Science.gov

Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  2. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, in vivo and in vitro studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for study design, original purposes, sample size, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values. Results: In total, 4,331 non-duplicates articles were identified from electronic databases searches, of which 16 were eligible for full text searching. Data from the observational studies originate from Asian countries (50%; 8/16), South American countries (31.2%; 5/16), and Central America and the Caribbean countries (18.8%; 3/16). Case-control study was the type of design most common in researches reviewed. The 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification criteria were used in all studies included in this review. Conclusions: Based on published data found in peer-reviewed literature, oxidative and nitrosative stress are demonstrated by changes in plasma levels of nitric oxide, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers in patients with dengue infection. Additionally, elevated serum protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels appear to be associated with dengue disease severity. PMID:26600629

  3. Patients' and Observers' Perceptions of Involvement Differ. Validation Study on Inter-Relating Measures for Shared Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Jürgen; Heesen, Christoph; Köpke, Sascha; Fulcher, Gary; Geiger, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patient involvement into medical decisions as conceived in the shared decision making method (SDM) is essential in evidence based medicine. However, it is not conclusively evident how best to define, realize and evaluate involvement to enable patients making informed choices. We aimed at investigating the ability of four measures to indicate patient involvement. While use and reporting of these instruments might imply wide overlap regarding the addressed constructs this assumption seems questionable with respect to the diversity of the perspectives from which the assessments are administered. Methods The study investigated a nested cohort (N = 79) of a randomized trial evaluating a patient decision aid on immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Convergent validities were calculated between observer ratings of videotaped physician-patient consultations (OPTION) and patients' perceptions of the communication (Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, Control Preference Scale & Decisional Conflict Scale). Results OPTION reliability was high to excellent. Communication performance was low according to OPTION and high according to the three patient administered measures. No correlations were found between observer and patient judges, neither for means nor for single items. Patient report measures showed some moderate correlations. Conclusion Existing SDM measures do not refer to a single construct. A gold standard is missing to decide whether any of these measures has the potential to indicate patient involvement. Practice Implications Pronounced heterogeneity of the underpinning constructs implies difficulties regarding the interpretation of existing evidence on the efficacy of SDM. Consideration of communication theory and basic definitions of SDM would recommend an inter-subjective focus of measurement. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN25267500. PMID:22043310

  4. Troponin T in Patients with Traumatic Chest Injuries with and without Cardiac Involvement: Insights from an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Ismail; El-Menyar, Ayman; Dabdoob, Wafer; Abdulrahman, Yassir; Siddiqui, Tarriq; Atique, Sajid; Arumugam, Suresh Kumar; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum troponin T (TnT) is a common marker of myocardial injury. However, its implication in the absence of clinical evidence of cardiac reason is not well established. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the implications of positive TnT in traumatic chest injury (TCI) patients regardless of the cardiac involvement. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all TCI patients admitted to level 1 trauma center between 2008 and 2011. Patients who underwent TnT testing were divided into two groups: Group 1 (positive TnT) and Group 2 (negative TnT). The two groups were analyzed and compared, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of TnT positivity and mortality. Results: Out of 993 blunt TCI patients, 19.3% had positive TnT (Group 1). On comparison to Group 2, patients in Group 1 were 5 years younger and more likely to have head, cardiac, hepatic, splenic, and pelvic injuries, in addition to lung contusion. Positive TnT was associated with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (P = 0.001), higher chest Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) (P = 0.001), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.03). In addition, Group 1 patients were more likely to undergo chest tube insertion, exploratory laparotomy, mechanical ventilation, and tracheostomy. Twenty patients had cardiac involvement, and of them 14 had positive TnT. Among 973 patients who showed no evidence of cardiac involvement, 178 had positive TnT (18.3%). There were 104 deaths (60% in Group 1). On multivariate regression analysis, the predictors of hospital mortality were positive TnT, head injury, and high ISS, whereas, the predictors of TnT positivity were cardiac, hepatic, and pelvic injuries; higher ISS; and age. Conclusions: Positive TnT in blunt TCI patients is a common challenge, particularly in polytrauma cases. Patients with positive TnT tend to have the worst outcome even in the absence of clinical evidence of acute cardiac involvement. Positive TnT is

  5. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW. PMID:25978481

  6. Cigarette smoking and risk of adult glioma: a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies involving more than 2.3 million individuals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-xing; Peng, Xiao-xiao; Zong, Qiang; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ming-xin; Liu, Yi-zhe; Han, Guang-liang

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a risk factor for adult glioma by some but not all studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically assess the potential association. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched from the date of their inception to October 1, 2015, to identify relevant articles. Reference lists from these articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Both cohort and case–control studies were included. Fixed-effects models were used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The final analysis included 24 studies (seven cohort and 17 case–control studies), involving more than 2.3 million individuals. The combined RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.09; P=0.073) for ever-smokers, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.07; P=0.574) for current-smokers, and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.16; P=0.130) for past smokers, with little evidence of heterogeneity. Omission of any single study from the analysis had little effect on the result. No evidence of publication bias was found. A small but statistically significant increase was found in past smokers in females (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28; P=0.046) but not in males. Conclusion In general, there was no association between cigarette smoking and adult glioma. The small but statistically significant association in females requires further investigation. PMID:27366088

  7. Characteristics, Treatment, and Long-Term Outcome of Gastrointestinal Involvement in Behcet's Syndrome: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study From a Dedicated Multidisciplinary Center.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Ibrahim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Hatemi, Gulen; Erzin, Yusuf; Yazici, Hasan; Celik, Aykut Ferhat

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in Behçet's syndrome (BS) patients from the Mediterranean basin. We report the demographic and disease characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcome of patients with gastrointestinal involvement in BS (GIBS).We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all BS patients in our BS clinic with a diagnosis of GIBS. Patients were invited to the clinic to assess their outcome.Among 8763 BS patients, we identified 60 with GIBS (M/F: 32/28, mean age at diagnosis: 34 ± 10, mean follow-up: 7.5 ± 4 years), after excluding 22 patients with mimicking symptoms. Six (10%) had juvenile-onset BS. The most common intestinal localization was ileocecal region (36/59, 61%) mainly as big oval ulcer/s. Initial treatment was azathioprine for moderate to severe (n = 37) and 5-ASA for mild cases (n = 16). Anti-TNFs and/or thalidomide provided remission in 12 of 18 (67%) refractory patients. Emergency surgery was required in 22 patients. Nine patients did not receive postoperative immunomodulators and 8 relapsed. Overall, 48 of 60 (80%) patients were in remission (29/48 without treatment) at the time of survey. Three recently treated and 2 refractory patients were still active, 3 had died due to non-GI-related reasons, and 4 were lost to follow-up.Careful evaluation for excluding mimickers is important during the diagnosis of GIBS. Azathioprine seems to be a good choice as first-line treatment with high remission rates and few adverse events. Thalidomide and/or TNF-alpha antagonists may be preferred in resistant cases. Surgery may be required for perforations or massive bleeding, and postoperative immunosuppressive treatment is necessary for preventing postoperative recurrences. PMID:27100417

  8. Skylab Earth Observation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This concept illustrates Skylab Earth observation studies, an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). EREP was designed to explore the use of the widest possible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for Earth resource investigations with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Resources subject to this study included a capability of mapping Earth resources and land uses, crop and forestry cover, health of vegetation, types of soil, water storage in snow pack, surface or near-surface mineral deposits, sea surface temperature, and the location of likely feeding areas for fish, etc. A significant feature of EREP was the ability of man to operate the sensors in a laboratory fashion.

  9. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  10. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  11. Neuroblastoma with intracranial involvement: an ENSG Study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P J; Eden, T

    1992-01-01

    We report the experience of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group (ENSG) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement of neuroblastoma. Among this series of intensively treated patients, CNS neuroblastoma was diagnosed by computerised tomography (CT) scanning, rather than by autopsy. Cranial disease occurred in 5% of ENSG patients. Of 11 patients with intracranial disease, 4 had disease in the posterior fossa, a site rarely reported previously. Furthermore, 5 cases had CNS metastases at a time when there was no detectable disease elsewhere, rather than as part of extensive relapse. The pattern of disease we observed, at least for those with parenchymal disease, is in keeping with arterial spread. Although CT scanning is the optimal modality for identifying CNS disease, 2 cases had normal head CT scans prior to the onset of CNS disease. As most patients had symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (RICP) at the time the CNS disease was diagnosed, there does not seem to be any indication for routine CT scanning of the head at diagnosis, but this should be performed as soon as any symptoms or signs appear. With patients living longer with their disease, vigilance must be maintained during follow-up. PMID:1734220

  12. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  13. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  14. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  15. Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Bryan T.; Long, Mian; Piper, James W.; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2003-05-01

    Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces. It has been suggested that force could either shorten bond lifetimes, because work done by the force could lower the energy barrier between the bound and free states (`slip'), or prolong bond lifetimes by deforming the molecules such that they lock more tightly (`catch'). Whereas slip bonds have been widely observed, catch bonds have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, using atomic force microscopy and flow-chamber experiments, we show that increasing force first prolonged and then shortened the lifetimes of P-selectin complexes with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, revealing both catch and slip bond behaviour. Transitions between catch and slip bonds might explain why leukocyte rolling on selectins first increases and then decreases as wall shear stress increases. This dual response to force provides a mechanism for regulating cell adhesion under conditions of variable mechanical stress.

  16. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk. 26.404 Section 26.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Observational...

  17. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk. 26.404 Section 26.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Observational...

  18. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk. 26.404 Section 26.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Observational...

  19. Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

    2012-01-16

    The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and

  20. 21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2000-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these

  1. [Critical reading of analytical observational studies].

    PubMed

    García Villar, C; Marín León, I

    2015-11-01

    Analytical observational studies provide very important information about real-life clinical practice and the natural history of diseases and can suggest causality. Furthermore, they are very common in scientific journals. The aim of this article is to review the main concepts necessary for the critical reading of articles about radiological studies with observational designs. It reviews the characteristics that case-control and cohort studies must have to ensure high quality. It explains a method of critical reading that involves checking the attributes that should be evaluated in each type of article using a structured list of specific questions. It underlines the main characteristics that confer credibility and confidence on the article evaluated. Readers are provided with tools for the critical analysis of the observational studies published in scientific journals. PMID:26123855

  2. MAXimising Involvement in MUltiMorbidity (MAXIMUM) in primary care: protocol for an observation and interview study of patients, GPs and other care providers to identify ways of reducing patient safety failures

    PubMed Central

    Daker-White, Gavin; Hays, Rebecca; Esmail, Aneez; Minor, Brian; Barlow, Wendy; Brown, Benjamin; Blakeman, Thomas; Bower, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increasing numbers of older people are living with multiple long-term health conditions but global healthcare systems and clinical guidelines have traditionally focused on the management of single conditions. Having two or more long-term conditions, or ‘multimorbidity’, is associated with a range of adverse consequences and poor outcomes and could put patients at increased risk of safety failures. Traditionally, most research into patient safety failures has explored hospital or inpatient settings. Much less is known about patient safety failures in primary care. Our core aims are to understand the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures, to explore the different ways in which patients and services respond (or fail to respond), and to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods and analysis We plan to undertake an applied ethnographic study of patients with multimorbidity. Patients’ interactions and environments, relevant to their healthcare, will be studied through observations, diary methods and semistructured interviews. A framework, based on previous studies, will be used to organise the collection and analysis of field notes, observations and other qualitative data. This framework includes the domains: access breakdowns, communication breakdowns, continuity of care errors, relationship breakdowns and technical errors. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee for Wales. An individual case study approach is likely to be most fruitful for exploring the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures. A longitudinal and multiperspective approach will allow for the constant comparison of patient, carer and healthcare worker expectations and experiences related to the provision, integration and management of complex care. This data will be used to explore ways of engaging patients and carers more in their own care using shared decision

  3. Observational Studies: Matching or Regression?

    PubMed

    Brazauskas, Ruta; Logan, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    In observational studies with an aim of assessing treatment effect or comparing groups of patients, several approaches could be used. Often, baseline characteristics of patients may be imbalanced between groups, and adjustments are needed to account for this. It can be accomplished either via appropriate regression modeling or, alternatively, by conducting a matched pairs study. The latter is often chosen because it makes groups appear to be comparable. In this article we considered these 2 options in terms of their ability to detect a treatment effect in time-to-event studies. Our investigation shows that a Cox regression model applied to the entire cohort is often a more powerful tool in detecting treatment effect as compared with a matched study. Real data from a hematopoietic cell transplantation study is used as an example. PMID:26712591

  4. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533

  5. Studying lipids involved in the endosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Christin; Johnson, Shem; Gruenberg, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Endosomes along the degradation pathway exhibit a multivesicular appearance and differ in their lipid compositions. Association of proteins to specific membrane lipids and presumably also lipid-lipid interactions contribute to the formation of functional membrane platforms that regulate endosome biogenesis and function. This chapter provides a brief review of the functions of endosomal lipids in the degradation pathway, a discussion of techniques that allow studying lipid-based mechanisms and a selection of step-by-step protocols for in vivo and in vitro methods commonly used to study lipid roles in endocytosis. The techniques described here have been used to elucidate the function of the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and allow the monitoring of lipid distribution, levels and dynamics, as well as the characterization of lipid-binding partners. PMID:22325596

  6. Observational studies of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, Carolyn C.

    1987-01-01

    Several noteworthy phenomena in Saturn's rings were investigated which have until now received an inadequate amount of attention. Among these are the periodic variation of the spokes in the B ring and eccentric features throughout the rings. One of the major discoveries by Voyager was the existence of eccentric features within the predominantly circular rings of Saturn. Several of these nonaxisymmetric features are narrow elliptical rings which share many characteristics with the rings of Uranus. In recent work, two narrow ringlets were added to the list of eccentric features in the rings of Saturn. Voyager imaging and occultation data are now in hand, as well as image-processing software which allows accurate absolute positional measurements to be made in Voyager imaging data. Work is in progress to re-examine this region of Saturn's rings and to study the possibility of a dynamical interaction between the outer B ring edge, the Huygens ringlet and the nearby Mimas 2:1 resonance. An understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of this region promises to yield important clues to a matter of great interest in both theoretical and observation ring studies.

  7. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation involving the brain: a topographical study.

