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1

A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

1987-05-01

2

Emergency ambulance service involvement with residential care homes in the support of older people with dementia: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Older people resident in care homes have a limited life expectancy and approximately two-thirds have limited mental capacity. Despite initiatives to reduce unplanned hospital admissions for this population, little is known about the involvement of emergency services in supporting residents in these settings. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study that tracked the involvement of emergency ambulance personnel in the support of older people with dementia, resident in care homes with no on-site nursing providing personal care only. 133 residents with dementia across 6 care homes in the East of England were tracked for a year. The paper examines the frequency and reasons for emergency ambulance call-outs, outcomes and factors associated with emergency ambulance service use. Results 56% of residents used ambulance services. Less than half (43%) of all call-outs resulted in an unscheduled admission to hospital. In addition to trauma following a following a fall in the home, results suggest that at least a reasonable proportion of ambulance contacts are for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. An emergency ambulance is not likely to be called for older rather than younger residents or for women more than men. Length of residence does not influence use of emergency ambulance services among older people with dementia. Contact with primary care services and admission route into the care home were both significantly associated with emergency ambulance service use. The odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from a relative’s home were 90% lower than the odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from their own home. Conclusions Emergency service involvement with this vulnerable population merits further examination. Future research on emergency ambulance service use by older people with dementia in care homes, should account for important contextual factors, namely, presence or absence of on-site nursing, GP involvement, and access to residents’ family, alongside resident health characteristics. PMID:25164581

2014-01-01

3

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

4

Defective cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor density in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and central nervous system involvement. An observational study.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors play a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and cognitive functions. Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) analysis of GABA-A receptors binding by (123)I-labelled Iomazenil ((123)I-IMZ) has been applied in some neuropsychiatric disorders to investigate conditions where GABA-A receptor density can be detected in several pathophysiological conditions. In this study we investigate cerebral GABA-A receptor density in a small series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cognitive impairment characterized by recurrent, episodic memory loss. Nine female patients with SLE and cognitive alterations underwent to a clinical neuropsychiatric evaluation including digital video-EEG, brain MRI, (99m)Tc-ECD brain SPECT and (123)I-IMZ brain SPECT. All patients tested showed diffuse or focal GABA-A receptor density reduction. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on GABA-A receptor density abnormalities associated with cognitive defects in SLE patients. We hypothesize that in our series a decrease in GABA-A receptor density might be related to the neurological manifestations. Further studies are needed to clarify this aspect and the possible mechanisms. GABA-A receptor density impairment might be due to the SLE-related cerebral vasculopathy, or to neuronal-reacting auto-antibodies or drugs which could interfere with GABA-A receptors expression/binding. This study may support the concept that cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus could be the outcome of fine-tuned neurotransmission alterations. PMID:20427410

Mathieu, A; Vacca, A; Serra, A; Cauli, A; Piga, M; Porru, G; Marrosu, F; Sanna, G; Piga, M

2010-07-01

5

Job Involvement: A Construct Validity Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interrelationships among job involvement, values, personal background, participation in decision making, and job attitudes were investigated by questionnaire for a sample of 2,775 employees of six manufacturing organizations, representing a 66 percent response rate. The results of this study indicated that job involvement, a basic orientation…

Ruh, Robert A.; White, J. Kenneth

6

Environmental science and ecology involve studies  

E-print Network

Environmental science and ecology involve studies of the biosphere, hydro- sphere, and lithosphere in environmental science is conducted on spatial scales varying from a single algal cell to the Earth as a whole's environmental scientists require investigation by an interdisciplinary team, including members from several

Christensen, Dan

7

Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

Kaplan, Daniel

2013-01-01

8

What are these areas of GeoScience The Geosciences involve the observation and  

E-print Network

What are these areas of GeoScience all about? The Geosciences involve the observation phenomena. Environmental Geoscience is concerned with studying environmental processes from natural events. The Environmental Geoscience degree at Edinburgh aims to train students in those aspects of the discipline which

Schnaufer, Achim

9

Studies That Observe Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... information can be a good place to start. Case control studies: These studies look at people who already have ... got cancer and the other didn’t. Most case-control studies are retrospective (meaning that they look back at ...

10

Pulmonary Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis: An Imaging Study from Kashmir  

PubMed Central

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a chronic, multisystem collagen vascular disorder of undefined etiology, whose prognosis and overall survival is determined by visceral especially the lung involvement. Aim: To evaluate the pulmonary involvement in SS by imaging methods. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans were carried out in a series of 25 patients prospectively over a period of 3 years (2009-2011AD). Results: Of the total 25 patients of the study, the group with abnormal HRCT chest (n = 20), 16 had clinical symptoms of respiratory involvement, only 7 had an abnormal chest X-ray and 15 had abnormal forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) spirometric parameter. While the group with normal HRCT chest (n = 5), 1 had clinical symptoms of respiratory involvement and 4 had abnormal FEV1/FVC spirometric parameter. The differences in these parameters between the two groups were statistically significant, while the differences for mean skin tethering index, mean disease duration and female/male sex ratio were statistically meaningless. Most common HRCT finding observed in the study was ground glass opacities (GGO) (9/20). Only 4 of total 9 patients who had only GGO in HRCT were symptomatic for respiratory involvement as compared to 100% (11/11) in the group who had HRCT findings other than or in addition to GGO. Conclusion: The HRCT outscores Chest X-ray in detecting early lung involvement in SS patients more so early in the course of the disease thereby underscoring its importance in identifying SS patients who will be potential candidates for early institution of therapy that might reverse/limit pulmonary involvement by the disease.

Hassan, Iffat; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Hamid, Mudassir

2015-01-01

11

Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.  

PubMed

The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and imitation sessions and outline a framework explaining the discrepant findings in the literature. PMID:21983182

Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

2012-01-16

12

21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these experiments, tests of the positional accuracy, system sensitivity, and receiver response are inherent in this series of experiments. The MRT was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

2000-12-01

13

MAXimising Involvement in MUltiMorbidity (MAXIMUM) in primary care: protocol for an observation and interview study of patients, GPs and other care providers to identify ways of reducing patient safety failures  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing numbers of older people are living with multiple long-term health conditions but global healthcare systems and clinical guidelines have traditionally focused on the management of single conditions. Having two or more long-term conditions, or ‘multimorbidity’, is associated with a range of adverse consequences and poor outcomes and could put patients at increased risk of safety failures. Traditionally, most research into patient safety failures has explored hospital or inpatient settings. Much less is known about patient safety failures in primary care. Our core aims are to understand the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures, to explore the different ways in which patients and services respond (or fail to respond), and to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods and analysis We plan to undertake an applied ethnographic study of patients with multimorbidity. Patients’ interactions and environments, relevant to their healthcare, will be studied through observations, diary methods and semistructured interviews. A framework, based on previous studies, will be used to organise the collection and analysis of field notes, observations and other qualitative data. This framework includes the domains: access breakdowns, communication breakdowns, continuity of care errors, relationship breakdowns and technical errors. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee for Wales. An individual case study approach is likely to be most fruitful for exploring the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures. A longitudinal and multiperspective approach will allow for the constant comparison of patient, carer and healthcare worker expectations and experiences related to the provision, integration and management of complex care. This data will be used to explore ways of engaging patients and carers more in their own care using shared decision-making, patient empowerment or other relevant models. PMID:25138807

Daker-White, Gavin; Hays, Rebecca; Esmail, Aneez; Minor, Brian; Barlow, Wendy; Brown, Benjamin; Blakeman, Thomas; Bower, Peter

2014-01-01

14

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2013-07-01

16

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2014-07-01

17

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2011-07-01

18

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

19

Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

2010-01-01

20

Analysis of computed tomography and pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between computed tomography (CT) images and the pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement. In total, 26 patients suffering from an NHL with peritoneal, omental or mesenteric involvement were reviewed retrospectively, and the observed CT scan characteristics were analyzed. In addition, associations among the CT scan characteristics and the NHL subtypes, including diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, follicular cell and T-cell lymphoma, were evaluated. The CT scan characteristics of the NHLs with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement included peritoneal cord-like thickening, peritoneal omental nodular and swelling thickening, omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass. The probability of peritoneal linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening was found to be higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases compared with cases of other NHL subtypes (P<0.05). However, the probability of omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass was not found to be significantly different among the NHL subtypes (P>0.05). Signs of peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement were observed in the CT scans of all the NHL subtypes, particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases. Therefore, linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening were characteristic of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass were observed in all NHL subtypes.

QI, YUAN-GANG; FANG, ZE-HUI; HUANG, YONG

2015-01-01

21

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

1998-01-01

22

Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.  

