survey on the World Wide Web or by mail, for a 62.5 percent response rate. Findings…

Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; vanKammen, Welmoet; Summers, JeanAnn; Raikes, Abbie; Laible, Debbie; Wilcox, Brian; Ontai, Lenna; Christensen, Lanette

49

The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

2005-01-01

50

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

51

Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

2011-01-01

52

The Geyser Observation and Study Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geyser Observation and Study Association is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation who's purpose is the "collection and dissemination of information about geysers and other geothermal phenomena in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere". The Web site has descriptions and photographs of geysers from around the world with an emphasis on Yellowstone and Old Faithful. Other features include recent and historical geyser activity information, a glossary of geyser terms, an index to geysers described on the site, a "guess the geyser" game, and other interesting links round out the site nicely.

1997-01-01

53

Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

2011-01-01

54

Overview of the Ocean Observer Satellite Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-year study of ocean satellite remote sensing requirements and instrument/satellite options is nearing completion. This Ocean Observer Study was sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce/Dept. of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Program Office, whose mission is to develop the future U.S. National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). A comprehensive Ocean Observer User Requirements Document has been drafted by a team of over 150 government, academic, and private sector scientists, engineers, and administrators. Included are requirements for open and coastal ocean surface, cryospheric, hydrologic, and some land/hazard and atmospheric boundary layer parameters. This document was then used as input to the instrument and satellite study (conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) which produced five different instrument/satellite configuration options designed to address the maximum number of requirements which will not be met with the already-approved NPOESS instruments. Instruments studied include a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), an altimeter, and a hyper-spectral coastal infrared/visible imager. After analyzing the alternatives, it appears that one of the best options is a two-satellite system consisting of (1) an altimeter mission in the Topex/Poseidon orbit carrying both wide-swath and delayed doppler altimeters, and (2) a multi-polarization, multi-frequency, multi-mode interferometric SAR mission including a coastal imager in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. This paper summarizes the user requirements process, briefly describes the notional satellite configuration, and presents some of the capabilities of the instruments.

Cunningham, J. D.; McGuire, J. P.; Pichel, W. G.; Gerber, A. J.

2002-12-01

55

Observations on Bilingual Lexicography Involving Bantu and Indo-European Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the methods of the pioneers of language study in the Bantu-speaking areas of Africa, criticizes their approaches to presenting information about African languages in lexical form, and notes that bilingual dictionaries are not adapted to the needs of African people. Suggests some technical procedures for future lexicographers to follow.…

Mbogho, Kalumbo

1985-01-01

56

[The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].  

PubMed

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:18711640

von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

2008-01-01

57

[The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].  

PubMed

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a che-cklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:18420014

von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

2008-01-01

58

The neural correlates of Fitts's law in action observation: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous neuroimaging studies support the assumption of a strong link between perception and action, demonstrating that the motor system is involved when others' actions are observed. One question that is still open to debate is which aspects of observed actions engage the motor system. The present study tested whether motor activation corresponds to the difficulty of the observed action, using

Terry Eskenazi; Pia Rotshtein; Marc Grosjean; Guenther Knoblich

2012-01-01

59

The neural correlates of Fitts's law in action observation: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous neuroimaging studies support the assumption of a strong link between perception and action, demonstrating that the motor system is involved when others’ actions are observed. One question that is still open to debate is which aspects of observed actions engage the motor system. The present study tested whether motor activation corresponds to the difficulty of the observed action, using

Terry Eskenazi; Pia Rotshtein; Marc Grosjean; Guenther Knoblich

2011-01-01

60

Observations from the CDX Nonlinear Sawtooth Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two separate sets of observations from modeling sawteeth in the CDX tokamak with the M3D code [1] as part of a cross-code benchmark. One is that, in addition to the internal kink, the starting equilibrium is linearly unstable to a range of high-n resistive ballooning-like modes [2], which can only be suppressed by the assumption of extremely high perpendicular heat transport. There is evidence that such transport is present in CDX itself, possibly induced by the edge modes [3], which would thereby saturate nonlinearly. Analysis of field line stochasticity as a mechanism for this saturation will be presented. The second topic is the finding that the sawtooth, though fundamentally a 1,1 mode, has considerable structure in the toroidal direction which is not easily resolved even with the retention of tens of mode numbers in the nonlinear run. The demands of a convergence study are therefore more stringent than might at first be supposed; implications for the development of predictive capability are discussed. [1] W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). [2] H.R. Strauss. Phys. Fluids 24, 2004 (1981). [3] B.A. Carreras and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1011 (1989).

Breslau, J.; Park, W.; Hudson, S.; Jardin, S.; Strauss, H.

2006-04-01

61

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: An observation on its microscopic involvement in breast carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastases.  

PubMed

The spaces of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) are postulated to be important in the intramammary spread of breast carcinoma. The present study aimed to note the prevalence of inconspicuous, microscopic foci of PASH (identified as CD34+ve, CD31-ve and D2-40-ve spaces containing tumour emboli) involved in breast carcinoma and to establish the significance of its relationship to lymph node metastases. A total of 80 cases of breast carcinoma were examined for microscopic foci of PASH permeated by carcinoma and, of the four cases found to demonstrate such involvement, three had lymph node metastases. PMID:22966384

Coyne, John D

2010-09-01

62

[Paternal involvement in the care of small children: an ethnographic study of low-income families].  

PubMed

The present study focused on father's involvement in the health care of small children (under six years) in low-income families. An ethnographic study was performed with interviews and participatory observation. We visited families in an outlying low-income urban neighborhood in Northeast Brazil, for nine months. Children appeared as a fundamental dimension in the lives of men and women, constituting a common reason for forming a family nucleus. The paternal role involved three key dimensions: education, in which the father was essential; body care, usually considered a female attribution; and preservation of integrity, considered an obligation for all family members. Despite the fact that traditional identification of gender roles still persists, based on contrasting discourses and practices, in all families (and especially in nuclear ones) there were dimensions in which men participated actively, demonstrating physical and emotional proximity with their children. PMID:16410873

Bustamante, Vânia; Trad, Leny A Bomfim

2005-01-01

63

Combining observations to study heliospheric phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a more diverse range of observatories scattered around the solar system than at any time in the past. As a consequence, heliophysics - the study of the effect of the Sun on the Solar System - has entered a boom period. The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, HELIO, has established a collaborative environment where scientists can discover, understand and model the connection between solar phenomena, interplanetary disturbances and their effects on the planets. The project is designed around a serviceoriented architecture with needed capabilities that support metadata curation and search, data location and retrieval, and data processing and storage being established as independent services. HELIO provides integrated access to the data and metadata from the domains that constitute heliophysics - solar, heliospheric, geophysics and planetary. More than 50 event catalogues can be used in the search, together with10 feature catalogues; data from more than 150 instruments from nearly 50 observatories can be accessed. A comprehensive user interface is available and the services can also be accessed through IDL; a workflow tool provides the ability to combine services together and it is possible to execute programmes on demand including propagation models. We will show how HELIO can be used to explore how phenomena evolve as they propagate through the Solar System. Effects related to structures in the solar wind, coronal mass ejections and particle events are reported using observations from multiple platforms, including occasions where the same phenomenon interacts with multiple planetary environments. The HELIO Consortium includes thirteen groups from the UK, France, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and the US; the project started in June 2009 and has a duration of 42 months.

Bentley, R. D.

2012-09-01

64

Is patient involvement possible when decisions involve scarce resources? A qualitative study of decision-making in primary care.  

PubMed

Greater patient involvement has become a key goal of health care provision. This study explored the way in which general practitioners (GPs) in the UK manage the dual responsibilities of treating individual patients and making the most equitable use of National Health Service (NHS) resources in the context of the policy of greater patient involvement in decision-making. We undertook a qualitative study incorporating a series of interviews and focus groups with a sample of 24 GPs. We analysed GP accounts of decision-making by relating these to substantive ethical principles and the key procedural principle of explicitness in decision-making. GPs saw patient involvement in positive terms but for some GPs involvement served an instrumental purpose, for instance improving patient 'compliance'. GPs identified strongly with the role of patient advocate but experienced role tensions particularly with respect to wider responsibilities for budgets, populations, and society in general. GPs had an implicit understanding of the key ethical principle of explicitness and of other substantive ethical principles but there was incongruence between these and their interpretation in practice. Limited availability of GP time played an important role in this theory/practice gap. GPs engaged in implicit categorisation of patients, legitimating this process by reference to the diversity and complexity of general practice. If patient involvement in health care decision-making is to be increased, then questions of scarcity of resources, including time, will need to be taken into account. If strategies for greater patient involvement are to be pursued then this will have significant implications for funding primary care, particularly in terms of addressing the demands made on consultation time. Good ethics and good professional practice cost money and must be budgeted for. More explicit decision-making in primary care will need to be accompanied by greater explicitness at the national level about roles and responsibilities. Increased patient involvement has consequences for GP training and ways of addressing rationing dilemmas will need to be an important part of this training. Further research is needed to understand micro-decision-making, in particular the spaces in which processes of implicit categorisation lead to distorted communication between doctor and patient. PMID:15087146

Jones, Ian Rees; Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene; Hillier, Sheila; Rowlands, Gillian; Curtis, Sarah

2004-07-01

65

Traditional male ideology and service system involvement among drug-involved men who perpetrate intimate partner violence: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies-thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV-affects help-seeking behavior. This study also seeks to redress a gap in the research literature stemming from the general reliance on batterers intervention programs to acquire samples of IPV perpetrators. A sample of 126 men receiving methadone maintenance treatment who reported perpetrating IPV against a female partner participated in this longitudinal study. A large majority (88%) of participants reported use of additional services beyond methadone treatment (e.g., medical, employment/ vocational, etc.). Using generalized linear modeling, we found that greater endorsement of traditional male ideologies significantly predicted lower subsequent service utilization overall, except for legal services, for which there was a significant positive association. These findings suggest targeted assessment and engagement strategies may be required to involve a greater number of drug-involved men who perpetrate IPV with a wider spectrum of health and social services. PMID:20501899

Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

2011-05-01

66

Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

Franchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

67

Observability studies of inertial navigation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work deals with an undamped three-channel inertial-navigation-system error model. It is shown that it is possible to fully observe, and thus estimate, all the states of the system. This is in contrast to a previous two-channel system, in which it was impossible to fully observe and estimate all the states of the system. The conclusions of the analysis are verified through covariance simulation, which yields identical results.

Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Goshen-Meskin, D.

1989-01-01

68

A STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL ABILITY INVOLVING DIGIT RELATIONSHIPS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ATTITUDES OF STUDENTS TOWARD ARABIC NUMBERALS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE NUMBERS FROM 1 TO 9 WERE INVESTIGATED IN A SERIES OF FIVE STUDIES ON (1) NONQUANTITATIVE ASSOCIATIONS TO NUMERALS AS A FUNCTION OF AGE, ABILITY LEVEL, AND SEX AMONG AMERICAN CHILDREN, (2) COLOR ASSOCIATIONS WITH NUMERALS AMONG MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS, (3) PERSONALITY…

KNAPP, ROBERT H.

69

Parent-teacher relations: A qualitative study of parental involvement practices of teachers and parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored parents' and teachers' practices concerning parent involvement. The following questions guided this study: (1) How, to what extent, and why are parents involved in the education of their children? (2) How, to what extent, and why do teachers involve parents in the education of children? Qualitative research methods associated with phenomenology were used. An interview guide allowed

Patricia Lou Serpe-Schroeder

1999-01-01

70

A Case Study Involving Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study presents a discussion about the benefits of the influenza vaccine between Mary, a nursing student, and her coworker, Karen. Karen is not convinced by Mary’s arguments in favor of vaccination, and she counters with several common rationalizations for not getting the vaccine. Students work in small groups to evaluate the arguments for and against vaccination from the perspective of each woman. In addressing the questions in the case, students learn about the general biology of viral infections, treatment of infections, and immunity. The case was designed for use in an entry-level course in microbiology for nursing students or a first-year biology course for majors.

Bennett, John

2008-01-01

71

CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

2014-01-01

72

An experimental study on the relationship between consumer involvement and advertising effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

States that the level of consumer involvement in a product category is a major variable relevant to advertising strategy. Suggests product category is often segmented by the level of consumer involvement; however, consumers are rarely segmented. Points out that different involvement clusters have different responses to advertising effectiveness for the same product. Presents a case study segmenting a market using

Shwu-Ing Wu

2001-01-01

73

Driving violations observed: an Australian study.  

PubMed

This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers. PMID:17558663

Glendon, A Ian

2007-08-01

74

Lymph node involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases.  

PubMed

Twenty cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving lymph nodes with no other sites of disease are presented. The patients were 12 men and 8 women between 3 months and 68 years of age. Seven patients were younger than 11 years; the other 13 patients were older than 16 years. Clinically, all patients presented with lymphadenopathy and underwent excisional biopsy; clinical and imaging studies did not reveal abnormalities in other organs. Cervical lymph nodes were most commonly involved; other lymph nodes involved included axillary, inguinal, and supraclavicular. Histologically, LCH in lymph nodes had 3 main architectural patterns: (1) preserved nodal architecture with subtle involvement, (2) subtotal effacement of nodal architecture, and (3) total effacement of nodal architecture. There was a gradient of involvement by LCH from focal sinus involvement to diffuse sinus involvement and from focal paracortical involvement to diffuse paracortical involvement. In some cases, focal involvement was initially unrecognized because of the subtle nature of the changes in the lymph node, posing difficulties for diagnosis. Langerhans cells in the involved areas showed strong positivity by immunohistochemical studies for S100 protein and CD1a in all 11 cases assessed. In conclusion, LCH can initially manifest clinically with involvement limited to lymph nodes. Recognition of the different patterns of LCH, particularly cases with subtle involvement, is important for recognizing this disease and separating LCH from other more common causes of lymphadenopathy. PMID:17669469

Edelweiss, Marcia; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Suster, Saul; Moran, Cesar A

2007-10-01

75

IT Project Governance: A Process-Oriented Study of Organizational Control and Executive Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of organizational control of IT projects, specifically how control forms and evolves over time and how executives engage in the control task. Viewing executive involvement in its organizational context, the study builds on studies on executive involvement in IT (including top management support), IT project escalation and IS project control, while drawing upon theories

Magnus Mähring

2002-01-01

76

Comprehensive School Reform: An Observational Study of Teaching in Grades 3 through 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This observational study involved literacy and mathematics instruction of 145 teachers in grades 3 through 5 in 20 low-income schools enrolled in the U.S. government's Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) Demonstration program. Observed curriculum and instructional practices were primarily and coherently focused on acquisition of basic facts and…

McCaslin, Mary; Good, Thomas L.; Nichols, Sharon; Zhang, Jizhi; Wiley, Caroline R. H.; Bozack, Amanda Rabidue; Burross, Heidi Legg; Cuizon-Garcia, Rena

2006-01-01

77

Student Involvement as Predictive of College Freshmen Plans to Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors analyze the 2003 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey to investigate whether freshmen who intend to study abroad express a history of active involvement. The CIRP Freshman Survey has a number of items indicating student involvement and participation. The authors created six scales based on…

Rust, Val; Dhanatya, Cathryn; Furuto, Linda H. L.; Kheiltash, Omid

2008-01-01

78

Detecting host factors involved in virus infection by observing the clustering of infected cells in siRNA screening images  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Detecting human proteins that are involved in virus entry and replication is facilitated by modern high-throughput RNAi screening technology. However, hit lists from different laboratories have shown only little consistency. This may be caused by not only experimental discrepancies, but also not fully explored possibilities of the data analysis. We wanted to improve reliability of such screens by combining a population analysis of infected cells with an established dye intensity readout. Results: Viral infection is mainly spread by cell–cell contacts and clustering of infected cells can be observed during spreading of the infection in situ and in vivo. We employed this clustering feature to define knockdowns which harm viral infection efficiency of human Hepatitis C Virus. Images of knocked down cells for 719 human kinase genes were analyzed with an established point pattern analysis method (Ripley's K-function) to detect knockdowns in which virally infected cells did not show any clustering and therefore were hindered to spread their infection to their neighboring cells. The results were compared with a statistical analysis using a common intensity readout of the GFP-expressing viruses and a luciferase-based secondary screen yielding five promising host factors which may suit as potential targets for drug therapy. Conclusion: We report of an alternative method for high-throughput imaging methods to detect host factors being relevant for the infection efficiency of viruses. The method is generic and has the potential to be used for a large variety of different viruses and treatments being screened by imaging techniques. Contact: r.eils@dkfz.de; r.koenig@dkfz.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20823335

Suratanee, Apichat; Rebhan, Ilka; Matula, Petr; Kumar, Anil; Kaderali, Lars; Rohr, Karl; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Eils, Roland; Konig, Rainer

2010-01-01

79

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2012-01-01

80

Systemic mastocytosis involving the gastrointestinal tract: clinicopathologic and molecular study of five cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic mastocytosis is an uncommon condition characterized by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in one or more organ. The specific D816V KIT mutation is present in most cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur commonly but histologic characterization of gastrointestinal involvement is incomplete. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the clinicopathologic features in five patients with systemic mastocytosis involving the

Richard Kirsch; Karel Geboes; Neil A Shepherd; Gert de Hertogh; Nando Di Nicola; Sylvie Lebel; Ugnius Mickys; Robert H Riddell

2008-01-01

81

Police Reactions to Crimes Involving People with Mental Retardation: A Cross-Cultural Experimental Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving police officers in Western Australia (n=138) and Pennsylvania (n=168) revealed that officers responded differently to crimes involving persons with mental retardation. In some cases, police were more tolerant of the disability, in others they were less tolerant. Response patterns were not different for Australian and Pennsylvania…

McAfee, James K.; Cockram, Judith; Wolfe, Pamela S.

2001-01-01

82

A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

Blake Payne, Ruthanna

2010-01-01

83

School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2009-01-01

84

On Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

Greene, Michael B.

85

Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although interest in the links between religion and mental health has increased sharply in recent years, researchers remain far from a consensus regarding which aspects of religious involvement are germane to mental health, which mental health outcomes may be influenced by religious factors, and which mechanisms and\\/or models may account for these observed relationships. This article extends the literature in

Christopher G. Ellison; Jason D. Boardman; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

86

Conditional Permutation Tests and the Propensity Score in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observational studies, the distribution of treatment assignments is unknown, and therefore randomization tests are not generally applicable. However, permutation tests that condition on sample information about the treatment assignment mechanism can be applicable in observational studies, provided treatment assignment is strongly ignorable. These tests use the conditional distribution of the treatment assignments given a sufficient statistic for the unknown

Paul R. Rosenbaum

1984-01-01

87

Analysis of subprotonospheric whistlers observed by DEMETER: A case study  

E-print Network

Analysis of subprotonospheric whistlers observed by DEMETER: A case study Jaroslav Chum,1 Ondrej km. We have used wave-normal angles and plasma characteristics measured by the DEMETER microsatellite), Analysis of subprotonospheric whistlers observed by DEMETER: A case study, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A02307

Santolik, Ondrej

88

RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA  

E-print Network

422 RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 SPECIAL AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 by David Kramer United States Fish;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Survey design 2 Methods of sampling 2 Sardine eggs 2 Fish larvae 11 Plankton

89

Changes in drug involvement: a longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent determinants.  

PubMed

Previous research has identified childhood and adolescent personality determinants of early adolescent drug involvement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the determinants of increased involvement over time and to compare these results with previous findings regarding early involvement. Data were available on 654 white males and females at three points, Time 1 (T1) at ages 1-10 yr., Time 2 (T2) at ages 9-18 yr., and Time 3 (T3) at ages 11-20 yr. The subjects (at T2 and T3) and their mothers (at all three points) were given structured interviews assessing the child's personality and behavior. Results indicated that T1 traits of conventionality and emotional control were associated with similar traits at T2, which, in turn, were related to lower drug involvement over time (T2 and T3). Interactive effects indicated first that T2 adolescent protective (nondrug-conducive) factors weakened the effect of childhood-risk (drug-conducive) characteristics resulting in lower drug involvement. Second, high levels of earlier drug use interacted synergistically with personality risk leading to increased levels of involvement. Over-all, the personality factors implicated in increased involvement were similar to those related to earlier involvement. PMID:2608826

Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Gordon, A S; Cohen, P

1989-12-01

90

Concatenation of Observed Grasp Phases with Observer's Distal Movements: A Behavioural and TMS Study  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3). Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed) when the observed (and simulated) movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific’s action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals. PMID:24278395

De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gentilucci, Maurizio

2013-01-01

91

Cause versus association in observational studies in psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

Hypotheses may be generated (and conclusions drawn) from observational studies in areas where information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unavailable. However, observational studies can only establish that significant associations exist between predictor and outcome variables. Observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. This article discusses examples of associations that were identified in observational studies and that were subsequently refuted in RCTs. Examples are also provided of associations that have yet to be confirmed or refuted but that are nevertheless influential in psychopharmacologic practice. Explanations are offered about how confounding might explain significant relationships between variables that are not related by cause and effect. As a conclusion of this exercise, clinicians are cautioned against placing too much reliance on the findings of observational research. PMID:25191914

Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-08-01

92

An Osteochondral Culture Model to Study Mechanisms Involved in Articular Cartilage Repair  

PubMed Central

Although several treatments for cartilage repair have been developed and used in clinical practice the last 20 years, little is known about the mechanisms that are involved in the formation of repair tissue after these treatments. Often, these treatments result in the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue rather than normal articular cartilage. Because the repair tissue is inferior to articular cartilage in terms of mechanical properties and zonal organization of the extracellular matrix, complaints of the patient may return. The biological and functional outcome of these treatments should thus be improved. For this purpose, an in vitro model allowing investigation of the involved repair mechanisms can be of great value. We present the development of such a model. We used bovine osteochondral biopsies and created a system in which cartilage defects of different depths can be studied. First, our biopsy model was characterized extensively: we studied the viability by means of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) excretion over time and we investigated expression of cartilage-related genes in osteochondral biopsies and compared it with conventional cartilage-only explants. After 28 days of culture, LDH was detected at low levels and mRNA could be retrieved. The expression of cartilage-related genes decreased over time. This was more evident in cartilage-only explants, indicating that the biopsy model provided a more stable environment. We also characterized the subchondral bone: osteoclasts and osteoblasts were active after 28 days of culture, which was indicated by tartrate acid phosphatase staining and alkaline phosphatase measurements, respectively, and matrix deposition during culture was visualized using calcein labeling. Second, the applicability of the model was further studied by testing two distinct settings: (1) implantation of chondrocytes in defects of different depths; (2) two different seeding strategies of chondrocytes. Differences were observed in terms of volume and integration of newly formed tissue in both settings, suggesting that our model can be used to model distinct conditions or even to mimic clinical treatments. After extensive characterization and testing of our model, we present a representative and reproducible in vitro model that can be used to evaluate new cartilage repair treatments and study mechanisms in a controlled and standardized environment. PMID:21875392

de Vries-van Melle, Marloes L.; Mandl, Erik W.; Kops, Nicole; Koevoet, Wendy J.L.M.; Verhaar, Jan A.N.

2012-01-01

93

Hepatic involvement in pediatric patients with paracoccidioidomycosis: a clinical and laboratory study.  