    PubMed

    Fan, K J; Scott-Cora, J W

    1982-05-01

    Histopathological study on 723 brains from routine necropsies was performed. Ten brains (1.38 percent) were found to have histological lesions of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with multiple fresh fibrin and/or platelet thrombi in the cerebral microcirculation. Among them, premortem diagnosis was made in only one case, and only two cases also showed evidence of visceral involvement. Microthrombi were found most frequently in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamic region and in the cerebral white matter, brain stem, and cerebellum, in descending order. Neurological symptoms and signs, including lethargy, coma and seizure, were detected in all cases. The abnormal body temperature and/or urinary output observed in most patients appeared to be related to the frequent hypothalamic involvement by DIC. The exclusive or predominant involvement of the brain by multiple microthrombi may be considered as a localized form of DIC. It is probably related to cerebral ischemia since severe acute neuronal ischemic changes also were noted in most brains. PMID:7120479

  9. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  10. Direct Observation of Intermediates Involved in the Interruption of the Bischler–Napieralski Reaction

    PubMed Central

    White, Kolby L.; Mewald, Marius; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The first mechanistic investigation of electrophilic amide activation of α,α-disubstituted tertiary lactams and the direct observation of key intermediates by in situ FTIR, 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR in our interrupted Bischler–Napieralski based synthetic strategy to the aspidosperma alkaloids, including a complex tetracyclic diiminium ion, is discussed. The reactivity of a wide range of pyridines with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was systematically examined, and characteristic IR absorption bands for the corresponding N-trifluoromethanesulfonylated pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonates were assigned. The reversible formation of diiminium ether intermediates was studied, providing insight into divergent mechanistic pathways as a function of the steric environment of the amide substrate and stoichiometry of reagents. Importantly, when considering base additives during electrophilic amide activation, more hindered α-quaternary tertiary lactams require the use of non-nucleophilic pyridine additives in order to avoid deactivation via a competing desulfonylation reaction. The isolation and full characterization of a tetracyclic iminium trifluoromethanesulfonate provided additional correlation between in situ characterization of sensitive intermediates and isolable compounds involved in this synthetic transformation. PMID:26166404

  11. Direct Observation of Intermediates Involved in the Interruption of the Bischler-Napieralski Reaction.

    PubMed

    White, Kolby L; Mewald, Marius; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The first mechanistic investigation of electrophilic amide activation of α,α-disubstituted tertiary lactams and the direct observation of key intermediates by in situ FTIR, (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR in our interrupted Bischler-Napieralski-based synthetic strategy to the aspidosperma alkaloids, including a complex tetracyclic diiminium ion, is discussed. The reactivity of a wide range of pyridines with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride was systematically examined, and characteristic IR absorption bands for the corresponding N-trifluoromethanesulfonylated pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonates were assigned. The reversible formation of diiminium ether intermediates was studied, providing insight into divergent mechanistic pathways as a function of the steric environment of the amide substrate and stoichiometry of reagents. Importantly, when considering base additives during electrophilic amide activation, more hindered α-quaternary tertiary lactams require the use of non-nucleophilic pyridine additives in order to avoid deactivation via a competing desulfonylation reaction. The isolation and full characterization of a tetracyclic iminium trifluoromethanesulfonate provided additional correlation between in situ characterization of sensitive intermediates and isolable compounds involved in this synthetic transformation. PMID:26166404

  12. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). Conclusion More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients’ privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean. PMID:26755469

  13. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  14. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  15. A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbridge, Natalie H.

    2013-01-01

    Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…

  16. Observational Evidence for Involvement of Nitrate Radicals in Nighttime Oxidation of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mordechai; Tas, Eran; Obrist, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Moore, Christopher; Gabay, Maor; Luria, Menachem

    2015-12-15

    In the atmosphere, reactive forms of mercury species can be produced by oxidation of the dominant gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). The oxidation of GEM is an important driver for deposition, but oxidation pathways currently are poorly constrained and likely differ among regions. In this study, continuous measurements of atmospheric nitrate radical (NO3) concentrations and mercury speciation (i.e., elemental and reactive, oxidized forms) were performed during a six week period in the urban air shed of Jerusalem, Israel during summer 2012, to investigate the potential nighttime contribution of nitrate radicals to oxidized mercury formation. Average nighttime concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were almost equivalent to daytime levels (25 pg m(-3) and 27 pg m(-3) respectively), in contrast to early morning and evening RGM levels which dropped to low levels (9 and 13 pg m(-3)). During daytime, the presence of RGM was increased when solar radiation exceeded 200 W m(-2), suggesting a photochemical process for daytime RGM formation. Ozone concentrations were largely unrelated to daytime RGM. Nighttime RGM concentrations were relatively high (with a maximum of 97 pg m(-3)) compared to nighttime levels in other urban regions. A strong correlation was observed between nighttime RGM concentrations and nitrate radical concentration (R(2) averaging 0.47), while correlations to other variables were weak (e.g., RH; R(2) = 0.35) or absent (e.g., ozone, wind speed and direction, pollution tracers such as CO or SO2). Detailed analyses suggest that advection processes or tropospheric influences were unlikely to explain the strong nighttime correlations between NO3 and RGM, although these processes may contribute to these relationships. Our observations suggest that NO3 radicals may play a role in RGM formation, possibly due to a direct chemical involvement in GEM oxidation. Since physical data, however, suggest that NO3 unlikely initiates GEM oxidation, NO3 may play a

  17. Study of erodable paint properties involved in antifouling activity.

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, M; Langlois, V; Briandet, R; Langlois, J Y; Guerin, P H; Peron, J J; Haras, D; Vallee-Rehel, K

    2003-06-01

    To produce ecological marine paints, it is necessary to understand the phenomena involved in antifouling activity. Due to the multivariable components which have to be taken into account and due to their analytical intricacy, only studies based on selected properties are conceivable. In this study, four properties have been chosen, viz. erosion, biocide release, roughness and the physicochemical characteristics of the film surface. A principal-component analysis (PCA) of the experimental data has shown that, among the selected properties, only erosion affected antifouling efficiency. A more detailed investigation of erosion by quantifying global hydration and hydrolysis of immersed paints revealed the difficulty in linking the chemical structure of binders to the final erosion properties. Biocide release from paints, quantified by chromatographic methods coupled with UV detection, was inferior to the doses stated by the paint producers. These observations allowed the conceiving of formulations with reduced amounts of active molecules. The development of erodable, biodegradable binders associated with non toxic compounds is a promising way to obtain efficient antifouling paints compatible with existing, preventive systems. PMID:14619286

  18. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  19. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  20. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, S; Schmalbruch, H; Rørth, M; Krarup, C

    2007-04-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses. At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin. PMID:17301082

  1. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  2. Nerve and muscle involvement in mitochondrial disorders: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Piazza, Selina; Volpi, Leda; Orsucci, Daniele; Calsolaro, Valeria; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Rocchi, Anna; Petrozzi, Lucia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in mitochondrial disorders (MD) has been previously reported. However, the exact prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and/or myopathy in MD is still unclear. In order to evaluate the prevalence of neuropathy and myopathy in MD, we performed sensory and motor nerve conduction studies (NCS) and concentric needle electromyography (EMG) in 44 unselected MD patients. NCS were abnormal in 36.4% of cases, and were consistent with a sensori-motor axonal multineuropathy (multifocal neuropathy), mainly affecting the lower limbs. EMG evidence of myopathy was present in 54.5% of patients, again mainly affecting the lower limbs. Nerve and muscle involvement was frequently subclinical. Peripheral nerve and muscle involvement is common in MD patients. Our study supports the variability of the clinical expression of MD. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular basis underlying the phenotypic variability among MD patients. PMID:21751099

  3. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  4. Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patient’s depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the

  5. Inquiry-Based Field Studies Involving Teacher-Scientist Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    2001-01-01

    Describes a collaborative professional development program, Inquiry-Based Field Studies Involving Teacher-Scientist Collaboration, that uses scientist-teacher teams to improve teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry. Reports that the project allowed teachers to develop a deeper understanding on the nature of science. (Author/YDS)

  6. Carer involvement with drug services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: ‘Current levels of involvement’, ‘Use of the term carer’ and ‘Opportunities for change?’ Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term ‘carer’ was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the ‘same but different’ from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899

  7. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  8. Observational Studies of Retarded Children with Multiple Stereotyped Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Three relatively long-term observational studies, involving seven retarded preschool children, each of whom exhibited multiple stereotypes, were conducted to determine the extent to which the type of activity or setting had any effect upon the rates of stereotyped movements. (Author)

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor activity is involved in the increased anxiety levels observed in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Solleiro, Daniela; Araiza, Luis Fernando Ontiveros; Broccoli, Laura; Hansson, Anita C; Rocha-Arrieta, Luisa Lilia; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Fuxe, Kjell; Pérez de la Mora, Miguel

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological surveys have indicated that anxiety disorders are more frequent in diabetic patients than in the general population. Similar results have been shown in animal studies using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. The mechanisms underlying this relationship are not clearly understood, but it has been suggested that alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmission, which plays an important role in the amygdaloid modulation of fear and anxiety, may be involved. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether or not the amygdaloid DA D1 receptors are involved in the increase of anxiety-like behavior observed in "diabetic" animals. Adult Wistar male rats were injected with STZ (50mg/kg, i.p.) in two consecutive days and subjected to the Shock-Probe Burying Test 10days after the beginning of treatment. STZ-treated rats showed a significant increase in immobility/freezing behavior whereas no effects were elicited in latency to bury, burying behavior itself and the number of shocks received during testing as compared with non-diabetic controls. These results suggest the triggering of a passive coping response in the STZ-treated rats. Interestingly, immobility/freezing behavior was reversed following the intra-amygdaloid dopamine D1 receptor blockade by the local microinfusion of SCH23390 (100ng/side). Autoradiographic experiments showed a selective increase of [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding in the ventral intercalated paracapsular islands of STZ-treated rats when compared to the non-treated control group. Our results suggest that a hyperdopaminergic state involving DA D1 receptors within the amygdala may have a role in the increase of anxiety observed in diabetic rats. PMID:27374159

  10. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  11. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  12. Analytic Bounds on Causal Risk Differences in Directed Acyclic Graphs Involving Three Observed Binary Variables

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sol; Kaufman, Jay S.; MacLehose, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We apply a linear programming approach which uses the causal risk difference (RDC) as the objective function and provides minimum and maximum values that RDC can achieve under any set of linear constraints on the potential response type distribution. We consider two scenarios involving binary exposure X, covariate Z and outcome Y. In the first, Z is not affected by X, and is a potential confounder of the causal effect of X on Y. In the second, Z is affected by X and intermediate in the causal pathway between X and Y. For each scenario we consider various linear constraints corresponding to the presence or absence of arcs in the associated directed acyclic graph (DAG), monotonicity assumptions, and presence or absence of additive-scale interactions. We also estimate Z-stratum-specific bounds when Z is a potential effect measure modifier and bounds for both controlled and natural direct effects when Z is affected by X. In the absence of any additional constraints deriving from background knowledge, the well-known bounds on RDc are duplicated: −Pr(Y≠X) ≤ RDC ≤ Pr(Y=X). These bounds have unit width, but can be narrowed by background knowledge-based assumptions. We provide and compare bounds and bound widths for various combinations of assumptions in the two scenarios and apply these bounds to real data from two studies. PMID:20161106

  13. Religious Congregations’ Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction. PMID:20953903

  14. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 26.405 Section 26.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research:...

  15. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... observational research that includes such an intervention or procedure unless the IRB finds and documents that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observational research involving... Section 26.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF...

  16. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... observational research that includes such an intervention or procedure unless the IRB finds and documents that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Observational research involving... Section 26.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF...

  17. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... observational research that includes such an intervention or procedure unless the IRB finds and documents that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observational research involving... Section 26.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF...

  18. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... observational research that includes such an intervention or procedure unless the IRB finds and documents that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Observational research involving... Section 26.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF...

  19. Diapause in tardigrades: a study of factors involved in encystment.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Boschini, Deborah; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2008-07-01

    Stressful environmental conditions limit survival, growth and reproduction, or these conditions induce resting stages indicated as dormancy. Tardigrades represent one of the few animal phyla able to perform both forms of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Different forms of cryptobiosis (quiescence) are widespread and well studied, while little attention has been devoted to the adaptive meaning of encystment (diapause). Our goal was to determine the environmental factors and token stimuli involved in the encystment process of tardigrades. The eutardigrade Amphibolus volubilis, a species able to produce two types of cyst (type 1 and type 2), was considered. Laboratory experiments and long-term studies on cyst dynamics of a natural population were conducted. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that active tardigrades collected in April produced mainly type 2 cysts, whereas animals collected in November produced mainly type 1 cysts, indicating that the different responses are functions of the physiological state at the time they were collected. The dynamics of the two types of cyst show opposite seasonal trends: type 2 cysts are present only during the warm season and type 1 cysts are present during the cold season. Temperature represents the environmental factor involved in induction, maintenance and termination of the cyst. We also obtained evidence that A. volubilis is able to perform both diapause and cryptobiosis, even overlapping the two phenomena. The induction phase of tardigrade encystment can be compared to the induction phase of insect diapause, also indicating an involvement of endogenous factors in tardigrade encystment. As in insect diapause, tardigrade encystment can be considered a diapausing state controlled by exogenous and endogenous stimuli. PMID:18587124

  20. Direct Observation of Reversible Electronic Energy Transfer Involving an Iridium Center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A cyclometalated iridium complex is reported where the core complex comprises naphthylpyridine as the main ligand and the ancillary 2,2′-bipyridine ligand is attached to a pyrene unit by a short alkyl bridge. To obtain the complex with satisfactory purity, it was necessary to modify the standard synthesis (direct reaction of the ancillary ligand with the chloro-bridged iridium dimer) to a method harnessing an intermediate tetramethylheptanolate-based complex, which was subjected to acid-promoted removal of the ancillary ligand and subsequent complexation. The photophysical behavior of the bichromophoric complex and a model complex without the pendant pyrene were studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Reversible electronic energy transfer (REET) is demonstrated, uniquely with an emissive cyclometalated iridium center and an adjacent organic chromophore. After excited-state equilibration is established (5 ns) as a result of REET, extremely long luminescence lifetimes of up to 225 μs result, compared to 8.3 μs for the model complex, without diminishing the emission quantum yield. As a result, remarkably high oxygen sensitivity is observed in both solution and polymeric matrices. PMID:24555716

  1. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews (FGIs): one set for primary malignant brain tumours and the other for acute leukaemia. Separate FGIs will be carried out with patients and relatives including representation from patient organisations and clinical specialists to identify important unanswered questions and research topics within each group. The FGIs will be video/audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. This study will contribute to a patient-centred research agenda that captures issues that patients, their relatives, clinical specialists and researchers consider important. Ethics and dissemination The study is registered at the Danish Data Protection Agency (number: 2012-58-0004) and the Scientific Ethics Review Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (number: H-15001485). Papers will be published describing the methods applied and the supportive care and rehabilitation issues that are identified as important for future research. Trial registration number ISRCTN57131943; Pre-results. PMID:27221126

  2. Embedding clinical interventions into observational studies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Anderson, Garnet; Heiss, Gerardo; Howard, Wm James; Krucoff, Mitchell; Kuller, Lewis H; Lewis, Cora E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Taylor, Herman; Treviño, Roberto P; Weintraub, William

    2016-01-01

    Novel approaches to observational studies and clinical trials could improve the cost-effectiveness and speed of translation of research. Hybrid designs that combine elements of clinical trials with observational registries or cohort studies should be considered as part of a long-term strategy to transform clinical trials and epidemiology, adapting to the opportunities of big data and the challenges of constrained budgets. Important considerations include study aims, timing, breadth and depth of the existing infrastructure that can be leveraged, participant burden, likely participation rate and available sample size in the cohort, required sample size for the trial, and investigator expertise. Community engagement and stakeholder (including study participants) support are essential for these efforts to succeed. PMID:26611435

  3. Observational Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.

    2015-07-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterization of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  4. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  5. [Issues in Psychiatric Care as Observed in Recent Legal Proceedings Involving Medical Treatment].