PubMed

Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical complaints made by European travelers about their stay in areas outside Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia) was conducted. Air travelers returning from these areas between July 15 and August 16, 1992, were interviewed upon arrival at Brussels airport by means of a standardized questionnaire written up in lay language. As shown in Table 1, the total number of complaints in the adult group (>= 15 years of age, n = 5373) was 4919 and 446 in the pediatric group (n = 818). With fever as an exception, there were fewer complaints in children. Only approximately 50% of the travelers did not suffer PMID:9815353

Meuris

1995-03-01

23

Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

Kimball, Colette

2005-01-01

24

Electrophysiological study of neuromuscular system involvement in mitochondrial cytopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To define the neuromuscular involvement in ‘mitochondrial’ patients with clinical evidence of a neuromuscular disorder, and to evaluate if the proposed electrophysiological protocol was suitable to reveal a subclinical neuropathy or myopathy in ‘mitochondrial’ patients with no clinical sign of a neuromuscular disturbance.Methods: Quantitative concentric needle electromyography (CNEMG), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed

P. Girlanda; A. Toscano; C. Nicolosi; S. Sinicropi; G. Picciolo; V. Macaione; A. Quartarone; C. Messina

1999-01-01

25

UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations  

E-print Network

UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

2012-01-01

26

Observational study of terrestrial eigenvibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive analysis has been made of analog and digital recordings of eigenvibration ground motion obtained following four great earthquakes; August 1976 (Philippines), August 1977 (Indonesia), September 1979 (West Irian), and December 1979 (Colombia). The time series (ranging in length from ˜28 to ˜140 h) are assumed to be linear combinations of damped harmonics in the presence of noise. Tables are calculated from values of the four parameters: ?, used in describing eigenvibrations, period of oscillation, amplitude, damping factor Q, and phase together with their statistical uncertainties (53 spheroidal modes, 0S 4to0S 48, and 13 torsional modes, 0T 8to0T 45). The estimation procedures are by the methods of complex demodulation and non-linear regression that specifically incorporate into the basic model the decaying aspect of the oscillations. These methods, extended to simultaneous estimations of groups of modes, help to eliminate measurement error and measurement bias from estimations of ?. The result is that overtone modes very near in frequency to fundamental modes can, under certain conditions, be resolved through a non-linear regression technique, although parameter uncertainties are underestimated in general. Of the time series analyzed, 17 were from a northern California regional network of ultra-long period seismographs at Berkeley (three components), Jamestown (vertical component), and Whiskeytown (vertical component) following the four listed earthquakes. The other 7 time series were recorded digitally by the worldwide IDA network following the 1977 Indonesian earthquake. Weighted regional and worldwide averages were made for period and Q of each eigenvibration mode. From the theoretical viewpoint, comparisons of measured period, Q, amplitude, and phase for all modes analyzed led to five conclusions. First, there are no detectable systematic shifts in period, Q, or phase of eigenvibrations within a region whose dimensions are less than a wavelength. Second, though not conclusive, there may be slight systematic shifts in period (<0.65 s) and relative amplitudes within the California regional network due to different source positions and mechanisms. Differences in Q values are not statistically significant. Third, even though differences in period obtained worldwide were as great as 1.33 s (?0.33%), differences between Q values (as great as 20%) for the same mode were not significant. The conclusion is that the damping characteristics of singlet eigenfunctions are not observed to be significantly different. Fourth, the assumption that a multiplet nS l behaves as a single oscillation is valid from at least 0S 7 through 0S 30. Fifth, no systematic pattern emerged for the shift of eigenperiod as a function of order / or posit on the Earth.

Hansen, Roger A.

1982-03-01

27

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

28

Involvement of the superior temporal cortex in action execution and action observation.  

PubMed

The role of the superior temporal sulcus (STs) in action execution and action observation remains unsettled. In an attempt to shed more light on the matter, we used the quantitative method of (14)C-deoxyglucose to reveal changes in activity, in the cortex of STs and adjacent inferior and superior temporal convexities of monkeys, elicited by reaching-to-grasp in the light or in the dark and by observation of the same action executed by an external agent. We found that observation of reaching-to-grasp activated the components of the superior temporal polysensory area [STP; including temporo-parieto-occipital association area (TPO), PGa, and IPa], the motion complex [including medial superior temporal area (MST), fundus of superior temporal area (FST), and dorsal and ventral parts of the middle temporal area (MTd and MTv, respectively)], and area TS2. A significant part of most of these activations was associated with observation of the goal-directed action, and a smaller part with the perception of arm-motion. Execution of reaching-to-grasp in the light-activated areas TS2, STP partially and marginally, and MT compared with the fixation but not to the arm-motion control. Consequently, MT-activation is associated with the arm-motion and not with the purposeful action. Finally, reaching-to-grasp in complete darkness activated all components of the motion complex. Conclusively, lack of visibility of our own actions involves the motion complex, whereas observation of others' actions engages area STP and the motion complex. Our previous and present findings together suggest that sensory effects are interweaved with motor commands in integrated action codes, and observation of an action or its execution in complete darkness triggers the retrieval of the visual representation of the action. PMID:24990920

Kilintari, Marina; Raos, Vassilis; Savaki, Helen E

2014-07-01

29

Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patient’s depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the low level model. However, this result was highly uncertain, as shown by the confidence intervals. Conclusions Classification of patients’ depressive state was feasible, but time consuming, using the classification framework proposed. Further validation of the framework is required. Unlike the analyses of diabetes and obesity management, no significant differences in the proportion of depression-free days or health service costs were found between the alternative levels of practice nurse involvement. PMID:24422622

2014-01-01

30

Study of decays involving kaons, spectral functions and determination of the strange quark mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   All ALEPH measurements of branching ratios of decays involving kaons are summarized including a combination of results obtained with and detection. The decay dynamics are studied, leading to the determination of contributions from vector and , and axial-vector and resonances. Agreement with isospin symmetry is observed among the different final states. Under the hypothesis of the conserved\\u000a vector current,

D. Decamp; P. Ghez; C. Goy; J P Lees; E Merle; M N Minard; B Pietrzyk; R Alemany; M P Casado; M Chmeissani; J M Crespo; E Fernández; M Fernández-Bosman; L Garrido; E Graugès-Pous; A Juste; M Martínez; G Merino; R Miquel; L M Mir; A Pacheco; I C Park; I Riu; A Colaleo; D Creanza; M De Palma; G Gelao; Giuseppe Iaselli; G Maggi; M Maggi; S Nuzzo; A Ranieri; G Raso; F Ruggieri; G Selvaggi; L Silvestris; P Tempesta; A Tricomi; G Zito; X Huang; J Lin; Q Ouyang; T Wang; Y Xie; R Xu; S Xue; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; D Abbaneo; U Becker; G Boix; M Cattaneo; V Ciulli; G Dissertori; H Drevermann; Roger W Forty; M Frank; A W Halley; J B Hansen; J Harvey; P Janot; B Jost; Ivan Lehraus; O Leroy; P Mato; Adolf G Minten; A Moutoussi; F Ranjard; Luigi Rolandi; D Rousseau; W D Schlatter; M Schmitt; O Schneider; W Tejessy; F Teubert; I R Tomalin; E Tournefier; Ziad J Ajaltouni; F Badaud; G Chazelle; O Deschamps; A Falvard; C Ferdi; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; S Monteil; J C Montret; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J D Hansen; P H Hansen; B S Nilsson; B Rensch; A Wäänänen; G Daskalakis; A Kyriakis; C Markou; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J C Brient; A Rougé; M Rumpf; M Swynghedauw; M Verderi; H L Videau; E Focardi; G Parrini; K Zachariadou; R J Cavanaugh; M Corden; C H Georgiopoulos; A Antonelli; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; F Cerutti; V Chiarella; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G P Murtas; L Passalacqua; M Pepé-Altarelli; L Curtis; J G Lynch; P Negus; V O'Shea; C Raine; P Teixeira-Dias; A S Thompson; O L Buchmüller; S Dhamotharan; C Geweniger; P Hanke; G Hansper; V Hepp; E E Kluge; A Putzer; J Sommer; K Tittel; S Werner; M Wunsch; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; Peter J Dornan; M Girone; S M Goodsir; E B Martin; N Marinelli; J K Sedgbeer; P Spagnolo; E Thomson; M D Williams; V M Ghete; P Girtler; E Kneringer; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; A P Betteridge; C K Bowdery; P G Buck; P Colrain; G Crawford; A J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; R W L Jones; N A Robertson; I Giehl; C Hoffmann; K Jakobs; K Kleinknecht; G Quast; B Renk; E Rohne; H G Sander; P Van Gemmeren; H W Wachsmuth; C Zeitnitz; Jean-Jacques Aubert; C Benchouk; A Bonissent; J Carr; P Coyle; F Etienne; A Ealet; F Motsch; P Payre; M Talby; M Thulasidas; M Aleppo; M Antonelli; F Ragusa; R Berlich; V Büscher; H Dietl; G Ganis; K Hüttmann; G Lütjens; C Mannert; W Männer; H G Moser; S Schael; Ronald Settles; H C J Seywerd; H Stenzel; W Wiedenmann; G Wolf; J Boucrot; O Callot; S Chen; A Cordier; M Davier; L Duflot; J F Grivaz; P Heusse; A Höcker; A Jacholkowska; D W Kim; F R Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A M Lutz; M H Schune; J J Veillet; I Videau; D Zerwas; P Azzurri; G Bagliesi; S Bettarini; T Boccali; C Bozzi; G Calderini; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; L Foà; A Giassi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; A Lusiani; P S Marrocchesi; A Messineo; Fabrizio Palla; G Rizzo; G Sanguinetti; A Sciabà; G Sguazzoni; Roberto Tenchini; C Vannini; A Venturi; P G Verdini; G A Blair; J T Chambers; G D Cowan; M G Green; T Medcalf; J A Strong; J H Von Wimmersperg-Töller; David R Botterill; R W Clifft; T R Edgecock; P R Norton; J C Thompson; A E Wright; B Bloch-Devaux; P Colas; S Emery; Witold Kozanecki; E Lançon; M C Lemaire; E Locci; P Pérez; J Rander; J F Renardy; A Roussarie; J P Schuller; J Schwindling; A Trabelsi; B Vallage; S N Black; J H Dann; R P Johnson; H Y Kim; N P Konstantinidis; A M Litke; M A McNeil; G Taylor; C N Booth; S L Cartwright; F Combley; M S Kelly; M H Lehto; L F Thompson; K Affholderbach; A Böhrer; S Brandt; J Foss; Claus Grupen; G Prange; L Smolik; F Stephan; G Giannini; B Gobbo; J E Rothberg; S R Wasserbaech; S R Armstrong; E Charles; P Elmer; D P S Ferguson; Y Gao; S González; T C Greening; O J Hayes; H Hu; S Jin; G Mamier; P A McNamara; J M Nachtman; J Nielsen; W Orejudos; Y B Pan; Y Saadi; I J Scott; M Vogt; J Walsh; Wu Sau Lan; X Wu; G Zobernig

1999-01-01

31

Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in cadherins. Simulations also revealed how calcium ions control cadherin's shape and the availability of key residues involved in cell-cell adhesion, suggesting a conceptual framework for interpreting mutations in cadherin calcium binding motifs causing hereditary deafness. Overall, simulations provided a unique nanoscopic view of the dynamics and function of some of the proteins involved in mechanotransduction.

Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

32

Direct observation of a borane–silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon–hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This ‘metal-free’ hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si–H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si–H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si–H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si–H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free ‘frustrated-Lewis-pair’ hydrosilylation reactions.

Houghton, Adrian Y.; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E.; Tuononen, Heikki M.

2014-11-01

33

Direct observation of a borane-silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations.  

PubMed

Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon-hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This 'metal-free' hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si-H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si-H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si-H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si-H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free 'frustrated-Lewis-pair' hydrosilylation reactions. PMID:25343603

Houghton, Adrian Y; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E; Tuononen, Heikki M

2014-11-01

34

A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

Chatterjee, Tapan K.

1990-01-01

35

Direct observation of driving, self reports of driver behaviour, and accident involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight drivers answered a set of written questions about their driving style and drove a pre-defined, mixed urban and motorway route under observation. For 20 drivers there was a second observer in the car to check on inter-observer reliability. Relationships were examined between self-reports of driver behaviour and observers' reports, and between both of these and the number of accidents

ROBERT WEST; DAVINA FRENCH; RICHARD KEMP; JAMES ELANDER

1993-01-01

36

Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

2011-01-01

37

Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.  

PubMed

Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

38

NASA's Satellite Observations for Atmospheric Composition Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite studies of the Earth system constitute the primary emphasis of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). Atmospheric composition is one of the six interdisciplinary focus areas around which NASA's ESE implements its research program, and together with its domestic and international partners, NASA is making significant steps to improve our knowledge of global atmospheric composition through use of satellite observations.

J. Kaye; P. Decola

2004-01-01

39

Hypothalamic involvement in Huntington's disease: an in vivo PET study.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown alterations in metabolism, sleep and circadian rhythms as well as in several neuropeptides derived from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in Huntington's disease patients; however, the pathology underlying these abnormalities is not known. Our aim was to assess in vivo D(2) receptor's loss/dysfunction and increases in microglial activation in the hypothalamus of symptomatic Huntington's disease patients and premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers using PET with (11)C-raclopride (RAC), a specific D(2) receptor ligand and (11)C-(R)-PK11195 (PK), a marker of microglial activation. We have studied 9 symptomatic Huntington's disease patients (age = 46.8 +/- 4.7 years; mean +/- SD) and 10 premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers (age = 41.9 +/- 8.2 years; mean +/- SD). RAC and PK findings for these subjects were compared with those of a group of normal controls (RAC, n = 9; PK, n = 10). In the symptomatic Huntington's disease group, we found a significant decrease (P = 0.0012) in mean hypothalamic RAC binding potential (BP) and a significant increase in mean hypothalamic PK BP (P = 0.0008). Similarly, a significant decrease (P = 0.0143) in mean hypothalamic RAC BP and a significant increase in mean hypothalamic PK BP (P = 0.0057) were observed in the premanifest Huntington's disease group. Hypothalamic RAC and PK BP values correlated with each other in combined Huntington's disease groups (r = -0.6180, P = 0.0048) but not with striatal RAC and PK BP values. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, significant D(2) receptor loss and microglia activation in the hypothalamus of Huntington's disease. These pathological changes occur very early in the course of the disease and may partly explain the development of commonly reported symptoms in Huntington's disease including progressive weight loss, alterations in sexual behaviour and disturbances in the wake-sleep cycle. PMID:18829696

Politis, Marios; Pavese, Nicola; Tai, Yen F; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Barker, Roger A; Piccini, Paola

2008-11-01

40

Observational studies of roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

41

STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative  

PubMed Central

The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

2014-01-01

42

The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

2005-01-01

43

Card Studies for Observational Research in Practice  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Observational studies that collect patient-level survey data at the point-of-care are often called card studies. Card studies have been used to describe clinical problems, management, and outcomes in primary care for more than 30 years. In this article we describe 2 types of card studies and the methods for conducting them. METHODS We undertook a descriptive review of card studies conducted in 3 Colorado practice-based research networks and several other networks throughout the United States. We summarized experiences of the State Networks of Colorado Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP). RESULTS Card studies can be designed to study specific conditions or care (clinicians complete a card when they encounter patients who meet inclusion criteria) and to determine trends and prevalence of conditions (clinicians complete a card on all patients seen during a period). Data can be collected from clinicians and patients and can be linked. CONCLUSIONS Card studies provide cross-sectional descriptive data about clinical care, knowledge and behavior, perception of care, and prevalence of conditions. Card studies remain a robust method for describing primary care. PMID:21242563

Westfall, John M.; Zittleman, Linda; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Parnes, Bennett; Smith, Peter C.; Niebauer, Linda J.; Fernald, Douglas H.; Quintela, Javan; Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Pace, Wilson D.

2011-01-01

44

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

45

The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by assistance from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the SBA.

Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

2002-12-01

46

An observational study of quiescent novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiescent novae are close binary stars which are characterised by the presence of Balmer and HeII emission lines in their optical spectra. In high-inclination systems, standard theory predicts that one should observe double-peaked emission line profiles which are eclipsed once every orbital period. However, the emission lines of eclipsing quiescent novae are single-peaked and uneclipsed, in obvious conflict with currently held beliefs on the nature of these systems. It is the purpose of this thesis to solve this long-standing problem and so arrive at a theoretical model for quiescent novae which is consistent with the observational evidence. The first part of the thesis sets the scene to the problem by presenting an overview of the conflicting observational and theoretical results. The second part then reports on a number of new observations obtained during the course of this work which have shed new light on the problem. The results of these new observations are presented in Part III of the thesis, where one chapter is devoted to each of the three objects studied (V1315 Aquilae, SW Sextantis and DW Ursae Majoris). The final part of the thesis is a discussion and comparison of the various results presented in Part III. Using these results, a series of observational constraints are defined which are then applied to a number of existing theoretical models. In the case of V1315 Aql and SW Sex, the very stringent set of constraints results in there being no single model capable of explaining the observed phenomena. DW UMa is even more enigmatic, appearing in a previously unseen low-state during which the mass transfer rate appears to have reduced dramatically and the optical spectra are dominated by Balmer emission from the inner face of the secondary star. The implications of these new observations for the wider field of cataclysmic variables are discussed, followed by a short summary of future work necessary to validate the origin, evolution and behaviour of the quiescent novae.

Dhillon, V. S.

1990-01-01

47

An Observational Study of Cataclysmic Variable Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I present an observational study of the evolution of Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). Disrupted magnetic braking has been the standard paradigm of CV evolution for the past twenty years. Unfortunately, some of its predictions are in strong disagreement with the observations. In recent years, a number of additions/alternatives to the standard model have been proposed. Yet, none have been able to explain all of the features observed in the currently known CV population. The work presented in this thesis is based mainly on a large-scale search for CVs. The primary aim of this project is to resolve the disagreement between theory and observations by eliminating the observational biases of the present CV sample. Here, I use two complementary approaches to search for CVs: (1) from the spectroscopic appearance in the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), and (2) by using a combination of ROSAT and 2MASS archival data. So far, we have discovered 52 new CVs in the HQS and 11 new CVs (the majority of them magnetic) and 1 pre-CV in the ROSAT/2MASS. Follow-up observations of two newly discovered HQS CVs, 1RXS J062518.2+733433 and HS 2331+3905, resulted in the classification of the first as an Intermediate Polar, with P_orb = 283.0 min and P_spin = 19.8 min, and the second as a short orbital period system, P_orb = 81.0 min, harbouring a white dwarf pulsator. In addition, we found that the dominant ~3.5 h radial velocity variation of HS 2331+3905 does not correspond to the orbital period of the system, contrary to all other CVs. Despite its novel selection criterion, the HQS does not provide many short-period CVs -- even though tests with the known CVs included in the survey have shown that it is very sensitive to those objects. The biggest surprise in the new HQS sample is the discovery of many new SW Sex stars. The clustering of SW Sex stars in the 3-4 h period range is probably an important feature in the evolution of CVs that we currently do not understand at all. To improve our chances of understanding what is going on in that period range, we need accurate system parameters for these stars, which is difficult mainly because of their defining characteristics. I have used HST data of one of the sporadic low states of the SW Sex star DW UMa to derive its system parameters. The success of this study is the first step towards the otherwise impossible task of compiling reliable system parameters for the SW Sex stars.

Araujo-Betancor, Sofia

2004-03-01

48

Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

2011-01-01

49

BIOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL STUDIES FOR DISEASES INVOLVING MTDNA MUTATIONS  

E-print Network

. This paper first presents a brief review on mitochondrial genetics, heteroplasmic mtDNA transmission in the statistical studies of mitochondrial diseases. Key words. mitochondrial genetics, heteroplasmic mt of human degenerative diseases and aging (Taylor 1992, Wallace 1992). The study of mtDNA mu- tation

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

50

STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative.  