PubMed

The liver is one of the organs most affected by paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in some Latin American countries. The majority of articles focused on adult populations and failed to describe any detailed experience of liver abnormalities in pediatric patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the frequency and characteristics of liver involvement in children with paracoccidioidomycosis. This study comprised 102 patients less than 16 years of age (median 104.3 months) diagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis from 1980 to 2010. Diagnosis was established by the identification of fungus. Forty-one patients had liver involvement. The main clinical features were generalized lymph node enlargement (39/41), weight loss (34/41) and fever 32/41). Approximately, one-third of the patients had jaundice. Patients with hepatic involvement were younger. A predominant elevation of canalicular enzymes occurred. There was a statistically significant difference in albumin (p < 0.001) and hemoglobin (p = 0.002) values between patients with and without liver involvement, and the lowest values were found in the former group. Cutoff levels of albumin (<3.05 g/dL) and hemoglobin (<9.2 g/dL) can be used to infer hepatic involvement. Hypoalbuminemia (median 2.4 g/dl) is more severe in patients with hepatic involvement and may indicate a worse liver function or complication of the disease (intestinal lymphangiectasia). Deaths (6) occurred only among patients with liver involvement. Particular clinical and laboratory characteristics are present in pediatric patients with hepatic involvement. Younger patients and those with severe hypoalbuminemia are more likely to present liver involvement by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PMID:23918088

Braga, Giselle de Melo; Hessel, Gabriel; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes

2013-10-01

94

Post-stroke depression: research methodology of a large multicentre observational study (DESTRO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneity of published data regarding post-stroke depression (PSD) prompted an Italian multicenter observational study (DESTRO), which took place in 2000–2003. The investigation involved 53 Italian neurology centers: of these, 50 treat acute patients and 3 provide rehabilitation care; 21 centres are in Northern Italy, 20 are in Central Italy, and 12 are in Southern Italy. The time schedule was

V. Toso; C. Gandolfo; S. Paolucci; L. Provinciali; R. Torta; N. Grassivaro

2004-01-01

95

Study of Possible Mechanisms Involved in the Inhibitory Effects of Coumarin Derivatives on Neutrophil Activity  

PubMed Central

To specify the site of action of the synthetic coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) coumarin (HHC) and 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) dihydrocoumarin (HHDC), we evaluated their effects on extra- and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated human neutrophils. We studied also the effects of HHC and HHDC on possible molecular mechanisms which participate in the activation of NADPH oxidase, that is, on PKC activity, on phosphorylation of some PKC isoforms (?, ?II, and ?), and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox. Without affecting cytotoxicity, both coumarines tested were effective inhibitors/scavengers of ROS produced by neutrophils on extracellular level. HHC markedly diminished oxidant production and also, intracellularly, decreased PKC activity and partly phosphorylation of PKC?, ?II. On the other hand, we did not observe any effect of coumarin derivatives on phosphorylation of PKC? and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox, which were suggested to be involved in the PMA-dependent intracellular activation process. In agreement with our previous findings, we assume that the different molecular structures of HHC and HHDC with their different physicochemical and free radical scavenging characteristics are responsible for their diverse effects on the parameters tested. PMID:24349608

Drabikova, Katarina; Perecko, Tomas; Nosal', Radomir; Harmatha, Juraj; Smidrkal, Jan; Jancinova, Viera

2013-01-01

96

NMR studies of conformational states of proteins involved in biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are the most ancient and ubiquitous cofactors that exist throughout evolution. The most important biosynthetic system of the cluster in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the ISC system. Defects in this system can be lethal and have been associated with a number of human diseases. Previous works show that a number of proteins are involved in the [Fe-S] biosynthetic processes and the structural flexibility may play an important role. For example, it was shown that apo-IscU, the scaffold protein, from Escherichia coli populates two functionally important conformational states, one dynamically disordered (D-state) and the other more structured (S-state) (Kim et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2012c). To further investigate the characteristics and transition of the conformational states of proteins involved in this system, I performed extensive NMR studies. Here, I present the findings based on my studies of two important players of the ISC system, IscU and HscB. In this research, I find that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization might account for the slow step in the S-D interconversion of IscU. More specifically, P14 and P101 are trans in the S-state, but become cis in the D-state. In addition, I discover that IscU is very responsive to pH changes, and I postulate that this response is correlated to conserved histidine residues, H10 and H105. Moreover, my thermodynamic analyses reveal that the S-D equilibrium of IscU is also very sensitive to change in temperature, pressure, and amino acid sequence compared to other proteins. In the study, I also discovered a novel state of IscU, the unfolded U-state. I suspect that this state may serve as an intermediate of interconversion between IscU S-/D-states. Finally, I extended the effort to HscB, and find that it may possess more conformational flexibility than expected earlier. I postulate that this flexibility may be the cause of the line-broadening observed during interaction of HscB with IscU (Fuzery et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009) and HscA.

Dai, Ziqi

97

An Observational Study of Social Processes in Microcomputer Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This observational study examined student and teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors in microcomputer classrooms in a high school where most of the students are Black, Hispanic, or Asian, and almost half of them are classified as economically disadvantaged. A total of 125 students in grades 9 to 12 were observed, with 47 students in marketing, 18…

Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

98

An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

Stevens, Joy

99

MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

100

Qualitative study of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) involved in doctor-patient communication  

PubMed Central

Background: Doctor-patient communication has far reaching influences on the overall well-being of the patients. Words are powerful tools in the doctor’s armamentarium, having both healing as well as harming effects. Doctors need to be conscious about the choice of their words. This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of Nocebo Phenomenon (NP) un-intentionally induced by the communication of surgeons and anesthetists through the course of various interventional procedures such as surgery, anesthesia, and crucial communication encounters with their patients. Methods: The study was carried out by the Department of Medical Education (DME), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad over six months period. All residents and faculty members serving at our institute in various surgical and anesthesia departments constituted the study population. A questionnaire was employed as the data collection tool. Results: Significant proportions of the doctor-patient communications under scrutiny entailed NP. It was more frequently observed in association with female gender of the involved professionals, residency status versus faculty position, and shorter professional experience (i.e. <5 years). Although the participants endorsed the fact that the choice of their words influenced the well-being of their patients, none of them were actually aware of the concept of NP. Conclusion: NP existed in the clinical practice of the surgeons and anesthetists during their communication with patients. It was more frequently found among females, residents and professionals with less than five years of working experience. There is need to create awareness among these professionals about the subtle negative messages conveyed by such communication and alert them that the nocebo effects have negative repercussions on the clinical outcomes of their patients. The professionals should be formally educated to avoid nocebo words and phrases. PMID:24987718

Ashraf, Bushra; Saaiq, Muhammad; Zaman, Khaleeq-Uz-

2014-01-01

101

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

102

Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

103

Deuterium studies reveal a new mechanism for the formose reaction involving hydride shifts.  

PubMed

In the formose reaction, formaldehyde is converted to glycolaldehyde, its dimer, under credible prebiotic conditions. Breslow proposed a mechanism for the process in 1959, but recent studies by Benner showed that it was wrong in detail. Our present studies clarify the mechanism, which involves the original Breslow intermediates but some different connecting steps. PMID:24575857

Appayee, Chandrakumar; Breslow, Ronald

2014-03-12

104

Special Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in  

E-print Network

animals within sampled areas using a convenience sampling method. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 72Special Section: Observational Studies Sampling Considerations for Disease Surveillance in Wildlife. OTIS, United States Geological Survey, Iowa Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 342 Science II

Clark, William R.

105

Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.  

PubMed

This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

2014-07-01

106

Nurse involvement in end-of-life decision making: the ETHICUS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose was to investigate physicians perceptions of the role of European intensive care nurses in end-of-life decision making.Design  This study was part of a larger study sponsored by the Ethics Section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the ETHICUS Study. Physicians described whether they thought nurses were involved in such decisions, whether nurses initiated such a discussion and

Julie Benbenishty; Freda DeKeyser Ganz; Anne Lippert; Hans-Henrik Bulow; Elisabeth Wennberg; Beverly Henderson; Mia Svantesson; Mario Baras; Dermot Phelan; Paulo Maia; Charles L. Sprung

2006-01-01

107

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;

Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith

2000-01-01

108

Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThrough spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance.

Tova Rosenbloom

2006-01-01

109

Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the data sets. Globally, there is the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, the Nordic Geodetic Observing System (NGOS) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss in general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such a database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravity, with the Nordic Geodetic Commission NKG2005LU land uplift model for Fennoscandia. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. The primary aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by multidisciplinary projects, such as Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas (DynaQlim) or the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an existing observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development. To make comparisons between different studies possible and reliable, the researcher should document what they have in detail, either in appendixes, supplementary material or some other available format.

Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

2014-07-01

110

Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert.

Ackerman, Steven A.; Inoue, Toshiro

1994-01-01

111

Student Involvement in Clubs and Organizations: An Exploratory Study at a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of student participation in campus organizations and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This exploratory study investigates the relationships between four student retention measures and student involvement in campus organizations. Chi-square analysis revealed significant…

Derby, Dustin C.

2006-01-01

112

Management and employee involvement in achieving an environmental action-based competitive advantage: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to conduct an empirical study that shows whether certain management and human resource factors influence the achievement of an environmental action-based competitive advantage in a company. To this end, we have taken a sample of 110 factories. Management's deep involvement and its strategic integration, as well as employee motivation and participation, have a positive

Jesús Ángel del Brío; Esteban Fernández; Beatriz Junquera

2007-01-01

113

Prefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies  

E-print Network

to display rules. There are societal norms for how much one should express certain emotions (e.g. extremePrefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies Gregory J Quirk1 and Jennifer S Beer2 Emotion regulation is a process by which we control when and where emotions

Quirk, Gregory J.

114

Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

2009-01-01

115

The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

2012-01-01

116

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes Plasmodium falciparum and the mosquito vector 1 Anopheles. Of particular interest is the molecular biology. This paper reports a statistical analysis of gene expression time profiles from mosquitoes which have been

Holmes, Chris

117

American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

118

Memantine (Ebixa®) in Clinical Practice – Results of an Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The patients were treated with 20 mg\\/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD)

Pasquale Calabrese; Ute Essner; Hans Förstl

2007-01-01

119

Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. A study of autopsy cases.  

PubMed

A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578

Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1997-02-01

120

Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment  

SciTech Connect

Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results.

Fon, G.T. (Univ. of Arizona Coll. of Medicine, Tucson); Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.

1982-07-01

121

IFN-? and TNF-? Are Involved During Alzheimer Disease Progression and Correlate with Nitric Oxide Production: A Study in Algerian Patients.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to a progressive and irreversible loss of mental functions. It is characterized by 3 stages according to the evolution and the severity of the symptoms. This disease is associated with an immune disorder, which appears with significant rise in the inflammatory cytokines and increased production of free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO). Our study aims to investigate interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) involvement in NO production, in vivo and ex vivo, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Algerian patients (n=25), according to the different stages of the disease (mild Alzheimer's, moderate Alzheimer's, and severe Alzheimer's) in comparison to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Interestingly, we observed that in vivo IFN-? and TNF-? levels assessed in patients with AD in mild and severe stages, respectively, are higher than those observed in patients with moderate stage and MCI. Our in vivo and ex vivo results show that NO production is related to the increased levels of IFN-? and TNF-?, in mild and severe stages of AD. Remarkably, significant IFN-? level is only detected in mild stage of AD. Our study suggests that NO production is IFN-? dependent both in MCI and mild Alzheimer's patients. Further, high levels of NO are associated with an elevation of TNF-? levels in severe stage of AD. Collectively, our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokine production seems, in part, to be involved in neurological deleterious effects observed during the development of AD through NO pathway. PMID:24831467

Belkhelfa, Mourad; Rafa, Hayet; Medjeber, Oussama; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Behairi, Nassima; Abada-Bendib, Myriam; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Belarbi, Soreya; Masmoudi, Ahmed Nacer; Tazir, Meriem; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

2014-11-01

122

Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2013-02-01

123

Propensity Score Methods for Creating Covariate Balance in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization of treatment assignment in experiments generates treatment groups with approximately balanced baseline covariates. However, in observational studies, where treatment assignment is not random, patients in the active treatment and control groups often differ on crucial covariates that are related to outcomes. These covariate imbalances can lead to biased treatment effect estimates. The propensity score is the probability that a

Cassandra W. Pattanayak; Donald B. Rubin; Elizabeth R. Zell

2011-01-01

124

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION An Observational Study of Cognitive Impairment  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION An Observational Study of Cognitive Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral, PhD Background: Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized in patients with amyotrophic lateral was not related to site of onset or survival. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:345-352 A LTHOUGH AMYOTROPHIC lateral sclerosis

125

Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Mortality: Prospective Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. Design: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class

George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; David Blane; Charles Gillis; Victor Hawthorne

1997-01-01

126

Assessing Postoperative Pain in Neonates: A Multicenter Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.A multicenter observational study was conducted to evaluate the practices of postoperative pain assessment and management in neonates to identify specific targets for improvement in clinical practice. METHODS.Ten participating NICUs collected data for the 72 hours after a surgical operation on 25 consecutive neonates (N 250), including demographics, prin- cipal diagnoses, operative procedure, other painful procedures, pain assessments, interventions (pharmacologic

Bonnie J. Taylor; James M. Robbins; Jeffrey I. Gold; Tina R. Logsdon; T. M. Bird; K. J. S. Anand

127

Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

128

An Observational Study of Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars  

E-print Network

An Observational Study of Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars A thesis submitted for the degree model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type post- asymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars. With initial masses 9M, post-AGB stars form an important group of evolved stars and provide a unique

129

Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol)  

PubMed Central

Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers) will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use) and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers). In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27 participants (11 public representatives and 16 clinicians and managers) and our study instruments with an additional 21 participants, which demonstrated the feasibility of the intervention and generated important insights and adaptations to engage public representatives more effectively. To our knowledge, this study is the first trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation, and its results could foster more effective upstream engagement of patients and the public in clinical practice improvement. Trial registration NTR2496 (Netherlands National Trial Register, http://www.trialregister.nl). PMID:21554691

2011-01-01

130

Mixing and administration times of bypassing agents: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE).  

PubMed

DOSE (Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia) was a prospective, observational diary study designed to evaluate the use of bypassing agents in patients prescribed recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as first-line treatment in the home setting. Patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and caregivers participated, and as part of the study, the time spent preparing and administering product was recorded for bypassing agent (BPA) infusions. The aim of this manuscript is to present the results of the analysis of the time spent preparing and administering a single dose of either rFVIIa or plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC). Diaries were completed for 18 adult patients and 19 caregivers of 21 children with 176 BPA-treated bleeding episodes and 1,350 BPA infusions (1,270 rFVIIa, 80 pd-aPCC). The median preparation and administration times were 5.0 minutes and 5.0 minutes for rFVIIa and 29.0 minutes and 24.5 minutes for pd-aPCC, respectively. Preparation and administration times were significantly shorter with rFVIIa than pd-aPCC (P<0.0001). The significantly shorter combined preparation and administration time of rFVIIa, taking into consideration the faster-than-recommended aPCC infusion rates, suggests that rFVIIa permits a rapid and safe initiation of treatment once a bleeding episode is identified and a decision is made to treat at home. PMID:25187744

Maahs, Jennifer; Donkin, Jennifer; Recht, Michael; Cooper, David L

2014-01-01

131

Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

1992-12-01

132

Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

1992-12-01

133

Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

134

Observational and Theoretical Studies of Low-Mass Star Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under this grant we have pursued studies of low-mass star formation with observations of candidate star-forming regions, (1) to determine the incidence of "infall asymmetry" in the spectral lines from very red young stellar objects; (2) to make detailed maps of candidate infall regions to determine the spatial extent of their infall asymmetry; (3) to compare the spatial and velocity structure of candidate infall regions with single dish and interferometer resolution; and (4) to begin a program of observations of starless dense cores to detect the presence or absence of infall motions.

Myers, Philip C.

1998-01-01

135

Attributions about sexuality and romantic involvement of physically disabled college students: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributions of able-bodied college students concerning sexuality and romantic involvement of physically disabled and able-bodied college students were compared in this study. Ninety-nine able-bodied college students provided information on their previous contacts with disabled people, rated their degree of comfort with both physically disabled and able-bodied peers, and predicted the responses of physically disabled (wheelchair user) and able-bodied male and

Kristen Robillard; Catherine S. Fichten

1983-01-01

136

A study of incidents involving programmable electronic safety-related systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of 21 incidents1HSL defines an incident as an occasion when the safety or health of an individual is adversely affected, or might have been affected, by a failure of an industrial component or process.1 in small manufacturing enterprises involving electrical\\/electronic\\/programmable electronic (E\\/E\\/PE) safety-related systems, originally investigated by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). The aim

Colin Chambers; Peter R. Croll; M. Bowell

1999-01-01

137

Observational constraints on common envelope binary population synthesis studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary population synthesis studies are powerful and extensively used tools to, e.g., reproduce the present-day population of close white dwarf binaries, or to predict the rate of Type Ia supernovae in the Galaxy. However, in these studies the common envelope (CE) phase is described by a simple parameterised energy equation in which a fraction of the orbital energy (the CE efficiency) is used to unbind the CE. Even worse, the CE efficiency is very uncertain and lacks observational constraints. During the last few years, our team has performed a large-scale observational population study of close white dwarf-main sequence binaries, which has provided the first strong observational evidence for the CE efficiency being small. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this result is a consequence of selection effects, as white dwarfs can only be easily identified in the optical when the secondary is a low-mass star, i.e., an M dwarf. In order to test possible dependencies of the CE efficiency on the mass of the secondary star, we have initiated an observational campaign dedicated to identifying a large sample of close white dwarf-main sequence binaries containing F, G or K star companions and to measure their orbital periods. Here, I explain the methodology of our strategy and present the first results of this survey.

Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Gaensicke, Boris; Schreiber, Matthias; Zorotovic, Monica; Parsons, Steven; Han, Zhanwen

2014-09-01

138

Association of Endodontic Involvement with Tooth Loss in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The effect of endodontic involvement on tooth loss has not been quantified, so the present study aimed to assess this relationship after controlling for other relevant risk factors for tooth loss. Methods We analyzed data from 791 participants (18,798 teeth) in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study. Potential tooth- and person-level covariates were fitted into marginal proportional hazards models, including both apical radiolucencies (AR) and root canal therapy (RCT) status as time-dependent variables. Survival curves were plotted for teeth according to their AR and RCT status. Results Both current AR and RCT status were associated with increased risk of tooth loss (p< 0.01), after controlling for baseline levels of periodontal disease, caries, tooth type, number of proximal contacts, number of teeth, age, education, and smoking history. Root canal filled (RCF) teeth seemed to have better survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth with AR, but worse survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth without AR. Conclusions Endodontic involvement was associated with tooth loss, controlling for other potential risk factors. Additional prospective studies are needed to provide better evidence as to the impact of endodontic involvement on tooth loss. PMID:21092810

Zhong, Yan; Garcia, Raul; Kaye, Elizabeth K; Cai, Jianwen; Kaufman, Jay S; Trope, Martin; Wilcosky, Tim; Caplan, Daniel J

2010-01-01

139

Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

1987-01-01

140

The new worlds observer: The astrophysics strategic mission concept study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, W.

2011-07-01

141

The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, W.; New Worlds Study Team

2010-10-01

142

The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, Webster; Kendrick, Stephen; Noecker, Charley; Bally, John; Demarines, Julia; Green, James; Oakley, Phillip; Shipley, Ann; Benson, Scott; Oleson, Steve; Content, David; Folta, Dave; Garrison, Sharon; Gendreau, Keith; Hartman, Kate; Howard, Joseph; Hyde, Tupper; Lakins, Darryl; Leitner, Jesse; Leviton, Douglas; Luquette, Rich; Oegerley, Bill; Richon, Karen; Roberge, Aki; Tompkins, Steve; Tveekrem, June; Woodgate, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Dailey, Dean; Decker, Kent; Dehmohseni, Reza; Gaugh, Brian; Glassman, Tiffany; Haney, Mickey; Hejal, Reem; Lillie, Charles; Lo, Amy; O'Conner, David; Oleas, Gina; Polidan, Ronald; Samuele, Rocco; Shields, Stephen; Shirvanian, James; Soohoo, David; Tinetti, Giovanna; Dorland, Bryan; Dudik, Rachel; Gaume, Ralph; Mason, Brian

2009-08-01

143

A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

144

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

PubMed Central

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

2010-01-01

145

Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

2003-01-01

146

Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3840 (United States)

2011-11-15

147

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

148

A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Shenzhen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric scintillation variations are studied using GPS measurements at the low latitude station of Shenzhen (22.59°N, 113.97°E), situated under the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly region, from the Chinese Meridian Project. The results are presented for data collected during the current phase of rising solar activity (low to high solar activity) from December 2010 to April 2014. The results show that GPS scintillation events were largely a nighttime phenomenon during the whole observation period. Scintillation events mainly occurred along the inner edge of the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly in China. The occurrence of scintillations in different sectors of the sky was also investigated, and the results revealed that it is more likely for the scintillations to be observed in the west sector of the sky above Shenzhen. During the present period of study, a total number of 512 total electron content (TEC) depletions and 460 lock loss events were observed. In addition, both of these events are likely to increase during periods of high solar activity, especially because the strong scintillations are often simultaneously accompanied by TEC depletions and lock losses by GPS receivers.

Huang, Linfeng; Wang, Jinsong; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhou; Zhao, Kai

2014-12-01

149

A framework for the study of vision in active observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for the study of active vision, i.e., the functioning of the visual system during actively self-generated body movements. In laboratory settings, human vision is usually studied with a static observer looking at static or, at best, dynamic stimuli. In the real world, however, humans constantly move within dynamic environments. The resulting visual inputs are thus an intertwined mixture of self- and externally-generated movements. To fill this gap, we developed a virtual environment integrated with a head-tracking system in which the influence of self- and externally-generated movements can be manipulated independently. As a proof of principle, we studied perceptual stationarity of the visual world during lateral translation or rotation of the head. The movement of the visual stimulus was thus parametrically tethered to self-generated movements. We found that estimates of object stationarity were less biased and more precise during head rotation than translation. In both cases the visual stimulus had to partially follow the head movement to be perceived as immobile. We discuss a range of possibilities for our setup among which the study of shape perception in active and passive conditions, where the same optic flow is replayed to stationary observers.

Nicolini, Carlo; Fantoni, Carlo; Mancuso, Giovanni; Volcic, Robert; Domini, Fulvio

2014-02-01

150

Observation of a freezing drizzle episode: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 5 February 2012 an episode of freezing precipitation took place in the Guadarrama Mountains, at the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This precipitation affected high elevations, where temperatures remained below freezing because of snow cover that had accumulated from snowfall during the previous days. The case study was recorded by surface synoptic observations (SYNOP) at Navacerrada Pass meteorological observatory (belonging to the National Weather Service of Spain). To study winter cloud systems during the TEcoAgua project, a multichannel ground-based microwave radiometer (MMWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), and isothermal cloud chamber were installed in the study area, thus permitting the monitoring of the freezing precipitation event. Analysis using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and observations permitted the determination of factors that triggered the freezing precipitation event. Freezing drizzle was interspersed with the passage of a warm and cold front. During frontal passage, mid-level clouds inhibited the generation of freezing drizzle, with snowfall recorded in the study area. However, during the period between the two fronts, an absence of mid-level clouds permitted low-level orographic clouds to persist upwind of the mountain system, producing freezing drizzle at the surface. The decisive factors for the generation of freezing drizzle were high humidity at low levels, weak mesoscale updrafts caused by the topography, stability at mid levels, cloud-top temperatures warmer than - 15 °C, and low concentrations of ice nuclei.

Fernández-González, S.; Valero, F.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Gascón, E.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

2014-11-01

151

Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

Avallone, Linnea

2001-01-01

152

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

2010-01-01

153

Channelized-ideal observer using Laguerre-Gauss channels in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal  

PubMed Central

We investigate a channelized-ideal observer (CIO) with Laguerre–Gauss (LG) channels to approximate ideal-observer performance in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds and a Gaussian signal. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach is employed to determine the performance of both the ideal observer and the CIO using a large number of LG channels. Our results indicate that the CIO with LG channels can approximate ideal-observer performance within error bars, depending on the imaging system, object, and channel parameters. The CIO also outperforms a channelized-Hotelling observer using the same channels. In addition, an alternative approach for estimating the CIO is investigated. This approach makes use of the characteristic functions of channelized data and employs an approximation method to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The alternative approach provides good estimates of the performance of the CIO with five LG channels. However, for large channel cases, more efficient computational methods need to be developed for the CIO to become useful in practice. PMID:18059906

Park, Subok; Barrett, Harrison H.; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Myers, Kyle J.

2008-01-01

154

From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research  

PubMed Central

Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (?30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. PMID:24639900

Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

155

A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

2012-01-01

156

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

157

Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male involvement during childbirth in rural Bangladesh. These findings have important implications for program planners, who should pursue culturally sensitive ways to involve husbands in maternal health interventions and assess the effectiveness of education strategies targeted at husbands. PMID:22494576

2012-01-01

158

How Safe Do Teenagers Behave on Facebook? An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13–18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

2014-01-01

159

How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.  

PubMed

The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

2014-01-01

160

An observational study of the dynamics of molecular cloud cores  

SciTech Connect

How are stars formed This is one of the most fundamental questions in astronomy. It is therefore ironic that to date, no object has been unambiguously identified as a true protostar; an object has derives the bulk of its luminosity from accretion. While this may be ironic, it is not surprising. Stars are believed to form as a result of the gravitational collapse of a portion of a molecular cloud. Theory predicts that the cloud core in which the star is formed will be cold, dense and possess hundreds of magnitudes of extinction, rendering it opaque at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Continuum observations at far-infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter wavelengths can be used to identify candidate protostars, but spectroscopic observations are needed to detect infall. The difficulties arise when there are systematic velocity fields present in the cloud core which are not the result of infall, such as would be produced by either a molecular outflow or rotation. In this dissertation the authors uses both observations and theoretical models to sort through these problems and develop a strategy which could be used to identify and study protostars.