    PubMed

    Kinomoto, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Among recent court cases involving medical treatment (medical litigation), civil proceedings focused on compensation claims began clearly trending upward around 1999. This trend peaked in 2004, after which the number of cases declined slightly and remained mostly flat. Over the past year or two, however, cases seem to be on the rise once again. Fluctuations in the volume of medical litigation have been attributed to various factors, but there is little doubt that careless medical errors and incidents of serious medical malpractice, as well as media coverage, are major factors in the recent increase. Although there has been no significant change in the actual number of lawsuits involving psychiatric care, it is possible to identify risk resulting from circumstances unique to psychiatry (prejudice surrounding psychiatric care, etc.). In this paper, the author will illustrate current trends in medical litigation and important aspects of judicial decisions related to health care. Furthermore, based on his many years of experience acting for the defense in psychiatric care litigation, the author will offer suggestions for promoting mutual understanding between psychiatry and the law that will, in turn, contribute to both "advocacy for legitimate psychiatric care" and "the quest for ideal psychiatric care". PMID:26721062

  6. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  7. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  8. Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

    Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in

  9. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  10. The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by

  11. STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  12. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  13. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  14. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  15. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  16. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  17. Overview of the Ocean Observer Satellite Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, J. D.; McGuire, J. P.; Pichel, W. G.; Gerber, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    A two-year study of ocean satellite remote sensing requirements and instrument/satellite options is nearing completion. This Ocean Observer Study was sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce/Dept. of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Program Office, whose mission is to develop the future U.S. National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). A comprehensive Ocean Observer User Requirements Document has been drafted by a team of over 150 government, academic, and private sector scientists, engineers, and administrators. Included are requirements for open and coastal ocean surface, cryospheric, hydrologic, and some land/hazard and atmospheric boundary layer parameters. This document was then used as input to the instrument and satellite study (conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) which produced five different instrument/satellite configuration options designed to address the maximum number of requirements which will not be met with the already-approved NPOESS instruments. Instruments studied include a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), an altimeter, and a hyper-spectral coastal infrared/visible imager. After analyzing the alternatives, it appears that one of the best options is a two-satellite system consisting of (1) an altimeter mission in the Topex/Poseidon orbit carrying both wide-swath and delayed doppler altimeters, and (2) a multi-polarization, multi-frequency, multi-mode interferometric SAR mission including a coastal imager in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. This paper summarizes the user requirements process, briefly describes the notional satellite configuration, and presents some of the capabilities of the instruments.

  18. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  19. Vascular involvement in adenomyosis: report of a large series of a common phenomenon with observations on the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Meenakshi; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of vascular involvement in adenomyosis has been noted earlier, but there has been little detailed study of this phenomenon. In this study, we examined a large series of uteri with adenomyosis (n=434), specifically looking for the presence of adenomyotic foci within vascular channels. Vascular involvement was identified in 54 cases (12.4%). In 19 of 54 cases (35%) a single vessel was involved, in 16 cases (30%) 2 to 3 vessels, and in 19 cases (35%) multiple vessels. In 34 cases (63%), the intravascular component comprised endometrial stroma only and in 20 cases (37%) there was a mixture of glands and stroma, although even in these cases some of the individual foci exhibiting vascular involvement consisted of stroma only. In most cases, the intravascular component protruded into the vessel lumen beneath an intact endothelial lining. Immunohistochemistry performed in a small number of cases confirmed the intravascular location and showed the intravascular tissue to be lined on the luminal surface with endothelial cells. Pathologists should be aware of the phenomenon of vascular involvement in adenomyosis, which is relatively common and, when widespread, may result in the consideration of a neoplastic process. The pattern of vascular involvement raises the possibility that adenomyosis develops from cells intimately associated with myometrial blood vessels, perhaps multipotential perivascular cells. PMID:20173497

  20. Not Just Cupcakes Anymore: A Study of Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Parent involvement can have unforeseen consequences. Article recounts complicated process of choosing a high school biology textbook in Colorado Springs district populated mainly by evangelical Christians. Although controversy arose over creationism's treatment in one text, book discussing evolution as unifying concept of biology was eventually…

  1. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  2. Molecular study of nosocomial nocardiosis outbreak involving heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Exmelin, L; Malbruny, B; Vergnaud, M; Prosvost, F; Boiron, P; Morel, C

    1996-04-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) were compared as methods of investigating a nosocomial outbreak of nocardiosis involving three heart transplant recipients. No clear distinctions between three clinically related isolates and four unrelated strains were obtained by ribotyping. On the contrary, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis with two selected primers, primers 2650 and DKU49, showed one pattern for the three related isolates and four patterns for the unrelated strains. PMID:8815073

  3. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  4. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: An observation on its microscopic involvement in breast carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Coyne, John D

    2010-09-01

    The spaces of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) are postulated to be important in the intramammary spread of breast carcinoma. The present study aimed to note the prevalence of inconspicuous, microscopic foci of PASH (identified as CD34+ve, CD31-ve and D2-40-ve spaces containing tumour emboli) involved in breast carcinoma and to establish the significance of its relationship to lymph node metastases. A total of 80 cases of breast carcinoma were examined for microscopic foci of PASH permeated by carcinoma and, of the four cases found to demonstrate such involvement, three had lymph node metastases. PMID:22966384

  5. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  6. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A.

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  8. Is patient involvement possible when decisions involve scarce resources? A qualitative study of decision-making in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene; Hillier, Sheila; Rowlands, Gillian; Curtis, Sarah

    2004-07-01

    Greater patient involvement has become a key goal of health care provision. This study explored the way in which general practitioners (GPs) in the UK manage the dual responsibilities of treating individual patients and making the most equitable use of National Health Service (NHS) resources in the context of the policy of greater patient involvement in decision-making. We undertook a qualitative study incorporating a series of interviews and focus groups with a sample of 24 GPs. We analysed GP accounts of decision-making by relating these to substantive ethical principles and the key procedural principle of explicitness in decision-making. GPs saw patient involvement in positive terms but for some GPs involvement served an instrumental purpose, for instance improving patient 'compliance'. GPs identified strongly with the role of patient advocate but experienced role tensions particularly with respect to wider responsibilities for budgets, populations, and society in general. GPs had an implicit understanding of the key ethical principle of explicitness and of other substantive ethical principles but there was incongruence between these and their interpretation in practice. Limited availability of GP time played an important role in this theory/practice gap. GPs engaged in implicit categorisation of patients, legitimating this process by reference to the diversity and complexity of general practice. If patient involvement in health care decision-making is to be increased, then questions of scarcity of resources, including time, will need to be taken into account. If strategies for greater patient involvement are to be pursued then this will have significant implications for funding primary care, particularly in terms of addressing the demands made on consultation time. Good ethics and good professional practice cost money and must be budgeted for. More explicit decision-making in primary care will need to be accompanied by greater explicitness at the national level

  9. The involvement of model-based but not model-free learning signals during observational reward learning in the absence of choice.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; D'Souza, Arun; O'Doherty, John P

    2016-06-01

    A major open question is whether computational strategies thought to be used during experiential learning, specifically model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, also support observational learning. Furthermore, the question of how observational learning occurs when observers must learn about the value of options from observing outcomes in the absence of choice has not been addressed. In the present study we used a multi-armed bandit task that encouraged human participants to employ both experiential and observational learning while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found evidence for the presence of model-based learning signals during both observational and experiential learning in the intraparietal sulcus. However, unlike during experiential learning, model-free learning signals in the ventral striatum were not detectable during this form of observational learning. These results provide insight into the flexibility of the model-based learning system, implicating this system in learning during observation as well as from direct experience, and further suggest that the model-free reinforcement learning system may be less flexible with regard to its involvement in observational learning. PMID:27052578

  10. The involvement of model-based but not model-free learning signals during observational reward learning in the absence of choice

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Simon; D’Souza, Arun; O’Doherty, John P.

    2016-01-01

    A major open question is whether computational strategies thought to be used during experiential learning, specifically model-based and model-free reinforcement-learning, also support observational learning. Furthermore, the question of how observational learning occurs when observers must learn about the value of options from observing outcomes in the absence of choice, has not been addressed. In the present study we used a multi-armed bandit task that encouraged human participants to employ both experiential and observational learning while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found evidence for the presence of model-based learning signals during both observational and experiential learning in the intraparietal sulcus. However, unlike in experiential learning, model-free learning signals in the ventral striatum were not detectable during this form of observational learning. These results provide insight into the flexibilty of the model-based learning system, implicating this system in learning during observation as well as from direct experience, and further suggest that the model-free reinforcement-learning system may be less flexible with regard to its involvement in observational learning. PMID:27052578

  11. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  12. Group Involvement in Decision-Making: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genrich, Sandra J.; Banks, J. Carolyn; Bufton, Karen; Savage, Mary Ellen; Owens, Marcella Upshaw

    2001-01-01

    Health care leaders (n=27) read case studies and identified leadership styles appropriate for the scenarios. Results suggest that participating in a class on the use of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model may help leaders gain the skill needed to delegate decision making to groups. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  13. Involving study populations in the review of genetic research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R R; Foster, M W

    2000-01-01

    Genetic research can present risks to all members of a study population, not just those who choose to participate in research. The authors suggest that community-based reviews of research protocols can help identify and minimize such research-related risks. PMID:11067631

  14. Case Studies Involving Displaced Workers' Transition to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lillian R.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is how community college transition programs and services accommodated students who experienced a major life transition event (job loss) using Schlosberg's (1984) Life Transition Model and the updated model with Anderson and Goodman (2006). Students' perceptions of transition programs and services were…

  15. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  16. Potential New Lidar Observations for Cloud Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, Dave; Hu, Yong; Narir, Amin; Cai, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The response of clouds to global warming represents a major uncertainty in estimating climate sensitivity. These uncertainties have been tracked to shallow marine clouds in the tropics and subtropics. CALIOP observations have already been used extensively to evaluate model predictions of shallow cloud fraction and top height (Leahy et al. 2013; Nam et al 2012). Tools are needed to probe the lowest levels of the troposphere. The large footprint of satellite lidars gives large multiple scattering from clouds which presents new possibilities for cloud retrievals to constrain model predictions.

  17. Free radical damage to protein and DNA: mechanisms involved and relevant observations on brain undergoing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Floyd, R A; Carney, J M

    1992-01-01

    Iron mediates damage to proteins and DNA. The mechanisms of damage not only involve iron but also oxygen free radical intermediates. Oxidative damage to DNA causes not only strand breaks, but also formation of specific base adducts, such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Oxidative damage also inactivates certain enzymes such as glutamine synthetase. Novel methods of assessing oxidative damage to tissue, including quantitation of salicylate hydroxylation as an index of hydroxyl free radical flux as well as specific lesions to proteins and DNA, have yielded results that clearly show that ischemia/reperfusion injury to mongolian gerbil brain involves oxidatively damaging events. Aging in gerbil as well as human brain is also associated with increased oxidative damage. Recent novel observations have shown that the spin-trapping agent phenyl alpha-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) offers protection in gerbil brain during ischemia/reperfusion injury. We also show that oxidative damage to brain during aging is decreased by chronic administration of PBN. The mechanism of action of PBN may be related to its trapping of specific free radicals, which triggers a cascade of oxidative events that eventually lead to tissue injury. PMID:1510377

  18. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  19. Multispectral satellite observations for arid land studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data when properly calibrated and standardized can be used synergistically for a quantitative analysis of processes and surface characteristics, and for quantifying land surface change. Relationships among multispectral satellite data (visible reflectance, surface temperature and polarization difference of microwave emission at 37 GHz frequency) have been used to develop hypotheses concerning the relative sensitivity of these data to varied land surface characteristics, which needs to be verified by field observations. Radiative transfer models have also been developed to understand these multispectral data. Interannual variations of visible reflectance and polarization difference for the period 1982-1986 over the Sahel and the Sudan zones of Africa show a lagged response with respect to the rainfall deficit during recovery from drought, which needs to be understood in terms of biophysical parameters.