PubMed

The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even 'standard' analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25074480

Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

2014-12-30

51

Statistical Analysis Strategies for Association Studies Involving Rare Variants  

PubMed Central

The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technology has enabled studies of rare variants, but will not be sufficient for their success since appropriate analytical methods are also needed. We consider data analysis approaches to testing associations between a phenotype and collections of rare variants in a defined genomic region or set of regions. Ultimately, although a wide variety of analytical approaches exist, more work is needed to refine them and determine their properties and power in different contexts. PMID:20940738

Bansal, Vikas; Libiger, Ondrej; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

52

Pathology Case Study: Mass Involving Kidney and Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a right-sided mass in her kidney, with normal CEA levels. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Aronica, Patricia; Bastacky, Sheldon

2008-10-27

53

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies.  

PubMed

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:25046131

von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

2014-12-01

54

A Case Study Involving Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study presents a discussion about the benefits of the influenza vaccine between Mary, a nursing student, and her coworker, Karen. Karen is not convinced by Mary’s arguments in favor of vaccination, and she counters with several common rationalizations for not getting the vaccine. Students work in small groups to evaluate the arguments for and against vaccination from the perspective of each woman. In addressing the questions in the case, students learn about the general biology of viral infections, treatment of infections, and immunity. The case was designed for use in an entry-level course in microbiology for nursing students or a first-year biology course for majors.

Bennett, John

2008-01-01

55

Upper and extra-motoneuron involvement in early motoneuron disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

Motoneuron disease is a term encompassing three phenotypes defined largely by the balance of upper versus lower motoneuron involvement, namely amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, primary lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy. However, neuroradiological and pathological findings in these phenotypes suggest that degeneration may exceed the neuronal system upon which clinical diagnosis is based. To further delineate the phenotypes within the motoneuron disease spectrum, this controlled study assessed the upper- and extra-motoneuron white matter involvement in cohorts of patients with motoneuron disease phenotypes shortly after diagnosis by comparing diffusion tensor imaging data of the different cohorts to those of healthy controls and directly between the motoneuron disease phenotypes (n?=?12 for each cohort). Furthermore, we acquired follow-up data 6 months later to evaluate fractional anisotropy changes over time. Combined use of diffusion tensor tractography of the corticospinal tract and whole-brain voxel-based analysis allowed for comparison of the sensitivity of these techniques to detect white matter involvement in motoneuron disease. The voxel-based analysis demonstrated varying extents of white matter involvement in different phenotypes of motoneuron disease, albeit in quite similar anatomical locations. In general, fractional anisotropy reductions were modest in progressive muscular atrophy and most extensive in primary lateral sclerosis. The most extensive patterns of fractional anisotropy reduction were observed over time in the voxel-based analysis, indicating progressive extra-motor white matter degeneration in limb- and bulbar onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in progressive muscular atrophy. The observation of both upper motor and extra-motoneuron involvement in all phenotypes of motoneuron disease shortly after diagnosis suggests that these are all part of a single spectrum of multisystem neurodegenerative disease. Voxel-based analysis was more sensitive to detect longitudinal changes than diffusion tensor tractography of the corticospinal tract. Voxel-based analyses may be particularly valuable in the evaluation of motor and extra-motor white matter involvement in the early symptomatic stages of motoneuron disease, and for monitoring the spread of pathology over time. PMID:21362631

van der Graaff, Maaike M; Sage, Caroline A; Caan, Matthan W A; Akkerman, Erik M; Lavini, Cristina; Majoie, Charles B; Nederveen, Aart J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Vos, Frans; Brugman, Frans; van den Berg, Leonard H; de Rijk, Maarten C; van Doorn, Pieter A; Van Hecke, Wim; Peeters, Ronald R; Robberecht, Wim; Sunaert, Stefan; de Visser, Marianne

2011-04-01

56

Fathers of Children in Public Preschool Programs: A Study of School Involvement and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this quantitative study, I examined the involvement levels of fathers of children attending public preschool programs using the Family Involvement Questionnaire; I also examined fathers' satisfaction with school contact and involvement experiences using the Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences scale. Additionally, I…

Noggle, Amy Kappel

2012-01-01

57

CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

2014-01-01

58

Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

Franchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

59

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION relevant to the study of air pollution involving particulate matter and to setting particulate matter air

Washington at Seattle, University of

60

Observability studies of inertial navigation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work deals with an undamped three-channel inertial-navigation-system error model. It is shown that it is possible to fully observe, and thus estimate, all the states of the system. This is in contrast to a previous two-channel system, in which it was impossible to fully observe and estimate all the states of the system. The conclusions of the analysis are verified through covariance simulation, which yields identical results.

Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Goshen-Meskin, D.

1989-01-01

61

Structural equation modeling for observational studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

Grace, J.B.

2008-01-01

62

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2012-01-01

63

Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

2011-01-01

64

An Urban School District's Parent Involvement: A Study of Teachers' and Administrators' Beliefs and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examines the practices and beliefs of administrators and teachers regarding parent involvement in an urban school district following the first year of the implementation of an action plan based on six national standards for parent involvement (National PTA, 1997). The theoretical framework is based upon Bandura's social…

Barnyak, Natalie Conrad; McNelly, Tracy A.

2009-01-01

65

A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

Blake Payne, Ruthanna

2010-01-01

66

Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

Var, R. E.

1976-01-01

67

A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school  

E-print Network

This study examines school level differences on different dimensions of teacherrated parent involvement and school climate while adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, how certified, and number of years teaching. Two hundred twenty-four elementary...

Dixon, Shantina Rayford

2009-05-15

68

Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to use of a BCT boost technique, as well as emphasizing the important of investigating the benefit of BCT boost in prospective randomized trials.

Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence, E-mail: moureaul@ipc.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France); Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Teissier, Eric [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France)] [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France); Department of Radiation Therapy, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Center, Montpellier (France); Salem, Nagi [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Lemanski, Claire [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France)] [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France); Ellis, Steve [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)] [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France); Resbeut, Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)

2013-03-01

69

Organizational values in general practice and public involvement: case studies in an urban district.  

PubMed

A multiple case study design was used to explore dimensions of organizational values in general practice with respect to developing public involvement. The study was undertaken in an urban district in England with data collected through in-depth individual and focus group interviews with service providers and service users. Four general practice organizations were randomly selected for study after sorting all in the district according to their record of developing involvement activities. The case studies provide evidence of how organizational values can differ markedly in general practice in relation to ideas of public involvement, with consequences for the quantity and quality of activities for involving local people and service users. The differences manifest themselves in the beliefs and attitudes of service providers about the purpose of the organization and the types of relationships that are appropriate with service users and local people. Service users appear to be very perceptive to the underlying ethos and purpose to their practice organization and this affects their responsiveness to initiatives for their involvement. The dimensions of the different values found in the study appear to be essentially the same as a number of established empirical findings of variations in values in general practice: an orientation to a narrow medical role and to general practice as a business are associated with a low valuation of involvement; an orientation to teamwork and to a broader social role appear more congruent with the development of involvement. Power is a critical issue in this setting with evidence in the study of the dominance of the medical practitioners in establishing organizational values and the nature of public involvement activities. PMID:11560732

Brown, I

2001-05-01

70

Attitudes of Sudanese researchers on obtaining informed consent from study subjects involved in health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 153 Sudanese researchers was invited to participate in this study to explore their knowledge and attitudes towards informed consent in health research involving human subjects. Only 95 were interviewed, with a response rate of 62%. Forty seven (49.5%) of the surveyed researchers reported that they obtain informed consent from study subjects whenever they conduct a research study.

Dya Eldin; Mohammed Elsayed; Nancy E. Kass

71

Identifying Reinforcers in Skill Acquisition Studies Involving Participants with Autism: Procedures Reported from 2005 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the methods reportedly used to identify reinforcers in 97 skill acquisition studies involving people with autism published from 2005 through 2009. Results indicated that 32 of the 97 studies (33%) provided such information. Interviews with persons familiar with participants (e.g., parents, teachers) were the most-used…

Weeden, Marc; Poling, Alan

2011-01-01

72

Liver involvement in patients with brucellosis: results of the Marmara study.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects the reticuloendothelial system. But, the extent of liver damage in due course of the disease is unclear. This study included 325 brucellosis patients with significant hepatobiliary involvement identified with microbiological analyses from 30 centers between 2000 and 2013. The patients with ?5 times of the upper limit of normal for aminotransferases, total bilirubin level ?2 mg/dl or local liver lesions were enrolled. Clinical hepatitis was detected in 284 patients (87.3 %) and cholestasis was detected in 215 (66.1 %) patients. Fatigue (91 %), fever (86 %), sweating (83 %), arthralgia (79 %), and lack of appetite (79 %) were the major symptoms. Laboratory tests showed anemia in 169 (52 %), thrombocytopenia in 117 (36 %), leukopenia in 81 (25 %), pancytopenia in 42 (13 %), and leukocytosis in 20 (6 %) patients. The most commonly used antibiotic combinations were doxycycline plus an aminoglycoside (n?=?73), doxycycline plus rifampicin (n?=?71), doxycycline plus rifampicin and an aminoglycoside (n?=?27). The duration of ALT normalization differed significantly in three treatment groups (p??0.05). During the follow-up, treatment failure occurred in four patients (1 %) and relapse was seen in three patients (0.9 %). Mortality was not observed. Hepatobiliary involvement in brucellosis has a benign course with suitable antibiotics and the use of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside regimen seems a better strategy in select patients. PMID:24557334

Ozturk-Engin, D; Erdem, H; Gencer, S; Kaya, S; Baran, A I; Batirel, A; Tekin, R; Celen, M K; Denk, A; Guler, S; Ulug, M; Turan, H; Pekok, A U; Mermut, G; Kaya, S; Tasbakan, M; Tulek, N; Cag, Y; Inan, A; Yalci, A; Ataman-Hatipoglu, C; Gonen, I; Dogan-Celik, A; Bozkurt, F; Gulsun, S; Sunnetcioglu, M; Guven, T; Duygu, F; Parlak, E; Sozen, H; Tosun, S; Demirdal, T; Guclu, E; Karabay, O; Uzun, N; Gunal, O; Diktas, H; Haykir-Solay, A; Erbay, A; Kader, C; Aydin, O; Erdem, A; Elaldi, N; Kadanali, A; Yulugkural, Z; Gorenek, L; Alt?ndis, M; Bolukcu, S; Agalar, C; Ormeci, N

2014-07-01

73

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2013-07-01

74

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2014-07-01

75

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2012-07-01

76

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2011-07-01

77

Parents and Federal Education Programs. Volume 3: ESAA. The Study of Parental Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third volume in a series of seven is part of a larger study of parental involvement in four federal programs in selected school districts across the country. Presented here are the results of an intensive examination of projects funded by the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). Site studies of ESAA projects yielded data on the five ways parents…

Robbins, Albert E.; Dingler, Diana D.