Walker, C.K.

1988-01-01

161

Study of a microflare observed with SUMER and TRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a GOES-A1 microflare, observed in active region NOAA 8541 on May 15, 1999 with TRACE images, SUMER spectra and MDI magnetograms. In TRACE filtergrams of 171A and 195A, the microflare is composed of two interacting, 20Mm long, loops. SUMER observations include four spectral lines: the Si II 1533A (a chromospheric line), the C IV 1548A, 1550 A (transition region lines) and the Ne VIII 770 A (a coronal line). These spectra record the impulsive stage of the microflare, which appears as a bright feature at the west footpoint of the TRACE loops. In an area adjacent to the microflare we observe, for the first time on the solar disk, a region where the lines intensity ratio 1548A/1550A equals to 4 which means that resonant scattering dominates the emission process. Over the microflare, the SUMER spectral lines are blue shifted, indicating upflows due to explosive evaporation, as well as red shifted, indicating, cooling downward motions. Moreover, the C IV microflare spectral profiles, indicate upflows of ~200 km/s even if most of them are damaged due to the SUMER detector over exposure, while the Si II 1533A profiles are self-reversed due to opacity effects.

Gontikakis, C.; Winebarger, A. R.

2012-01-01

162

Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

2013-01-01

163

Oscillations and running waves observed in sunspots. III. Multilayer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue our study of waves and oscillations observed in sunspots using an improved method for enhancing the waves, giving the opportunity to identify them and determine their properties in far H? wings. We found that the running penumbral waves are observable at least up to the formation height of the H? +/- 0.5 Å line, but not in the H? +/- 0.75 Å or the Fe I+/-0.12 Å. We found a time lag between the waves in the blue and the red wing of the H? line corresponding to a phase shift of 180o, that indicates a pure Doppler shift of the line. There is a lag in the propagation of the waves seen at H? center and at H? wings. Also there is a lag in the variation of the umbral oscillations as they are observed from lower to higher atmospheric layers. The correlation between umbral oscillations at various atmospheric heights and running penumbral waves strongly indicates that the latter are excited by photospheric umbral oscillations and not the chromospheric ones. We found a new category of photospheric waves that originate at approximately 0.7 of the distance between the umbra and the penumbra boundary and propagate beyond the outer penumbra boundary with a velocity of the order of 3-4 km s-1. Further, we found 3 min penumbral oscillations apparent in the inner penumbra at lower chromospheric layers (far H? wings). Based on observations performed on the NSO/SPO Richard B. Dunn Solar Telescope (DST)

Christopoulou, E. B.; Georgakilas, A. A.; Koutchmy, S.

2001-08-01

164

Complete control, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors  

E-print Network

Extremely fast rotating molecules carrying significantly more energy in their rotation than in any other degree of freedom are known as "super rotors". It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique and intriguing properties. Theoretical studies showed that ultrafast molecular rotation may change the character of molecular scattering from solid surfaces, alter molecular trajectories in external fields, make super rotors surprisingly stable against collisions, and lead to the formation of gas vortices. New ways of molecular cooling and selective chemical bond breaking by ultrafast spinning have been proposed. Owing to the fundamental laws of nature, bringing a large number of molecules to fast, directional and synchronous rotation is rather challenging. As a result, only indirect evidence of super rotors has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first controlled creation, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors. Using intense laser pulses tailored to produce an ...

Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

2013-01-01

165

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

166

A genetic-epidemiologic study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. I. Study design and preliminary observations.  

PubMed

Although certain environmental agents (e.g., cigarette smoking) are known to be causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), differential response to their deleterious effects suggests the importance of constitutional (host) factors. The voluminous literature on the familial occurrence of COPD as well as the association between genetically determined serum alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-at) deficiency and COPD, however, reveals many aspects yet to be clarified. Studies of alpha 1-at indicate that neither its nature nor its relationship to COPD is simple. Moreover, other familial factors are likely involved. To obtain a better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of COPD, both genetic and environmental factors are being examined in a multifaceted investigation. The preliminary observations are summarized. COPD patients have a higher frequency of Pi variant phenotypes than those without lung disease. Among other subjects, both cigarette smoking and Pi variant phenotypes are associated with increased pulmonary function abnormality. Finally, there is familial aggregation of pulmonary impairment that cannot be explained entirely by Pi type or smoking. PMID:1081163

Cohen, B H; Ball, W C; Bias, W B; Brashears, S; Chase, G A; Diamond, E L; Hsu, S H; Kreiss, P; Levy, D A; Menkes, H A; Permutt, S; Tockman, M S

1975-09-01

167

Computational and Observational Studies of Interstellar Thioformaldehyde Masers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) holds considerable promise because of the close relationship between the H2CS molecule and the well-studied formaldehyde (H2CO) molecule. In particular, the well-known J(Ka,Kc) = 1(1,0) to 1(1,1) transition of H2CO at 6 cm (4.8 GHz) has an analogous H2CS transition at 1046 MHz. However, the 1046-MHz line of H2CS has never been detected astronomically. We present here a summary of: (1) a computational investigation of H2CS level populations related to known H2CO 6-cm masers, and (2) an observational campaign of four isotopologues of H2CS. Maser emission from H2CO has been observed at 6 cm for which Boland and de Jong (1981) have developed a pump model. We have extended this model to H2CS and we present preliminary calculations for a 1046-MHz maser. We intend to develop a quantitative tool for interpreting H2CS observations toward Galactic and extragalactic locations of H2CO maser emission by constructing a radiative-transfer maser model for H2CS. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in a few Galactic sources via J>1 transitions. However, interpretation of these results has two outstanding problems: the H2CS/H2CO abundances do not agree with known sulfur-to-oxygen ratios nor do the J>1 populations have the expected Boltzmann relationship to the J=1 states. A detection of the 1046-MHz transition of H2CS with J=1 would alleviate many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of existing observational results. We describe our forthcoming experiment to search in a Galactic star-forming region for thermal and nonthermal emission and absorption from four thioformaldehyde isotopologues: H2(12C)(32S), H2(13C)(32S), H2(12C)(34S), and D2(12C)(32S). Taken together, both parts of this research effort will provide valuable and novel constraints on H2CS and H2CO. New observations of H2CS isotopologues will yield new measurements of deuterium-to-hydrogen and sulfur-to-oxygen ratios in star-forming environments. Also, the application of the H2CO maser pump model to H2CS will provide new insights on the rare and enigmatic H2CO masers in the Galaxy. This work is supported by Wittenberg University through the Physics Department and the Student Development Board.

Simpson, Lisa; Hoffman, I. M.

2013-06-01

168

Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

2014-11-01

169

The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard. PMID:24755843

Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

2014-01-01

170

Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

Holman, Gordon D.

1992-01-01

171

Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

2013-12-01

172

Comparison of clustering algorithms on generalized propensity score in observational studies: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observational studies, unbalanced observed covariates between treatment groups often cause biased inferences on the estimation of treatment effects. Recently, generalized propensity score (GPS) has been proposed to overcome this problem; however, a practical technique to apply the GPS is lacking. This study demonstrates how clustering algorithms can be used to group similar subjects based on transformed GPS. We compare

Chunhao Tu; Shuo Jiao; Woon Yuen Koh

2012-01-01

173

Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

Hutchinson, M. G.

1988-12-01

174

A Generalized Model to Estimate the Statistical Power in Mitochondrial Disease Studies Involving 2xk Tables  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation (i.e. haplogroups) has been analyzed in regards to a number of multifactorial diseases. The statistical power of a case-control study determines the a priori probability to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity between cases and controls. Methods/Principal Findings We critically review previous approaches to the estimation of the statistical power based on the restricted scenario where the number of cases equals the number of controls, and propose a methodology that broadens procedures to more general situations. We developed statistical procedures that consider different disease scenarios, variable sample sizes in cases and controls, and variable number of haplogroups and effect sizes. The results indicate that the statistical power of a particular study can improve substantially by increasing the number of controls with respect to cases. In the opposite direction, the power decreases substantially when testing a growing number of haplogroups. We developed mitPower (http://bioinformatics.cesga.es/mitpower/), a web-based interface that implements the new statistical procedures and allows for the computation of the a priori statistical power in variable scenarios of case-control study designs, or e.g. the number of controls needed to reach fixed effect sizes. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides with statistical procedures for the computation of statistical power in common as well as complex case-control study designs involving 2×k tables, with special application (but not exclusive) to mtDNA studies. In order to reach a wide range of researchers, we also provide a friendly web-based tool – mitPower – that can be used in both retrospective and prospective case-control disease studies. PMID:24086285

Amigo, Jorge; Gonzalez-Manteiga, Wenceslao

2013-01-01

175

Study of the effector mechanism involved in the production of haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine in rat passive anaphylaxis.  

PubMed Central

1. The effector mechanism of intestinal necrosis in rat anaphylaxis was studied following several complementary approaches: (i) the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) belonging to different classes (IgG1, IgG2b and IgE anti-DNP), (ii) the assay of mediators, and (iii) the use of pharmacological tools. 2. Lethality and haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine were observed in IgE-sensitized rats, whereas IgG mAb produced milder physiological disturbances. 3. Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis reduced the drop of systemic blood pressure (BP) and the extent of protein-rich plasma exudation but it did not influence the haemorrhagic component of intestinal necrosis. 4. The antihistamine, pyrilamine, partially diminished the haemorrhagic component of the intestinal necrosis. 5. The involvement of mediators related to platelet-activating factor (PAF) was studied by examining the pharmacological effects of these autacoids and of PAF-receptor antagonists (PCA4248, UR12460 and BB823). PAF induced intestinal lesions similar to those observed in IgE-sensitized rats and PAF-receptor antagonists markedly decreased haemorrhage in IgE-sensitized rats. 6. PAF levels were transiently increased after dinitrophenol (DNP)- bovine serum albumin (BSA) challenge in the small intestine of IgE-sensitized rats. 7. These data stress differences in the outcome of anaphylaxis related to the type of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins that are involved. IgE is the antibody class that elicits the most severe response due to the activation of mast cells via Fc epsilon RI (surface receptors that bind IgE antibodies with high affinity), and the only one able to produce intestinal haemorrhagic necrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7952870

Pellon, M. I.; Steil, A. A.; Furio, V.; Sanchez Crespo, M.

1994-01-01

176

Funding sources for continuing medical education: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Aims: Medical accreditation bodies and licensing authorities are increasingly mandating continuing medical education (CME) credits for maintenance of licensure of healthcare providers. However, the costs involved in participating in these CME activities are often substantial and may be a major deterrent in obtaining these mandatory credits. It is assumed that healthcare providers often obtain sponsorship from their institutions or third party payers (i.e. pharmaceutical-industry) to attend these educational activities. Data currently does not exist exploring the funding sources for CME activities in India. In this study, we examine the relative proportion of CME activities sponsored by self, institution and the pharmaceutical-industry. We also wanted to explore the characteristics of courses that have a high proportion of self-sponsorship. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective audit of the data during the year 2009 conducted at an autonomous clinical training academy. The details of the sponsor of each CME activity were collected from an existing database. Participants were subsequently categorized as sponsored by self, sponsored by institution or sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. Results: In the year 2009, a total of 2235 participants attended 40 different CME activities at the training academy. Of the total participants, 881 (39.4%) were sponsored by self, 898 (40.2%) were sponsored by institution and 456 (20.3%) by pharmaceutical-industry. About 47.8% participants attended courses that carried an international accreditation. For the courses that offer international accreditation, 63.3% were sponsored by self, 34.9% were sponsored by institution and 1.6% were sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. There were 126 participants (5.6%) who returned to the academy for another CME activity during the study period. Self-sponsored (SS) candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activity compared with the other two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In our study, majority of healthcare professionals attending CME activities were either self or institution sponsored. There was a greater inclination for self-sponsoring for activities with international accreditation. SS candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activities. PMID:25136190

Venkataraman, Ramesh; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Ponnish, Arun S.; Abraham, Babu K.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

2014-01-01

177

Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

Dasgupta, Pushan R.

2009-01-01

178

Phytoplankton dynamics studying using observation and biophysical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental shelf phytoplankton bloom dynamics are associated with meteorological, oceanographic and coastal forcing mechanisms. Mixing related to stratification and de-stratification is a key process of the physical environment that can control the timing and magnitude of blooms. Using data from satellite, coastal ocean observatory and bio-physical model, this study investigated the seasonal and decadal variability of chlorophyll in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and how different forcing mechanisms affect the phytoplankton bloom. The temporal and spatial distribution of chlorophyll a in the MAB was quantified using satellite data collected by the Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The MAB undergoes a fall-winter bloom in the middle-outer shelf region and spring bloom in the shelf-break region. The interannual variability of bloom magnitude is associated with wind-induced mixing. Mixing has been recognized as having an important role in influencing underwater light and nutrient budgets and thus regulating phytoplankton bloom. The ratio of light over mixed layer depth (MLD) was used to determine the trade-off effects of mixing on phytoplankton bloom activity. We find that a critical light value around 60 (W m-2) for the shelf region and 150 (W m-2) for the shelf-break front region in promoting maximum phytoplankton biomass and there is a predictable linear regression relationship between the critical light value and depth. The bio-physical model identified the wind-induced mixing, net heat flux and river run-off are the most important factors influencing water column stability. Sensitivity studies showed that the timing of the destratification and initiation of fall bloom was closely related to the wind forcing. The river's role in bringing buoyancy was significant in increasing phytoplankton bloom. The decadal declines in the seasonal satellite estimates of chlorophyll a&barbelow; concentrations have been observed in the fall and winter in the MAB and are hypothesized to reflect shifts in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) that alters wind stress, river discharge, and net heat flux. This work prototypes the integration of observation and modeling in a coastal environment and demonstrates the use of 3D coupled physical-biological model forced with realistic atmospheric forcing to study the phytoplankton dynamics in the MAB.

Xu, Yi

179

Study of the NWC electrons belt observed on DEMETER Satellite  

E-print Network

We analyzed the data from 2007 to 2008, which is observed by IDP onboard DEMETER satellite, during ten months of NWC working and seven months of NWC shutdown. The characteristic of the space instantaneous electron belts, which come from the influence of the VLF transmitted by NWC, is studied comprehensively. The main distribution region of the NWC electron belts and the flux change are given. We also studied the distribution characteristic of the average energy spectrum in different magnetic shell at the height of DEMETER orbit and the difference of the average energy spectrum of the electrons in the drift loss-cone between day and night. As a result, the powerful power of NWC transmitter and the 19.8 kHz narrow bandwidth VLF emission not only created a momentary electrons enhancement region, which strides 180 degree in them longitude direction and from 1.6 to 1.9 in L value, with the rise of the electrons flux reaching to 3 orders of magnitude mostly, but also induced the enhancement or loss of electrons in ...

Li, Xinqiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M

2010-01-01

180

Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

Comiso, Josefino C.

2012-01-01

181

Studies of the Involvement of an Endogenous Rhythm in the Photoperiodic Response of Hyoscyamus niger.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to determine the involvement of an endogenous circadian rhythm in the flowering response of the long-day plant Hyoscyamus niger L. grown in a modified White's medium. Both variable-cycle-length and light interruption experiments were employed in this attempt. In the variable-cycle experiments, plants were subjected to light periods of 6, 12, or 18 hours followed by varying lengths of darkness. The total lengths of the cycles varied from 12 to 72 hours. In experiments utilizing a 6-hour photoperiod, a high level of flowering occurred in cycle lengths of 12, 36, and 60 hours. Flowering was suppressed in the 24-, 48-, and 72-hour cycles. When a 12-hour photoperiod was used the flowering response was low between 24 and 36 hours and flowering did not indicate a rhythmic response. When an 18-hour photoperiod was used, the flowering response was suppressed in the 36- and 60-hour cycles.Light-break experiments were conducted to study further the flowering response in Hyoscyamus. These experiments consisted of a 6-hour main photoperiod followed by varying lengths of darkness to make cycles of 24, 48, and 72 hours. At given intervals the dark period was interrupted by 2-hour light breaks. In a 24-hour cycle, flowering was promoted when a light break was given at either the twelfth or eighteenth hour of the cycle. In a 48-hour cycle, flowering was strongly promoted by light breaks given near the beginning or at the end of the dark period. In a 72-hour cycle, light breaks given at the eighteenth, forty-second, and sixty-sixth hour of the cycle stimulated flowering as compared with light breaks given at the thirtieth and fifty-fourth hour. These results are indicative of the involvement of an endogenous rhythm in the flowering response of Hyoscyamus niger. PMID:16656562

Hsu, J C; Hamner, K C

1967-05-01

182

Genetic studies of suicidal behaviour : investigation of genes involved in the serotonergic system and cholesterol metabolism.  

E-print Network

??Substantial evidence has accumulated indicating that a genetic predisposition underlies suicidal behaviour, and that the mediating mechanism may involve decreased serotonergic activity and/or low serum… (more)

Lalovic, Aleksandra

2002-01-01

183

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy

Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

2009-04-01

184

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

185

In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation  

PubMed Central

Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain SD21. The optimum pH for Mn(II)-oxidizing activity was 8.0 with a specific activity of 2.5 nmol × min?1 × mg?1 and a Km = 204 µM. The activity was soluble suggesting a cytoplasmic or periplasmic protein. Mn(III) was an intermediate in the oxidation of Mn(II) and likely the primary product of enzymatic oxidation. The activity was stimulated by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), NAD+, and calcium but not by copper. In addition, PQQ rescued Pseudomonas putida MnB1 non Mn(II)-oxidizing mutants with insertions in the anthranilate synthase gene. The substrate and product of anthranilate synthase are intermediates in various quinone biosyntheses. Partially purified Mn(II) oxidase was enriched in quinones and had a UV/VIS absorption spectrum similar to a known quinone requiring enzyme but not to multicopper oxidases. These studies suggest that quinones may play an integral role in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation. PMID:17673976

Johnson, Hope A.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2009-01-01

186

Changes in smoking behaviours following a smokefree legislation in parks and on beaches: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of an outdoor smokefree law in parks and on beaches on observed smoking in selected venues. Methods The study involved repeated observations in selected parks and beaches in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The main outcome measure was changes in observed smoking rates in selected venues from prelaw to 12 months postlaw. Results No venue was 100% smokefree at the 12-month postlaw observation time point. There was a significant decrease in observed smoking rates in all venues from prelaw to 12-month postlaw (prelaw mean smoking rate=20.5 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=4.7, p=0.04). In stratified analysis by venue, the differences between the prelaw and 12-month smoking rates decreased significantly in parks (prelaw mean smoking rate=37.1 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=6.5, p=0.01) but not in beaches (prelaw mean smoking rate=2.9 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=1.0, p=0.1). Conclusions Smokefree policies in outdoor recreational venues have the potential to decrease smoking in these venues. The effectiveness of such policies may differ by the type and usage of the venue; for instance, compliance may be better in venues that are used more often and have enforcement. Future studies may further explore factors that limit and foster the enforcement of such policies in parks and beaches. PMID:23794560

Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Andrew; Pederson, Ann; Adkins, Sarah; Rice, Wendy

2013-01-01

187

Nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer: observation of combination bands of (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2 involving the torsion and antigeared bending modes.  

PubMed

Spectra of the nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer in the region of the N(2)O ?(1) fundamental band were observed in a supersonic slit-jet apparatus. The expansion gas was probed using radiation from a quantum cascade or a tunable diode laser, with both lasers employed in a rapid-scan signal averaging mode. Four bands were observed and analyzed: new combination bands involving the intermolecular conrotation of the monomers (A(g) antigeared bend) for ((14)N(2)O)(2) and ((15)N(2)O)(2), the previously reported torsional combination band for ((14)N(2)O)(2) with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the same torsional combination band for ((15)N(2)O)(2). The resulting frequencies for the intermolecular antigeared mode are 96.0926(1) and 95.4912(1) cm(-1) for ((14)N(2)O)(2) and ((15)N(2)O)(2), respectively. This is the third of the four intermolecular frequencies which has now been measured experimentally, the others being the out-of-plane torsion and the geared bend modes. Our experimental results are in good agreement with two recent high level ab initio theoretical calculations. PMID:22462858

Rezaei, M; Michaelian, K H; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N

2012-03-28

188

Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1 year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women >99% (n = 11 124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2 months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common. PMID:25132521

Axelsson, Daniel; Blomberg, Marie

2014-10-01

189

Parents, Principals, and Power: A Historical Case Study of "Managing" Parental Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarship on parent-principal relationships often ignores how some parental involvement can create challenges for school leaders. We analyze parent-principal relationships at an urban public K-8 school over a 30-year period, exploring how three different principals "managed" parental involvement. Our analysis reveals how these principals…

Horvat, Erin McNamara; Curci, Juliet DiLeo; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin

2010-01-01

190

An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

2010-01-01

191

A survey study: how does involvement differ across products in an e-commerce site?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although involvement may affect consumer behavior differently depending on the nature of products, it has been examined mostly for a limited number of products and its enduring effect for any specific product has been overlooked. Given this, we have investigated the impact of product line-ups on involvement in an electronic commerce setting. A total of 205 participants were asked to

Hyunsook Lee; Joasang Limb

192

Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586

Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.

2014-01-01

193

A Candidate Gene Association Study Further Corroborates Involvement of Contactin Genes in Autism  

PubMed Central

Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a high degree of heritability, only a few mutated genes and mostly de novo copy number variations (CNVs) with a high phenotypic impact have as yet been identified. In families with multiple ASD patients, transmitted CNVs often do not appear to cosegregate with disease. Therefore, also transmitted single nucleotide variants which escape detection if genetic analyses were limited to CNVs may contribute to disease risk. In several studies of ASD patients, CNVs covering at least one gene of the contactin gene family were found. To determine whether there is evidence for a contribution of transmitted variants in contactin genes, a cohort of 67 ASD patients and a population-based reference of 117 healthy individuals, who were not related to the ASD families, were compared. In total, 1,648 SNPs, spanning 12.1 Mb of genomic DNA, were examined. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the strongest signal was found for a SNP located within the CNTN5 gene (rs6590473 [G], p = 4.09 × 10-7; OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 1.603-6.151). In the ASD cohort, a combination of risk alleles of SNPs in CNTN6 (rs9878022 [A]; OR = 3.749) and in CNTNAP2 (rs7804520 [G]; OR = 2.437) was found more frequently than would be expected under random segregation, albeit this association was not statistically significant. The latter finding is consistent with a polygenic disease model in which multiple mutagenic mechanisms, operating concomitantly, elicit the ASD phenotype. Altogether, this study corroborates the possible involvement of contactins in ASD, which has been indicated by earlier studies of CNVs. PMID:25337070

Poot, Martin

2014-01-01

194

A prospective cohort study on minor accidents involving commuter cyclists in Belgium.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to gain insight into bicycle accidents. Bicycle accident data and weekly exposure data were prospectively collected for one year to calculate the incidence rate (IR) of bicycle accidents. An accident was included if it occurred during utilitarian cycling, resulting in an acute injury with corporal damage. If an accident occurred, a detailed questionnaire was filled out to collect detailed information about its circumstances and consequences. A sample of 1087 regular (?2 cycling trips to work a week) adult (40±10 years) cyclists was analyzed. Over the 1-year follow-up period, 20,107 weeks were covered, accumulating 1,474,978 cycled kilometers. Sixty-two participants were involved in 70 bicycle accidents, of which 68 were classified as 'minor'. The overall IR for the 70 accidents was 0.324 per 1000 trips (95% CI 0.248-0.400), 0.896 per 1000 h (95% CI 0.686-1.106) and 0.047 per 1000 km (95% CI 0.036-0.059) of exposure. Brussels-capital region is the region with the highest IR (0.086; 95% CI 0.054-0.118), with a significantly (P<0.05) higher IR compared to Flanders (0.037; 95% CI 0.025-0.050). Injuries were mainly caused by 'slipping' (35%) or 'collision with a car' (19%). The accidents caused abrasions (42%) and bruises (27%) to the lower (45%) and upper limbs (41%). Police, hospital emergency department or insurance companies were involved in only 7%, 10% and 30% of the cases, respectively. It is noteworthy that 37% of the participants indicated that they could have avoided the accident. In order to decrease the number of accidents, measures should be taken to keep cycling surfaces clean and decrease the number of obstacles on bicycle infrastructure. Roads and intersections need to be built so that the collisions between cars and bicycles are decreased to a minimum. Car drivers and cyclists should pay more attention towards each other. Underreporting of minor bicycle accidents in Belgium is confirmed, and is higher than expected. Reliable accident statistics, taking into account exposure, are needed to decide which road safety measures are the most effective. The 'safety in numbers' principle is also applicable for minor bicycle accidents. PMID:22269558

de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Int Panis, Luc; Thomas, Isabelle; Degraeuwe, Bart; Cumps, Elke; Aertsens, Joris; Torfs, Rudi; Meeusen, Romain

2012-03-01

195

Magnetic resonance observations of defects involved in bias temperature instabilities and stress induced leakage currents in hafnium dioxide and silicon dioxide based metal-oxide-silicon structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines underlying physical mechanisms involved in two very important reliability problems in SiO2 based and HfO2 based metal-oxide-silicon technology: the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and an important aspect of low-voltage stress induced leakage currents (LV-SILC). A combination of conventional electron spin resonance (ESR), electrically-detected magnetic resonance including spin dependent recombination (SDR) and spin dependent tunneling (SDT), and electrical measurements have been utilized to study variously processed samples in an attempt to understand the specific defects and the roles that they play in these reliability problems. After a brief introduction and background, chapter 3 discusses a newly developed means to perform SDT on ultra-thin oxides which we call energy-resolved spin dependent tunneling and is used to directly determine the energy levels of K centers involved in LV-SILC in nitrided SiO2 devices. In chapter 4, a newly developed ESR technique which we call on-the-fly ESR is utilized to study the triggering mechanisms of NBTI in pure SiO2 devices. Chapter 5 utilizes SDR measurements on SiO2 based structures and attempts to examine the role that fluorine plays in suppressing NBTI in pure SiO2 devices while doing little to suppress NBTI in nitrided SiO 2 devices. Chapter 6 presents a conventional ESR and SDR study which attempts to identify the electronic and physical nature of pre-existing trapping centers in the SiO2 like interfacial layer region of HfO2 based devices which are thought to play important roles in limiting the performance and reliability of these structures.