  20. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  1. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  2. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  3. A Study of the Impact of Specially Designed Settings on Children's Involvement: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.; And Others

    The purpose of this pilot project was to determine whether involvement, as described by verbal and nonverbal indicators, increased as children worked at language arts learning centers characterized by increasing possibilities for involvement. Twelve first graders, randomly selected from an open space school, were each observed at three learning…

  4. CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

  5. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an…

  6. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  7. Prognostic role of bowel involvement in optimally cytoreduced advanced ovarian cancer: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal debulking surgery is postulated to be useful in survival of ovarian cancer patients. Some studies highlighted the possible role of bowel surgery in this topic. We wanted to evaluate the role of bowel involvement in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent optimal cytoreduction. Methods Between 1997 and 2004, 301 patients with advanced epithelial cancer underwent surgery at Department of Gynecological Oncology of Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO) National Cancer Institute Aviano (PN) Italy. All underwent maximal surgical effort, including bowel and upper abdominal procedure, in order to achieve optimal debulking (R < 0.5 cm). PFS and OS were compared with residual disease, grading and surgical procedures. Results Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 244 patients (81.0%); R0 in 209 women (69.4.%) and R < 0.5 in 35 (11.6%). Bowel resection was performed in 116 patients (38.5%): recto-sigmoidectomy alone (69.8%), upper bowel resection only (14.7%) and both recto-sigmoidectomy and other bowel resection (15.5%). Pelvic peritonectomy and upper abdomen procedures were carried out in 202 (67.1%) and 82 (27.2%) patients respectively. Among the 284 patients available for follow-up, PFS and OS were significantly better in patients with R < 0.5. Among the 229 patients with optimal debulking (R < 0.5), 137 patients (59.8%) developed recurrent disease or progression. In the 229 R < 0.5 group, bowel involvement was associated with decreased PFS and OS in G1-2 patients whereas in G3 patients OS, but not PFS, was adversely affected. In the 199 patients with R0, PFS and OS were significantly better (p < 0.01) for G1-2 patients without bowel involvement whereas only significant OS (p < 0.05) was observed in G3 patients without bowel involvement versus G3 patients with bowel involvement. Conclusions Optimal cytoreduction (R < 0.5 cm and R0) is the most important prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. In the optimally

  8. Observational study of children with aerophagia.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Aerophagia is a rare disorder in children. The diagnosis is often delayed, especially when it occurs concomitantly with constipation. The aim of this report is to increase awareness about aerophagia. This study describes 2 girls and 7 boys, 2 to 10.4 years of age, with functional constipation and gaseous abdominal distention. The abdomen was visibly distended, nontender, and tympanitic in all. Documenting less distention on awakening helped to make the diagnosis. Air swallowing, belching, and flatulence were infrequently reported. The rectal examination often revealed a dilated rectal ampulla filled with gas or stool and gas. The abdominal X-ray showed gaseous distention of the colon in all and of the stomach and small bowel in 8 children. Treatment consisted of educating parents and children about air sucking and swallowing, encouraging the children to stop the excessive air swallowing, and suggesting to them not to use drinking straws and not to drink carbonated beverages. The aerophagia resolved in all in 2 to 20 months (mean=8 months). PMID:18445758

  9. Air quality: from observation to applied studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christiane H.; Wania, Annett; Hirsch, Jacky; Bruse, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Air qualities studies in urban areas embrace several directions that are strongly associated with urban complexity. In the last centuries cities evolution implied changes in urbanization trends: urban sprawl has modified the relationship between cities and surroundings settlements. The existence and protection of urban green and open areas is promoted as a mean to improve the quality of life of their citizens and increase the satisfactory level of the inhabitants against pollution and noise adverse effects. This paper outlines the methods and approaches used in the EU research project Benefits of Urban Green Space (BUGS). The main target of BUGS is to assess the role of urban green spaces in alleviating the adverse effects of urbanization trends by developing an integrative methodology, ranging from participatory planning tools to numerical simulation models. The influence of urban structures on atmospheric pollutants distribution is investigated as a multi-scale problem ranging from micro to macro/regional scale. Traditionally, air quality models are applied on a single scale, seldom considering the joint effects of traffic network and urban development together. In BUGS, several numerical models are applied to cope with urban complexity and to provide quantitative and qualitative results. The differing input data requirements for the various models demanded a methodology which ensures a coherent data extraction and application procedure. In this paper, the stepwise procedure used for BUGS is presented after a general presentation of the research project and the models implied. A discussion part will highlight the statements induced by the choices made and a conclusive part bring to the stage some insights for future investigations.

  10. A comparison study of educational involvement of hearing parents of deaf and hearing children of elementary school age.

    PubMed

    Powers, G W; Saskiewicz, J A

    1998-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine if a difference exists in level of educational involvement between hearing parents of deaf children and hearing parents of hearing children. Participating parents were asked to complete a 23-question survey about their involvement in their children's education over the past year. Neither group of parents demonstrated a significantly higher level of involvement in their children's education. However, parents of deaf children observed their children in the classroom more than parents of hearing children; parents of hearing children volunteered in their child's classroom more than parents of deaf children. PMID:9557331

  11. Optimizing the magnitude of the magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers: A formula to combine all involved parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristomenopoulou, E.; Zeibekis, M.; Stamopoulos, D.

    2016-03-01

    The competitive nature of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in Ferromagnet/Superconductor (FM/SC) hybrids has attracted much interest in the last decades. In particular, the superconducting magnetoresistance (SMR) observed in FM/SC/FM trilayers (TLs) is related to the manipulation of the transport properties of the SC interlayer by the magnetic domain structure of the FM outer layers with out-of-plane anisotropy. In our recent work [Sci. Rep. 5, 13420 (2015)], a phenomenological model was proposed that describes successfully the scaling of the SMR magnitude with the relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the SC and FM structural units. Based on this model, here we investigate the contribution of the parameters that affect indirectly the SMR magnitude and do not appear in the original model. To this end, the parameters of both the SC interlayer (i.e., the thickness, dSC, the mean free path, l, the coherence length, ξ(0), etc.) and the FM outer layers (i.e., the thickness, dFM) are examined. The theoretical simulations presented here and experimental data unveil the indirect contribution of these parameters on the magnitude of the SMR and confirm the predictive power of the original phenomenological model. Accordingly, this model can be employed as a generic formula to combine successfully all involved parameters in every kind of FM/SC/FM TLs, ultimately optimizing the magnitude of the SMR.

  12. Processes involved in reading imaging studies: workflow analysis and implications for workstation development.

    PubMed

    Gay, S B; Sobel, A H; Young, L Q; Dwyer, S J

    1997-02-01

    Software development for imaging workstations has lagged behind hardware availability. To guide development and to analyze work flow involved in interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies, we assessed the cognitive and physical processes. We observed the performance and interpretation of body computed tomography (CT) scans and recorded the events that occurred during this process. We studied work flow using a bottleneck analysis. Twenty-four of a total of 54 cases (44%) involved comparing the images with those of prior scans. Forty-seven of 54 scans (87%) were viewed using windows other than soft tissue, or compared with precontrast scans. In 46 cases (85%), the interpretation stopped to return to a previous level for review. Measurement of lesions was performed in 24 of 54 (44%) cases, and in 15 (63%) of these cases, measurements were taken of lesions on old studies for comparison. Interpretation was interrupted in 14 of 54 cases (26%) by referring clinicians desiring consultation. The work flow analysis showed film folder retrieval by the film room to be the bottleneck for interpretation by film. For picture archiving and communication system (PACS) reading, the CT examination itself proved to be the bottleneck. We conclude that workstations for CT interpretation should facilitate movement within scans, comparison with prior examinations, and measuring lesions on these scans. Workstation design should consider means of optimizing time currently not used between interpretation sessions, minimizing interruptions and providing more automated functions currently requiring physician interaction. PMID:9147527

  13. Process involved in reading imaging studies: workflow analysis and implications for workstation development.

    PubMed

    Gay, Spencer B; Sobel, Amy H; Young, Linda Q; Dwyer, Samuel J

    2002-09-01

    Software development for imaging workstations has lagged behind hardware availability. To guide development and to analyze work flow involved in interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies, we assessed the cognitive and physical processes. We observed the performance and interpretation of body computed tomography (CT scans and recorded the events that occurred during this process. We studied work flow using a bottleneck analysis. Twenty-four ofa total of 54 cases (44%) involved comparing the images with those of prior scans. Forty-seven of 54 scans (87%) were viewed using windows other than soft tissue, or compared with precontrast scans. In 46 cases (85%), the interpretation stopped to return to a previous level for review. Measurement of lesions was performed in 24 of 54 (44%) cases, and in 15 (63%)of these cases, measurements were taken of lesions on old studies for comparison. Interpretation was interrupted in 14 of 54 cases (26%) by referring clinicians desiring consultation. The work flow analysis showed film folder retrieval by the film room to be the bottleneck for interpretation by film. For picture archiving and communication system (PACS) reading,the CT examination itself proved to be the bottleneck. We conclude that workstations for CT interpretation should facilitate movement within scans, comparison with prior examinations, and measuring lesions on these scans. Workstation design should consider means of optimizing time currently not used between interpretation sessions, minimizing interruptions and providing more automated functions currently requiring physician interaction. PMID:12641097

  14. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    PubMed

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  15. The contribution of advisory committees and public involvement to large studies: case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many large studies have complex advisory committee structures, yet there is no empirical evidence regarding their optimal composition, scope and contribution. The aim of this study was to inform the committee and advice infrastructure for future research studies. Methods In the context of a five-year study funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research, three advisory committees were formed. In addition, advice was obtained from individual experts. All recommendations received in the start-up phase (first seven months) of the study were recorded, along with the decision about implementation of the recommendation. A particular focus was on the impact of public involvement. Results A total of 172 recommendations were made, including 70 from 20 individual experts. The recommendations were grouped into five emergent themes: Scientific, Pragmatic, Resources, Committee and Collaboration. Most recommendations related to strengthening existing components or adding new components to the study protocol. Very few recommendations either proposed removing study components or contradicted other recommendations. Three 'implementation criteria' were identified: scientific value, pragmatic feasibility, and paradigmatic consistency. 103 (60%) of recommendations were implemented and 25 (15%) were not implemented. The benefits identified by the research team were improved quality and confidence, and the costs were increased cognitive demands, protocol revision time, and slower progress. Conclusions The findings are discussed in the context of the wider literature on public involvement in research. Six recommendations are identified. First, have a clear rationale for each advisory committee expressed as terms of reference, and consider the best balance between committees and individual consultation with experts. Second, an early concern of committees is inter-committee communication, so consider cross-representation and copying minutes between committees. Third

  16. Studying Triggers for Interest and Engagement Using Observational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann; Bachrach, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then…

  17. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    PubMed

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  18. Institutional Ethical Review and Ethnographic Research Involving Injection Drug Users: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators’ responses to the committee’s concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  19. Involvement and fragmentation: a study of parental care of hospitalized children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, R A; Rocha, S M; Scochi, C G; Callery, P

    2001-01-01

    Parental involvement in the care of children who are hospitalized has been encouraged by the government in Brazil, as it has in the United Kingdom (UK). In this paper, key aspects of the UK, North American, and Latin American literature concerning parental participation are discussed, and implications for hospital care of children in Brazil are considered. A study of the division of work between nurses and the mothers (or other relatives) of 10 children hospitalized with chronic illnesses is reported. Data were collected by participant observation of child care in a Brazilian hospital. The results highlight some of the difficulties that arise in the integration of the work of mothers and nurses in hospital care of children and the fragmentation of care into "manual" and "intellectual" work. The results are considered within the theoretical framework of the model of technologic organization of work (Gonçalves, 1979, 1994). Implications for the organization of child care in the hospital are discussed. PMID:12024527

  20. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  1. The Effects of Student Involvement on Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Kelsey; McKee, Mallory; Brooks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pilot study discussed in this article investigates the perception of counselor education students' level of involvement and their satisfaction regarding their graduate program experience. It is believed, more involved students are more satisfied. Because there is limited existing data, this study seeks to ignite the conversation and future…

  2. Involvement Drivers: A Study of Nurses and Physicians in Improvement Work.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Nomie; Müllern, Tomas; Andersson, Thomas; Gadolin, Christian; Tengblad, Stefan; Ujvari, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the involvement of nurses and physicians in improvement work, with a special focus on the drivers. The purpose was to describe how the nurse and physician groups understand involvement drivers for improvement work and to explain the differences in how they understand involvement. The study was conducted at 2 Swedish hospitals, and a total of 20 nurses and 10 physicians were interviewed. The theoretical framework, developed by an interpretative approach, identifies and describes a number of involvement drivers. On clustering the drivers into larger involvement factors, the study shows clear differences and profiles in terms of the 2 groups' perception and understanding of the involvement-drivers. Each group's profile was then analyzed on the basis of concept of professional culture. PMID:27031357

  3. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  4. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  5. Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

  6. Descriptive Study of Activities Identified by Principals as Parental Involvement Activities through Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to identify parental involvement activities used by successful schools. Participating schools were identified as successful by an Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) rating of recognized or exemplary. Using survey methods, data was collected from the principals of the schools about parental involvement activities on…

  7. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  8. Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Ortholan, Cecile; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Teissier, Eric; Cowen, Didier; Salem, Nagi; Lemanski, Claire; Ellis, Steve; Resbeut, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to

  9. Toward a Career-Based Theory of Job Involvement: A Study of Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Bill; Sekaran, Uma

    1977-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses are used to determine the relative importance of 49 factors to job involvement in a study of 441 scientists and engineers. Of particular importance are career and personality factors. (Author)

  10. Primary School Teachers' Perception on Parental Involvement: A Quliatative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Dolgun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the opinions of teachers with regard to the approaches of parental involvement in school. A case study design was used in this study conducted that is employed in studies of a qualitative nature. In the "case" under research, there was an attempt to determine the opinions of teachers regarding…

  11. Organizational values in general practice and public involvement: case studies in an urban district.

    PubMed

    Brown, I

    2001-05-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore dimensions of organizational values in general practice with respect to developing public involvement. The study was undertaken in an urban district in England with data collected through in-depth individual and focus group interviews with service providers and service users. Four general practice organizations were randomly selected for study after sorting all in the district according to their record of developing involvement activities. The case studies provide evidence of how organizational values can differ markedly in general practice in relation to ideas of public involvement, with consequences for the quantity and quality of activities for involving local people and service users. The differences manifest themselves in the beliefs and attitudes of service providers about the purpose of the organization and the types of relationships that are appropriate with service users and local people. Service users appear to be very perceptive to the underlying ethos and purpose to their practice organization and this affects their responsiveness to initiatives for their involvement. The dimensions of the different values found in the study appear to be essentially the same as a number of established empirical findings of variations in values in general practice: an orientation to a narrow medical role and to general practice as a business are associated with a low valuation of involvement; an orientation to teamwork and to a broader social role appear more congruent with the development of involvement. Power is a critical issue in this setting with evidence in the study of the dominance of the medical practitioners in establishing organizational values and the nature of public involvement activities. PMID:11560732