78

Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

79

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

80

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. PMID:20860779

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2011-01-01

81

Nurse involvement in end-of-life decision making: the ETHICUS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose was to investigate physicians perceptions of the role of European intensive care nurses in end-of-life decision making.Design  This study was part of a larger study sponsored by the Ethics Section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the ETHICUS Study. Physicians described whether they thought nurses were involved in such decisions, whether nurses initiated such a discussion and

Julie Benbenishty; Freda DeKeyser Ganz; Anne Lippert; Hans-Henrik Bulow; Elisabeth Wennberg; Beverly Henderson; Mia Svantesson; Mario Baras; Dermot Phelan; Paulo Maia; Charles L. Sprung

2006-01-01

82

A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

2010-01-01

83

A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

2008-01-01

84

METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...

85

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes Plasmodium falciparum and the mosquito vector 1 Anopheles. Of particular interest is the molecular biology. This paper reports a statistical analysis of gene expression time profiles from mosquitoes which have been

Holmes, Chris

86

Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

2009-01-01

87

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of

Leslie London; David Coggon; Angelo Moretto; Peter Westerholm; Martin F Wilks; Claudio Colosio

2010-01-01

88

Management Involvement in the Ohio Board of Regents' Uniform Information System: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the guidelines applied by the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR) for executive involvement in the development and implementation of information systems. It is a case study of how the OBR successfully designed, installed, and used an information system based on six guidelines developed in "Administrative Data Processing: The Case for…

Baughman, George W.

89

Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power  

E-print Network

in virtually all energy conversion devices and systems. One may think of the jet engine as a mechanical deviceThermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power generation, the flow of liquids and gases, and the transfer of thermal energy (heat) by means

New Hampshire, University of

90

Observational and interventional study design types; an overview  

PubMed Central

The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

Thiese, Matthew S.

2014-01-01

91

In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

2010-01-01

92

IFN-? and TNF-? are involved during Alzheimer disease progression and correlate with nitric oxide production: a study in Algerian patients.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to a progressive and irreversible loss of mental functions. It is characterized by 3 stages according to the evolution and the severity of the symptoms. This disease is associated with an immune disorder, which appears with significant rise in the inflammatory cytokines and increased production of free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO). Our study aims to investigate interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) involvement in NO production, in vivo and ex vivo, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Algerian patients (n=25), according to the different stages of the disease (mild Alzheimer's, moderate Alzheimer's, and severe Alzheimer's) in comparison to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Interestingly, we observed that in vivo IFN-? and TNF-? levels assessed in patients with AD in mild and severe stages, respectively, are higher than those observed in patients with moderate stage and MCI. Our in vivo and ex vivo results show that NO production is related to the increased levels of IFN-? and TNF-?, in mild and severe stages of AD. Remarkably, significant IFN-? level is only detected in mild stage of AD. Our study suggests that NO production is IFN-? dependent both in MCI and mild Alzheimer's patients. Further, high levels of NO are associated with an elevation of TNF-? levels in severe stage of AD. Collectively, our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokine production seems, in part, to be involved in neurological deleterious effects observed during the development of AD through NO pathway. PMID:24831467

Belkhelfa, Mourad; Rafa, Hayet; Medjeber, Oussama; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Behairi, Nassima; Abada-Bendib, Myriam; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Belarbi, Soreya; Masmoudi, Ahmed Nacer; Tazir, Meriem; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

2014-11-01

93

Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol)  

PubMed Central

Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers) will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use) and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers). In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27 participants (11 public representatives and 16 clinicians and managers) and our study instruments with an additional 21 participants, which demonstrated the feasibility of the intervention and generated important insights and adaptations to engage public representatives more effectively. To our knowledge, this study is the first trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation, and its results could foster more effective upstream engagement of patients and the public in clinical practice improvement. Trial registration NTR2496 (Netherlands National Trial Register, http://www.trialregister.nl). PMID:21554691

2011-01-01

94

[Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement.  

PubMed

Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

2014-11-26

95

Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder in children involved in road traffic accidents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of severe psychological trauma—that is, post-traumatic stress disorder—in children involved in everyday road traffic accidents. Design 12 month prospective study. Setting Accident and emergency department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects 119 children aged 5-18 years involved in road traffic accidents and 66 children who sustained sports injuries. Main outcome measure Presence of appreciable psychological distress; fulfilment of diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Results Post-traumatic stress disorder was found in 41 (34.5%) children involved in road traffic accidents but only two (3.0%) who sustained sports injuries. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was not related to the type of accident, age of the child, or the nature of injuries but was significantly associated with sex, previous experience of trauma, and subjective appraisal of threat to life. None of the children had received any psychological help at the time of assessment. Conclusions One in three children involved in road traffic accidents was found to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder when they were assessed 6 weeks after their accident. The psychological needs of such children after such accidents remain largely unrecognised. Key messagesOne in three children involved in everyday road traffic accidents was found to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorderPost-traumatic stress disorder was experienced by children of all ages, although girls were most likely to be affectedNeither the type of accident nor the nature and severity of the physical injuries were related to the presence of post-traumatic stress disorderThe child’s personal appraisal of the accident was important, with those children perceiving the event as life threatening being more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorderThe psychological needs of children involved in road traffic accidents largely remain unrecognised PMID:9848900

Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Baldwin, Sarah

1998-01-01

96

An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

Stevens, Joy

97

An Observational Study of Print Literacy in Canadian Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of print literacy in preschool classrooms. There were seven preschool teachers working in central Canada who were observed over three sessions. The process of analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on interviews, classroom observations and documents. The following categories were…

Lynch, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

98

TUTORIAL IN BIOSTATISTICS SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Multi-centre databases are making an increasing contribution to medical understanding. While the statist- ical handling of randomized experimental studies is well documented in the medical literature, the analysis of observational studies requires the addressing of additional important issues relating to the timing of entry to the study and the e?ect of potential explanatory variables not introduced until after that

KATE BULL; DAVID J. SPIEGELHALTER

1997-01-01

99

Israeli parents' involvement with their adult children with intellectual disabilities after placement in institutional care: a national study.  

PubMed

This Israeli national study examined a research model predicting parental behavioral involvement with their adult children several years after their placement in institutional care. The sample studied consisted of 278 parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Israel between January 1993 and December 2001. Predictors of behavioral involvement were analyzed by a path analysis, followed by several differential regression analyses. Parental behavioral involvement with their adult children after placement is differential, and explained primarily by the children's gender and age at placement. Parental behavioral involvement with their daughters is predicted by cognitive and emotional involvement, whereas their behavioral involvement with their sons is related to background data. The child's age at the time of placement also plays a role in predicting parental involvement. Parental behavioral involvement with their children is related to gender and age at the time of placement in institutional care. Longitudinal research should be carried out to track the involvement process. PMID:17975458

Enosh, Guy; Rimmerman, Arie; Hozmi, Benny; Araten-Bergman, Tal

2007-12-01

100

Attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation – a study involving Baltic physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and describe attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation among a group of\\u000a Baltic physicians who are involved in this aspect of medical care. A total of 151 neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and neurologists\\u000a anonymously answered a questionnaire between February and March 1995. The majority of physicians said they would be willing\\u000a to donate their

M. Omnell Persson; P. Dmitriev; V. Shevelev; A. Zelvys; G. Hermerén; N. H. Persson

1998-01-01

101

Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

102

Peri- and paracardial involvement in lymphoma: a radiographic study of 11 cases  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with pericardiac and paracardiac lymphomatous involvement were studied. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest was compared to plain chest films for its ability to define the sites and extent of involvement in the paracardiac area. Nine of the 11 patients had abnormalities on chest radiography, which included abnormal contours in the fat pad areas and along the heart border, or an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Two patients had normal cardiac silhouettes; however, CT showed definite abnormalities. CT differentiated adenopathy from fat pads in two patients and pericardial effusion from cardiomegaly or paracardiac adenopathy in two patients. The exact location and extent of the paracardiac adenopathy initially seen on chest film was defined by CT. Careful analysis of the peri- and paracardiac areas by plain films and CT is essential to the diagnosis and the proper management of patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Jochelson, M.S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Balikian, J.P.; Mauch, P.; Liebman, H.