Ryan, Jason Thomas

196

The determinants of dumping: a national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and determinants of economically motivated transfers (aka "dumping") from hospitals treating mental illness. DATA SOURCES: A composite data set constructed from three national random-sampled surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989: (1) of hospitals providing mental health care, (2) of community mental health centers, and (3) of psychiatrists. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses reports from administrators of community mental health centers (CMHCs) to assess the extent of patient dumping by hospitals. To assess the determinants of dumping, reported perceptions of dumping are regressed on variables describing the catchment area in terms of the proportion of for-profit hospitals, intensity of competition among hospitals, extent of utilization review, and capacity of the local treatment system, as well as competition among community mental health centers. To assess if dumping is motivated by factors distinct from those affecting other aspects of access, comparable regressions are estimated with ease of hospital admission as the dependent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Economically motivated transfers of psychiatric patients were widespread in 1988: according to the reports of CMHC administrators, 64.7 percent of all hospitals providing inpatient mental health care engaged in transfers of this sort. The extent of dumping was higher in catchment areas with more competition among hospitals, more proprietary hospitals, and less inpatient capacity in the public sector. Dumping appeared to be more sensitive to capacity in the public sector but less sensitive to involvement by for-profit hospitals than were other measures of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Economically motivated transfers of patients with mental illness were widespread in 1988 and likely have increased since that time, affecting the viability of the community mental health care system. PMID:9402901

Schlesinger, M; Dorwart, R; Hoover, C; Epstein, S

1997-01-01

197

Modeling the Relationship Between Sexual Psychology and Sexual Behavior Based on Questionnaire Surveys: Social Psychological Study of Ego Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, in order to test a method for measuring ego involvement using questionnaire surveys, attention was focused on the influence of sexual interest on the selection of information. Specifically, for youths in their teens, the following knowledge concerning the influence of sexual interest on information selection was clarified through empirical research. A variety of individual difference was observed

Yang CAO

198

Development of Technologies for Coastal Observing Systems and the Study of Benthic Boundary Layer Processes  

NSF Publications Database

Development of Technologies for Coastal Observing Systems and the Study of Benthic Boundary Layer ... Information Program Title: Development of Technologies for Coastal Observing Systems and the Study ...

199

A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school  

E-print Network

teachers from existing data and 178 teachers at the middle school level provided information on their perceptions of parent involvement and school climate. Elementary school teachers were recruited from districts located in Texas and California. Middle...

Dixon, Shantina Rayford

2009-05-15

200

Factors influencing parental involvement among minors seeking an abortion: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Objectives. We explored factors that influenced whether minors involved or excluded a parent when seeking an abortion. Methods. In the summer of 2010, we conducted interviews with 30 minors who sought an abortion in a state that did not require parental involvement at the time. Interviews were coded and analyzed following the principles of the grounded theory method. Results. The majority of minors involved a parent. Commonly cited factors were close or supportive parental relationships, a sense that disclosure was inevitable, a need for practical assistance, and compelled disclosure. Motivations for not wanting to involve a parent, although some minors ultimately did, included preservation of the parent-daughter relationship, fear or detachment, and preservation of autonomy. Conclusions. Minors were motivated to involve parents and other adults who were engaged in their lives at the time of the pregnancy, particularly those who supported them in obtaining an abortion. Motivations to exclude a parent were often based on particular family circumstances or experiences that suggested that involvement would not be helpful, might be harmful, or might restrict a minor's ability to obtain an abortion. PMID:25211726

Hasselbacher, Lee A; Dekleva, Anna; Tristan, Sigrid; Gilliam, Melissa L

2014-11-01

201

Brief hospitalizations of elderly patients: a retrospective, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Crowded departments are a common problem in Danish hospitals, especially in departments of internal medicine, where a large proportion of the patients are elderly. We therefore chose to investigate the number and character of hospitalizations of elderly patients with a duration of less than 24 hours, as such short admissions could indicate that the patients had not been severely ill and that it might have been possible in these cases to avoid hospitalization. Methods Medical records were examined to determine the number of patients aged 75 or more who passed through the emergency department over a period of two months, and the proportion of those patients who were discharged after less than 24 hours. The reasons for the hospitalization, the diagnoses and the treatment given were noted. Results There was a total of 595 hospitalizations of patients aged 75 or above in the emergency department during the period. Twenty-four percent of the older patients were discharged after less than 24 hours. Of these, 40% were discharged from the emergency department. The most common problems leading to hospitalization were change in contact or level of consciousness, focal neurological change, red, swollen or painful leg conditions, dyspnea, suspected parenchyma surgical disease and problems with the urinary system or catheters. The most common diagnoses given at hospital were chronic cardiovascular disease, bacterial infection, symptoms deriving from bone, muscle or connective tissue, liquid or electrolyte derangement and observation for suspected stroke or transient cerebral ischemia. Eight percent of the patients required telemetry, 27% received intravenous liquids, 30% had diagnostic radiology procedures performed and 3% needed invasive procedures. Other types of treatment given included electrocardiography, laboratory examinations, oxygen supplements, urinary catheterization and medicine administered orally, subcutaneously, as an intramuscular injection or as an inhalation. Conclusion There appears to be a group of patients who cannot be adequately handled with the resources of the primary health care sector, yet who do not belong at the emergency department. Further studies are needed to create a suitable service for these patients, and to improve the continuity of the treatment and the cooperation between hospitals and the primary health care sector. PMID:24606987

2014-01-01

202

Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the opportunities and preceded Plan in just 21.8%. Certain communication elements were occasionally absent. For example, SBAR's Recommendation and admission note information about the patient's Past Medical History were absent from 22 (55.0%) and 20 (50.0%), respectively, of patient handovers. Conclusions Clinical handover practice of faculty-level critical care physicians did not conform to any of the three predefined structuring schemes. Further research is needed to examine whether alternative approaches to handover communication can be identified and to identify features of high-quality handover communication. PMID:22233877

2012-01-01

203

Periodontal Disease and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD) and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. Methods PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional) involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio?=?2.08, 95% confidence interval?=?1.48–2.91; P<0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. Conclusions Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:23094025

Zeng, Xian-Tao; Tu, Ming-Li; Liu, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Jing; Leng, WeiDong

2012-01-01

204

Periodontal Disease and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association of periodontal disease (PD) with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and HNC risk. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and HNC risk published up to March 23, 2013. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results We obtained seven observational studies involving two cohort and six case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a significant association between PD and HNC risk (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.1.68 - 4.14; p < 0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroup analyses based on adjustment for covariates, study design, PD assessment, tumor site, and ethnicity also revealed a significant association. Conclusions Based on currently evidence, PD is probably a significant and independent risk factor of HNC. PMID:24194957

Zeng, Xian-Tao; Deng, Ai-Ping; Li, Cheng; Xia, Ling-Yun; Niu, Yu-Ming; Leng, Wei-Dong

2013-01-01

205

How instructions modify perception: An fMRI study investigating brain areas involved in attributing human agency  

PubMed Central

Behavioural studies suggest that the processing of movement stimuli is influenced by beliefs about the agency behind these actions. The current study examined how activity in social and action related brain areas differs when participants were instructed that identical movement stimuli were either human or computer generated. Participants viewed a series of point-light animation figures derived from motion-capture recordings of a moving actor, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor patterns of neural activity. The stimuli were scrambled to produce a range of stimulus realism categories; furthermore, before each trial participants were told that they were about to view either a recording of human movement or a computer-simulated pattern of movement. Behavioural results suggested that agency instructions influenced participants' perceptions of the stimuli. The fMRI analysis indicated different functions within the paracingulate cortex: ventral paracingulate cortex was more active for human compared to computer agency instructed trials across all stimulus types, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex was activated more highly in conflicting conditions (human instruction, low realism or vice versa). These findings support the hypothesis that ventral paracingulate encodes stimuli deemed to be of human origin, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex is involved more in the ascertainment of human or intentional agency during the observation of ambiguous stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of prior instructions or beliefs on movement processing and the role of the paracingulate cortex in integrating prior knowledge with bottom-up stimuli. PMID:20398769

Stanley, James; Gowen, Emma; Miall, R. Christopher

2010-01-01

206

Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. Studies with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk. PMID:9055712

Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

1997-01-01

207

Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

Dittmer, P. H.

1977-01-01

208

Studying the System-Level Involvement of MicroRNAs in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD. Result We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD. Conclusion Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:24690883

Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Roy, Debjani

2014-01-01

209

Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.  

PubMed

Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein. PMID:23108613

Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

2012-11-01

210

The Influence of Father Education Programs on the Levels of Father Involvement with Children: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to reveal the effects of father education programs on the levels of their involvement with their children aged 2 to 9. The study group comprised 14 fathers who participate in a father education program. The study employed the pre-test-posttest design. Data were collected by using Father Interview Forms. The independent variable of…

Taskin, Necdet; Erkan, Semra

2009-01-01

211

Computational Estimation in the Primary School: A Single Case Study of One Teacher's Involvement in a Professional Learning Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the initial analysis of a study of a professional learning intervention. Using a case study design it was possible to describe one teacher's involvement in this research. The study revealed how the teacher's beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge of computational estimation was altered as a result of participating in the…

Mildenhall, Paula; Hackling, Mark; Swan, Paul

2010-01-01

212

Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed.

Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mario; Marlow, Mariel A.

2014-01-01

213

Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the kinetics of the important stratospheric reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO (k1) (using the technique of laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence). Investigation of N2O production from the collisional deactivation of electronically excited NO 2 and OH by N2 and from the interaction of nascent O 3 with N2 have resulted in upper limit quantum yields which render all three processes as insignificant sources of atmospheric N 2O. The following expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the reaction O(1D) + N2 + M --> N2O + M (k2) in its third order low-pressure limit over the temperature range 220-324 K: k2,0(T) = (2.72 +/- 0.08) × 10-36 (T/300)-(0.92 +/- 0.37) cm6 molecule-2 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported rate coefficients is estimated to range from 30 to 40%. Preliminary calculations indicate that reaction 2 represents a source of about 0.2 Tg N2O per year to the atmosphere (i.e., about 1% of the currently estimated global source budget of N 2O). This is the first suggested mechanism that generates N2O photochemically in the atmosphere that is capable of explaining the altitude dependence of the N2O isotopic signature. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for reaction 1: k1(T ) = (4.21 +/- 0.25) × 10-12 exp[(273 +/- 18)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported values for k 1(T) is estimated to be +/-6% over the entire temperature range investigated (221-425 K). Incorporation of our kinetics results for reaction 1 into models of stratospheric chemistry would lead to somewhat lower mid-stratospheric ozone levels than would be obtained using results of previous studies.

Estupinan, Edgar Garcia

2001-12-01

214

Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

1977-01-01

215

Parametric studies on traveling compression regions observed in the Earth's magnetotail  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model, the traveling compression region (TCR) is studied by magnetohydrodynamic simulations for various plasma parameters. Once the fast reconnection mechanism involving slow shocks builds up, the general features of TCR, observed by virtual satellites located in the simulation box, are in good agreement with actual satellite observations. Quantitatively, the TCR signature is not significantly influenced by plasma {beta}, whereas its duration time is proportional to V{sub Ae}{sup -1}, where V{sub Ae} is the Alfven velocity in the magnetic field region; also, the compression ratio of TCR is larger for the smaller plasma density {rho}{sub e} in the magnetic field region because of larger compressibility. In the diffusion region, resistive tearing is likely to occur, giving rise to multiple small-scale TCRs following the major TCR. For the uniform resistivity model, where the fast reconnection mechanism is not realized, any TCR signature cannot be observed. Hence, the TCR signature, observed in association with substorms, provides a definite evidence such that the fast reconnection mechanism is realized in the Earth's magnetotail.

Ugai, M.; Zheng, L. [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2006-06-15

216

LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

Omodei, Nicola [INFN of Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127 (Italy); Norris, Jay [University of Denver, Denver CO 80208 (United States)

2007-07-12

217

Observations on ion track structure in semiconductors : a phenomenological study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ion track structure model at the nanometer scale is presented. The model is based on electrostatic principles and is supported by observed experimental results conducted on power MOSFETs. The model predicts the existence of a transient induced electric field following the passage of an energetic heavy ion. There are two segments to the field (a radial and an axial component). It is the interaction of this transient electric field with the local environment that can trigger a catastrophic failure.

Selva, L. E.; Wallace, R. E.

2001-01-01

218

The Effects of Job Involvement on Private Correctional Staff: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on correctional officers over the past two decades has focused on job stress, job satisfaction, the job environment, and how demographic variables such as gender, race, health and family conflict influenced stress and job satisfaction. Because correctional staff is such an integral part of corrections, understanding job involvement and its impact on correctional employees is important,

Eric G. Lambert; Nancy L. Hogan; Kelly Cheeseman Dial

2011-01-01

219

Considerations for Studying Father Involvement in Early Childhood among Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last three decades there has been a notable increase in interest about fathers and their role in the socioemotional, academic, and cognitive development of young children. Concurrently, there has been a shift in this nation's ethnic minority demography, where Latinos are now the nation's largest minority group. The father-involvement

Campos, Rodrigo

2008-01-01

220

Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

2011-01-01

221

Are the New EPA Regulations Concerning Intentional Exposure Studies Involving Children Overprotective?  

PubMed Central

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted new regulations that prevent the agency from conducting or funding intentional exposure research involving children, pregnant women, or fetuses. This commentary argues that these regulations overprotect children, and that the EPA should revise its regulations to bring them into conformity with the Common Rule’s special protections for children. PMID:17969779

Resnik, David B.

2014-01-01

222

A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

2011-01-01

223

Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.  

PubMed

Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24?h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ?5.8?cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ?25.6?cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72?h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

2014-12-01

224

A daily diary study of mental health and community involvement outcomes for three Chinese American social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 100 American youths of Chinese descent participated in a 14-day diary study, completing daily reports on ethnic feelings, American feelings, ethnic community involvement, and psychological well-being. Participants were divided into 4 identity orientations (Chinese, American, bicultural, or other) and then assessed for differential patterns of mental health and community involvement. Chinese-centered identities were characterized by positive well-being and positive

Tiffany Yip; Cross William E Jr

2004-01-01

225

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

226

Paternal Involvement and Fetal Morbidity Outcomes in HIV/AIDS: A Population-Based Study.  

PubMed

Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N = 4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (<35 years old), and unmarried with at least a high school education (p < .01). They were also more likely to have a history of drug (p < .01) and alcohol (p = .02) abuse. These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Infants of HIV-positive mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.82; PTB: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897

Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

2015-01-01

227

Involving relatives in relapse prevention for bipolar disorder: a multi-perspective qualitative study of value and barriers  

PubMed Central

Background Managing early warning signs is an effective approach to preventing relapse in bipolar disorder. Involving relatives in relapse prevention has been shown to maximize the effectiveness of this approach. However, family-focused intervention research has typically used expert therapists, who are rarely available within routine clinical services. It remains unknown what issues exist when involving relatives in relapse prevention planning delivered by community mental health case managers. This study explored the value and barriers of involving relatives in relapse prevention from the perspectives of service users, relatives and care-coordinators. Methods Qualitative interview study nested within a randomized controlled trial of relapse prevention for individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposive sample of 52 participants comprised service users (n = 21), care coordinators (n = 21) and relatives (n = 10). Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results All parties identified benefits of involving relatives in relapse prevention: improved understanding of bipolar disorder; relatives gaining a role in illness management; and improved relationships between each party. Nevertheless, relatives were often discouraged from becoming involved. Some staff perceived involving relatives increased the complexity of their own role and workload, and some service users valued the exclusivity of their relationship with their care-coordinator and prioritized taking individual responsibility for their illness over the benefits of involving their relatives. Barriers were heightened when family relationships were poor. Conclusions Whilst involving relatives in relapse prevention has perceived value, it can increase the complexity of managing bipolar disorder for each party. In order to fully realize the benefits of involving relatives in relapse prevention, additional training and support for community care coordinators is needed. Trial registration ISRCTN41352631 PMID:22044486

2011-01-01

228

Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

2014-03-01

229

Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

2014-01-01

230

Case Study of Ion Beams Observed By Cluster At Perigee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During substorms the short beams of ions in the keV-to-tens keV energy range are injected into the auroral flux tubes from the magnetotail (sometimes extending up to >100 keV energy) carrying the information on the source distance, scale-size and temporal history of plasma acceleration. We present observations with the CLUSTER crossing inward the auroral zone flux tubes at ~4Re distance near its perigee during the substorm activity on February 14, 2001. The ion beams cover the same region (poleward half) of the auroral oval where the low-energy ions are extracted from the ionosphere, and where the small-scale transient transverse Alfven waves are observed which carry predominantly the downward parallel Poynting flux into the ionosphere. The multiple beams were basically confirmed to be the transient effects, although some effects including the (spatial) velocity filter and the parallel electric fields (im- posed by quasineutrality requirement) may complicate the interpretation. The gener- ation region of ion beams is not limited to most poleward, newly-reconnected flux tubes; the beam generation region could extend across magnetic field inward by as much as >100km (if mapped to the ionosphere). Surprising variety of injection dis- tances observed nearly simultaneously (ranging between >60 Re and ~10 Re) have been inferred when using the full available energy and time resolution, with shorter injection distances be possibly associated with the flow braking process. The beam multiplicity often displays the apparent ~3 min quasiperiodicity inherent to the basic dissipation process, it was not yet explained by any substorm theory.

Sergeev, V.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Perigee Beam Team

231

Quantitative Study of Solar Farside Observations to Predict Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of sunspots on the far side of the Sun have been obtained for several years with SOHO/MDI and recently with GONG observations. E.g. http://soi.stanford.edu/data/full_farside/. We have examined the predictive usefulness of far-side images of regions within a few days of the East limb by comparing the far-side images with subsequent magnetograms. We developed a quantitative measure of success based on the frequency of true positives and false alarms. We can detect about 75% of strong magnetic regions with a false alarm rate of less than 20%.

Buder, I.; Scherrer, P. H.

2006-12-01

232

Sensory disturbances and pain complaints after brachial plexus root injury: a prospective study involving 150 adult patients.  

PubMed

After injury of the brachial plexus, sensory disturbance in the affected limb varies according to the extent of root involvement. The goal of this study was to match sensory assessments and pain complaints with findings on CT myelo scans and surgical observations. One hundred fifty patients with supraclavicular stretch injury of the brachial plexus were operated upon within an average of 5.4 months of trauma. Preoperatively, upper limb sensation was evaluated using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Pain complaints were recorded for each patient. With lesions affecting the upper roots of the brachial plexus, hand sensation was largerly preserved. Sensory disturbances were identified over a longitudinal bundle on the lateral arm and forearm. In C8-T1 root injuries, diminished protective sensation was observed on the ulnar aspect of the hand. If the C7 root also was injured, sensation in the long finger was impaired. Eighty-four percent of our 64 patients with total palsy reported pain, versus just 47% of our 72 patients with upper type palsies. This rate dropped to 29% in the 14 patients with a lower-type palsy. C8 and T1, when injured, always were avulsed from the cord; when avulsion of these roots was the only nerve injury, pain was absent. Hand sensation was largely preserved in patients with partial injuries of the brachial plexus, particularly on the radial side. Even when T1 was the only preserved root, hand sensation was mostly spared. This indicates that overlapping of the dermatomal zones seems much more widespread than previously reported. PMID:20939002

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Loure Iro Chaves, Daniel Preissler

2011-02-01

233

Direct observation, study, and control of molecular superrotors.  

PubMed

Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N = 95 in oxygen and N = 60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored. PMID:24702361

Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery

2014-03-21

234

Recognising advancing nursing practice: evidence from two observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates over title, grades and relationships across the profession has tended to dominate the literature in advancing nursing practice. Fewer research projects have attempted to study the activities of nurses who are designated as undertaking advancing nursing roles. One study evaluating Masters courses for Clinical Nursing Practice and a second addressing the impact of the ‘Scope of Professional Practice’ (United

Jennifer Wilson-Barnett; K. Louise Barriball; Heidi Reynolds; Sandra Jowett; Iain Ryrie

2000-01-01

235

Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

Raab, J. (Raab (J.), Boston, MA (United States)); Schweitzer, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-02-01

236

Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by “online” self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures—known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding—demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

2014-01-01

237

A CrossWalk of Professional Competencies Involved in Expanded School Mental Health: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanded school mental health (ESMH) programs often involve individuals from a variety of professions working together to\\u000a address student needs evident across school, family, and community systems. Profession-driven differences in philosophies,\\u000a expectations regarding confidentiality, and graduate training that reinforces isolated rather than interprofessional approaches\\u000a to working with students, however, represent real challenges to maximizing the potential of ESMH. To address

Annahita Ball; Dawn Anderson-Butcher; Elizabeth A. Mellin; Jennifer H. Green

2010-01-01

238

Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

Sivron, Ran

1995-01-01

239

78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

2013-05-30

240

78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

2013-04-24

241

A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.  

PubMed

Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; ?(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

2014-03-01

242

Observational studies of early-type binary stars: VV Orionis  

E-print Network

New and previously published observations of the bright eclipsing binary VV Orionis are analyzed. We present new radial velocities and interstellar reddening measurements from high-resolution spectra of this detached, short-period (P=1.48 d) binary. We discuss the validity of prior claims for the existence of a third body and show that our new velocities and light curve solution cast doubt on them. The components of VV Ori are shown to be a B1 V primary with a mass $M{_1}=10.9 \\pm 0.1 M_{\\sun}$ and a radius $R_{1}=4.98 \\pm 0.02 R_{\\sun}$ and a B4.5 V secondary with a mass $M{_2}=4.09 \\pm 0.05 M_{\\sun}$ and a radius $R_{2}=2.41 \\pm 0.01 R_{\\sun}$.

Dirk Terrell; Ulisse Munari; Alessandro Siviero

2006-10-06

243

Geomagnetic induction studies in Scandinavia. III Magnetotelluric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic observations recorded by two instruments of the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array are combined with telluric measurements made at the same locations, and the joint data sets are analyzed in order to derive the magnetotelluric (MT) response functions for those locations. Audiomagnetotelluric measurements were also made at one of the locations. The analytic methods employed are discussed and a general technique for reducing any possible timing discrepancy between the telluric and magnetic data sets is described and utilized. Models consistent with the resulting MT response functions from the two locations are discovered by a Monte Carlo random search of the parameter spaces, and resistivity-depth profiles are presented. The acceptable models are shown to be highly compatible with those for horizontal spatial gradient data.

Jones, A. G.; Olafsdottir, B.; Tiikkainen, J.