  12. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  13. [Chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: the Fibra study].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this article is to describe variations in the measurement of chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction with respect to memory, problem solving, social relationships, environment, health services and transportation. This is done according to gender, age and income. It analyzes correlations between social involvement and functional ability in independent community dwelling-elderly aged 65 and above. 2,472 seniors without cognitive deficit, from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian locations, were submitted to self-reported measurement concerning all variables, with the exception of grip strength and gait speed assessed by objective tests. Mean age was 72.2 ± 5.5 years and mean income was 3.9 ± 4.9 MW; 65.7% were women, who had more diseases, worse functional performance and greater social involvement than men; those aged 80 and above and the poorest participants had worse functional performance and less social involvement. Correlations were observed between functional ability and social involvement. Level of income was related to satisfaction concerning memory, problem solving, health and transport services. Health, functionality and satisfaction interact in old age, influencing patterns of activity and social involvement. PMID:24263862

  14. Prospective study of anterior chest wall involvement in ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fournié, B; Boutes, A; Dromer, C; Sixou, L; Le Guennec, P; Granel, J; Railhac, J J

    1997-01-01

    A prospective study of anterior chest wall involvement was conducted in 50 ankylosing spondylitis patients and 50 psoriatic arthritis patients in the absence of palmoplantar pustulosis. All patients underwent a physical examination, tomograms, and a radionuclide bone scan. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium was done in some cases. Half the patients in both groups had anterior chest wall involvement. Enthesitis was the mechanism of the lesions. The manubriosternal symphysis and sternocostoclavicular joints were the most common sites of involvement, although other entheses in the region were affected in some patients. PMID:9051856

  15. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  16. An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joy

    A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

  17. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  18. NMR studies of conformational states of proteins involved in biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ziqi

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are the most ancient and ubiquitous cofactors that exist throughout evolution. The most important biosynthetic system of the cluster in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the ISC system. Defects in this system can be lethal and have been associated with a number of human diseases. Previous works show that a number of proteins are involved in the [Fe-S] biosynthetic processes and the structural flexibility may play an important role. For example, it was shown that apo-IscU, the scaffold protein, from Escherichia coli populates two functionally important conformational states, one dynamically disordered (D-state) and the other more structured (S-state) (Kim et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2012c). To further investigate the characteristics and transition of the conformational states of proteins involved in this system, I performed extensive NMR studies. Here, I present the findings based on my studies of two important players of the ISC system, IscU and HscB. In this research, I find that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization might account for the slow step in the S-D interconversion of IscU. More specifically, P14 and P101 are trans in the S-state, but become cis in the D-state. In addition, I discover that IscU is very responsive to pH changes, and I postulate that this response is correlated to conserved histidine residues, H10 and H105. Moreover, my thermodynamic analyses reveal that the S-D equilibrium of IscU is also very sensitive to change in temperature, pressure, and amino acid sequence compared to other proteins. In the study, I also discovered a novel state of IscU, the unfolded U-state. I suspect that this state may serve as an intermediate of interconversion between IscU S-/D-states. Finally, I extended the effort to HscB, and find that it may possess more conformational flexibility than expected earlier. I postulate that this flexibility may be the cause of the line-broadening observed during interaction of HscB with Isc

  19. Basement-involved thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics: case study Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of continental crust during continental collision by folding and thrusting follows three types of structural styles: (1) In a true thin-skinned style only cover rocks are involved. This style necessitates a detachment horizon (typically evaporites or shales), and the detachment is accompanied by internal shortened by imbricate thrusting and associated folding of the cover rocks. (2) In case of a thin-skinned basement-involved style thin slabs of crystalline basement rocks are involved and form the main body of the ensuing nappe stack. Nappe-internal deformation was largely controlled by Late Palaeozoic graben structures and Jurassic normal faults. (3) In a true thick-skinned style most of the crust is involved in the deformation. In some cases thrust faults may reach all the way down into the lower crust while in other cases large-scale shearing and folding affects the lower crust. In the Alps all three styles can be recognized. The Helvetic nappes and parts of the Penninic nappes formed by true thin-skinned tectonics. Basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics is typical for the Penninic nappes in the core of the orogen. In these units thrust faults are overprinted by large-scale folds, a process referred to as "post-nappe folding". A kinematic analysis reveals that the detachment of the cover units by thin-skinned tectonics occurred first and was followed by basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics, suggesting a top-down propagation. The incipient thrusting in the basement occurred under relatively low temperatures; prograde conditions then led to the ductile overprint indicated by "post-nappe folding". When considering the Alpine orogen as a whole it is clear that nappe formation propagated from the core towards the external part of the orogen. The thick-skinned style observed in the lower crust evolved seemingly independent from the upper crustal deformation and was responsible for much of the observed crustal thickening.

  20. Professional perspectives on service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Penny; Brooks, Helen; Fraser, Claire; Lovell, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Involving users/carers in mental health care-planning is central to international policy initiatives yet users frequently report feeling excluded from the care planning process. Rigorous explorations of mental health professionals’ experiences of care planning are lacking, limiting our understanding of this important translational gap. Objectives To explore professional perceptions of delivering collaborative mental health care-planning and involving service users and carers in their care. Design Qualitative interviews and focus groups with data combined and subjected to framework analysis. Setting UK secondary care mental health services. Participants 51 multi-disciplinary professionals involved in care planning and recruited via study advertisements. Results Emergent themes identified care-planning as a meaningful platform for user/carer involvement but revealed philosophical tensions between user involvement and professional accountability. Professionals emphasised their individual, relational skills as a core facilitator of involvement, highlighting some important deficiencies in conventional staff training programmes. Conclusions Although internationally accepted on philosophical grounds, user-involved care-planning is poorly defined and lacks effective implementation support. Its full realisation demands greater recognition of both the historical and contemporary contexts in which statutory mental healthcare occurs. PMID:26253574

  1. A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

  2. Families' Goals, School Involvement, and Children's Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study Thirteen Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…

  3. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

  4. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  5. Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

  6. Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. Methods After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only observational variables with p < 0.05 on univariate analyses were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to ascertain their independent effects on TUR syndrome. Results Of the 98 patients studied, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute ≥ 500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass > 45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p = 0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a

  7. Tendon involvement in patients with gout: an ultrasound study of prevalence.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Sánchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Pineda, Carlos; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Reginato, Anthony; Alva, Magaly; Audisio, Marcelo; Bertoli, Ana; Cazenave, Tomas; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Mora, Claudia; Py, Guillermo; Sedano, Oscar; Solano, Carla; de Miguel, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate, by ultrasonography (US), the prevalence in the quadriceps, patellar, and Achilles tendon involvement of gout compared to that of patients with osteoarthritis and asymptomatic marathon runners. This is a multicenter, multinational, transverse cross-sectional, and comparative study comprising 80 patients with the diagnosis of gout according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, compared with two control groups: 35 patients with generalized osteoarthritis according to the ACR criteria and 35 subjects who were healthy marathon runners. Demographics and clinical characteristics, such as age, gender, comorbidity, disease duration, pain at the enthesis in the knee and ankle, frequency of disease exacerbations, uric acid level more than 7.2 mg at the time of evaluation, and type of treatment, were recorded. All participants were examined by ultrasound at the quadriceps, the patellar at its proximal and distal insertion, and the Achilles tendon to detect intra-tendinous tophus or aggregates according to the OMERACT definitions. Descriptive statistics and differences between groups were analyzed by chi-square test. Sensitivity and specificity by US were calculated. The prevalence of intra-tendinous aggregates and tophi in gout was significant compared with the other groups. Both lesions were the most frequent at the distal patellar insertion, followed by the quadriceps, Achilles, and proximal patellar insertion ones. In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), intra-tendinous hyperechoic aggregates were observed in 20 % of quadriceps tendons and in 11 % of patellar tendons at its proximal insertion, while in the healthy marathon runner group, the Achilles tendon had this kind of lesion in 17 % of the subjects. Neither the OA nor the healthy marathon runners had intra-tendinous tophi. The sensitivity and specificity of US to detect tophi or aggregates were 69.6 and 92 %, respectively, tendon involvement at

  8. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  9. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zayeni, Habib; Haji-Abbasi, Asghar; Foumani, Seyed Ali Alavi; Tohidi, Mehdi; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Parsa, Banafsheh Ghavidel; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Hassankhani, Amir; Parsa, Pooneh Ghavidel; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a type of pulmonary manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mostly RA-ILD has no symptoms and is only diagnosed by clinical examination, pulmonary function test (PFT), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); hence it seems that the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in early stages of RA is of great importance. Therefore, we decided to answer this question whether the evaluation of RA patients without pulmonary symptoms using methods such as PFT and HRCT are justifiable and reasonable or not. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a referral rheumatology clinic in Razi hospital of Rasht, Iran. Forty-four consecutive patients, diagnosed with RA, were enrolled. Physical examination of the joints was performed by an rheumatologist. The activity of RA was evaluated in all patients by Disease Activity Score 28. An expert pulmonologist performed the respiratory examination in all participants. Then, all subjects were referred for chest X-ray, PFT, and HRCT of lungs. Results: Patients included in this study, 9 (20.45%) males and 35 (79.55%) females, were 21–73 years old and their mean age was 49 ± 13 years. Significant relation between PFT and respiratory complaints was observed (P = 0.016). PFT had significant relation with respiratory examinations (P = 0.009). Our results indicated a significant relation between disease activity rate and PFT (P = 0.038). While HRCT had any significant relation with above items. Conclusion: We concluded, using PFT in the respiratory assessment of RA patients can be limited to persons with high disease activity, respiratory complaints, and positive findings in the clinical respiratory examination. PMID:26933307

  10. Involvement of informal caregivers in supporting patients with COPD: a review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jamie; Mansfield, Elise; Boyes, Allison W; Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Regan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of individuals with COPD have a key role in maintaining patient adherence and optimizing patient function. However, no systematic review has examined how the caregiver role has been operationalized in interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD or the quality or effectiveness of these interventions. The aims of this review were to 1) determine whether caregivers have been involved as part of interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD; 2) determine the risk of bias within included intervention studies; and 3) examine the effectiveness of interventions that have involved caregivers in improving outcomes of individuals with COPD. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 to November 2015. Experimental studies testing interventions that involved a caregiver to improve COPD patient outcomes were eligible. Nine studies involving caregivers met inclusion criteria. No studies reported any intervention components targeted solely at caregivers, with most instead including caregivers in dyadic or group education sessions about COPD delivered by health care professionals. The risk of bias identified in included studies was mixed. Seven of the nine studies were effective in improving a broad range of outcomes. These findings highlight that there is an urgent need for methodologically rigorous interventions to examine the effectiveness of strategies to assist caregivers to provide direct care, encourage adherence to health care provider recommendations, act as a health care advocate, and provide emotional and psychosocial support to individuals with COPD. PMID:27478372

  11. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  12. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    PubMed Central

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

  13. Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.A.; Inoue, Toshiro

    1994-03-01

    Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulins improve the function and ameliorate joint involvement in systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, F; Righi, A; Conforti, M L; Miniati, I; Fiori, G; Martinovic, D; Melchiorre, D; Sapir, T; Blank, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Pignone, A Moggi; Cerinic, M Matucci

    2007-01-01

    Background In systemic sclerosis (SSc), joint involvement may reduce the functional capacity of the hands. Intravenous immunoglobulins have previously been shown to benefit patients with SSc. Aim To verify the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins on joint involvement and function in SSc. Patients and methods 7 women with SSc, 5 with limited and 2 with diffuse SSc, with a severe and refractory joint involvement were enrolled in the study. Methotrexate and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy did not ameliorate joint symptoms. Hence, intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was prescribed at a dosage of 2 g/kg body weight during 4 days/month for six consecutive courses. The presence of joint tenderness and swelling, and articular deformities (due to primary joint involvement and not due to skin and subcutaneous changes) were evaluated. Before and after 6 months of treatment, patients were subjected to (1) Ritchie Index (RI) evaluation of joint involvement; (2) Dreiser Algo‐Functional Index (IAFD) evaluation of hand joint function; (3) pain visual analogue scale (VAS) to measure joint pain; (4) Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to evaluate the limitations in everyday living and physical disability; and (5) modified Rodnan Skin Score for skin involvement. Results After 6 months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy, joint pain and tenderness, measured with the VAS, decreased significantly (p<0.03), and hand function (IAFD) improved significantly (p<0.02), together with the quality of life (HAQ; p<0.03). All patients significantly improved, except for one. The skin score after 6 months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was significantly reduced (p<0.003). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that intravenous immunoglobulins may reduce joint pain and tenderness, with a significant recovery of joint function in patients with SSc with severe and refractory joint involvement. The cost of intravenous immunoglobulins might limit their use only to patients who

  15. Psoriasis beyond the skin surface: a pilot study on the ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Neri, P; Giuliodori, K; Arapi, I; Carbonari, G; Borioni, E; Herbort, C P; Mariotti, C; Giovannini, A; Offidani, A

    2015-06-01

    The ocular involvement in psoriasis is not a completely well-known problem. The ophthalmologic involvement occurs in about 10 % of patients, particularly in case of arthropathic or pustular psoriasis. Ocular lesions are more common in males, and they often occur during psoriasis exacerbations. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence and type of ocular involvement in psoriasis, by a comparison between psoriasis and healthy subjects, and if/how a 12-week long systemic immunosuppressive therapy is able to modify them. This study involved thirty-two psoriatic patients and thirty-two healthy subjects. Dermatological evaluation was done using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (PASI, PGA, and DLQI score). Ophthalmological evaluation included ocular surface involvement (Schirmer, Jones, break-up time--BUT, DR-1 camera), retinal pathologies, and ocular surface disease index. Laboratory investigations including the C-reactive protein (CRP) of all the patients were performed. At baseline, the values of Schirmer, Jones, and BUT tests in the patient group were significantly lower compared to controls; moreover, conjunctival hyperemia was more frequent in psoriatic patients than in healthy subjects. Ocular involvement was more prominent in the subset of psoriatic patients with sebo-psoriasis than in general psoriatic population. A statistically significant correlation was found in sebo-psoriasis between PASI and Schirmer, between PASI and Jones, and between PASI and BUT. On the other hand, the results obtained from DR1 camera showed statistically significant difference between psoriatic and sebo-psoriatic patients at the end of the follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean values of PASI, PGA, DLQI, CRP, and BUT showed significant changes in psoriatic patients. Our findings suggest a high rate of ocular involvement in psoriatic patients, emphasizing the need of performing periodic ophthalmological

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Database Heterogeneity on Observational Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, David; Ryan, Patrick B.; Schuemie, Martijn; Stang, Paul E.; Overhage, J. Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G.; Suchard, Marc A.; DuMouchel, William; Berlin, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies that use observational databases to evaluate the effects of medical products have become commonplace. Such studies begin by selecting a particular database, a decision that published papers invariably report but do not discuss. Studies of the same issue in different databases, however, can and do generate different results, sometimes with strikingly different clinical implications. In this paper, we systematically study heterogeneity among databases, holding other study methods constant, by exploring relative risk estimates for 53 drug-outcome pairs and 2 widely used study designs (cohort studies and self-controlled case series) across 10 observational databases. When holding the study design constant, our analysis shows that estimated relative risks range from a statistically significant decreased risk to a statistically significant increased risk in 11 of 53 (21%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a cohort design and 19 of 53 (36%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a self-controlled case series design. This exceeds the proportion of pairs that were consistent across databases in both direction and statistical significance, which was 9 of 53 (17%) for cohort studies and 5 of 53 (9%) for self-controlled case series. Our findings show that clinical studies that use observational databases can be sensitive to the choice of database. More attention is needed to consider how the choice of data source may be affecting results. PMID:23648805

  17. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: III: TOO Observations of Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic studies of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by observing the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.