1983-03-01

103

Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study†  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for “machine” sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

2013-01-01

104

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

PubMed Central

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

2010-01-01

105

A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

106

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;

Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith

2000-01-01

107

Observational study of potential risk factors of medication administration errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Medication administration errors (MAEs) are the second most frequent type of medication errors, as has been shown in different studies in the literature. The aims of this observational study were to assess the rate and the potential clinical significance of MAEs and to determine the associated risk factors. Design: In two departments, Geriatric Unit (GU) and Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surgery Unit

Edgar Tissot; Christian Cornette; Samuel Limat; Jean-Louis Mourand; Michèle Becker; Joseph-Philippe Etievent; Jean-Louis Dupond; Micheline Jacquet; Marie-Christine Woronoff-Lemsi

2003-01-01

108

Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts. PMID:19405977

Small, Will; Fast, Danya; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2009-01-01

109

Logistic analysis of epidemiologic studies with augmentation sampling involving re-stratification and population expansion.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic cross-sectional, case-cohort, or case-control studies often select augmentation samples to supplement an existing (baseline) sample, primarily for the two reasons: (1) to increase the sample sizes from certain subdomains of interest that were not originally considered in the design of the baseline study and (2) to obtain samples from an extension of the target population. To address these two objectives, two-stage stratified sample designs are considered, where the stratification based on the expanded population at the second stage is not nested in the first stage strata. The sample weighting and Taylor linearization variance estimation for the two-stage stratified sample designs, involving re-stratification and population expansion, are provided for estimating population totals and logistic regression coefficients. Results from limited simulation studies and a logistic regression analysis of a study of human papillomavirus serology are provided. PMID:24907707

Li, Yan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Robbins, Hilary A; Graubard, Barry I

2015-01-01

110

Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter) was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3%) eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%); screening for hypertension (81.8%), diabetes (76.0%) and dyslipidemia (56.9%); and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%); however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively). The main barriers to the provision of these services in current practice were lack of: time (86.1%), coordination with other health care professionals (61.1%), staff or resources (57.2%), financial compensation (50.8%), and clinical tools (45.5%). Conclusions Although community pharmacists think they should play a significant role in health promotion and prevention, they recognize a wide gap between their ideal and actual levels of involvement. The efficient integration of primary-care pharmacists and pharmacies into public health cannot be envisioned without addressing important organizational barriers. PMID:22420693

2012-01-01

111

Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the data sets. Globally, there is the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, the Nordic Geodetic Observing System (NGOS) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss in general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such a database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravity, with the Nordic Geodetic Commission NKG2005LU land uplift model for Fennoscandia. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. The primary aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by multidisciplinary projects, such as Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas (DynaQlim) or the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an existing observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development. To make comparisons between different studies possible and reliable, the researcher should document what they have in detail, either in appendixes, supplementary material or some other available format.

Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

2014-07-01

112

Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS?  

PubMed Central

Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, and 4-phenanthroic acid, were identified during pyrene degradation. Pyrene-4,5-dione, which accumulates as an end product in some gram-negative bacterial cultures, was further utilized and degraded by Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS. Enzymes involved in pyrene degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS were studied, using 2-D gel electrophoresis. The first protein in the catabolic pathway, aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase, which oxidizes pyrene to cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, was induced with the addition of pyrene and pyrene-4,5-dione to the cultures. The subcomponents of dioxygenase, including the alpha and beta subunits, 4Fe-4S ferredoxin, and the Rieske (2Fe-2S) region, were all induced. Other proteins responsible for further pyrene degradation, such as dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, and epoxide hydrolase, were also found to be significantly induced by the presence of pyrene and pyrene-4,5-dione. Several nonpathway-related proteins, including sterol-binding protein and cytochrome P450, were induced. A pyrene degradation pathway for Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS was proposed and confirmed by proteomic study by identifying almost all the enzymes required during the initial steps of pyrene degradation. PMID:17041157

Liang, Yanna; Gardner, Dale R.; Miller, Charles D.; Chen, Dong; Anderson, Anne J.; Weimer, Bart C.; Sims, Ronald C.

2006-01-01

113

Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review studies of patterns of food intake, as assessed by diet index, factor analysis or cluster analysis, and their associations with body mass index or obesity (BMI\\/Ob).DESIGN: Systematic literature review MEDLINE search with crosscheck of references.STUDIES: Thirty observational studies relating food intake patterns to anthropometric information were identified and reviewed. Food intake patterns were defined using a diet

P Togo; M Osler; TIA Sørensen; BL Heitmann

2001-01-01

114

Extra-muscle involvement in dystrophinopathies: an electroretinography and evoked potential study.  

PubMed

Dystrophin is present in various tissues other than skeletal and cardiac muscles, including the central nervous system (CNS) and the outer plexiform layer of the retina. Therefore lack of dystrophin might be related to mental retardation or to changes in electrophysiological tests exploring retina and CNS. We performed electroretinography, VEPs, BAEPs, SEPs and MEPs in 18 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 18 with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 12 obligate carriers. We observed a marked reduction of the b-wave amplitude in the scotopic ERG, mainly in DMD patients. Oscillatory potentials were altered in all groups, even in carriers, suggesting that dystrophin may be also involved in retinal circulation. VEPs changes confirmed the role of dystrophin in visual function. The other evoked potentials were altered only in a small percentage of subjects but changes of different tests did not overlap in individual subjects. Neurophysiological abnormalities did not correlate with type, site and size of alteration in the dystrophin gene. PMID:9077508

Girlanda, P; Quartarone, A; Buceti, R; Sinicropi, S; Macaione, V; Saad, F A; Messina, L; Danieli, G A; Ferreri, G; Vita, G

1997-03-10

115

A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students  

PubMed Central

Objective: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. Design and Setting: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Participants: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. Data Analysis: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protégé initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protégé having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. Conclusions: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protégé. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and the mentor. A mentoring relationship is complex and involves the coalescence of both interpersonal and educational aspects of an affiliation. As a professional-socialization tactic, mentoring offers students a way to anticipate the future professional role in a very personal and meaningful way. PMID:15592607

Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

2004-01-01

116

A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

2012-01-01

117

In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work\\u000a with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly\\u000a catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies\\u000a in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp.

Hope A. Johnson; Bradley M. Tebo

2008-01-01

118

Transgenic studies on the involvement of cytokinin and gibberellin in male development.  

PubMed

Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M; Hanson, Doris D; Malloy, Kathleen P; Ness, Linda A

2003-03-01

119

Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas: Observational Support for Mechanisms Involving Energy Balance and Inflammation Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of physical activity, energy balance, and inflammation on the risk of incident sporadic colorectal adenoma, the authors conducted a community- and colonoscopy-based case-control study (n = 177 cases, n = 228 controls) in Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina, from 1995 to 1997. Participants reported energy intake by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, daily physical activity levels

Keith G. Hauret; Roberd M. Bostick; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hussey

120

Singular vectors of a linear imaging system as efficient channels for the ideal observer in detection tasks involving non-Gaussian distributed lumpy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bayesian ideal observer sets an upper bound for diagnostic performance of an imaging system in binary detection tasks. Thus, this observer should be used for image quality assessment whenever possible. However, it is difficult to compute ideal-observer performance because the probability density functions of the data, required for the observer, are often unknown in tasks involving complex backgrounds. Furthermore, the dimension of the integrals that need to be calculated for the observer is huge. To attempt to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, and yet still approximate ideal-observer performance, a channelized-ideal observer (CIO) with Laguerre-Gauss channels was previously investigated for detecting a Gaussian signal at a known location in non-Gaussian lumpy images. While the CIO with Laguerre-Gauss channels had, in some cases, approximated ideal-observer performance, there was still a gap between the mean performance of the ideal observer and the CIO. Moreover, it is not clear how to choose efficient channels for the ideal observer. In the current work, we investigate the use of singular vectors of a linear imaging system as efficient channels for the ideal observer in the same tasks. Singular value decomposition of the imaging system is performed to obtain its singular vectors. Singular vectors most relevant to the signal and background images are chosen as candidate channels. Results indicate that the singular vectors are not only more efficient than Laguerre-Gauss channels, but are also highly efficient for the ideal observer. The results further demonstrate that singular vectors strongly associated with the signal-only image are the most efficient channels.

Witten, Joel M.; Park, Subok; Myers, Kyle J.

2008-03-01

121

From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research  

PubMed Central

Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (?30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. PMID:24639900

Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

2014-01-01

122

Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

2013-01-01

123

Observer rated sleepiness and real road driving: an explorative study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r?=?.588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r?=?.360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs. PMID:23724094

Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Hallvig, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

2013-01-01

124

The involvement of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in tinnitus: a TMS study.  

PubMed

Tinnitus is an auditory phantom percept with a tone, hissing or buzzing sound in the absence of any objective physical sound source. Tinnitus is considered to be an auditory phantom phenomenon analogous to somatosensory phantom pain. Controllable versus uncontrollable pain is characterized by an increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and activation in the VLPFC correlating with perceived control over pain results in a decrease in subjective pain intensity. Depressed individuals show less activation than healthy controls in the left VLPFC in response to sad autobiographical scripts, and greater relative left prefrontal activation is related to a greater disposition to approach-related, positive affect with a greater ability to regulate negative affect. Based on the theory that non-pulsatile tinnitus can be considered the auditory analogue for deafferentation pain, we hypothesize that the left VLPFC might also be involved in control of tinnitus. We conducted a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study verifying whether modulating the left VLPFC by TMS can modulate the loudness of tinnitus. We studied 60 patients with chronic tinnitus of which 21 patients received in random order sham and 1-Hz stimulation, while 39 patients received in random order sham and 10-Hz stimulation. Our results show that 10-Hz stimulation can modulate tinnitus loudness, while 1-Hz stimulation does not seem to exert the same effect. Our findings give further support to the fact that non-auditory areas are involved in tinnitus. PMID:22782483

Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

2012-09-01

125

Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Mortality: Prospective Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. Design: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class

George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; David Blane; Charles Gillis; Victor Hawthorne

1997-01-01

126

Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

127

The effects of CPOE on ICU workflow: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has had demonstrated benefits in error reduction and guideline adherence, but its implementation has often been complicated by disruptions in established workflow processes. We conducted an observational study of the healthcare team in an intensive care unit after the implementation of mandatory CPOE. We found that policies designed to increase flexibility and safety led to

MK Goldstein; E Geller

128

Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental Design Random Samples Case Study Producing Data  

E-print Network

Samples Case Study Topic 4 Producing Data Formal Statistical Procedures 1 / 16 #12;Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental Design Random Samples Case Study Outline Setting a Design Random Samples Case Study 2 / 16 #12;Observational Studies Randomized Controlled

Watkins, Joseph C.