244

Disciplinary Culture, Bibliometrics, and Historical Studies: Preliminary Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses bibliometrics and its relationship to historical studies in order to examine community formation of scientific and scholarly communication through institutional affiliation. A history journal is investigated and reveals an institutional and geographical mapping of the contributors. (Author/LRW)

Buchanan, Anne L.; Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

1997-01-01

245

Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.  

PubMed

In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety. PMID:21067673

Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

2010-10-01

246

Evidence of Toscana virus infections without central nervous system involvement: A serological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In central Italy, acute lymphocytic meningitis and meningoencephalitis due to a Phlebotomus transmitted virus (Phlebovirus Toscana, TOSv) occurring throughout the summer are frequently observed. Several serum specimens of patients hospitalized with a clinical picture of viral meningitis\\/meningoencephalitis showed anti TOS-IgG reactivity suggestive of a previous infection occurring at an unknown time in the past. This observation led us to design

A. Braito; R. Corbisiero; S. Corradini; B. Marchi; N. Sancasciani; C. Fiorentini; M. G. Ciufolini

1997-01-01

247

Complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context: an observational prospective study (CIAOW Study)  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) has designed the CIAOW study in order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community- and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context. The CIAOW study (Complicated Intra-Abdominal infection Observational Worldwide Study) is a multicenter observational study currently underway in 57 medical institutions worldwide. The study includes patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections. This preliminary report includes all data from almost the first two months of the six-month study period. Patients who met inclusion criteria with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the study. 702 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range 18–98) were enrolled in the study. 272 patients (38.7%) were women and 430 (62.3%) were men. Among these patients, 615 (87.6%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 87 (12.4%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Generalized peritonitis was observed in 304 patients (43.3%), whereas localized peritonitis or abscesses was registered in 398 (57.7%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 10.1% (71/702). The final results of the CIAOW Study will be published following the conclusion of the study period in March 2013. PMID:23286785

2013-01-01

248

Observational Studies of Early-type Overcontact Binaries: TU Muscae  

E-print Network

We present new spectroscopic and photometric data on the early-type overcontact binary TU Muscae. The analysis of the spectroscopic data shows that the line of sight to the system crosses three kinematically sharp and well-separated interstellar reddening sources and that the stars rotate synchronously. We present new radial velocities that are in good agreement with earlier optical velocities and, thus, do not confirm the systematically smaller velocities obtained from IUE spectra. The optical velocities are analyzed simultaneously with the photometric data to derive accurate absolute dimesions for the binary components.The results show that TU Mus consists of an O7.5 primary with M_1=23.5 +/- 0.8 M_sun, R_1=7.48 +/- 0.08 R_sun and an O9.5 secondary with M_2=15.3 +/- 0.4 M_sun, R_2=6.15 +/- 0.07 R_sun in an overcontact configuration and that the orbital period has remained constant over the three decades covered by the observations. These results might imply that the mass transfer seen in late-type overcontact binaries does not occur in their early-type counterparts.

Dirk Terrell; Ulisse Munari; Tomaz Zwitter; Robert Nelson

2003-09-12

249

ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

250

Amplification of Sensitivity Analysis in Matched Observational Studies  

E-print Network

. The study asked whether greater intensity of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer was beneficial to patients in terms of survival, or whether it simply increased toxicity. Outside of clinical trials, where treatments of randomized clinical trials. Is there a source of variation in the intensity of chemotherapy

Rosenbaum, Paul R.

251

Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

Zhang, Jie

2005-01-01

252

Predicting Three Dimensions of Residential Curbside Recycling: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three dependent variables of household recycling behavior were studied in a suburban community over eight weeks, 10 independent variables serving as predictors. Results indicate that many of the independent variables that predicted recycling behavior in past research have weaker relationships in current, more convenient curbside programs.…

Oskamp, Stuart; Burkhardt, Rachel L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Hurin, Sharrilyn; Zelezny, Lynnette

1998-01-01

253

OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

254

Ocean observing satellite study: instrument and satellite constellation architecture options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides: (1) an overview of the set of active and passive instruments identified by the IPO designed to make the ocean measurements including visible and infrared medium and high resolution imagers, radiometers, altimeters, and synthetic aperture radars and (2) the instrument and satellite constellation architecture options studied, and their ability to meet the set of measurement requirements.

Gerber, A. J.; McGuire, J.; Cunningham, J. D.; Pichel, W. G.

2002-01-01

255

Motorcycle Helmet Use in Southern China: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In China, despite national motorcycle helmet legislation and the known safety benefits of helmets, helmet use remains low. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of motorcycle helmet use and attitudes towards helmet use among drivers and passengers in two cities in Southern China to provide baseline data and scientific evidence for the formulation of an

Gong-li Li; Li-ping Li; Qi-en Cai

2008-01-01

256

Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

1974-01-01

257

Study of parity violating observables in few-nucleon systems  

SciTech Connect

Parity violation in few-nucleon systems is studied using a nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential derived within an effective field theory framework at next-to-next-to-leading order. The potential includes one- and two-pion exchanges, contact interactions and relativistic corrections and depends on six low-energy constants: the pion-nucleon coupling constant h{sup 1}{sub {pi}} and five parameters multiplying the independent contact interaction terms (with one four-gradient). This potential is used to study the {vec p}-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in {vec n}-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the {sup 3}He({vec n},p){sup 3}H reaction.

M. Viviani, A. Baroni, R. Schiavilla, L. Girlanda, A. Kievsky, L. E. Marcucci

2011-12-01

258

Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs  

SciTech Connect

In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

Chaudret, Robin [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Weitao [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina

2013-01-01

259

Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs  

PubMed Central

In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)–N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. PMID:23387624

Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

2013-01-01

260

A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noelle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

2014-01-01

261

Statistical study of EMIC waves using Cluster observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave is an important instability in magnetospheric dynamics. It is responsible for efficiently scattering high-energy electrons into the loss cone. The minimum energy for effective scattering depends on the wavenumber, which can be determined from the EMIC dispersion relation using the phase differencing technique. This study analyses EMIC waves in Cluster data to statistically determine the minimum resonant energy for a range of magnetospheric conditions.

Pakhotin, Ivan; Balikhin, Michael A.; Silin, Illia

262

Comparison of GP and nurse practitioner consultations: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show that satisfaction with nurse practitioner care is high when compared with GPs. Clinical outcomes are similar. Nurse practitioners spend significantly longer on consultations. Aim We aimed to discover what nurse practitioners do with the extra time, and how their consultations differ from those of GPs. Design of study Comparative content analysis of audiotape transcriptions of 18 matched pairs of nurse practitioner and GP consultations. Setting Nine general practices in south Wales and south west England. Method Consultations were taped and clinicians' utterances coded into categories developed inductively from the data, and deductively from the literature review. Results Nurse practitioners spent twice as long with their patients and both patients and clinicians spoke more in nurse consultations. Nurses talked significantly more than GPs about treatments and, within this, talked significantly more about how to apply or carry out treatments. Weaker evidence was found for differences in the direction of nurses being more likely to: discuss social and emotional aspects of patients' lives; discuss the likely course of the patient's condition and side effects of treatments; and to use humour. Some of the extra time was also spent in getting doctors to approve treatment plans and sign prescriptions. Conclusions The provision of more information in the longer nurse consultations may explain differences in patient satisfaction found in other studies. Clinicians need to consider how much information it is appropriate to provide to particular patients. PMID:16378563

Seale, Clive; Anderson, Elizabeth; Kinnersley, Paul

2005-01-01

263

Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was 7.60 ± 1.23, which reduced to 0.70 ± 0.92 at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids. PMID:24058916

Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti

2013-01-01

264

The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study  

SciTech Connect

The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

1983-06-01

265

Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID:24348365

Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundstrom, Peter

2013-01-01

266

International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

Edberg, S. J.

1983-01-01

267

Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

2001-06-01

268

Home-Based Head Start and Family Involvement: An Exploratory Study of the Associations among Home Visiting Frequency and Family Involvement Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1965, Head Start has stood as a model, two-generational program for promoting developmental competencies among children living in socioeconomic disadvantage for the US and international communities. The cornerstone of Head Start is the promotion of caregivers' involvement in their young children's development and early learning. In…

Manz, Patricia

2012-01-01

269

Observational Studies of Protoplanetary Disks at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used mid-infrared cameras on 8-to-10 m class telescopes to study the properties of young circumstellar disks. During the initial phases of this program we examined a large sample of mid-IR images of standard stars delivered by T-ReCS at Gemini South to evaluate its on-sky performance as characterized by, for example the angular resolution, the PSF shape, and the PSF temporal stability, properties that are most relevant to our high-angular resolution study of disks. With this information we developed an Interactive Data Language (IDL) package of routines optimized for reducing the data and correcting for image defects commonly seen in ground-based mid-IR data. We obtained, reduced, and analyzed mid-IR images and spectra of several Herbig Ae/Be disks (including HD 259431, MWC 1080, VV Ser) and the debris disk (? Pic), and derived their physical properties by means of radiative transfer modeling or spectroscopic decomposition and analyses. These results are highlighted here. During this study, we also helped commission CanariCam, a new mid-IR facility instrument built by the University of Florida for the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. CanariCam is an imager with spectroscopic, polarimetric, and coronagraphic capabilities, with the dual-beam polarimetry being a unique mode introduced with CanariCam for the first time to a 10 m telescope at mid-IR wavelengths. It is well known that measurements of polarization, originating from aligned dust grains in the disks and their environments, have the potential to shed light on the morphologies of the magnetic fields in these regions, information that is critical to understanding how stars and planets form. We have obtained polarimetric data of several Herbig Ae/Be disks and YSOs, and the data reduction and analyses are in process. We present preliminary results here. This poster is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant AST-0903672 and AST-0908624 awarded to C.M.T.

Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles; Wright, Christopher; Packham, Christopher; Marinas, Naibi

2013-07-01

270

Theoretical studies of organometallic complexes of uranium involving nitrogen ligands using density functional approaches.  

PubMed

Density functional calculations are used to investigate the structure and bonding in several unusual cyclopentadienyl complexes of uranium with nitrogen-containing ligands. The U(VI) imido complex Cp2U(NPh)2 and the U(IV) amido complex Cp2(NHPh)2 are examined and the important orbitals involved in the U-N bonds are analyzed. The recently synthesized 22-electron U(IV) hydrazonato complex U(IV) Cp*2U(Me-N-N=CR2)2 is explored from the standpoint of an expanded valence shell, and the differences between the structures and thermochemistries of U(IV) and Zr(IV) complexes are probed. PMID:14527211

Hay, P Jeffrey

2003-01-01

271

Academic achievement and involvement in hockey: a post-hoc longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Academic achievement, absenteeism, and athletic involvement (hockey) data were collected on 484 boys throughout British Columbia. School and minor hockey records were used to obtain longitudinal data for each boy from Grade 1 until high school graduation or school withdrawal. Results indicated that hockey players exhibit less school absenteeism than non hockey players, but are not different with respect to grade point averages. Hockey players, at the juvenile level or lower, tend to attain a slightly higher grade point average during the years they are playing hockey in comparison with their academic achievement during the years they are not playing hockey. Of the hockey players with lower than average I.Q.'s, those who exhibit poor achievement tend to drop out of hockey earlier than those who have average or above average grades. PMID:498405

Schutz, R W

1979-03-01

272

UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations  

E-print Network

Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

2012-01-01

273

Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat  

PubMed Central

A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP) rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15–30 Hz) and gamma (40–90 Hz). All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loop. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density (CSD) analysis combined with multi-unit activity (MUA) recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly the upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL) and superficial areas of granule cell layer (GRL). In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings. PMID:25126057

Fourcaud-Trocme, Nicolas; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Buonviso, Nathalie

2014-01-01

274

Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use

Klaus G. Grunert; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Niels A. Nielsen; Jacob B. Poulsen; Oydis Ueland; Annika Åström

2000-01-01

275

Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

2010-01-01

276

Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the…

Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

2011-01-01

277

Queer Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study of Identity Development and LGBT Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the first phase of a longitudinal study of student leaders of the 2002 Midwest Bi-, Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Allies College Conference (MBLGTACC), the authors explore the intersections of involvement in identity-specific leadership activities and development of LGBT\\/Queer identity. LGBT leadership experiences appear to have contributed substantively to the identity development of these college students. Based on this finding,

Kristen A. Renn; Brent Bilodeau

2005-01-01

278

A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

Zeeck, Kirk A.

2012-01-01

279

The Utility of Involvement and Talent Development Theory in Assessing Charter School Success: Results from a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of involvement and talent development theory in the assessment of charter schools and their students' success was studied as part of an effort to develop an assessment that would match the views of primary stakeholders (parents and teachers) more authentically. The research considered how parents and teachers define success in…

Opp, Ronald D.; Hamer, Lynne M.; Beltyukova, Svetlana

280

Pallial oviduct of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda): ultrastructural studies of the parenchymal cellular types involved in the metabolism of perivitellins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the morphology of the parenchymal mass and function of the albumen gland\\/capsule gland complex have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, together with the cellular types involved in the synthesis and secretion of perivitellin fluid components. The two major parenchymal cell types, albumen secretory cells (AS) and labyrinthic cells (LC), undergo seasonal variations throughout the annual reproductive cycle,

M. Catalán; M. S. Dreon; H. Heras; R. J. Pollero; S. N. Fernández; B. Winik

2006-01-01

281

Early Development of Neurophysiological Processes Involved in Normal Reading and Reading Disability: A Magnetic Source Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined the development of the brain mechanism involved in phonological decoding in beginning readers using magnetic source imaging. Kindergarten students were assigned to 2 groups: those who showed mastery of skills that are important predictors of proficient reading (low-risk group) and those who initially did not show mastery but later benefited from systematic reading instruction and developed

Panagiotis G. Simos; Jack M. Fletcher; Shirin Sarkari; Rebecca L. Billingsley; David J. Francis; Eduardo M. Castillo; Ekaterina Pataraia; Carolyn Denton; Andrew C. Papanicolaou

2005-01-01

282

EFFECT OF DRUG THERAPY AND RISK INVOLVED IN CORONARY VASCULAR DISEASE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MILLITUS - A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the chronic diseases in the world. According to World Health Organization (WHO) approximately 171 million people worldwide currently on diabetic and that type 2 diabetes accounts to about 90% . This study presents Oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) prescription pattern by the physicians among Out patients of two hospital and risk involved in

Omi Bajracharya; B. S Rao; G. M. Khan

283

Mechanisms Involved in the Pathogenesis of Sepsis Are Not Necessarily Reflected by In Vitro Cell Activation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is thought that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of septic shock. In vitro studies to address the mechanisms involved in this process have often investigated human monocytes or mouse macrophages, since these cells produce many of the mediators found in septic patients. Targeting of these mediators, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), has been

CLAUDIA R. AMURA; R. SILVERSTEIN; D. C. MORRISON

1998-01-01

284

Queer Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study of Identity Development and LGBT Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first phase of a longitudinal study of student leaders of the 2002 Midwest Bi-, Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Allies College Conference (MBLGTACC), the authors explore the intersections of involvement in identity-specific leadership activities and development of LGBT/Queer identity. LGBT leadership experiences appear to have contributed…

Renn, Kristen A.; Bilodeau, Brent

2005-01-01

285

Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather  

E-print Network

Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

Saldin, Dilano

286

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac failure: meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the risks of cardiac failure with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the specific risks with Cox-2 specific NSAIDs (COXIBs). Methods: We performed meta-analyses examining the risks of developing cardiac failure in observational studies and in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with arthritis and non-rheumatic disorders. Electronic databases and published bibliographies were systematically searched (1997-2008). Results: Five

Paul A Scott; Gabrielle H. Kingsley; David L Scott

2008-01-01

287

A Observational Study of Mixing in the Arctic Winter Stratosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic isolation of the winter Arctic circumpolar vortex is studied using analyzed winds derived from geopotential height fields. Isentropic trajectories are calculated for assemblages of particles initialized on uniform latitude -longitude grids. Transport across isolines of Ertel potential vorticity (PV) is used to characterize the mixing processes of ejection of vortex air and entrainment of midlatitude air into the vortex. During January and February a barrier to mixing, where exchange of air is inhibited, typically forms near the vortex boundary. At 450 K, transport across the barrier is predominantly in the form of thin filaments of particles ejected from the vortex. These filaments tend to wrap around the vortex, creating a layered structure of vortex and midlatitude air at the vortex edge. Near or total splits of the vortex into two or more distinct vortex fragments are quite common based on these trajectory calculations. Significant entrainment deep into the vortex is rare and results from only a limited number of the splitting events. During December and March the mixing barrier is less evident due to nonconservative factors during the spin-up and breakdown of the vortex, respectively. In December both ejection and entrainment are only weakly inhibited by the mixing barrier. Exchange in March is dominated by ejection of air from the vortex. Isolation of the vortex during 1991-1992 through 1993-1994 (the first three northern hemisphere winters of the UARS mission) is compared to the climatological values obtained from the analysis of 16 Arctic winters. A number of unusual features of both winters are discussed. The most notable features are the anomalous isolation experienced by the vortex during December 1992 and the unusual degree of isolation and persistence of the vortex during February and March of both years. The 1992-1993 winter season is the most consistently isolated vortex on record. Only during January 1993, when entrainment is large, is this pattern of extreme isolation broken.

Dahlberg, Steven Paul

1995-01-01

288

Expression and Study of Recombinant ExoM, a ?1-4 Glucosyltransferase Involved in Succinoglycan Biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Here we report on the overexpression and in vitro characterization of a recombinant form of ExoM, a putative ?1-4 glucosyltransferase involved in the assembly of the octasaccharide repeating subunit of succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti. The open reading frame exoM was isolated by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pET29b, allowing inducible expression under the control of the T7 promoter. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing exoM expressed a novel 38-kDa protein corresponding to ExoM in N-terminal fusion with the S-tag peptide. Cell fractionation studies showed that the protein is expressed in E. coli as a membrane-bound protein in agreement with the presence of a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region. E. coli membrane preparations containing ExoM were shown to be capable of transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to glycolipid extracts from an S. meliloti mutant strain which accumulates the ExoM substrate (Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Gal-pyrophosphate-polyprenol). Thin-layer chromatography of the glycosidic portion of the ExoM product showed that the oligosaccharide formed comigrates with an authentic standard. The oligosaccharide produced by the recombinant ExoM, but not the starting substrate, was sensitive to cleavage with a specific cellobiohydrolase, consistent with the formation of a ?1-4 glucosidic linkage. No evidence for the transfer of multiple glucose residues to the glycolipid substrate was observed. It was also found that ExoM does not transfer glucose to an acceptor substrate that has been hydrolyzed from the polyprenol anchor. Furthermore, neither glucose, cellobiose, nor the trisaccharide Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Glc inhibited the transferase activity, suggesting that some feature of the lipid anchor is necessary for activity. PMID:9973339

Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Geremia, Roberto A.

1999-01-01

289

Connectedness of healthcare professionals involved in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: a social networks study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic illness typically receive ambulatory treatment from multiple health professionals. Connectedness between these professionals may influence their clinical decisions and the coordination of patient care. We aimed to describe and analyze connectedness in a regional network of health professionals involved in ambulatory treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Observational study with 104 health professionals who had joined a newly established network (ParkinsonNet) were asked to complete a pre-structured form to report on their professional contacts with others in the network. Using social networks methods, network measures were calculated for the total network and for the networks of individual health professionals. We planned to test differences between subgroups of health professionals regarding 12 network measures, using a random permutation method. Results Ninety-six health professionals (92%) provided data on 101 professionals. The reciprocity of reported connections was 0.42 in the network of professional contacts. Measures characterizing the individual networks showed a wide variation; e.g., density varied between 0 and 100% (mean value 28.4%). Health professionals with ?10 PD patients had higher values on 7 out of 12 network measures compare to those with < 10 PD patients (size, number of connections, two step reach, indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, inreach centrality, betweenness centrality). Primary care professionals had lower values on 11 out of 12 network measures (all but reach efficiency) compared to professionals who were affiliated with a hospital. Conclusions Our measure of professional connectedness proved to be feasible in a regional disease-specific network of health professionals. Network measures describing patterns in the professional contacts showed relevant variation across professionals. A higher caseload and an affiliation with a hospital were associated with stronger connectedness with other health professionals. PMID:21722400

2011-01-01

290

75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addition, the observational study will complement the clinical...Individuals or households and health care providers. Type...Observational Study Participants...941 1 .083 79 Health Care Providers \\1...appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or...

2010-01-20

291

Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively. PMID:22039863

2011-01-01

292

Studies on the Nature of Receptors Involved in Attachment of Tissue Culture Cells to Mycoplasmas  

PubMed Central

Several mycoplasmas, from avian and mammalian sources, growing in the form of colonies on agar and sheets attached to plastic dishes, were tested for their ability to adsorb tissue culture cells in suspension. HeLa cells adsorbed to the majority of mycoplasmas tested; adsorption occurred to the sheets and not to the colonies of some mycoplasmas. Other tissue cells, in primary culture and of diploid origin, adsorbed also. The mechanism of adsorption of HeLa cells to 4 mycoplasmas was examined by treating the cells and mycoplasmas in various ways and then testing for adsorption. N-acetyl neuraminic acid residues on the tissue cells were responsible for adsorption to M. gallisepticum and M. pneumoniae. The receptors for M. hominis and M. salivarium were probably not of this kind since treatment of the cells with purified neuraminidase did not influence adsorption. However, the cell receptors for these mycoplasmas were associated with protein because they were inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and by formalin. The cell receptors for M. hominis were more heat stable than those for the other mycoplasmas. From the aspect of the mycoplasma membrane, in no instance did neuraminidase treatment affect adsorption. On the other hand, various experiments suggested that protein components of the mycoplasma membrane were involved. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:5773147

Manchee, R. J.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1969-01-01

293

Father involvement program effects on fathers, father figures, and their head start children: a quasi-experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation study was conducted to examine the effects of participation in a Head Start-based father involvement intervention program for fathers and their children. The study used a quasi-experimental research design that compared pretest and post-test measures for participants in four intervention sites against nonparticipants in geographically and demographically matched comparison (control) sites. The treatment and comparison groups were further

Jay Fagan; Aquiles Iglesias

1999-01-01

294

[Study of the interactions between oligosaccharides involved in the cell adhesion. Example of the Lewis(x) trisaccharide].  

PubMed

Nature often chooses weak molecular interactions for playing important role in cellular recognition and adhesion. These interactions involve particularly oligosaccharides, which are the structural elements present at the most exterior surface of the cell. Three oligosaccharides were prepared for study of the interaction by vesicle micromanipulation technique. This study allowed us to measure directly, for the first time, a carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction. PMID:19061733

Zhang, Y

2008-01-01

295

Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses' Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

2014-01-01

296

Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study  

PubMed Central

Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use) study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ?3?months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22999494

2012-01-01

297

Studies on mechanisms involved in metastasis formation from circulating tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown in earlier studies the formation of metastases after i. v. tumor cell injection in rats is increased in the immediate post-traumatic period and treatment with heparin, thrombocytopenia, and defibrinogenation decreases the formation of metastases. Thrombocytopenia also inhibits the stimulating effect of trauma on metastasis formation. The results of the studies reported in this paper show that the changes

G. Skolnik; M. Alpsten; L. Ivarsson

1980-01-01

298

Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals…

Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

299

Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and

Hongjie Liu; Shuli Yu; Lesley Cottrell; Sonja Lunn; Lynette Deveaux; Nanika V Brathwaite; Sharon Marshall; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton

2007-01-01

300

Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study  

PubMed Central

Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy) with special attention to public engagement, and provided a concrete plan to operationalize a strategy for improving public involvement in this, and other, wait time initiatives. PMID:18021393

Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

2007-01-01

301

Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

302

A study on bovine ephemeral fever involving sentinel herds and serosurveillance in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A nationwide study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to determine if bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) was present in cattle between 1993 and 1995. The study had two components: the first was establishment of sentinel herds of cattle in some localities, the second was to conduct a nationwide serological survey. The results indicated that Saudi Arabia was free of BEF during the period of study and that the cattle population was susceptible to the disease, which may have contributed to the fulminating epidemic of 1996. The epidemiological situation of the disease in Saudi Arabia is discussed in relation to the likelihood of introduction of the disease into the country. PMID:17361778

Abu-Elzein, E M E; Al-Afaleq, A I; Housawi, F M T; Al-Basheir, A M

2006-12-01

303

A study of palladium catalyzed intra/intermolecular cascade cross coupling/cyclizations involving bicyclopropylidene.  