  18. American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

    This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  20. Latino Parental Involvement in One Elementary School: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena-Gaviria, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the stakeholders' perceptions of Latino parental involvement in one elementary school of a district that had recently shifted from majority Anglo enrollment to majority Latino enrollment, and to describe how the characteristics of the school affected the participation of Latino parents…

  1. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  2. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  3. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  4. METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...

  5. A Study of Lipscomb University Students' Internet Use and Involvement in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel Aarron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Lipscomb University students' Internet use and involvement in extracurricular activities. A survey of students at Lipscomb University was conducted. As confirmed by the data the research was able to determine that the type of extracurricular activity a student participates in most often is related to the…

  6. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  7. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

  8. Photochemical studies of reactive intermediates involved in gas phase ion-neutral reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Osterheld, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation was used to study unimolecular reactions of gas phase ions in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Specifically, the influence of intermediates on reactivity and dynamics was investigated. Dissociation of nitrobenzene cation displays a variety of surprising and apparently non-statistical behavior. The authors demonstrated that some of its reactions involve an isomerization to phenyl nitrite cation by a dissociation/reassociation mechanism in an ion-neutral complex. This allowed the behavior to be explained by normal statistical reactions. Previous work in other laboratories suggested that methane loss from acetone cation occurs by tunneling of a hydrogen atom. Part of the evidence came from the observation of very large isotope effects. The authors demonstrated that methane loss could not occur by tunneling. They further showed that the isotope effects result from normal zero point vibrational energy differences in an ion-neutral complex mechanism. Two simple dissociations of butanone cation do not compete as expected. They also found that the rates for the low energy reactions are much slower than statistical calculations. They explained these results by a prior isomerization to an ion-neutral complex. They calculated that the ion-neutral complex has a higher density of states than butanone cation even at energies well below a reaction threshold. McLafferty and co-workers demonstrated that acetone enol cation isomerizes to a symmetric acetone cation structure which then loses methyl groups at unequal rates. The authors have confirmed this behavior and demonstrated that the non-statistical dissociation depends on the internal energy. They proposed that an excited vibrational mode of the transition state for isomerization couples more strongly with the reaction coordinate, thus yielding more non-statistical dissociation.

  9. Computer-Based Visualization System for the Study of Deep Brain Structures Involved in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Juanes, Juan A; Ruisoto, Pablo; Obeso, José A; Prats, Alberto; San-Molina, Joan

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's Disease is characterized by alterations in deep brain structures and pathways involved in movement control. However, the understanding of neuroanatomy and spatial relationships of deep brain structures remains a challenge for medical students. Recent developments in information technology may help provide new instructional material that addresses this problem. This paper aims to develop an interactive and digital tool to enhance the study of the anatomical and functional neurological basis involved in Parkinson's Disease. This tool allows the organization and exploration of complex neuroanatomical contents related with Parkinson's Disease in an attractive and interactive way. Educational implications of this tool are analyzed. PMID:26370536

  10. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  11. Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Hallvig, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant’s sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers’ impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs. PMID:23724094

  12. Interstellar dust: interfacing laboratory, theoretical and observational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will consider how our understanding of interstellar dust can only be advanced through a combination of laboratory, theoretical and observational studies, which provide the critical framework for advancing our understanding. I will summarise what we currently know, or think we know, about the physical and compositional properties of dust and their evolution in interstellar media. Along the way I will question the utility of astronomical dust analogues and show, based on data from the laboratory, theoretical studies and from astronomical observations, that some of our prior interpretations need to be subjected to a critical re-evaluation. I will present interstellar dust modelling from a new vantage point and review ideas on the interpretation of observations within the framework of this model and its predictions for dust evolution within and between interstellar media. Finally, I will summarise some of the current outstanding issues and what we would like to learn in the future.

  13. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  14. Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

  15. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  16. Studies of the observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    The four related topics covered include: (1) distributions of total and upper atmospheric ozone and their time and space variations; (2) observed and theoretical models of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) ozone variation; (3) radiative processes in the upper atmosphere; and (4) relations between ozone and solar variations. The results of these studies are presented. They come from twenty-three published papers.

  17. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  18. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  19. Visual perception studies and observer models in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Arthur E

    2011-11-01

    Most academic radiologists will be familiar with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies. Fundamental studies of human observer performance are now usually performed by forced-choice methods. Both methods are based on signal detection theory. The ROC method gives an operating curve of true-positive versus false-positive probabilities. The area under the curve, A(Z), can be used a summary performance measure. In the forced-choice method, observers are given 2 or more images with one containing the signal. The observer's task is to select the option most likely to contain the signal. The percentage of correct responses, PC, is a summary performance measure. Precise comparison of the 2 methods is limited to very controlled experiments in which signals (simulated lesions for example) are carefully designed and detection or discrimination is limited by true random noise. Under these conditions, theory predicts a simple relationship between summary measures and human results are consistent with theory. There will be a description of forced-choice experimental methods and data analysis. There has also been considerable work on development of theoretic observer models. Human experiment results have used to evaluate the models. Models that correlate well with human performance in turn can be used for preliminary design of new imaging systems and for selection of image quality metrics for comparing equipment performance, this article will provide a summary of work during the last 30 years on evaluating human signal detection capabilities, observer models and image quality metrics. PMID:21978445

  20. Theoretical Studies of Direct and Resonant Reactive Scattering Involving Three-Body Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutrus, Chen Kwee

    The validity of DWBA method is checked to study the direct process for atom-diatomic molecule collisions. The DWBA results for the relative product rotational state distribution for H + D_2 to HD + D are demonstrated to be in good agreement with experimental observations and quasi-classical calculations. Direct comparison between the DWBA and exact close-coupling calculations for the reactive scattering angular distributions of H + H_2 to H_2 + H shows that the structures of angular distribution between the two methods are similar, and the effect of coupling strongly affects the absolute magnitude of cross sections but not the structure of normalized angular distributions. Information theoretic analysis of rotational surprisal is presented for the reactive collision process of H + D_2 to HD + D. Propensity of near linear surprisal at low collision energies and of deviation from linearity at higher collision energies is found. The theoretical formalism of resonance involving three-body systems is presented. Mathematically the three-body quasi-bound state is represented as a linear combination two-body quasi-bound states in terms of each arrangement. Its reduction to the effective two-body representation of the transition amplitude leads to Feshbach's theory of resonance, thus validating our three-body resonant scattering theory. A rigorous derivation of the T matrix is presented to study the effects of direct and resonant reactive scattering processes of e + AB to A + B^-. Analysis of dissociative attachment processes e + H_2 to H + H^- and e + HCl to H + Cl^- is presented, with emphasis on the roles of the direct and resonant processes in the total cross sections. Furthermore, Argand diagram analysis of the transition amplitude for the two dissociative attachment processes is performed. It is found that strong resonance is present in e + HClto H + Cl^-, but not in e + H_2 to H + H^ -. A new recursion relation for the evaluation of overlap between the Morse

  1. Association of involvement in psychological self-regulation with longer survival in patients with metastatic cancer: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, A J; Phillips, C; Lockwood, G A; Hedley, D W; Edmonds, C V

    2000-01-01

    There have been numerous anecdotal claims that when patients are dedicated users of a variety of psychological self-regulation strategies, including relaxation, mental imaging, cognitive restructuring and meditation, such dedication may have a life-prolonging effect. Our aim was to test this possibility more rigorously, in patients with metastatic cancer.A prospective, longitudinal, correlative study was carried out on 22 patients with varying kinds of medically incurable metastatic cancer. The intervention was one year of weekly group psychological therapy. Extensive verbal data (patients' written homework and therapists' notes) were collected over the year. The extent of each patient's involvement with psychological work was estimated following a qualitative analysis of these data. Patients were classed as showing high, moderate, or low involvement on the basis of a quantitative rating of categories defined by the analysis. These three subgroups did not differ significantly in their expected median survival duration as estimated from independent quantitative predictions by a large panel of oncologists who analyzed the patients' medical charts at time of study entry.A significant relationship was found between degree of involvement in psychological work and survival duration. Results are presented as Kaplan-Meier survival curves (Fig. 2;P = 0. 006, Log Rank test) and as a graphic display of the median survival of each of the three groups (Fig. 3). The main likely confounders (medical status, age, quality of life, and attendance at therapy) were similar across subgroups and did not change the relation between psychological work and survival duration. Limitations in the design are discussed. However, the strong effects observed support clinical observations that dedicated involvement in psychological self-regulation may prolong the life of some patients with metastatic cancer. PMID:11015769

  2. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  3. A psychological study of spinal cord injured patients involved in the Madras Paraplegia Project.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O; Balakrishnan, S; Ravindran, O S; Shanmugasundaram, T K

    1992-11-01

    The psychological features of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients involved in the Madras Paraplegia Project are described. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were studied. Based on personality tests, 11% were extroverts, 14% were introverts and 76% were neither extroverts nor introverts. Twenty-four percent of the subjects were neurotic, 11% had a depressive illness, and 26% had pathological anxiety. The study has highlighted the psychological status of SCI patients, and the usefulness of a psychiatric team in the multidisciplinary care of such patients. This is probably the first large psychological study of SCI patients from a developing country. PMID:1484733

  4. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  5. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  6. Drug-involved Mexican-origin girls' HIV prevention needs: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Vera; Dustman, Patricia; Williams, Tiffany

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to collect data to inform the development of an HIV prevention program for drug-involved Mexican-origin (MO) adolescent girls. Eighteen in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with drug-involved MO girls in addition to focus group discussions with nineteen other drug-involved MO girls and eight clinical service providers in 2009-2010. Emergent themes indicated that HIV prevention programs for drug-involved MO girls should be girl-centered, focused on relationship development, and include trained peer facilitators who share the same cultural and "street" background as the girls. The program should omit scare tactics associated with risky sexual behaviors and emphasize individual empowerment skills useful to negotiate sexual decisions successfully. In addition, a girl-centered intervention for MO girls should address important concerns for this group, including resistance skills and strategies regarding relationships with older men, teenage motherhood, sexual infidelity, sexual coercion, and dating violence. Intervention activities should also be interactive with an emphasis on guiding girls as they learn to critically assess personal risk while at the same time learning skills and resources to address these issues in real life. PMID:26362876

  7. Foreshock structures observed by THEMIS: case and statistical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbar, Jaroslav; Jelinek, Karel; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Prech, Lubomir

    The ion foreshock region is typically observed upstream of the Earth’s quasi-parallel bow shocks and is characterized by enhanced ULF waves. These waves are created due to the interaction of the solar wind plasma with the ions reflected at the bow shock. As a result, fast magnetosonic waves are generated with an in-phase relationship between ion flux and magnetic field fluctuations. Using multipoint observations upstream of Earth’s bow shock from the Themis mission, we present statistical maps of modification of upstream parameters due to foreshock processes (solar wind heating and deceleration, enhancements of the magnetic field fluctuation level, etc.). The statistical study is complemented with case studies of transient phenomena in the foreshock like foreshock bubbles, hot flow anomalies, and others. We investigate an influence of foreshock effects on the bow shock and magnetopause motions and discuss a role of energetic particles and magnetic field orientations in these processes.

  8. Observational and theoretical studies of rich clusters with multiple subcondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies are investigated. The relationship between the properties of individual galaxies and their environment is examined. Perphaps the most remarkable physical result derived from these is the apparent substructure in redishift position space. The distribution of spiral galaxies is quite different from the distribution of the ellipticals. The velocity distribution for the spirals is also substantially broader than the distribution for the ellipticals.

  9. Quality Reporting of Multivariable Regression Models in Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Real, Jordi; Forné, Carles; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controlling for confounders is a crucial step in analytical observational studies, and multivariable models are widely used as statistical adjustment techniques. However, the validation of the assumptions of the multivariable regression models (MRMs) should be made clear in scientific reporting. The objective of this study is to review the quality of statistical reporting of the most commonly used MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression) that were applied in analytical observational studies published between 2003 and 2014 by journals indexed in MEDLINE. Review of a representative sample of articles indexed in MEDLINE (n = 428) with observational design and use of MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression). We assessed the quality of reporting about: model assumptions and goodness-of-fit, interactions, sensitivity analysis, crude and adjusted effect estimate, and specification of more than 1 adjusted model. The tests of underlying assumptions or goodness-of-fit of the MRMs used were described in 26.2% (95% CI: 22.0–30.3) of the articles and 18.5% (95% CI: 14.8–22.1) reported the interaction analysis. Reporting of all items assessed was higher in articles published in journals with a higher impact factor. A low percentage of articles indexed in MEDLINE that used multivariable techniques provided information demonstrating rigorous application of the model selected as an adjustment method. Given the importance of these methods to the final results and conclusions of observational studies, greater rigor is required in reporting the use of MRMs in the scientific literature. PMID:27196467

  10. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning. PMID:20105340

  11. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  12. The new worlds observer: The astrophysics strategic mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, W.