129

Study of coronal loops observed by GOES-SXI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the temporal evolution of coronal loops using data from the Solar X-ray Imager SXI on board the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite 12 GOES-12 This instrument has the advantage of providing continuous soft X-ray observations of the solar corona at a high temporal cadence which allows us to follow the full lifetime of a set of coronal loops from their brightening to their decay From the observed light curves we can divide the evolution of the loops in three phases rise main and decay For each of these phases we compute the corresponding evolutionary timescales and since we have full time coverage the real loop lifetime Using data in different filters we derive temperature and density averages The values found place SXI loops halfway between the typical ranges of physical parameters for loops observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope Yohkoh SXT and those for loops observed by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer TRACE We compute radiative and conductive cooling times which turn out to be much shorter than the evolutionary timescales of the loops These results confirm previous findings Porter and Klimchuk 1995 based on observations covering partially the loop temporal evolution Our results can be interpreted in terms of two alternative coronal heating scenarios quasi-static heating of monolithic uniform loop structures or impulsive heating nanoflaring of multiple-stranded loops We present arguments based on recent observations and loop modelling that support the idea

Lopez-Fuentes, M. C.; Mandrini, C. H.; Klimchuk, J. A.

130

Positive Facial Affect – An fMRI Study on the Involvement of Insula and Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala. PMID:23990890

Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

131

Differences in videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) findings according to the vascular territory involved in stroke.  

PubMed

Dysphagia affects up to half of stroke patients and increases the risk of pneumonia and fatal outcomes. In order to assess swallowing difficulty, videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) has traditionally been the gold standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the patterns of post-stroke swallowing difficulties according to the vascular territories involved in the stroke. One hundred and three patients who were diagnosed with first ischemic stroke by brain magnetic resonance imaging and had swallowing difficulty were included in this study. Location of the stroke was classified into three groups: territorial anterior infarcts (TAI) (n = 62), territorial posterior infarcts (TPI) (n = 19) and white matter disease (WMD) (n = 22). Oral cavity residue existed significantly in the TAI group more than in any other groups (P = 0.017). The WMD group showed more residue in the valleculae (P = 0.002) and the TPI group showed more residue in the pyriform sinuses (P = 0.001). The oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time and pharyngeal transit time did not show significant differences among the groups with swallowing of both thick and thin liquids. Penetration and aspiration were more frequent in the TPI group (P < 0.05) with swallowing of both thick and thin liquids. The results suggest that TAI is more related to oral phase dysfunction and TPI is more related to pharyngeal dysfunction. In ischemic stroke, patterns of swallowing difficulty may differ according to the vascular territory involved and this should be considered in the management of post-stroke dysphagia. PMID:24682308

Kim, Seo Yeon; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun; Lee, Seong Jae

2014-08-01

132

The Observation and Study of Shallow-contact Binary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow-contact binary is a system with low degree of contact, short orbital period and late spectral type. It is a bridge to connect detached binary system, semi-detached binary system with contact binary system. The study of the common convective envelope (CCE) of shallow-contact binary system is important to know how the CCE comes into being because the CCE of shallow-contact binary system is very thin. We have observed several systems (e.g. RV Psc, AW Vir, II CMa, AD Cnc). And we study their basic parameters using W-D method. The period studies will help us to understand their structure and evolution.

He, J.-J.; Qian, S.-B.

2009-08-01

133

Theoretical Studies of Direct and Resonant Reactive Scattering Involving Three-Body Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of DWBA method is checked to study the direct process for atom-diatomic molecule collisions. The DWBA results for the relative product rotational state distribution for H + D_2 to HD + D are demonstrated to be in good agreement with experimental observations and quasi-classical calculations. Direct comparison between the DWBA and exact close-coupling calculations for the reactive scattering

Chen Kwee Lutrus

1988-01-01

134

Gold-Catalyzed Cycloadditions Involving Allenes: Mechanistic Insights from Theoretical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  Allenes, owing to their special structural characteristics related to the presence of two ? bonds in a formally strained manner,\\u000a are particularly prone to undergo gold-activated reactions, particularly cycloaddition processes. Theoretical studies based\\u000a on DFT calculations have been very useful to explain observed reactivities and advance mechanistic proposals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Graphical Abstract  

Sergi Montserrat; Gregori Ujaque; Fernando López; José Mascareñas; Agustí Lledós

135

Studies on Cu(II) ternary complexes involving an aminopenicillin drug and imidazole containing ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibrium studies on the ternary complex systems involving ampicillin (amp) as ligand (A) and imidazole containing ligands viz., imidazole (Him), benzimidazole (Hbim), histamine (Hist) and histidine (His) as ligands (B) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4) show the presence of CuABH, CuAB and CuAB 2. The proton in the CuABH species is attached to ligand A. In the ternary complexes the ligand, amp(A) binds the metal ion via amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atom. The CuAB (B = Hist/His)/CuAB 2 (B = Him/Hbim) species have also been isolated and the analytical data confirmed its formation. Non-electrolytic behavior and monomeric type of chelates have been assessed from their low conductance and magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and vibrational spectral results were interpreted to find the mode of binding of ligands to metal and geometry of the complexes. This is also supported by the g tensor values calculated from ESR spectra. The thermal behaviour of complexes were studied by TGA/DTA. The redox behavior of the complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage study of the complexes show higher activity for ternary complexes.

Regupathy, Sthanumoorthy; Nair, Madhavan Sivasankaran

2010-02-01

136

Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. PMID:24021850

Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

2013-12-01

137

A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

1981-01-01

138

Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences. PMID:11949902

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2002-01-01

139

[Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in myotonic dystrophy--a computed tomographic study].  

PubMed

The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed on 8 myotonic dystrophy (MD) and 3 congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) patients on the following seven levels; the jaw, the neck, the shoulder girdle, the abdomen, the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the lower leg. Muscle atrophy was shown as low density areas or a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the muscles. The earliest finding in the disease was severe atrophy of the sternocleidomastoid and mild atrophy of the masseter and the pterygoid medialis. In addition, spinal, abdominal wall and lower leg muscles were involved. The distal muscles were more markedly affected than the proximal in the lower limbs. These changes were characteristically observed in cases without apparent muscle symptoms. Levator scapulae, psoas major, rectus femoris, peroneal longus et brevis and tibialis posterior were relatively well preserved and were even hypertrophic in some cases. The shoulder girdle muscles were more markedly affected than the pelvic girdle muscles. There was no substantial difference in the CT findings between MD and CMD. PMID:2242623

Odajima, N; Matsunaga, T; Furukawa, T; Tsukagoshi, H

1990-07-01

140

Continuing Studies in Support of Ultraviolet Observations of Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was a one-year extension of an earlier Planetary Atmospheres program grant, covering the period 1 August 1996 through 30 September 1997. The grant was for supporting work to complement an active program observing planetary atmospheres with Earth-orbital telescopes, principally the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The recent concentration of this work has been on HST observations of Jupiter's upper atmosphere and aurora, but it has also included observations of Io, serendipitous observations of asteroids, and observations of the velocity structure in the interplanetary medium. The observations of Jupiter have been at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths, including imaging and spectroscopy of the auroral and airglow emissions. The most recent HST observations have been at the same time as in situ measurements made by the Galileo orbiter instruments, as reflected in the meeting presentations listed below. Concentrated efforts have been applied in this year to the following projects: The analysis of HST WFPC 2 images of Jupiter's aurora, including the Io footprint emissions. We have performed a comparative analysis of the lo footprint locations with two magnetic field models, studied the statistical properties of the apparent dawn auroral storms on Jupiter, and found various other repeated patterns in Jupiter's aurora. Analysis and modeling of airglow and auroral Ly alpha emission line profiles from Jupiter. This has included modeling the aurora] line profiles, including the energy degradation of precipitating charged particles and radiative transfer of the emerging emissions. Jupiter's auroral emission line profile is self-absorbed, since it is produced by an internal source, and the resulting emission with a deep central absorption from the overlying atmosphere permits modeling of the depth of the emissions, plus the motion of the emitting layer with respect to the overlying atmospheric column from the observed Doppler shift of the central absorption. By contrast the airglow emission line, which is dominated by resonant scattering of solar emission, has no central absorption, but displays rapid time variations and broad wings, indicative of a superthermal component (or corona) in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Modeling of the observed motions of the plumes produced after the impacts of the fragments of Comet S/L-9 with Jupiter in July 1994, from the HST WFPC 2 imaging series.

Clark, John

1997-01-01

141

Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3840 (United States)

2011-11-15

142

Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

Dasgupta, Pushan R.