PubMed

The compounds [3-(2-Bromocyclohex-2-enyloxy)prop-1-ynyl]-tert-butyl-dimethylsilane 3, [4-(2-bromocyclohex-2-en-1-yloxy)but-2-yn-1-yloxy]tert-butyldimethylsilane 5 and dimethyl 2-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-2-(3-(tert-butyldimethylsilanyl)prop-2-ynyl)malonate 9 were prepared and subjected to palladium-catalyzed intra-intermolecular cascade cross couplings incorporating bicyclopropylidene 10 under two types of conditions. In the presence of Pd(OAc)2, PPh3 and K2CO3 in acetonitrile at 80 °C, the products were indene analogues, cross-conjugated tetraenes 11, 12 and 13, respectively. The corresponding spirocyclopropanated tricycle 16 in dimethylformamide at 110 °C was obtained, albeit in low yield (24%), and observed as an equimolar mixture of diastereomers, whereas 14, 15 were not fully isolated. PMID:24828378

Demircan, Aydin

2014-01-01

304

A study of the factors and processes involved in the sedimentation of Tarbela reservoir, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns Tarbela dam reservoir which is a major resource of Pakistan in terms of electricity generation and irrigation\\u000a supplies. Rapid filling of reservoir due to sediment transported and deposited by Indus River is described and analysed in\\u000a this article. Causes of sediment deposition and their impact on dam’s function and life are studied. The main characteristic\\u000a parameters of

Khawaja Bilal Ahmed; Martin Sanchez

2011-01-01

305

Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically

Joseph K. Perloff; William G. Stevenson; Nigel K. Roberts; William Cabeen; James Weiss

1984-01-01

306

A comparative study of sexual dysfunction involving risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine  

PubMed Central

Background: With the advent of newer antipsychotic drugs, side effects such as sexual dysfunction have been a major contributor toward treatment compliance. There are only a few studies that have compared different atypical antipsychotic agents regarding sexual dysfunction. We have not come across any data in this area on Indian population. Aims: To determine and compare the frequency of sexual dysfunction associated with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine, among patients with clinically stable schizophrenia. Settings and Design: It is a cross-sectional hospital-based study. The subjects were recruited for the study by the purposive sampling technique. Materials and Methods: The total sample size was 102, consisting of 25 each in the quetiapine and risperidone groups, 22 in the olanzapine group, and 30 healthy volunteers. A Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) were administered. The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the variables in the demographic data and the mean chlorpromazine equivalent doses of the study groups. To analyze the sexual dysfunction, the mean scores on all the domains of sexual functioning in SFQ were compared across the study groups using the Chi square test, for proportions. Results and Conclusion: Twenty-three percent of the healthy volunteers had some impairment in one or more domains of sexual functioning. For the medication groups this was 96, 88, and 90%, respectively for risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine. However, there was statistically no significant difference across the study groups although it was relatively less with quetiapine. PMID:20048451

Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.; Pai, Nagesh B.; Rao, Satheesh

2009-01-01

307

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kroz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

308

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.  

PubMed

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

309

Model studies of hydrogen atom addition and abstraction processes involving ortho-, meta-, and para-benzynes.  

PubMed

H-atom addition and abstraction processes involving ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne have been investigated by multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods. The H(A) + H(B)...H(C) reaction (where r(BC) is adjusted to mimic the appropriate singlet-triplet energy gap) is shown to effectively model H-atom addition to benzyne. The doublet multiconfiguration wave functions are shown to mix the "singlet" and "triplet" valence bond structures of H(B)...H(C) along the reaction coordinate; however, the extent of mixing is dependent on the singlet-triplet energy gap (DeltaE(ST)) of the H(B)...H(C) diradical. Early in the reaction, the ground-state wave function is essentially the "singlet" VB function, yet it gains significant "triplet" VB character along the reaction coordinate that allows H(A)-H(B) bond formation. Conversely, the wave function of the first excited state is predominantly the "triplet" VB configuration early in the reaction coordinate, but gains "singlet" VB character when the H-atom is close to a radical center. As a result, the potential energy surface (PES) for H-atom addition to triplet H(B)...H(C) diradical is repulsive! The H3 model predicts, in agreement with the actual calculations on benzyne, that the singlet diradical electrons are not coupled strongly enough to give rise to an activation barrier associated with C-H bond formation. Moreover, this model predicts that the PES for H-atom addition to triplet benzyne will be characterized by a repulsive curve early in the reaction coordinate, followed by a potential avoided crossing with the (pi)1(sigma*)1 state of the phenyl radical. In contrast to H-atom addition, large activation barriers characterize the abstraction process in both the singlet ground state and first triplet state. In the ground state, this barrier results from the weakly avoided crossing of the dominant VB configurations in the ground-state singlet (S0) and first excited singlet (S1) because of the large energy gap between S0 and S1 early in the reaction coordinate. Because the S1 state is best described as the combination of the triplet X-H bond and the triplet H(B)...H(C) spin couplings, the activation barrier along the S0 abstraction PES will have much less dependence on the DeltaE(ST) of H(B)...H(C) than previously speculated. For similar reasons, the T1 potential surface is quite comparable to the S0 PES. PMID:11674001

Clark, A E; Davidson, E R

2001-10-31

310

Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

2014-06-01

311

Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

Crawford, Lyall

312

Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

2008-01-01

313

Participatory Evaluation: A Case Study of Involving Stakeholders in the Evaluation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to ensure that an evaluation has “utility” is to use a participatory evaluation approach where the evaluator partners with primary users to carry out various phases of an evaluation. This article provides a case study of how participatory evaluation was used in an out-of-school youth development and employment program at the Science Museum of Minnesota's Kitty Andersen Youth

Amy Grack Nelson; Robby Callahan Schreiber

2009-01-01

314

Sharing decisions in consultations involving anti-psychotic medication: A qualitative study of psychiatrists’ experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In psychiatry, and in treating people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in particular, there are obstacles to achieving concordant, shared decision making and in building a co-operative therapeutic alliance where mutual honesty is the norm. Studies of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have revealed critical views of medical authority, particularly over the issue of enforced compliance with antipsychotic medication.

Clive Seale; Robert Chaplin; Paul Lelliott; Alan Quirk

2006-01-01

315

International public health research involving interpreters: a case study from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural and international research are important components of public health research, but the challenges of language barriers and working with interpreters are often overlooked, particularly in the case of qualitative research. METHODS: A case-study approach was used to explore experiences of working with an interpreter in Bangladesh as part of a research project investigating women's experiences of emergency obstetric

Emma Pitchforth; Edwin van Teijlingen

2005-01-01

316

MRI in 31 patients with Behçet's disease and neurological involvement: prospective study with clinical correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty one patients with Behçet's disease and neurological manifestations were prospectively studied with MRI. Cerebral venous thrombosis was diagnosed in 10 patients. MRI performed during the acute illness in eight patients showed an abnormally high signal on the T2 weighted sequences in the occluded sinus. MRI showed minor flow abnormalities suggestive of partial recanalisation of the sinus in two cases

B Wechsler; B Delllsola; M Vidailhet; D Dormont; J C Piette; O Blétry; P Godeau

1993-01-01

317

Fractional gravity studies on the ISS of sensory mechanisms involved in phototropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goals of this research are (1) to better understand cellular mechanisms of pho-totropism in plants and (2) to determine the effects and influence of gravity on light perception in plants. Because of the interfering effect of the strong gravitropic response, microgravity conditions are needed to effectively study phototropism. Experiments performed on the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) were used

John Z. Kiss; Melanie Correll; Richard Edelmann; Katherine Millar

2010-01-01

318

""We" Are the Professionals": A Study of Teachers' Views on Parental Involvement in School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines teachers' attitudes and experiences regarding home-school cooperation. Teachers constitute a powerful group in school compared with parents, and this relationship is interpreted through Bourdieu's concept of social field, as a power relation. The empirical analyses are based on a mixed-methods approach with survey and…

Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

2010-01-01

319

Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes several case studies that are part of a larger effort to systematically reform science and mathematics education and assess the progress of systemic reform. Evaluates the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. (Contains 42 references.) (Author/YDS)

Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

2001-01-01

320

Experimental studies of animal movement have traditionally focused upon steady locomotor behaviors (i.e. involving  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of animal movement have traditionally focused upon steady locomotor behaviors of control over the animal's direction and speed of translation. In spite of the focus on steady locomotion, however, such behavior probably constitutes only a relatively small fraction of any animal's locomotor

Lauder, George V.

321

Distinct Pathways Involved in Sound Recognition and Localization: A Human fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from psychophysical studies in normal and brain-damaged subjects suggests that auditory information relevant to recognition and localization are processed by distinct neuronal populations. We report here on anatomical segregation of these populations. Brain activation associated with performance in sound identification and localization was investigated in 18 normal subjects using fMRI. Three conditions were used: (i) comparison of spatial stimuli

Philippe P. Maeder; Reto A. Meuli; Michela Adriani; Anne Bellmann; Eleonora Fornari; Jean-Philippe Thiran; Antoine Pittet; Stéphanie Clarke

2001-01-01

322

Overinterpretation of gastroduodenal motility studies: Two cases involving Munchausen syndrome by proxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two children were thought to have an atypical gastroduodenal motility disorder because of the history and clinical course; both had received parenteral alimentation because of claims of inability to tolerate enteral feedings, and both continued to have unusual medical problems during parenteral alimentation. Both children had motility studies that were interpreted by a pediatric gastroenterologist to be \\

Howard I. Baron; David C. Beck; Jorge H. Vargas; Marvin E. Ament

1995-01-01

323

A simulation study of reactive flow in 2-D involving dissolution and precipitation in sedimentary rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we solve the Navier Stokes' equation using finite difference method, on a simulated porous rock structure in 2-D, to study the velocity distribution of fluid flowing through it under a constant pressure gradient. A reactive solute carried through the fluid is allowed to interact with the minerals in the rock. Depending on the rock composition, both dissolution and precipitation reactions may occur. However precipitation occurs only through the cations that are released in the solution due to dissolution. These combined dissolution-precipitation reactions change the porosity, permeability and pore geometry of the sedimentary rock. We study the temporal changes of these properties as functions of Peclet number, concentration of the reactive solute and ratio of Damkholer numbers of dissolution to precipitation. The final flow property is decided by a combination of these parameters.

Sadhukhan, S.; Gouze, P.; Dutta, T.

2014-11-01

324

Superfusion of synaptosomes to study presynaptic mechanisms involved in neurotransmitter release from rat brain.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter release, as the primary way for neuron signaling, represents the target of a staggering number of studies in order to understand complex neural functions. The corpus striatum is a brain area especially rich in neurotransmitters where cholinergic neurons are supposed to play an associative role between different neuronal types, and therefore their activity is modulated by multiple neurotransmitter systems [Trends Neurosci. 17 (1994) 228; Trends Neurosci. 18 (1995) 527] [13,25]. In this regard, superfusion of synaptosomes is a useful in vitro approach to study the neurotransmitter release allowing an unequivocal interpretation of results obtained under accurately specified experimental conditions. Synaptosomes are sealed presynaptic nerve terminals obtained after homogenating brain tissue in iso-osmotic conditions [J. Physiol. 142 (1958) 187] [22]. Synaptosomes have been extensively used to study the mechanism of neurotransmitter release in vitro because they preserve the biochemical, morphological and electrophysiological properties of the synapse [J. Neurocytol. 22 (1993) 735] [42]. The superfusion, strictly a perfusion, allows both the continuous removal of the compounds present in the biophase of the presynaptic proteins and the easy exchange of the medium. We herein describe the method of superfusion of rat striatal synaptosomes to study the [(3)H]ACh release under basal and stimulated conditions. To depolarize the synaptosomal preparation three different strategies were employed: high extracellular concentration of K(+) (15 mM), a K(+) channel-blocker (4-aminopyridine, 1-30 microM), or veratridine (10 microM) which blocks the inactivation of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. PMID:11356375

Garcia-Sanz, A; Badia, A; Clos, M V

2001-06-01

325

Generalized spike-wave discharges involve a default mode network in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy: a MEG study.  

PubMed

This study uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether cortical regions that constitute a default mode network are involved during generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWs) in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE). We studied five JAE patients for whom MEG was recorded using a 204-channel, whole-head gradiometer system. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM) was done to estimate the cortical source distribution of GSW. The dSPM results showed strong medial prefrontal activation in all patients, with activation in the posterior cingulate and precuneus in three of five patients simultaneously or slightly after medial prefrontal activation. Furthermore, dSPM showed that the initial activation of a GSW appears in the focal cortical regions. Cortical regions that constitute a default mode network are strongly involved in the GSW process in some patients with JAE. Results also show that focal cortical activation appears at the onset of a GSW. PMID:20061122

Sakurai, Kotaro; Takeda, Youji; Tanaka, Naoaki; Kurita, Tsugiko; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Nakane, Shingo; Sueda, Keitaro; Koyama, Tsukasa

2010-05-01

326

Arachidonic acid and cancer risk: a systematic review of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background An n-6 essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) is converted into prostaglandin E2, which is involved in tumour extension. However, it is unclear whether dietary ARA intake leads to cancer in humans. We thus systematically evaluated available observational studies on the relationship between ARA exposure and the risk of colorectal, skin, breast, prostate, lung, and stomach cancers. Methods We searched the PubMed database for articles published up to May 17, 2010. 126 potentially relevant articles from the initial search and 49,670 bibliographies were scrutinised to identify eligible publications by using predefined inclusion criteria. A comprehensive literature search yielded 52 eligible articles, and their reporting quality and methodological quality was assessed. Information on the strength of the association between ARA exposure and cancer risk, the dose-response relationship, and methodological limitations was collected and evaluated with respect to consistency and study design. Results For colorectal, skin, breast, and prostate cancer, 17, 3, 18, and 16 studies, respectively, were identified. We could not obtain eligible reports for lung and stomach cancer. Studies used cohort (n?=?4), nested case-control (n?=?12), case-control (n?=?26), and cross-sectional (n?=?12) designs. The number of subjects (n = 15 - 88,795), ARA exposure assessment method (dietary intake or biomarker), cancer diagnosis and patient recruitment procedure (histological diagnosis, cancer registries, or self-reported information) varied among studies. The relationship between ARA exposure and colorectal cancer was inconsistent based on ARA exposure assessment methodology (dietary intake or biomarker). Conversely, there was no strong positive association or dose-response relationship for breast or prostate cancer. There were limited numbers of studies on skin cancer to draw any conclusions from the results. Conclusions The available epidemiologic evidence is weak because of the limited number of studies and their methodological limitations, but nonetheless, the results suggest that ARA exposure is not associated with increased breast and prostate cancer risk. Further evidence from well-designed observational studies is required to confirm or refute the association between ARA exposure and risk of cancer. PMID:23249186

2012-01-01

327

Trauma symptoms in pupils involved in school bullying--a cross sectional study conducted in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

To determine the association between involvement in school bullying and trauma symptoms and to find whether children with presence of trauma symptoms participate in school bullying more as victims, as bullies or as bully/victims. The study included 1055, 6th to 8th grade (12-14 years of age) elementary school pupils from the western part of Mostar, The pupils were self-interviewed using a Questionnaire on School Violence developed in 2003 and validated in Croatia, and Trauma Symptoms Check List for Children (TSCC). The pupils involved in the school violence, either as victims, bullies, bully/victims had significantly more trauma symptoms than the not involved. Involvement in school bullying as a bully/ victim was a strong indicator of trauma symptoms, particularly anxiety, anger, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, obvious dissociation, and dissociation fantasy symptoms, while the victims of school violence had the highest odds ratio for the development of depressive symptoms. There is strong association between bullying and trauma symptoms in young adolescents. From our results, emphasis should be placed at the regularly screening on bullying in praxis of family physicians and regularly conduction of preventive measures and early intervention in every primary school. PMID:23697244

Obrdalj, Edita Cerni; Sesar, Kristina; Santic, Zarko; Klari?, Miro; Sesar, Irena; Rumboldt, Mirjana

2013-03-01

328

Study of variables involved in horseradish and soybean peroxidase purification by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Agarose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variables involved in adsorption and elution of horseradish and soybean seed peroxidases from a concanavalin A-Agarose matrix were studied. The effect of pH, ion strength and Ca2+\\/Mg2+ concentration on maximum capacity and dissociation constant was assessed through adsorption isotherms. The effect of flow rate and peroxidase concentration on dynamic capacity was assessed through breakthrough curves. For the elution step, NaCl

M. V Miranda; M. L Magri; A. A Navarro del Cañizo; O Cascone

2002-01-01

329

The Path to Self-Management: A Qualitative Study Involving Older People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: This qualitative study sought to explore older people's experience of ageing with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the natural history of self-management from their points of view. Methods: Eighteen people over age 55 and living with MS for at least 20 years were recruited from an MS clinic and rehabilitation outpatient records. Interviews (60–80 min), using open-ended questions, explored participants' lifelong experiences of MS. Following interview transcription, data were coded and analyzed; themes, subthemes, and their relationships were described based on consensus. Results: Participants recounted their diagnosis process, their life experience with MS, and how they eventually accepted their disease, adapted, and moved toward self-management. The findings included vivid descriptions of social relationships, health care interactions, overcoming barriers, and the emotions associated with living with MS. A conceptual model of phases of self-management, from diagnosis to integration of MS into a sense of self, was developed. Conclusions: Study participants valued self-management and described its phases, facilitators, and inhibitors from their points of view. Over years and decades, learning from life experiences, trial and error, and interactions with health care professionals, participants seemed to consolidate MS into their sense of self. Self-determination, social support, strong problem-solving abilities, and collaborative relationships with health professionals aided adaptation and coping. Findings from this study make initial steps toward understanding how MS self-management evolves over the life course and how self-management programmes can help people with MS begin to manage wellness earlier in their lives. PMID:23277680

Austin, Mark W.; Murdoch, Michelle; Kearney, Anne; Godwin, Marshall; Stefanelli, Mark

2012-01-01

330

Astronomy and religion (1780-1915). Four case studies involving ideas of extraterrestrial life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present essay discusses four examples of interactions, two from the eighteenth century and two from the nineteenth. All four cases concern the relations between religion and the astronomical claim that intelligent beings exist elsewhere in space. In each of these four cases religious claims influenced astronomy. Cases 3 and 4 share a feature not usually encountered in studies on the interactions of astronomy and religion in that they are instances where not just theistic belief but in fact core doctrines of a specific religion, Christianity, influenced astronomy. I begin by surveying the interactions between religion and the idea of extraterrestrial intelligent life in the early modern period.

Crowe, Michael J.

331

Study Finds Romantic Rejection Stimulates Areas of Brain Involved in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Is romantic rejection a specific form of addiction?" This press release describes the experimental design and findings from a July 2010 study in the Journal of Neurophysiology entitled "Reward, Addiction and Emotion Regulation Systems Associated with Rejection in Love" conducted by Helen E. Fisher, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, Lucy L. Brown, Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, NY, Art Aron, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, and Greg Strong and Debra Mashek, the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-07-06

332

Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

1987-01-01

333

A Multicenter prospective study of poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (AMPAS): observational registry study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Our limited knowledge on predictors of long-term outcome in poor-grade patients with aSAH definitively managed comes from retrospective and prospective studies of small case series of patients in single center. The purpose of the AMPAS is to determine the long-term outcomes in poor-grade patients with different managements within different time after aSAH, and identify the independent predictors of the outcome that help guide the decision on definitive management. Methods/design The AMPAS study is a prospective, multicenter, observational registry of consecutive hospitalized patients with poor grade aSAH (WFNS grade IV and V). The aim is to enroll at least 226 poor-grade patients in 11 high-volume medical centers (eg, >150 aSAH cases per year) affiliated to different universities in China. This study will describe poor grade patients and aneurysm characteristics, treatment strategies (modality and time of definitive management), hospitalization complications and outcomes evolve over time. The definitive management is ruptured aneurysm treatment. Outcomes at 3, 6, 12 months after the management were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. Discussion The AMPAS is the first prospective, multicenter, observational registry of poor grade aSAH with any management. This study will contribute to a better understanding of significant predictors of outcome in poor grade patients and help guide future treatment of the worst patients after aSAH. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TNRC-10001041. PMID:24742248

2014-01-01

334

Comparison of free-response and ROC analyses in modality comparison studies involving lesion localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible that neglect of location information in lesion detection studies analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) method can compromise power. The Alternative Free-response ROC (AFROC) analysis considers the location information but its usage has been discouraged, since it neglects intra-image correlations. This study compared the statistical power of ROC and AFROC methodologies using simulations. A model including intra-image correlations was developed to describe the decision variable sampling and was used to simulate data for ROC and AFROC analysis. Five readers and 200 cases, half of which contained one signal, were simulated for each trial. Two hundred trials were run, equally split between the Null Hypothesis (NH) and the Alternative Hypothesis (AH). The ratings were analyzed by the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz (DBM) method and the separation of the NH/AH distributions was calculated. It was found that the AFROC method yielded higher power than ROC. The separation of the NH and AH distributions were larger by a factor of 1.6, irrespective of the presence or absence of intra-image correlations. The effect of the incorrect localizations occurring in ROC analysis of localization data is believed to be the major reason for the enhanced power of the AFROC method, and greater use of AFROC methodology is warranted.

Chakraborty, Dev P.

2002-04-01

335

A Two-Air-Stream Observation Chamber for Studying Responses of Flying Insects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes an observation chamber and airconditioning system designed for studying the responses of flying insects at the boundary between two microclimates. Two vertical air streams each fill one half of the rectangular observation chamber. Turb...

P. N. Daykin, F. E. Kellogg

1964-01-01

336

Chapter 19. In vitro studies of phenol coupling enzymes involved in vancomycin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Oxidative phenol cross-linking reactions play a key role in the biosynthesis of glycopeptide antibiotics such as vancomycin. The vancomycin aglycone contains three cross-links between aromatic amino acid side-chains, which stabilize the folded backbone conformation required for binding to the target D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. At least the first cross-link is introduced into a peptide precursor whilst it is still bound as a thioester to a peptide carrier protein (PCP) domain (also called a thiolation domain) within the nonribosomal peptide synthetase. We described here methods for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides and their coupling to PCP domains, which may be useful for in vitro studies of cross-linking and related tailoring reactions during nonribosomal glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. PMID:19374995

Li, Dong Bo; Woithe, Katharina; Geib, Nina; Abou-Hadeed, Khaled; Zerbe, Katja; Robinson, John A

2009-01-01

337

Expression and replication studies to identify new candidate genes involved in normal hearing function.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P

2014-01-01

338

Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p < 0.01). Boys compared to girls expressed a higher level of self-enhancement (means score: 36.5 vs. 35.1; p = 0.03), while girls expressed a higher level of self-transcendence (42.3 vs. 40.7; p = 0.03). The results of multilevel modeling indicates that boys with a higher level of self-enhancement and girls with a higher level of openness to change and a lower level of conservation were more likely to report engagement in problem behaviors. Only two parental values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed. PMID:17605792

Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2007-01-01

339

Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development  

PubMed Central

Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy. PMID:21430952

Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

2011-01-01

340

Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

2013-01-01

341

Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study  

PubMed Central

Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n?=?15) and pre-model (n?=?65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n?=?15), the sham-point group (n?=?15), and the ST36 group (n?=?15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495

2014-01-01

342

A Preliminary Geophysical Study Involving Remote Sensing at the Archaeological Site Trinchera Cave, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity, magnetic, seismic, and geodetic surveys were performed at Trinchera cave, an archaeological site ˜50 km east of Trinidad, Colorado, in order to locate the foundation walls of an ancient jacal structure. This structure, a shelter built during the Apishapa phase (earlier than 750 years before present), was reported - and backfilled - during a 1974 excavation; recent excavations have failed to again find it. The cave is a ˜8 m high overhang, the bottom of which marks the contact between the Dakota formation (yellowish-brown, fine-grained sandstone) and the underlying Purgatoire formation (bedded, organic-rich shale). The foundation was reported to be made of blocks of sandstone surrounded by cave fill/soil that is estimated to be 1.5 m thick in the cave. A total station survey mapped the topography beneath the overhang (the cave, ˜30 by 8 m) and within the adjacent creek. This part of the study should be useful to tie together future archaeological and geophysical work. Our magnetic map of the area is inconclusive due to the presence of metallic pipes left at the site by previous excavations and because of the overhang. Seismic refraction tests yielded varying thicknesses of the cave fill (0.7-2.3 m); however we experienced problems with the equipment in the field and realized that a 1-D model is insufficient to explain the data. A future reflection experiment might produce more useful seismic data. Our most reliable results were obtained by resistivity profiling. They show a more resistive structure in the SW part of the cave, about 1 m from the overhang and at a model depth of 2 m. We interpret this as the `lost' foundation.