    2011-07-01

    We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

  13. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J

    1993-08-01

    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  14. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p < 0.0001), follicular hyperkeratosis (p = 0.0003), early androgenic alopecia (p = 0.01), nail pitting (p = 0.003), pedunculus fibromas (p = 0. 01), twisted hair (p = 0.01), seborrheic dermatitis (p = 0.02), macules of hyperpigmentation (p = 0.03) were significantly more frequent in patients compared with controls. In patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p < 0.0001). Our preliminary results seem to rule out an increased prevalence of pre-neoplastic, and neoplastic skin lesions in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. PMID:25813338

  15. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  16. Sustaining patient and public involvement in research: A case study of a research centre

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Hughes, Rhian; Blackburn, Steven; Ong, Bie Nio

    2013-01-01

    The literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of topics. However, one area of investigation that appears under developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper presents a case study of PPI development in one primary care research centre in England, and its approach to making this sustainable using documentary sources and material from a formal evaluation. We provide narrative accounts of the set-up, operation and main processes of PPI, and its perceived impact. PPI requires a long-term perspective with participation and trust growing over time, and both users and researchers learning what approaches work best. PPI is a complex interplay of clarity of purpose, defined roles and relationships, organised support (paid PPI staff) and a well-funded infrastructure. ‘Soft systems’ are equally important such as flexible and informal approaches to meetings, adapting timetables and environments to meet the needs of lay members and to create spaces for relationships to develop between researchers and lay members that are based on mutual trust and respect. This case study highlights that the right combination of ethos, flexible working practices, leadership, and secure funding goes a long way to embedding PPI beyond ad hoc involvement. This allows PPI in research to be integrated in the infrastructure and sustainable. PMID:26705412

  17. Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, David E.

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

  18. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  19. Mechanisms involved in the chemoprotective effects of rosemary extract studied in human liver and bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Offord, E A; Macé, K; Avanti, O; Pfeifer, A M

    1997-03-19

    Natural polyphenols found in rosemary have not only potent antioxidant activities but also anticarcinogenic properties. We have studied some of the molecular mechanisms involved in their chemopreventive action using in vitro human liver and bronchial cell models. Rosemary extract, or its active components, carnosol or carnosic acid are potent inhibitors of DNA adduct formation induced by benzo(a)pyrene or aflatoxin B1. At least two mechanisms are involved in the anticarcinogenic action of rosemary extract: (i) inhibition of the metabolic activation of procarcinogens catalysed by the phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes; (ii) induction of the detoxification pathway catalysed by the phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase. PMID:9103309

  20. Gender differences in the association between religious involvement and depression: the Cache County (Utah) study.

    PubMed

    Norton, Maria C; Skoog, Ingmar; Franklin, Lynn M; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Zandi, Peter P; Breitner, John C S; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C

    2006-05-01

    We examined the relation between religious involvement, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and major depression in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 4,468 nondemented individuals between the ages of 65 and 100 years who were interviewed in person. In logistic regression models adjusting for demographic and health variables, frequent church attendance was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression in women but increased prevalence in men. Social role loss and the potential impact of organizational power differential by sex are discussed. Though causality cannot be determined here, these findings suggest that the association between religious involvement and depression may differ substantially between men and women. PMID:16670181

  1. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study(†).

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for "machine" sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

  2. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  3. Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12 412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12 412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

  4. Exploring the Limits to Observational Diffuse Interstellar Band Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2014-02-01

    The status of DIB research (Herbig 1995) has strongly advanced since the DIB conference in Boulder in 1994. In the same year we reported the discovery of two near IR diffuse bands coincident with C60 +, that was confirmed in subsequent years. Since then a number of DIB observational studies have been published such as DIB surveys, measurements of DIB families, correlations and environment dependences as well as DIBs in extra-galactic sources. Resolved substructures were measured and compared to predicted rotational contours of large molecules. Polarisation studies provided constraints on possible carrier molecules and upper limits. DIBs carriers have been linked with several classes of organic molecules observed in the interstellar medium, in particular to the UIR bands (assigned to PAHs), the Extended Red Emission (ERE) or the recently detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME, assigned to spinning dust). In particular fullerenes and PAHs have been proposed to explain some DIBs and specific molecules were searched for in DIB spectra. DIB carriers could be present in various dehydrogenation and ionization states. Experiments in the laboratory and in space contribute to our understanding of the photo-stability of possible DIB carriers. In summary, the status of DIB research in the last 20 years has strongly advanced. We review DIB observational results and their interpretation and introduce the relevant plenary discussion.

  5. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  6. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  7. Supplementing Oscat winds with Saral Altika observations for cyclone studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niharika, K.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Dadhwal, V. K.; Ali, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate prediction of life cycle of cyclone is very critical to the disaster management practices. Since the cyclones originate over the oceans where in situ observations are limited, we have to resort to the remote sensing techniques. Both optical and microwave sensors help studying the cyclones. While scatterometer provide wind vectors, altimeters can give only wind speed. In this paper we present how altimeter measurements can supplement the scatterometer observations in determining the radius of maximum winds (RMW). Sustained maximum winds, indicator for the intensity of the cyclone, are within the eye wall of a cyclone at a distance of RMW. This parameter is also useful in predicting right time of the storm surge. In this paper we used the wind speed estimations from AltiKa, an altimeter operating at Ka band.

  8. Incarceration Among Street-Involved Youth in a Canadian Study: Implications for Health and Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Omura, John D; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for incarceration have been well described among adult drug using populations; however, less is known about incarceration among at-risk youth. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Methods From September 2005 to May 2012, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14 – 26 who use illicit drugs. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with recent incarceration defined as incarceration in the previous six months. Results Among 1019 participants, 362 (36%) reported having been recently incarcerated during the study period. In multivariate GEE analysis, homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.60), daily crystal methamphetamine use (AOR= 1.56), public injecting (AOR= 1.33), drug dealing (AOR= 1.48) and being a victim of violence (AOR= 1.68) were independently associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conversely, female gender (AOR= 0.48), lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or two-spirited (LGBTT) identification (AOR= 0.47) and increasing age of first hard drug use (AOR= 0.96) were negatively associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conclusion Incarceration was common among our study sample. Youth who were homeless, used crystal methamphetamine, and engaged in risky behaviors including public injection and drug dealing were significantly more likely to have been recently incarcerated. Structural interventions including expanding addiction treatment and supportive housing for at-risk youth may help reduce criminal justice involvement among this population and associated health, social and fiscal costs. PMID:24405564

  9. Study of the ligands involved in metal binding to alfalfa biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemann, K.J.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Sias, S.; Gamez, G.; Rodriguez, O.; Renner, M.W.; Furenlid, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    Previously performed studies have shown that the alfalfa shoot biomass can bind an appreciable amount of copper(II), nickel(II), cadmium(II), chromium(III), lead(II), and zinc(II) ions from aqueous solution. Of the seven different alfalfa populations studied, Malone and African demonstrated the highest capacity for metal binding. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the pH profiles, time dependency, capacity for metal binding, as well as the recovery of the metals bound. For most of the metal ions studied, the biomass showed a high affinity for metal binding around pH 5.0 within a short time period. Binding capacity experiments revealed the following amounts of metal ions bound per gram of biomass: 19.7 mg Cu(II), 4.11 mg Ni(II), 7.1 mg Cd(II), 7.7 mg Cr(III), 43 mg Pb(II), and 4.9 mg Zn(II). Most of these metals were recovered from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 M HCl with the exception of Cr(III). Because no Cr(VI) binding occurred, none was recovered. Direct and indirect approaches were applied to study the possible mechanisms involved in metal binding by the alfalfa biomass. The direct approach involves investigations of the alfalfa shoot biomass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis (XANES and EXAFS), which were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  10. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (P<0.001). When other factors known to be linked with teenage smoking were held constant, awareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required. PMID:11230063

  11. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  12. Experience from the Argentine Pegvisomant Observational Study: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    García Basavilbaso, N; Guitelman, M; Nagelberg, A; Stalldecker, G; Carabelli, A; Bruno, O; Danilowitz, K; Manavela, M; Mallea Gil, S; Ballarino, C; Guelman, R; Katz, D; Fidalgo, S; Leal, R; Fideleff, H; Servidio, M; Bruera, D; Librandi, F; Chervin, A; Vitale, M; Basso, A

    2010-01-01

    The GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is an efficient agent to achieve biochemical control of acromegaly in those cases refractory to surgery and medical therapy with somatostatin analogs. We conducted an observational multicenter study consisting of data collection in accordance with the standard management of patients with acromegaly in everyday practice. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients, 23 females, who were treated with pegvisomant due to the lack of biochemical response or intolerance to the somatostatin analogs. The objective was to monitor long-term safety and efficacy of the antagonist. 82% of the patients had previous pituitary surgery, 53.6% radiotherapy and 96.4% received medical therapy for acromegaly. Only 19.2% of the patients had pituitary residual tumor size larger than 1 cm, the remainder harbored a microadenoma or no visible tumor in the pituitary images. In terms of biochemical efficacy, IGF-I levels decreased to normal ranges in 45% and 58.8% of patients after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, the daily mean dose of pegvisomant being 9.6+/-1.1 mg. Adverse events, potentially related to pegvisomant were reported in 6 patients (21.4%), local injection site reaction and elevated liver enzymes being the most frequent. Tumor size did not show enlargement in the evaluated population (15 patients) during the period of the study. This paper presents preliminary data from a small observational study in Argentina which represents the first database in our country. PMID:20616494

  13. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  14. ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

  15. Hemoglobin aggregates studied under static and dynamic conditions involving the formation of nanobacteria-like structures.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jeramy L R; Jones, Riland L; Manning, Thomas J; Nienow, James; Phillips, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    Laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study hemoglobin in the aqueous phase. The impact that salts [NaCl, Ca₃(PO₄)₂] and iron oxide nanoparticles have on the hemoglobin size are also studied. The first set of experiments examined hemoglobin aggregates in the aqueous phases in the presence of salts and nanoparticles. Aqueous phase samples were then dehydrated and examined using SEM. The resulting structures resemble those observed in nanobacteria studies conducted in other labs. This study demonstrates that aggregates of hemoglobin and various salts found in a physiological environment can produce structures that resemble nanobacteria. PMID:22750818

  16. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb) and non-biological (abstract object) movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes). Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain’s ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions, activations were elicited in

  17. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  18. Risks of alcohol consumption in laboratory studies involving human research participants.

    PubMed

    Wood, M D; Sher, K J

    2000-12-01

    Research protocols that include alcohol consumption raise a number of critical issues with regard to potential risks to research participants, researchers, and institutions. This article seeks to highlight some of these issues by presenting some of the potential risks and discussing relevant dimensions and parameters of these risks. Risks to individual research participants are the primary focus of concern, but consideration of risks associated with aspects of the experimental, contextual, and institutional setting are also considered. The authors conclude with recommendations for individuals conducting studies involving alcohol consumption by human research participants. PMID:11130151

  19. How Safe Do Teenagers Behave on Facebook? An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13–18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  20. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  1. Study of a microflare observed with SUMER and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontikakis, C.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    We study a GOES-A1 microflare, observed in active region NOAA 8541 on May 15, 1999 with TRACE images, SUMER spectra and MDI magnetograms. In TRACE filtergrams of 171A and 195A, the microflare is composed of two interacting, 20Mm long, loops. SUMER observations include four spectral lines: the Si II 1533A (a chromospheric line), the C IV 1548A, 1550 A (transition region lines) and the Ne VIII 770 A (a coronal line). These spectra record the impulsive stage of the microflare, which appears as a bright feature at the west footpoint of the TRACE loops. In an area adjacent to the microflare we observe, for the first time on the solar disk, a region where the lines intensity ratio 1548A/1550A equals to 4 which means that resonant scattering dominates the emission process. Over the microflare, the SUMER spectral lines are blue shifted, indicating upflows due to explosive evaporation, as well as red shifted, indicating, cooling downward motions. Moreover, the C IV microflare spectral profiles, indicate upflows of ~200 km/s even if most of them are damaged due to the SUMER detector over exposure, while the Si II 1533A profiles are self-reversed due to opacity effects.

  2. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    PubMed Central

    Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663

  3. Transgenic studies on the involvement of cytokinin and gibberellin in male development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M; Hanson, Doris D; Malloy, Kathleen P; Ness, Linda A

    2003-03-01

    Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

  4. Transgenic Studies on the Involvement of Cytokinin and Gibberellin in Male Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R. Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M.; Hanson, Doris D.; Malloy, Kathleen P.; Ness, Linda A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

  5. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  6. Pathway to psychiatric care in Japan: A multicenter observational study

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Masamune-Koizumi, Yayoi; Otsuka, Kotaro; Tateno, Masaru; Okugawa, Gaku; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sato, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tonai, Eita; Yoshida, Kosuke; Mori, Takatoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Sato, Soichiro; Igimi, Hiroyasu; Waseda, Yoshibumi; Ueno, Takefumi; Morokuma, Ippei; Takahashi, Katsuyoshi; Sartorius, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background This study examines pathways to psychiatric care in Japan using the same method as the collaborative study carried out in 1991 under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Methods Thirteen psychiatric facilities in Japan were involved. Of the 228 patients who contacted psychiatric facilities with any psychiatric illness, eighty four visiting psychiatric facilities for the first time were enrolled. Pathways to psychiatric care, delays from the onset of illness to treatment prior to reaching psychiatrists were surveyed. Results Thirty three patients (39.4%) directly accessed mental health professionals, 32 patients (38.1%) reached them via general hospital, and 13 patients (15.5%) via private practitioners. The patients who consulted mental health professionals as their first carers took a longer time before consulting psychiatrists than the patients who consulted non-mental health professionals as their first carers. The patients who presented somatic symptoms as their main problem experienced longer delay from the onset of illness to psychiatric care than the patients who complained about depressive or anxiety symptoms. Prior to the visit to mental health professionals, patients were rarely informed about their diagnosis and did not receive appropriate treatments from their physicians. Private practitioners were more likely to prescribe psychotropics than physicians in general hospitals, but were less likely to inform their patients of their diagnosis. Conclusion This first pathway to psychiatric care study in Japan demonstrated that referral pathway in Japan heavily relies on medical resources. The study indicates possible fields and gives indications, underlining the importance of improving skills and knowledge that will facilitate the recognition of psychiatric disorders presenting with somatic and depressive symptoms in the general health care system and by private practitioners. PMID:18822134

  7. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano Lc; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate. PMID:26379011

  8. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  9. Rotational Spectroscopic Studies and Observational Searches for HO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna

    Interstellar chemistry is largely driven by reactions of unstable molecules that serve as reaction intermediates in terrestrial chemistry. One such class of compounds are weakly-bound clusters. These clusters could form in interstellar environments through radiative association reactions, but their identification and characterization in interstellar environments is limited by a lack of rotational spectral information. One such species is HO3, which could be formed in the interstellar medium from O2 and OH. HO3 has been studied extensively in the infrared, and there are a few microwave spectral studies that have also been reported. However, no millimeter or submillimeter spectral information is available to guide astronomical observations. In this talk, we will present the laboratory characterization of trans -HO3 and trans -DO3 from 70 to 450 GHz using our newly developed fast sweeping technique. The molecular constants have been significantly refined, and additional higher order centrifugal distortion constants have been determined. We will also present an initial observational search for HO3 in 32 star forming regions. Although no HO3 lines have been detected thus far, strict upper limits can be placed on the HO3 column density in these sources based on this analysis. Additional Authors: Luyao Zou, Brian M. Hays.