McCarthy, L.; Bank, C.

2003-12-01

343

Involved-Node and Involved-Field Volumetric Modulated Arc vs. Fixed Beam Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Female Patients With Early-Stage Supra-Diaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Comparative Planning Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A comparative treatment planning study was performed to compare volumetric-modulated arc (RA) to conventional intensity modulated (IMRT) for involved-field (IFRT) and involved-node (INRT) radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for RA and IMRT. First, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OAR) dose deposition was assessed between the two modalities. Second, the OAR (lung, breast, heart, thyroid, and submandibular gland) dose-volume histograms were computed and compared for IFRT and INRT, respectively. Results: For IFRT and INRT, PTV coverage was equally homogeneous with both RA and IMRT. By and large, the OAR irradiation with IFRT planning was not significantly different between RA and IMRT. For INRT, doses computed for RA were, however, usually lower than those with IMRT, particularly so for the lung, breast, and thyroid. Regardless of RA and IMRT modalities, a significant 20-50% decrease of the OAR computed mean doses was observed with INRT when compared with IFRT (Breast D{sub Mean} 1.5 +- 1.1 vs. 2.6 +- 1.7 Gy, p < 0.01 and 1.6 +- 1.1 vs. 2.9 +- 1.9 Gy, p < 0.01 for RA and IMRT, respectively). Conclusions: RA and IMRT results in similar level of dose homogeneity. With INRT but not IFRT planning, the computed doses to the PTV and OAR were usually higher and lower with RA when compared to IMRT. Regardless of the treatment modality, INRT when compared with IFRT planning led to a significant decrease in OAR doses, particularly so for the breast and heart.

Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@medecine.unige.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Peguret, Nicolas; Dipasquale, Giovanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

2009-12-01

344

Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

Liontos, Lynn Balster

1992-01-01

345

Tracing Molecular Gas Mass in Extreme Extragalactic Environments: An Observational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new observational study of the 12CO(1-0) line emission as an H2 gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H2, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H2)/I CO factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled 12CO(3-2) and 12CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width ~15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 ?m and 450 ?m dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary 12CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter "excess." We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T C ~ 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of ~5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter "excess." We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

Zhu, Ming; Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Kuno, Nario; Lisenfeld, Ute

2009-12-01

346

TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY  

SciTech Connect

We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

Zhu Ming [Joint Astronomy Centre/National Research Council Canada, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Papadopoulos, Padeli P. [Argelander Instituet fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Xilouris, Emmanuel M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Kuno, Nario [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Lisenfeld, Ute, E-mail: m.zhu@jach.hawaii.ed, E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d, E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g, E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j, E-mail: ute@ugr.e [Departamento de fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

2009-12-01

347

A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

348

Temporomandibular signs, symptoms, joint alterations and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis - an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease that frequently affects also the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures. The main aim of this observational study was to describe systematically orofacial clinical signs and subjective symptoms in JIA patients, classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria, and to relate the findings to disease activity and radiological TMJ condyle lesions. Methods The study was a retrospective evaluation of dental and medical records in consecutive JIA patients referred to one of three dental specialist clinics in Sweden during an eight-year period. Data concerning temporomandibular signs, symptoms and general disease activity were collected and condylar alterations were judged on panoramic radiographs. Results All ILAR categories of JIA were represented among the 266 referrals included in the study. The distribution of patients among categories resembled the pattern seen in epidemiological studies. Persistent oligoarthritis was the largest category with 36.5% of the patients. Temporomandibular clinical signs (mild, moderate or severe) occurred in 57.7% to 92.0%, and subjective symptoms (mild or severe) in 32.0% to 76.0% of the patients in all categories. Patients in the juvenile psoriatic arthritis category had the largest number of orofacial signs and symptoms, and patients in the persistent oligoarthritis category had the fewest signs and symptoms. There were significant associations between clinical signs as well as subjective symptoms and overall disease activity. Half of all the patients had undergone panoramic examinations and 37.9% of those were judged to have condylar alterations after a mean of 2.9 years after onset. No associations between radiological findings and variables, such as signs, symptoms or disease activity, were found. Conclusions Temporomandibular signs and symptoms can be expected to a varying degree, including severe cases, in all JIA categories. Clinical and subjective orofacial involvement appears to be related to disease activity but not to condylar lesions. PMID:24134193

2013-01-01

349

A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Cases of Systemic Mastocytosis Involving the Gastrointestinal Tract and Assessment of Mucosal Mast Cell Density in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Asymptomatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Counting mast cells in gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal biopsies is becoming an increasingly common practice. The primary reason for this exercise is to evaluate for possible involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM). However, the features of mastocytosis in GI biopsies are not well described. In addition, recent studies have suggested that increased mast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of some cases of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the term “mastocytic enterocolitis” has been proposed for such cases. As the baseline mast cell density in colonic biopsies from normal patients has not been established in large cohorts, there is no widely accepted threshold for what constitutes increased mucosal mast cells. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the utility of GI biopsies for the diagnosis of SM, (2) to characterize the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of mastocytosis in the GI tract, (3) to determine mast cell density in normal colonic mucosa from a large cohort of asymptomatic patients, and (4) to compare these findings with those from patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Twenty-four patients with SM involving the GI tract, 100 asymptomatic patients, and 100 patients with IBS (the latter 2 groups with histologically normal colonic biopsies) were included. For the mastocytosis group, 107 biopsies (70 involved by mastocytosis; 67 mucosal, 3 liver) from 20 women and 4 men were evaluated (median age 59 y). The most commonly involved site was the colon (19 patients, 95%), followed by ileum (86%), duodenum (80%), and stomach (54%). In 16 cases (67%), the first diagnosis of SM was made on the basis of GI biopsies. Seventeen patients had documented cutaneous mastocytosis. Fifteen of 17 patients who underwent bone marrow biopsy had marrow involvement by SM. Eighteen patients had indolent disease, and 6 had aggressive disease (including all 3 with liver involvement). The most common GI symptom was diarrhea, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss, bloating, vomiting, or reflux. Liver disease presented with hepatomegaly and ascites. Endoscopic abnormalities (observed in 62%) included erythema, granularity, and nodules. Histologically, involved biopsies were characterized by infiltrates of ovoid to spindle-shaped mast cells in aggregates or sheets in the lamina propria, sometimes forming a confluent band underneath the surface epithelium; 25% of biopsies had only focal involvement (single aggregate). Prominent eosinophils were seen in 44% of involved colonic/ileal biopsies and 16% of duodenal biopsies. Mast cells were highlighted by diffuse membranous staining for KIT and CD25. In the nonmastocytosis groups, all biopsies contained singly dispersed mast cells with no aggregates. The mean highest mast cell counts (in a single high-power field) for asymptomatic patients and IBS patients were 26 (range, 11 to 55) and 30 (range, 13 to 59), respectively. In summary, GI (especially colonic) biopsies can establish a diagnosis of SM in patients with GI symptoms. GI involvement is usually subtle and is often associated with prominent eosinophils, which may obscure the mast cell infiltrate. KIT and CD25 are invaluable markers for the diagnosis. Mast cell density in colonic mucosa from asymptomatic patients is highly variable. Although patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS on average have mildly increased mast cells, the overlap in range with that of control patients is too great for this difference to be clinically useful. These findings argue against the utility of counting GI mucosal mast cell in patients with chronic diarrhea. PMID:24618605

Doyle, Leona A.; Sepehr, Golrokh J.; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Akin, Cem; Castells, Mariana C.; Hornick, Jason L.

2014-01-01

350

Key observations from a comprehensive FCC study on Canadian heavy gas oils from various origins: 1. Yield profiles in batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of cracking tests in a comprehensive study were conducted on separate occasions involving all or parts of 10 Canadian vacuum gas oil (VGO) feeds and a catalyst. VGOs were cracked in fixed- and fluid-bed microactivity test (MAT) units, the Advanced Cracking Evaluation (ACE) unit, and a modified ARCO riser reactor. Several important observations from this study were reported,

Siauw H. Ng; Yuxia Zhu; Adrian Humphries; Nobumasa Nakajima; Thomas Y. R. Tsai; Fuchen Ding; Hao Ling; Sok Yui

2006-01-01

351

Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.  

PubMed

Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865

Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-11-01

352

Synchronous Motor Observability Study and an Improved Zero-speed Position Estimation Design  

E-print Network

with the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) observability analysis for sensor- less control design here for the surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) to overcome position observabilitySynchronous Motor Observability Study and an Improved Zero-speed Position Estimation Design Dalila

Boyer, Edmond

353

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

354

LESSONS LEARNED FROM FOUR EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES: THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER STUDIES INVOLVING ELDERLY COHORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its collaborators are conducting a series of human exposure panel studies on elderly (65+ years) subpopulations. The primary objectives of these studies are -To determine personal and indoor exposures to particles and relate...

355

Measuring depression in nursing home residents with the MDS and GDS: an observational psychometric study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to examine the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) as measures of depression among nursing home residents. Methods The data for this study were baseline, pre-intervention assessment data from a research study involving nine nursing homes and 704 residents in Massachusetts. Trained research nurses assessed residents using the MDS and the GDS 15-item version. Demographic, psychiatric, and cognitive data were obtained using the MDS. Level of depression was operationalized as: (1) a sum of the MDS Depression items; (2) the MDS Depression Rating Scale; (3) the 15-item GDS; and (4) the five-item GDS. We compared missing data, floor effects, means, internal consistency reliability, scale score correlation, and ability to identify residents with conspicuous depression (chart diagnosis or use of antidepressant) across cognitive impairment strata. Results The GDS and MDS Depression scales were uncorrelated. Nevertheless, both MDS and GDS measures demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability. The MDS suggested greater depression among those with cognitive impairment, whereas the GDS suggested a more severe depression among those with better cognitive functioning. The GDS was limited by missing data; the DRS by a larger floor effect. The DRS was more strongly correlated with conspicuous depression, but only among those with cognitive impairment. Conclusions The MDS Depression items and GDS identify different elements of depression. This may be due to differences in the manifest symptom content and/or the self-report nature of the GDS versus the observer-rated MDS. Our findings suggest that the GDS and the MDS are not interchangeable measures of depression. PMID:15627403

Koehler, Melissa; Rabinowitz, Terry; Hirdes, John; Stones, Michael; Carpenter, G Iain; Fries, Brant E; Morris, John N; Jones, Richard N

2005-01-01

356

Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly. PMID:20663129

2010-01-01

357

Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

358

Lateralization of Motor Cortex Excitability in Stroke Patients during Action Observation: A TMS Study  

PubMed Central

Action observation activates the same motor areas as those involved in the performance of the observed actions and promotes functional recovery following stroke. Movement observation is now considered a promising tool for motor rehabilitation, by allowing patients to train their motor functions when voluntary movement is partially impaired. We asked chronic-stroke patients, affected by either left (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) lesions, to observe either a left or right hand, while grasping a small target (eliciting a precision grip) or a large target (eliciting a whole hand grasp directed towards a target object). To better understand the effects of action observation on damaged motor circuits, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce motor evoked potentials (MEP) from two muscles of the unaffected hand in 10 completely hemiplegic participants. Results revealed that LHD patients showed MEP facilitation on the right (contralesional) M1 during action observation of hand-object interactions. In contrast, results showed no facilitation of the left (contralesional) M1 in RHD patients. Our results confirm that action observation might have a positive influence on the recovery of motor functions after stroke. Activating the motor system by means of action observation might provide a mechanism for improving function, at least in LHD patients. PMID:24822187

Marangon, Mattia; Priftis, Konstantinos; Fedeli, Marta; Masiero, Stefano; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco

2014-01-01

359

Expanded Clinical Observations in Toxicity Studies: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent or proposed changes in major testing guidelines require expanded clinical observations (ECOs) for a wide variety of toxicity studies in animals. ECOs supplement the simple cageside and hand-held observations traditionally employed during such studies. The new guidelines specify out-of-cage observations [e.g., posture, gait, and reactivity to various stimuli (e.g., auditory, tactile, noxious)] using defined scales and are intended as

Joseph F. Ross; Joel L. Mattsson; Andrew S. Fix

1998-01-01

360

The Poor at School in Canada; Observational Studies of Canadian Schools, Classrooms and Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents 8 observational studies of interaction of the poor and the Canadian school system in an effort to gather data on inequalities in education. An ad hoc committee formed by the Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) asked the member organizations to undertake observational studies following 1 of 2 main types of designs: (1) an…

Chalmers, John W.; And Others

361

The method of interlapping observation in the study of personality in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interlapping observation may be illustrated by the following: one group of subjects would be studied during their first and second years, another group studied during their second and third years, etc., until the entire career line from birth to old age would be observed in a succession of two-year periods. The method keeps cultural contexts at the center of interest;

H. D. Lasswell

1937-01-01

362

An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book  

E-print Network

findings of an observational study investigating how young children interact with augmented reality story, and interactive tasks. Introducing novel media to young children requires system and story designers to considerAn observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book Andreas Dünser1 , Eva

Hornecker, Eva

363

Genes Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum N-Glycosylation Pathway of the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.: A Bioinformatic Study  

PubMed Central

N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

2014-01-01

364

The effectiveness of motorised lumbar traction in the management of LBP with lumbo sacral nerve root involvement: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Traction is commonly used for the treatment of low back pain (LBP), predominately with nerve root involvement; however its benefits remain to be established. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to compare the difference between two treatment protocols (manual therapy, exercise and advice, with or without traction) in the management of acute/sub acute LBP with 'nerve root' involvement. Methods 30 LBP patients with nerve root pain were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Primary outcome measures were the: McGill pain questionnaire, Roland Morris disability questionnaire, and the SF36 Questionnaire; recorded at baseline, discharge, 3 and 6 months post-discharge. Results 27 patients completed treatment with a loss of another four patients at follow up. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated an improvement in all outcomes at follow up points but there appeared to be little difference between the groups. Conclusion This study has shown that a trial recruiting patients with 'nerve root' problems is feasible. Further research based upon a fully powered trial is required to ascertain if the addition of traction has any benefit in the management of these patients. Trial Registration Registration number: ISRCTN78417198 PMID:18047650

Harte, Annette A; Baxter, George D; Gracey, Jacqueline H

2007-01-01

365

Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus on the prognosis in secondary space infection. Materials and Methods Medical records, radiographic images, computed tomography, and microbial studies of 51 patients (25 diabetic patients and 26 non-diabetic patients) were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as secondary fascial space infections with odontogenic origin and underwent treatment at Chonnam National University Hospital, in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, from January 2007 to February 2009. Results Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were presented with the following characteristics: older age (diabetic patients: 62.9 years, non-diabetic patients, 47.8 years), more spaces involved (diabetic patients, 60%; non-diabetic patients, 27.3%), more intense treatment, longer hospitalization (diabetic patients, 28.9 days; non-diabetic patients, 15.4 days), higher white blood cell and C-reactive protein values, higher incidence of complication (diabetic patients, 40%; non-diabetic patients, 7.7%), and distinctive main causative microorganisms. Conclusion These results suggest that the prognosis of diabetic patients is poorer than that of non-diabetic patients in secondary space infections since they had greater incidence rates of involved spaces, abnormal hematologic findings, more complications, and additional procedures, such as tracheostomy. PMID:24471039

Chang, Je-Shin; Yoo, Kil-Hwa; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jiwon; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk; Park, Hong-Ju; Ryu, Sun-Youl

2013-01-01

366

Is patient education helpful in providing care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A qualitative study involving French nurses.  

PubMed

This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries. PMID:23480278

Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie

2013-09-01

367

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration  

PubMed Central

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research. PMID:17941715

Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; G?tzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

2007-01-01

368

Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.  

PubMed

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired. PMID:25354126

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

2014-11-01

369

A study to examine community involvement in major U.S.military base closures and realignments from 1988 to 2001  

E-print Network

and community involvement in connection with closed military bases. The questionnaire was sent to 107 closed bases with fifty one base representatives responding. The contents of the completed questionnaires were analyzed for community involvement both during...

Yahn, Nancy Stiles

2005-11-01

370

Involving people.  

PubMed

A suite of resources from National Voices, the leading coalition of health and social care charities in England, aims to support commissioners and providers to access, understand and make use of the best evidence for various approaches to involving people in their own health and health care. PMID:25167121

2014-08-28

371

Results of employee involvement in planning and implementing the Treatwell 5-a-Day work-site study.  

PubMed

When work-site health promotion programs incorporate theories of community organization, it is likely that employee ownership and participation are enhanced. This article reports quantitative indicators of involvement of Employee Advisory Board (EAB) members in the Treatwell 5-a-Day work-site study and examines relationships between EAB member time spent on project activities and work-site size, with indicators of the extent of implementation and variables associated with behavior change and work-site support. The results reported here indicate that a greater number of EAB member hours spent on program activities was associated with a greater number of events implemented. Smaller work-site size was associated with greater employee awareness of the program and greater participation in project activities as reported on the employee survey. These results suggest that the number of hours employee representatives devote to project activities might be an important consideration in planning employee involvement in work-site health promotion programming. PMID:10768803

Hunt, M K; Lederman, R; Potter, S; Stoddard, A; Sorensen, G

2000-04-01

372

Involvement of the Inconstant Bursa of the Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Psoriatic Arthritis: A Clinical and Ultrasonographic Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the involvement of the bursa located next to the head of the 5th metatarsal bone in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with the other seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. All patients with PsA seen during a period of 24 months were enrolled. The control group included healthy subjects and patients with the other SpA. All subjects underwent clinical and ultrasound (US) examination of the lateral surface of the 5th metatarsal. Results. 150 PsA patients (88?M; 62?F), 172 SpA (107?M; 65?F), and 95 healthy controls (58?M; 37?F) were evaluated. Based on clinical and US evaluation, bursitis was diagnosed in 17/150 (11.3%) PsA patients but in none of the SpA (P < 0.0001) and healthy (P = 0.0002) controls. In detecting bursitis, US was more sensitive than clinical examination, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusion. The bursa of the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint appears to be involved in PsA more frequently than by chance. If confirmed by other studies, this finding could be considered as a distinctive clinical sign of PsA, useful for differential diagnosis with the other SpA. In asymptomatic patients, US proved to be more sensitive in the detection of bursitis. PMID:25061602

Ciancio, Giovanni; Volpinari, Stefania; Fotinidi, Maria; Furini, Federica; Bandinelli, Francesca; Orzincolo, Carlo; Trotta, Francesco

2014-01-01

373

Application of MATLAB and Python optimizers to two case studies involving groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One approach for utilizing geoscience models for management or policy analysis is via a simulation-based optimization framework—where an underlying model is linked with an optimization search algorithm. In this regard, MATLAB and Python are high-level programming languages that implement numerous optimization routines, including gradient-based, heuristic, and direct-search optimizers. The ever-expanding number of available algorithms makes it challenging for practitioners to identify optimizers that deliver good performance when applied to problems of interest. Thus, the primary contribution of this paper is to present a series of numerical experiments that investigated the performance of various MATLAB and Python optimizers. The experiments considered two simulation-based optimization case studies involving groundwater flow and contaminant transport. One case study examined the design of a pump-and-treat system for groundwater remediation, while the other considered least-squares calibration of a model of strontium (Sr) transport. Using these case studies, the performance of 12 different MATLAB and Python optimizers was compared. Overall, the Hooke-Jeeves direct search algorithm yielded the best performance in terms of identifying least-cost and best-fit solutions to the design and calibration problems, respectively. The IFFCO (implicit filtering for constrained optimization) direct search algorithm and the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) heuristic algorithm also consistently yielded good performance and were up to 80% more efficient than Hooke-Jeeves when applied to the pump-and-treat problem. These results provide empirical evidence that, relative to gradient- and population-based alternatives, direct search algorithms and heuristic variants, such as DDS, are good choices for application to simulation-based optimization problems involving groundwater management.

Matott, L. Shawn; Leung, Kenny; Sim, Junyoung

2011-11-01

374

The study of enhanced earth observations on a satellite image chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) on the KOrea Multi-Propose SATellite (KOMPSAT)-2 was developed and launched as a main payload to provide a One(1) m panchromatic image and four(4) band four(4) m multi-spectral images at an altitude of 685 km covering a swath width of 15 km. These images, archived around the world, are a useful resource for space applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, surveillance, and national security. The image quality of KOMPSAT-2 depends upon its image chain, which is comprised of an on-board system in the satellite and a processing system at the ground station. Therefore, in this study we determine the factors that have a major impact on the image quality through an investigation of the entire image chain. Consequently, two methods, involving a compression algorithm and a deconvolution technique, were determined as having a significant influence on the KOMPSAT-2 image quality. The compression algorithm of KOMPSAT-2 is rate-controlled JPEG-like algorithm that controls the mismatch between the input and output data rate. The ability to control the input/output data rate may be useful during the operation of the satellite but can also lower the overall image quality. The deconvolution technique may increase the sharpness of images, but it can also amplify the image noise level. Therefore, we propose methods of wavelet-based compression and denoising as an alternative to currently existing algorithms. Satisfactory results were obtained through experimentation with these two algorithms, and they are expected to be successfully implemented into the future KOMPSAT series to yield high-quality images for enhanced earth observation.

Yong, Sang-Soon; Choi, Myungjin; Ra, Sung-Woong

2011-10-01

375

Mechanistic studies for tri-targeted inhibition of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis by green tea polyphenols.  

PubMed

In the present study, we found that three enzymes, MVK, MDD and FPPS, in the mevalonate pathway (MVP) of cholesterol biosynthesis, can be simultaneously inhibited by two green tea polyphenols ((-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, ECG; (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG). Molecular dynamics simulations and pharmacophore studies were carried out to elucidate the tri-targeted inhibition mechanisms. Our results indicate that similar triangular binding pockets exist in all three enzymes, which is essential for their binding with polyphenols. Two distinct binding poses for ECG and EGCG were observed in our MD simulations. These results shed light on the potential for further selective and multi-targeted inhibitor design for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:24879560

Ge, Hu; Liu, Jinggong; Zhao, Wenxia; Wang, Yu; He, Qingqing; Wu, Ruibo; Li, Ding; Xu, Jun

2014-07-21

376

Leisure-Time Physical Activity in School Environments: An Observational Study Using SOPLAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Schools provide settings for physical activity (PA), but objective tools for measuring PA are lacking. We assessed an instrument to directly observe group PA and measured the leisure-time PA of adolescents throughout the school day.Methods. Leisure-time PA was studied by direct observation in 24 middle schools in Southern California using SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in

Thomas L. McKenzie; Simon J. Marshall; James F. Sallis; Terry L. Conway

2000-01-01

377

Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms: a multimethod study using direct observations and teacher reports for ages 6–11  

Microsoft Academic Search

International research on children's problems relies heavily on parent and teacher ratings. Such ratings are helpful to professionals who assess children but are subjected to biases emerging from adults’ personal involvement with the children they rate, and their own cultural experiences. This study investigated whether ratings of teachers versus observers on Jamaican children ages 6–11 differed according to informant, urban

Michael Canute Lambert; Marieva Puig; Mikhail Lyubansky; George T Rowan; Martin Hill; Beth Milburn; Stanley D Hannah

2001-01-01

378

Theoretical study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the thermal intramolecular reactions of 1,6-fullerenynes.  

PubMed

Substitution of a H atom by an alkyl group on the terminal carbon of the alkyne moiety of 1,6-fullerenynes has a strong impact on the products of the reaction undergone by this species after thermal treatment. While the reaction of 1,6-fullerenynes bearing an unsubstituted alkyne moiety results in the cycloaddition of the alkyne group to the fullerene double bond leading to cyclobutene-fused derivatives, the presence of an alkyl substituent leads to the formation of allenes. In the present work, we have performed an exhaustive theoretical analysis of all possible reaction mechanisms leading to cyclobutene-fused derivatives and allenes to offer an explanation of the reactivity differences observed. The results obtained show that formation of cyclobutene-fused derivatives occurs through a stepwise diradical reaction mechanism, while allene formation proceeds through a concerted way involving an uncommon intramolecular ene process. For the 1,6-fullerenynes bearing a substituted alkyne, the ene reaction path leading to allenes has an energy barrier somewhat lower than the stepwise diradical mechanism for the cyclobutene-fused derivative formation, thus explaining the outcome of the reaction. PMID:17523605

Güell, Mireia; Martín, Nazario; Altable, Margarita; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín-Domenech, Angel; Solà, Miquel

2007-06-21

379

Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: An auditory fMRI study.  

PubMed

Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

2014-10-01

380

Early development of neurophysiological processes involved in normal reading and reading disability: a magnetic source imaging study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined the development of the brain mechanism involved in phonological decoding in beginning readers using magnetic source imaging. Kindergarten students were assigned to 2 groups: those who showed mastery of skills that are important predictors of proficient reading (low-risk group) and those who initially did not show mastery but later benefited from systematic reading instruction and developed average-range reading skills at the end of Grade 1 (high-risk responders). Spatiotemporal profiles of brain activity were obtained during performance of letter-sound and pseudoword naming tasks before and after Grade 1 instruction. With few exceptions, low-risk children showed early development of brain activation profiles that are typical of older skilled readers. Provided that temporoparietal and visual association areas were recruited into the brain mechanism that supported reading, the majority of high-risk responder children benefited from systematic reading instruction and developed adequate reading abilities. PMID:16351354

Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Sarkari, Shirin; Billingsley, Rebecca L; Francis, David J; Castillo, Eduardo M; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Denton, Carolyn; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

2005-11-01

381

Exploring the Ethics of Observational Research: The Case of an HIV Study in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Observational studies have generally been viewed as incurring minimal risk to participants, resulting in fewer ethical obligations for investigators than intervention studies. In 2004, the lead author (AN) carried out an observational study measuring sexual behavior and the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), among Tanzanian agricultural plantation residents (results reported elsewhere). This article uses an ethical lens to consider the consequences of the observational study and explore what, if any, effects it had on participants and their community. Methods Using a case study approach, we critically examine three core principles of research ethics—respect for persons/autonomy; beneficence/nonmaleficence; and distributive justice—as manifested in the 2004 observational study. We base our findings on three sources: discussions with plantation residents following presentations of observational research findings; in-depth interviews with key informants; and researcher observations. Results The observational research team was found to have ensured confidentiality and noncoercive recruitment. Ironically, maintenance of confidentiality and voluntary participation led some participants to doubt study results. Receiving HIV test results was important for participants and contributed to changing community norms about HIV testing. Conclusions Observational studies may act like de facto intervention studies and thus incur obligations similar to those of intervention studies. We found that ensuring respect for persons may have compromised the principles of beneficence and distributive justice. While in theory these three ethical principles have equal moral force, in practice, researchers may have to prioritize one over the others. Careful community engagement is necessary to promote well-considered ethical decisions. PMID:24069546

Norris, Alison; Jackson, Ashley; Khoshnood, Kaveh

2013-01-01

382

The effects of roundabouts on traffic safety for bicyclists: An observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A before-and-after study was carried out of injury accidents involving bicyclists on 91 roundabouts in Flanders-Belgium. The study design accounted for the effects of general safety trends and regression-to-the-mean, but could not take into account the possibility of specific changes in traffic volume at roundabouts. The conversion of intersections into roundabouts produces a significant 27% increase in the number of

Stijn Daniels; Erik Nuyts; Geert Wets

2008-01-01

383

Propensity Score Estimation With Boosted Regression for Evaluating Causal Effects in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal effect modeling with naturalistic rather than experimental data is challenging. In observational studies participants in different treatment conditions may also differ on pretreatment characteristics that influence outcomes. Propensity score methods can theoretically eliminate these confounds for all observed covariates, but accurate estimation of propensity scores is impeded by large numbers of covariates, uncertain functional forms for their associations with

Daniel F. McCaffrey; Greg Ridgeway; Andrew R. Morral

2004-01-01

384

Propensity Score Estimation With Boosted Regression for Evaluating Causal Effects in Observational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Causal effect modeling with naturalistic rather than experimental data is challenging. In observational studies participants in different treatment conditions may also differ on pretreatment characteristics that influence outcomes. Propensity score methods can theoretically eliminate these confounds for all observed covariates, but accurate…

McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ridgeway, Greg; Morral, Andrew R.

2004-01-01

385

A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST  

E-print Network

A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST L 2002. [1] Black aurora was observed on 30 January 1998 in a narrow-field camera forty seconds before. Electron energy flux measured by FAST provided strong evidence that FAST passed over black aurora

California at Berkeley, University of

386

A Mass Observation Study of Student and Teacher Behaviour in British Primary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large scale observational study by educational psychologists of 141 UK primary classrooms used a partial interval time-sampling observational schedule to record the frequency and type of verbal behaviour of teachers and whether students were "on-task" (following the teacher's directions) or "off-task" (not following the teacher's directions).…

Apter, Brian; Arnold, Christopher; Swinson, Jeremy

2010-01-01

387

An Observational and Modeling Study of an Atmospheric Internal Bore During NAME 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric internal bores have been identified and studied in a variety of locations around the world. However, until now, atmospheric bores have not been explicitly reported in the North American monsoon region. Observations from the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) 2004, including soundings, surface observations, and wind profilers have been used to identify and describe the structure, dynamics and significance

E. R. Martin; R. H. Johnson

2007-01-01

388

An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The propensity score is the probability of treatment assignment conditional on observed baseline characteristics. The propensity score allows one to design and analyze an observational (nonrandomized) study so that it mimics some of the particular characteristics of a randomized controlled trial. In particular, the propensity score is a balancing…

Austin, Peter C.

2011-01-01

389

Case Study of Insitu-Aircraft Observations in a Waterspout Producing Cloud.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of in-situ aircraft observations collected in the parent cloud of a waterspout is presented. Previous waterspout studies were confined mainly to photometric and model simulated data, no in-situ observations were made internal to the parent clo...

C. M. Baskin

2005-01-01

390

Patients with low back pain differ from those who also have leg pain or signs of nerve root involvement - a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Leg pain associated with low back pain (LBP) is recognized as a risk factor for a poor prognosis, and is included as a component in most LBP classification systems. The location of leg pain relative to the knee and the presence of a positive straight leg raise test have been suggested to have clinical implications. To understand differences between such leg pain subgroups, and whether differences include potentially modifiable characteristics, the purpose of this paper was to describe characteristics of patients classified into the Quebec Task Force (QTF) subgroups of: 1) LBP only, 2) LBP and pain above the knee, 3) LBP and pain below the knee, and 4) LBP and signs of nerve root involvement. Methods Analysis of routine clinical data from an outpatient department. Based on patient reported data and clinical findings, patients were allocated to the QTF subgroups and described according to the domains of pain, activity limitation, work participation, psychology, general health and clinical examination findings. Results A total of 2,673 patients aged 18–95 years (median 47) who were referred for assessment of LBP were included. Increasing severity was consistently observed across the subgroups from LBP only to LBP with signs of nerve root involvement although subgroup differences were small. LBP patients with leg pain differed from those with LBP only on a wide variety of parameters, and patients with signs of nerve root involvement had a more severe profile on almost all measures compared with other patients with back-related leg pain. Conclusion LBP patients with pain referral to the legs were more severely affected than those with local LBP, and patients with signs of nerve root involvement were the ones most severily affected. These findings underpin the concurrent validity of the Quebec Task Force Classification. However, the small size of many between-subgroup differences amid the large variability in this sample of cross-sectional data also underlines that the heterogeneity of patients with LBP is more complex than that which can be explained by leg pain patterns alone. The implications of the observed differences also require investigation in longitudinal studies. PMID:23190800

2012-01-01

391

CONTAM 02 Observations in Rivers and Urban Streams: Merced River Net Daily Metabolism Studies  

E-print Network

the balance between energy supply and demand within the system. We are examining multiple scales of temporalCONTAM 02 Observations in Rivers and Urban Streams: Merced River Net Daily Metabolism Studies Team

California at Los Angeles, University of

392

Observational and evolutionary studies of neutron star X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present our observational and evolutionary studies of neutron stars in X-ray binary systems. A variety of topics are discussed, which are all related by a single scientific theme, namely, helping to set ...

Lin, Jinrong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

393

User-friendly tools on handheld devices for observer performance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROC studies require complex procedures to select cases from many data samples, and to set confidence levels in each selected case to generate ROC curves. In some observer performance studies, researchers have to develop software with specific graphical user interface (GUI) to obtain confidence levels from readers. Because ROC studies could be designed for various clinical situations, it is difficult task for preparing software corresponding to every ROC studies. In this work, we have developed software for recording confidence levels during observer studies on tiny personal handheld devices such as iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To confirm the functions of our software, three radiologists performed observer studies to detect lung nodules by using public database of chest radiograms published by Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The output in text format conformed to the format for the famous ROC kit from the University of Chicago. Times required for the reading each case was recorded very precisely.

Matsumoto, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Matsusako, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

2012-02-01

394

Spousal Involvement in CPAP: Does Pressure Help?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves sleep and quality of life for both patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and their spouses. However, few studies have investigated spousal involvement in treatment adherence. Aims of this observational study were to assess perceptions of spousal involvement and evaluate associations between involvement and adherence. Methods: Spousal involvement in CPAP adherence was assessed in 23 married male OSA patients after the first week of treatment. At 3 months, 16 participants completed a second assessment of spousal involvement. Types of involvement assessed included positive (e.g., encouraging), negative (e.g., blaming), collaboration (e.g., working together), and one-sided (e.g., asking). An interpersonal measure of supportive behaviors was also administered at 3 months to evaluate the interpersonal qualities of spousal involvement types. Objective CPAP adherence data were available for 14 participants. Results: Average frequency of spousal involvement ratings were low for each involvement type and only negative spousal involvement frequency decreased at 3 month follow-up (p = 0.003). Perceptions of collaborative spousal involvement were associated with higher CPAP adherence at 3 months (r = 0.75, p = 0.002). Positive, negative and one-sided involvement were not associated with adherence. Collaborative spousal involvement was associated with moderately warm and controlling interpersonal behaviors (affiliation, r = 0.55, p = 0.03, dominance r = 0.47, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Patients reported low frequency but consistent and diverse perceptions of spousal involvement in CPAP over the first 3 months of treatment. Perceptions of collaborative spousal involvement were the only type associated with adherence and represent moderately warm and controlling interpersonal behavior. Interventions to increase spousal collaboration in CPAP may improve adherence. Citation: Baron KG; Gunn HE; Czajkowski LA; Smith TW; Jones CR. Spousal involvement in CPAP: does pressure help? J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):147-153. PMID:22505859

Baron, Kelly Glazer; Gunn, Heather E.; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Smith, Timothy W.; Jones, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

395

Studying low-redshift universe through observation of Damped Lyman-alpha quasar absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, an extremely successful method to study galaxy formation and evolution, has been provided by observation of quasar absorbers. Quasar absorbers are systems intercepting our line-of-sight to a given quasar and thus produce a feature in the quasar spectrum, the so-called absorption lines. The Damped Lyman-a (DLA) and sub-Damped Lyman-a (sub-DLA) absorption features in quasar spectra are believed to be produced by intervening galaxies. However, the connection of quasar absorbers to galaxies is not well-understood, since attempts to image the absorbing galaxies have often failed. DLAs and sub-DLAs were originally thought to be the precursors of present day disk galaxies, but there is evidence that they may be dominated by gas-rich, proto-dwarf galaxies representing the basic building blocks of hierarchical growth of structure. While most DLAs appear to be metal-poor, a population of metal-rich absorbers, mostly sub-DLAs, has been discovered in recent spectroscopic studies. It is of great interest to image these metal-rich absorbers, especially with high spatial resolution, to understand the connection between the stellar and interstellar content of the underlying galaxies. This dissertation consists of several projects designed to further our understanding of galaxies and galactic structures associated with intervening quasar absorption lines. Two projects were completed that involved the imaging of 13 DLA/sub-DLA galaxies at z < 1. High angular resolution near-infrared images were obtained, using the Hokupa'a Adaptive Optics system with the QUIRC near-infrared camera on the 8-m Gemini-North telescope, and the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system on the 10-m Keck telescope. Detailed properties of the identified absorber galaxies are described. They are shown to be drawn from a variety of morphological types with a range of luminosities, sizes, and impact parameters. In the other set of projects, follow-up spectroscopy was performed to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts of the candidate absorbers. In addition, optical and near-infrared spectroscopy provide necessary information to understand the luminosities, dust extinction, and star formation rates and thus the nature of these galaxies. Spectroscopy of 5 DLA/sub-DLA galaxies was performed using the 10-m Keck telescope with LRIS spectrograph, and 8-m Gemini- North telescope with the GMOS spectrograph. Several emission lines (e.g., Ha, Hb, [N II], [O II], [O III]) were detected and analyzed, which revealed the redshift, metallicity, dust extinction, and star formation rate of the candidate galaxies.

Gharanfoli, Soheila

2009-06-01

396

Tapentadol prolonged release for severe chronic pain: results of a noninterventional study involving general practitioners and internists.  

PubMed

This noninterventional, prospective study investigated the administration of tapentadol prolonged release (PR; the dosage form described in this article is commercially available in Germany as Palexia retard; Grünenthal GmbH, Aachen) for severe chronic pain in routine clinical practice over a 3-month period. Effectiveness analyses included data from 3134 patients; 1331 received World Health Organization (WHO) Step III pretreatment. A total of 97.8% of patients received long-term analgesic pretreatment (42.5% with strong opioids). Switching to tapentadol PR produced a 3.9-point mean pain reduction (baseline, 7.0 ± 1.5; end of observation, 3.1 ± 1.8; 11-point numerical rating scale; descriptive P value ?.001); 72.1% of patients experienced clinically relevant pain relief (?50%) at the end of observation. Significant decreases in pain-related impairment of daily activities and improvements in quality of life (descriptive P value ?.001) were observed with tapentadol PR with good tolerability. Tapentadol PR was effective for various pain indications in patients previously receiving strong opioids (67.2% achieved clinically relevant pain relief). Tapentadol PR can be considered an alternative therapy to classical opioids for treatment of severe chronic pain. PMID:23957433

Schwittay, A; Schumann, C; Litzenburger, B C; Schwenke, K

2013-08-01

397

When the Subject Is More than Just the Subject: Two Case Studies of Family Involvement in Human Subjects Research  

PubMed Central

Institutional review boards (IRBs) protect human research subjects by reviewing research to ensure compliance with federal regulations and institutional policies. One of the most important functions of IRBs is to ensure that investigators anticipate, plan for, and minimize risks to subjects. Under certain circumstances, however, participation in research may pose risks to nonsubject family members or other members of a subject’s social network. In the context of a research protocol designed to test an intervention to prevent depression among a population of culturally diverse, urban mothers, we present two case studies of unanticipated problems, which demonstrate how nonsubject family members can either impact, or be impacted by, an individual’s participation in research. The case studies illustrate the incongruence between federal regulations addressing IRB approval of research— which focus specifically on risks to subjects—and regulations on reporting incidents that occur during the conduct of the research, which extend to risks involving “others” as well. The cases also illustrate how risks to “others” can be accentuated in certain cultures where codependent family structures may increase the role that family members play in an individual’s decision to participate in research. The question is raised as to whether this incongruence can inadvertently result in investigators and IRBs under-appreciating the risks that participation in research can pose to nonsubjects. PMID:21460585

Sauder, Sara; Stein, Rachel; Feinberg, Emily; Bauchner, Howard; Banks, Mary; Silverstein, Michael

2011-01-01

398

Mendel: a simple excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a ?2 test.  

PubMed

The analysis of transgenic and knockout mice always involves the establishment of matings with individuals carrying different loci, segregating independently, whose presence is expected among the progeny, according to a Mendelian distribution. The appearance of distorted inheritance ratios suggests the existence of unexpected lethal or sub-lethal phenotypes associated with some genotypes. These situations are common in a number of cases, including: testing transgenic founder mice for germ-line transmission of their transgenes; setting up heterozygous crosses to obtain homozygous individuals, both for transgenic and knockout mice; establishing matings between floxed mouse lines and suitable cre transgenic mouse lines, etc. The Pearson's ?(2) test can be used to assess the significance of the observed frequencies of genotypes/phenotypes in relation to the expected values, in order to determine whether the observed cases fit the expected distribution. Here, I describe a simple Excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a ?(2) test. The file is freely available for download from my laboratory's web page at: http://www.cnb.csic.es/~montoliu/Mendel.xls . PMID:21853295

Montoliu, Lluís

2012-06-01

399

Effect of land surface interactions on cloud convection processes - A mesoscale modeling study using the ARM CLASIC-2007 field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of the land surface representation could play an important role in the convection initiation of clouds and thunderstorm. The investigation of the complex interactions among land surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL), and cloud- radiation processes, and their effects on the development of deep convection is needed to improve model skills. Using observations made during the ARM CLASIC_2007 field experiment and high resolution (~ 1 - 3 km) modeling studies, we investigated the impact of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation under different soil moisture conditions? We conducted experiments with an offline land data assimilation system to simulate the surface energy balance and the soil moisture/temperature fields using two different vegetation schemes. We then used these fields to test the impact of improved soil moisture and temperature initial conditions on the convection initiation and cloud convection simulated by the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF - ARW). The coupled model was used to perform additional experiments involving different vegetation and soil representations (MODIS landuse, different vegetation resistance, soil moisture fields) and the impact on the boundary layer - convergence, convection initiation, and dynamical fields were analyzed using CLASIC field observations from insitu flux sites, ER2, and as available satellite scans. Three typical cases involving clear sky condition, shallow convection, and deep convection events were analyzed with the model setup to understand the role of land atmosphere interaction on the convection and rainfall processes over the southern great plains.

Charusambot, U.; Niyogi, D.; Miller, M. A.

2010-12-01

400

Involvement of the inferior frontal junction in cognitive control: Meta-analyses of switching and Stroop studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that a specific region in the posterior frontolateral cortex is involved intimately in cognitive control processes. This region, located in the vicinity of the junction of the inferior frontal sulcus and the inferior precentral sulcus, was termed the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). The IFJ was shown to be involved in the updating of task representations and

Jan Derrfuss; Marcel Brass; Jane Neumann; D. Yves von Cramon

2005-01-01

401

Glycerol Dehydratation by the B12-Independent Enzyme May Not Involve the Migration of a Hydroxyl Group: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

Glycerol Dehydratation by the B12-Independent Enzyme May Not Involve the Migration of a Hydroxyl the mechanism of the B12-independent glycerol dehydratase, a novel glycyl-radical enzyme involved in the microbial conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxylpropionaldehyde. The calculations indicate

Ullmann, G. Matthias

402

Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

2007-01-01

403

Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

2011-01-01

404

Relevance of the expression “obs stable” in nursing observations: retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To ascertain whether use of the term “obs stable” with respect to the nursing observations is so liberal as to render it meaningless. Design Retrospective study. Setting Three teaching hospitals in London, United Kingdom. Methods We searched progress notes for the current admission of 46 inpatients for entries containing the phrases “obs stable” and “observations stable,” and reviewed the nursing observations recorded during the 24 hour period preceding each entry containing at least one phrase. We calculated the frequency of abnormalities and of persistent abnormalities (defined as occurring in every observation) observed during these 24 hour periods, and the range of observation values over a 24 hour period if at least two observations had been recorded. Results We found at least one entry in 36 (78%) progress notes (95% confidence interval 66% to 90%). Observations in the 24 hours preceding an entry included at least one abnormality for 113 (71%) of 159 cases and at least one persistent abnormality for 31 (19%). The most frequently occurring abnormalities were tachypnoea (respiratory rate ?20 breaths/min) and hypotension (systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg). An abnormality occurred in the observations immediately preceding an entry in 42% of cases. Mean ranges of observations over 24 hours were within the limits of normal diurnal variation, although we found that some instances of greater than normal variability were described as “stable.” Conclusions The expression “obs stable” does not reliably indicate normal observations or variations in observations within physiological limits. Doctors should avoid using the expression altogether or clarify it with further information. PMID:22187323

2011-01-01

405

Examining the Relations of Infant Temperament and Couples' Marital Satisfaction to Mother and Father Involvement: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The relations of infant temperament and parents' marital satisfaction to mother and father involvement in early (T1, approximately 7 months, n = 142) and later (T2, approximately 14 months, n = 95) infancy were examined. At each assessment point, mothers and fathers completed daily diaries together to measure their involvement over four days (i.e., 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days), each partner reported on marital satisfaction, and mothers reported on infants' temperament. Structural equation models indicated that when infants were more temperamentally regulated, parents were more satisfied in their marital relationships. Parents' marital satisfaction mediated the association between more regulated infant temperament and greater mother involvement at T1 (but not at T2) and father involvement at T2 (but not at T1). The findings are discussed in terms of the implications of infant temperament and family relationships for parental involvement. PMID:20221413

Mehall, Karissa Greving; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

2009-01-01

406

A Naturalistic Observational Study of Informal Segregation: Seating Patterns in Lectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the removal of legislated racial segregation, a number of observational studies in South Africa and elsewhere have shown that "informal," nonlegislated segregation persists in spaces of everyday interaction. Most of these have been case studies of segregation at single sites. The authors seek to quantify segregation in a sample of…

Koen, Jennifer; Durrheim, Kevin

2010-01-01

407

Information exchange networks for chronic illness care in primary care practices: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information exchange networks for chronic illness care may influence the uptake of innovations in patient care. Valid and feasible methods are needed to document and analyse information exchange networks in healthcare settings. This observational study aimed to examine the usefulness of methods to study information exchange networks in primary care practices, related to chronic heart failure, diabetes and chronic

Michel Wensing; Jan van Lieshout; Jan Koetsenruijter; David Reeves

2010-01-01

408

A Review of Cross-Cultural Studies of Observed Peer Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined cross-cultural research literature for support of relationship between children's social functioning and peer acceptance and psychosocial well-being. Used PsychLIT search to identify 18 cross-cultural observational studies focusing on interaction of children up to 12 years. Encountered theoretical orientations. Found that the studies did…

Goudena, Paul P.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

2002-01-01

409

Methods for Extremely Large Scale Media Experiments and Observational Studies Gary King, Benjamin Schneer & Ariel White  

E-print Network

) � The goal of media outlets (and our study) is activated opinion � Goal: influence "the conversation": people engaging with others, trying to influence politics � Social media is of direct interest, highlyMethods for Extremely Large Scale Media Experiments and Observational Studies Gary King, Benjamin

410

Observable Behavior for Implicit User Modeling: A Framework and User Studies  

E-print Network

and Douglas W. Oard College of Information Studies and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4345 {jinmook, oard}@glue.umd.edu phone: 1-301-405-2033 fax: 1 on feedback provided by the user about the relevance of documents that they have examined. By observing user

Oard, Doug

411

Acid regurgitation associated with persistent cough after pulmonary resection: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Following a pulmonary resection, some patients suffer from persistent coughing, which may have a relationship with acid regurgitation. Since few physiological studies have been reported regarding this issue, we conducted the present observational study. METHODS: Persistent cough after pulmonary resection (CAP) was defined as non-productive coughing that occurred after a pulmonary resection in patients with stable chest X-ray results

Noriyoshi Sawabata; Shin-ichi Takeda; Toshiteru Tokunaga; Masayoshi Inoue; Hajime Maeda

2006-01-01

412

The Antarctic First Regional Observing Study of the Troposphere (FROST) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the Antarctic First Regional Observing Study of the Troposphere (FROST) project, which has been organized by the Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. The goals of FROST are to study the meteorology of the Antarctic, to determine the strengths and weaknesses of operational analyses and forecasts over

John Turner; Steven Colwell; Steven Leonard; David Bromwich; Stephen Dixon; Hugh Hutchinson; Kieran Jacka; Lawrie Marsh; Stephen Pendlebury; Tim Gibson; Terry Hart; Günther Heinemann; Michael Lieder; Henry Phillpot; Mike Pook; Ian Simmonds

1996-01-01

413

A multicentre observational study of radionuclide therapy in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicentre observational study was conducted by the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine between 1996 and 1998. Twenty-nine Nuclear Medicine Departments participated. The aims of the study were to systematically evaluate the efficacy, toxicity and repeatability of radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases (RTBM) in a large number of patients and to assess its incidence in patients with prostate cancer.

Aikaterini Dafermou; Paolo Colamussi; Melchiore Giganti; Corrado Cittanti; Maurizio Bestagno; Adriano Piffanelli

2001-01-01

414

A Large-Scale Study of MySpace: Observations and Implications for Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

A Large-Scale Study of MySpace: Observations and Implications for Online Social Networks James the characteristics of large online social net- works through an extensive analysis of over 1.9 mil- lion MySpace profiles in an effort to understand who is using these networks and how they are being used. We study MySpace

Caverlee, James

415

Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients' acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase. This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government). Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key