  10. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal, gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.

  11. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more » gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  12. Public/stakeholder involvement at two Department of Energy sites: Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    Efforts to communicate the results of environmental studies and involve the public in environmental decisions have increased nationwide. Outreach efforts at two US Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State and the Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle) have used a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical articles (open literature and symposium publications, annual and topical reports); information brochures and fact sheets; video productions; interactive exhibits, presentations at scientific, technical, civic, and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media and with local, state, federal, and other agencies. In addition, representatives of local communities now operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbor`s property is underway at the Pantex Plant. All major environmental programs, such as the multi-year effort to reconstruct past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford, are now conducted with open public participation.

  13. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

    1984-11-01

    The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

  14. Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

  15. Computational and Observational Studies of Interstellar Thioformaldehyde Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Lisa; Hoffman, I. M.

    2013-06-01

    Interstellar spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) holds considerable promise because of the close relationship between the H2CS molecule and the well-studied formaldehyde (H2CO) molecule. In particular, the well-known J(Ka,Kc) = 1(1,0) to 1(1,1) transition of H2CO at 6 cm (4.8 GHz) has an analogous H2CS transition at 1046 MHz. However, the 1046-MHz line of H2CS has never been detected astronomically. We present here a summary of: (1) a computational investigation of H2CS level populations related to known H2CO 6-cm masers, and (2) an observational campaign of four isotopologues of H2CS. Maser emission from H2CO has been observed at 6 cm for which Boland and de Jong (1981) have developed a pump model. We have extended this model to H2CS and we present preliminary calculations for a 1046-MHz maser. We intend to develop a quantitative tool for interpreting H2CS observations toward Galactic and extragalactic locations of H2CO maser emission by constructing a radiative-transfer maser model for H2CS. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in a few Galactic sources via J>1 transitions. However, interpretation of these results has two outstanding problems: the H2CS/H2CO abundances do not agree with known sulfur-to-oxygen ratios nor do the J>1 populations have the expected Boltzmann relationship to the J=1 states. A detection of the 1046-MHz transition of H2CS with J=1 would alleviate many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of existing observational results. We describe our forthcoming experiment to search in a Galactic star-forming region for thermal and nonthermal emission and absorption from four thioformaldehyde isotopologues: H2(12C)(32S), H2(13C)(32S), H2(12C)(34S), and D2(12C)(32S). Taken together, both parts of this research effort will provide valuable and novel constraints on H2CS and H2CO. New observations of H2CS isotopologues will yield new measurements of deuterium-to-hydrogen and sulfur-to-oxygen ratios in star-forming environments. Also, the application

  16. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE MULTISTRUCTURED PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7354

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M. E.; Vazquez, R.; Miranda, L. F.; Zavala, S.; Ayala, S. E-mail: vazquez@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: lorenzo@astro.uson.mx E-mail: sayala@ideabc.org

    2010-04-15

    We present an observational study of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7354 consisting of narrowband H{alpha} and [N II]{lambda}6584 imaging as well as low- and high-dispersion long-slit spectroscopy, and VLA-D radio continuum. According to our imaging and spectroscopic data, NGC 7354 has four main structures: a quite round outer shell and an elliptical inner shell, a collection of low-excitation bright knots roughly concentrated on the equatorial region of the nebula, and two asymmetrical jet-like features, not aligned either with the shells' axes, or with each other. We have obtained physical parameters like electron temperature and electron density as well as ionic and elemental abundances for these different structures. Electron temperature and electron density slightly vary throughout the nebula going from {approx_equal}11, 000 to {approx_equal}14, 000 K, and from {approx_equal}1000 to {approx_equal} 3000 cm{sup -3}, respectively. The local extinction coefficient c {sub H{beta}} shows an increasing gradient from south to north and a decreasing gradient from east to west consistent with the number of equatorial bright knots present in each direction. Abundance values show slight internal variations but most of them are within the estimated uncertainties. In general, abundance values are in good agreement with the ones expected for PNe. Radio continuum data are consistent with optically thin thermal emission. Mean physical parameters derived from the radio emission are electron density n{sub e} = 710 cm{sup -3} and M(H II) = 0.22 M {sub sun}. We have used the interactive three-dimensional modeling tool SHAPE to reproduce the observed morphokinematic structures in NGC 7354 with different geometrical components. Our observations and model show evidence that the outer shell is moving faster ({approx_equal}35 km s{sup -1}) than the inner one ({approx_equal} 30 km s{sup -1}). Our SHAPE model includes several small spheres placed on the outer shell wall to reproduce

  17. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma: A multi-institutional retrospective study of 172 patients in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Czepiel, Jacek; Cerase, Alfonso; Hungria, Vania; Crusoe, Edvan; Silva Dias, Ana Luiza Miranda; Vij, Ravi; Fiala, Mark A; Caers, Jo; Rasche, Leo; Nooka, Ajay K; Lonial, Sagar; Vesole, David H; Philip, Sandhya; Gangatharan, Shane; Druzd-Sitek, Agnieszka; Walewski, Jan; Corso, Alessandro; Cocito, Federica; Vekemans, Marie-Christine M; Atilla, Erden; Beksac, Meral; Leleu, Xavier; Davila, Julio; Badros, Ashraf; Aneja, Ekta; Abildgaard, Niels; Kastritis, Efstathios; Fantl, Dorotea; Schutz, Natalia; Pika, Tomas; Butrym, Aleksandra; Olszewska-Szopa, Magdalena; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Usmani, Saad Z; Nahi, Hareth; Chim, Chor S; Shustik, Chaim; Madry, Krzysztof; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Swiderska, Alina; Helbig, Grzegorz; Guzicka-Kazimierczak, Renata; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Waage, Anders; Andersen, Kristian T; Murakami, Hirokazu; Zweegman, Sonja; Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-06-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for survival. The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Thirty-eight patients (22%) were diagnosed with CNS involvement at the time of initial MM diagnosis and 134 (78%) at relapse/progression. Upon diagnosis of CNS MM, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated and treated patients had median OS of 2 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). At least one previous line of therapy for MM before the diagnosis of CNS disease and >1 cytogenetic abnormality detected by FISH were independently associated with worse OS. The median OS for patients with 0, 1 and 2 of these risk factors were 25 months, 5.5 months and 2 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Neurological manifestations, not considered chemotherapy-related, observed at any time after initial diagnosis of MM should raise a suspicion of CNS involvement. Although prognosis is generally poor, the survival of previously untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Am. J. Hematol. 91:575-580, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26955792

  18. CNODES: the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lelorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3) for each question, a study team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are "blind" to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6) analyses using multivariable methods are lodged centrally with a methods team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects studying acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in study populations totalling over 40 million. PMID:23687528

  19. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  20. [Quality of the clinical reports: observational study in Sassari].

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Licheri, N; Ruiu, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the program of clinical risk management, and in particular in the phase of the "knowledge" of company reality, the work deals with the topic of the case history in Sassari' local health authority. A study is treated where, on a sample of about 400 cases history, four definite aspects are considered, in particular those that are regarded as the most important in the risk management and about medical responsability: 1) formal consent; 2) daily clinical allowance; 3) therapeutic card; 4) operating card. The results we got show the presence of a formal consent filled in correctly in 36 cases (9%), completed a daily allowance in 36 cases (9%), therapeutic card in 14 (3.5%) cases, operation card in 21 cases (19% su 116 surgical cases). These data, that have permitted to estimate the specific company reality as from pointed out critical states, show the necessity of working, with involvement of professional doctors, to build a history case model with clear and shared rules where you can clearly find the clinical path of a patient, where everything made is quoted and easily readable when necessary. PMID:20169826

  1. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  2. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. PMID:25623499

  3. Ultrasound features of shoulder involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) courses, shoulder involvement is common. However, etiologies of shoulder pain in patients with AS remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ultrasound (US) abnormalities in shoulders of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to determine predictive factors of ultrasound shoulder enthesitis. Methods 38 patients with AS were included with 38 age and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients fulfilled the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. Clinical and demographical data were recorded. US examination of bilateral shoulders was performed by a musculoskeletal sonographer according to a defined protocol that included imaging of the insertions of supraspinatus, subscapularis and infraspinatus tendons, rotator cuff tendons, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, acromioclavicular joint, and glenohumeral joint. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 36 years, each group of patients and controls comprised 22 men (57.9%) and 16 women (42.1%). Disease duration was 9.6 ± 7.2 years. Among 38 patients with AS, 21 had coxitis (55%) and 19 had previous or current shoulder pain (50%). AS shoulders presented significantly more ultrasound enthesitis than controls shoulders (43 shoulders (56.6%) versus 8 shoulders (10.5%) respectively). Involvement of rotator cuff tendons was significantly higher in patients with AS compared with control subjects (16/38 (42.1%) versus 6 (15.2%) respectively). However, involvement of gleno-humeral and acromio-clavicular joints was infrequent in both groups. In patients with AS, we found that the presence of coxitis was the only significant predictive factors of shoulder enthesitis (Odds Ratio (OR) = 9.4; Confidence interval (CI) 95% (1.10; 81.9), p = 0.04). Conclusions Ultrasound abnormalities of shoulders are common in patients with AS, and the most frequent abnormalitie was enthesitis, which was associated with the

  4. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  5. [Observational study of atmospheric HONO in summer of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Wu; Liu, Wen-Qing; Xie, Pin-Hua; Dou, Ke; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Si, Fu-Qi; Li, Su-Wen; Qin, Min

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of HONO, NO2, O3 and other atmospheric pollutants were observed continuously by using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) from 2007-08-14 to 2007-08-24 in Beijing, China. Diurnal variation characteristics of HONO and NO2 were analyzed. The HONO levels originated from the nocturnal direct emission were discussed. And the correlation between the heterogeneous formation of HONO and its related factors (BC, RH, and so on) was studied. The results showed that HONO had two peaks at about 01:00 and 06:00, respectively, while two peaks of NO2 concentrations appeared at about 01:00 and 07:00. The highest HONO(em)/HONO ratio of 31.3% was observed at about 20:00 between 19:00 to 07:00, and the average ratio was 15%. Good correlation of HONO(corr)/NO2 ratio with BC and RH at night was obtained. The correlation suggested that heterogeneous NO2 to HONO conversion processes may occur on BC surfaces by reaction with absorption water, and the average nighttime conversion frequency from NO2 into HONO (HONO/NO2) was calculated about 0.8% x h(-1). At the same time, the results showed that heterogeneous formation of HONO was increased with RH and inhibited at RH > 80%, and the hypothesis was further supported by detailed analysis of selected case. PMID:19662832

  6. Observational study of job satisfaction in hospital pharmacy technicians.

    PubMed

    Sanford, M E; Facchinetti, N J; Broadhead, R S

    1984-12-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to job satisfaction of pharmacy technicians in two community hospitals were studied. A pharmacy student employed part-time as a pharmacy technician by one of the hospitals observed fellow technicians in a wide range of job activities for 22 months. In a second hospital, the same student conducted similar observations during one summer while posing as a social researcher. Both hospitals had technician training programs providing classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Data were gathered primarily from informal conversations with technicians and pharmacists and by recording activities through notetaking. Formal training programs, praise from pharmacists, opportunities to train other technicians, diversity of job activities, and autonomy in coordinating work with time demands were identified as factors contributing to job satisfaction of technicians. Negative aspects of the job that employers attempted to circumvent or clarify were the unchallenging nature of the work and the limited opportunities for advancement. Technicians' and pharmacists' attitudes toward job enrichment for technicians are discussed, and suggestions for improving technicians' intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction are provided. A reliable cadre of pharmacy technicians is necessary for further expansion of clinical pharmacy services under current hospital budgetary restraints. In addition to modifying job activities to promote technicians' intrinsic job satisfaction, pharmacy managers can improve extrinsic satisfaction by providing adequate salaries, job security, and flexible work schedules. PMID:6517083

  7. A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Guilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuhua; Wang, Dongli

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of strong ionospheric scintillations with S4>=0.2 was studied using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at Guilin (25.29°N, 110.33°E; geomagnetic: 15.04°N, 181.98°E), a station located near the northern crest of equatorial anomaly in China. The results are presented for data collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The results show that amplitude scintillations occurred only during the first five months of the considered years. Nighttime amplitude scintillations, observed mainly in the south of Guilin, always occurred with phase scintillations, total electron content (TEC) depletions, and Rate Of change of TEC (ROT) fluctuations. However, TEC depletions and ROT fluctuations were weak during daytime amplitude scintillations, and daytime amplitude scintillations usually occurred in most of the azimuth directions. GPS scintillation/TEC observations recorded at Guilin and signal-to-noise-ratio measurements obtained from GPS-COSMIC radio occultation indicate that nighttime and daytime scintillations are very likely caused by ionospheric F region irregularities and sporadic E, respectively.

  8. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098

  9. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  10. Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.