2009-01-01

143

A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Shenzhen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric scintillation variations are studied using GPS measurements at the low latitude station of Shenzhen (22.59°N, 113.97°E), situated under the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly region, from the Chinese Meridian Project. The results are presented for data collected during the current phase of rising solar activity (low to high solar activity) from December 2010 to April 2014. The results show that GPS scintillation events were largely a nighttime phenomenon during the whole observation period. Scintillation events mainly occurred along the inner edge of the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly in China. The occurrence of scintillations in different sectors of the sky was also investigated, and the results revealed that it is more likely for the scintillations to be observed in the west sector of the sky above Shenzhen. During the present period of study, a total number of 512 total electron content (TEC) depletions and 460 lock loss events were observed. In addition, both of these events are likely to increase during periods of high solar activity, especially because the strong scintillations are often simultaneously accompanied by TEC depletions and lock losses by GPS receivers.

Huang, Linfeng; Wang, Jinsong; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhou; Zhao, Kai

2014-12-01

144

General Practitioners involvement in enteral tube feeding at home: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Complex medical treatment is moving from hospital to primary care and General Practitioners (GPs) are increasingly asked to undertake new roles. There are now an estimated 19,500 patients being fed in the UK in the community on enteral tube feeding using a variety of different feeding tubes (Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), Jejunostomy, or nasogastric (NG). The majority of patients are over the age of 65 years when they had artificial feeding initiated and mainly because of dysphagia. The aim of this study was to explore GPs knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to enteral feeding in the community. Methods Semi-structured one-to-one interviews with a convenience sample of GPs in Northern Ireland. Results Twenty-three GPs in three health boards in Northern Ireland participated in the study. Most found dealing with enteral feeding to be a predominantly negative experience. They had little involvement in patient selection for the procedure and poor or no discharge information. GPs felt inadequately trained, there was poor communication between primary and secondary care and little support. There was anger and frustration among GPs about lack of resources (funding and training), and the perception that primary care was used as a dumping ground. Conclusion Moving complex medical treatment from secondary to primary care has major implications for GPs who should be included in the patient selection process, have adequate discharge information about their patients, be adequately resourced and have appropriate support and training. PMID:17504525

Madigan, Sharon M; Fleming, Paul; McCann, Siobhan; Wright, Marion E; MacAuley, Domhnall

2007-01-01

145

Pharmacological studies of the involvement of hypothalamic prostaglandins in the regulation of thyrotropin secretion.  

PubMed

A case is made for the involvement of pituitary prostaglandins (PGs) in the regulation of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion by citing recent evidence that TSH release in vivo and in vitro is enhanced by treatment with exogenous PGs and is inhibited by drugs (e.g., indomethacin) that block PG synthesis. Pharmacological studies were then performed to test the hypothesis that hypothalamic PGs also affect TSH secretion indirectly via the appropriate hypothalamic hormones that regulate pituitary secretion. The inhibition of thyroidectomy-induced TSH secretion was used as an endpoint in choosing the best of several drugs purported to inhibit PG synthesis. The established effectiveness of indomethacin and aspirin were used for reference in testing the following drugs: naproxen, mefenamic acid, tranylcypromine, and phenelzine. Only naproxen was found to be effective, but since it was no more potent than indomethacin, the latter drug was used for subsequent work. Indomethacin was stereotaxically implanted into several hypothalamic regions known to regulate TSH secretion, and sequential plasma samples were analyzed for TSH by radioimmunoassay. Bilateral implants of indomethacin in the anterior hypothalamic area increased TSH secretion throughout the 72 hr period of study. Sham inplants at this site and indomethacin implants in other nearby sites were ineffective. These findings suggest that endogenous PGs play an inhibitory role in the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary secretion. PMID:7238449

Wright, K C; Hedge, G A

1981-04-01

146

Pharmacological studies of the involvement of hypothalamic prostaglandins in the regulation of thyrotropin secretion.  

PubMed Central

A case is made for the involvement of pituitary prostaglandins (PGs) in the regulation of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion by citing recent evidence that TSH release in vivo and in vitro is enhanced by treatment with exogenous PGs and is inhibited by drugs (e.g., indomethacin) that block PG synthesis. Pharmacological studies were then performed to test the hypothesis that hypothalamic PGs also affect TSH secretion indirectly via the appropriate hypothalamic hormones that regulate pituitary secretion. The inhibition of thyroidectomy-induced TSH secretion was used as an endpoint in choosing the best of several drugs purported to inhibit PG synthesis. The established effectiveness of indomethacin and aspirin were used for reference in testing the following drugs: naproxen, mefenamic acid, tranylcypromine, and phenelzine. Only naproxen was found to be effective, but since it was no more potent than indomethacin, the latter drug was used for subsequent work. Indomethacin was stereotaxically implanted into several hypothalamic regions known to regulate TSH secretion, and sequential plasma samples were analyzed for TSH by radioimmunoassay. Bilateral implants of indomethacin in the anterior hypothalamic area increased TSH secretion throughout the 72 hr period of study. Sham inplants at this site and indomethacin implants in other nearby sites were ineffective. These findings suggest that endogenous PGs play an inhibitory role in the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary secretion. PMID:7238449

Wright, K C; Hedge, G A

1981-01-01

147

Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

Avallone, Linnea

2001-01-01

148

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

2010-01-01

149

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

150

An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

2010-01-01

151

Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V–VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6) using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05), 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25). Conclusions This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds. PMID:22509262

Airla, Nina; Zeitlin, Rainer; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Järvinen, Otso; Venermo, Maarit; Partio, Teemu; Saarinen, Jukka; Somppi, Taija; Suominen, VeliPekka; Virkkunen, Jyrki; Hautalahti, Juha; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kähönen, Mika; Mennander, Ari; Kytömäki, Leena; Soini, Juhani T.; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho

2012-01-01

152

A Candidate Gene Association Study Further Corroborates Involvement of Contactin Genes in Autism  

PubMed Central

Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a high degree of heritability, only a few mutated genes and mostly de novo copy number variations (CNVs) with a high phenotypic impact have as yet been identified. In families with multiple ASD patients, transmitted CNVs often do not appear to cosegregate with disease. Therefore, also transmitted single nucleotide variants which escape detection if genetic analyses were limited to CNVs may contribute to disease risk. In several studies of ASD patients, CNVs covering at least one gene of the contactin gene family were found. To determine whether there is evidence for a contribution of transmitted variants in contactin genes, a cohort of 67 ASD patients and a population-based reference of 117 healthy individuals, who were not related to the ASD families, were compared. In total, 1,648 SNPs, spanning 12.1 Mb of genomic DNA, were examined. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the strongest signal was found for a SNP located within the CNTN5 gene (rs6590473 [G], p = 4.09 × 10-7; OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 1.603-6.151). In the ASD cohort, a combination of risk alleles of SNPs in CNTN6 (rs9878022 [A]; OR = 3.749) and in CNTNAP2 (rs7804520 [G]; OR = 2.437) was found more frequently than would be expected under random segregation, albeit this association was not statistically significant. The latter finding is consistent with a polygenic disease model in which multiple mutagenic mechanisms, operating concomitantly, elicit the ASD phenotype. Altogether, this study corroborates the possible involvement of contactins in ASD, which has been indicated by earlier studies of CNVs. PMID:25337070

Poot, Martin

2014-01-01

153

The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard. PMID:24755843

Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

2014-01-01

154

Mechanistic studies on the flavin:NADH reductase (PrnF) from Pseudomonas fluorescens involved in arylamine oxygenation  

E-print Network

Mechanistic studies on the flavin:NADH reductase (PrnF) from Pseudomonas fluorescens involved Arylamine oxygenation a b s t r a c t We report the mechanistic studies of a FAD:NADH reductase (Prn and molecular dynamics simulation studies. These studies provide the first detailed account of the mechanism

Zhao, Huimin

155

ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

2014-01-01

156

Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

157

Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, João Claudio Gonçalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

2010-01-01

158

Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-?B, p38 MAPK and PI3?K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

2014-01-01

159

Mired in Miranda misconceptions: a study of legally involved juveniles at different levels of psychosocial maturity.  

PubMed

The Supreme Court of the United States has long recognized that the vulnerabilities of juvenile offenders merit special protections due to deficits in experience and maturity. Appellate courts assume that Miranda warnings will inform juvenile suspects of their Miranda rights, and allow them to render knowing and intelligent waivers. This study examines Miranda misconceptions of legally involved juveniles (i.e., juvenile detainees and youth mandated to juvenile justice alternative education) at different levels of psychosocial maturity. These juveniles manifested an unexpectedly large frequency of erroneous Miranda beliefs; each group (low, middle, and high maturity) averaged a dozen or more misconceptions, thus overshadowing substantive differences between maturity groups. However, maturity played an important role in the immediate recall of a Miranda advisement. Alarmingly, both low- and middle-maturity groups displayed less than one-third immediate recall. The high-maturity group performed better, but still failed to recall almost half of the Miranda concepts. The overall findings are discussed with respect to juvenile Miranda comprehension and reasoning. PMID:24510839

Rogers, Richard; Steadham, Jennifer A; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Drogin, Eric Y; Robinson, Emily V

2014-01-01

160

Isolation and expression studies of the ERD15 gene involved in drought-stressed responses.  

PubMed

The early response to the dehydration 15 (ERD15) gene is widely involved in the processes of signal transduction, programmed cell death, gene transcription, and stress tolerance in plants. In a previous study, the ERD15 gene was shown to be an important regulator of the abscisic acid response and salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway, acting as an important negative regulator of abscisic acid. The complete IbERD15 gene (accession No. KF723428) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The IbERD15 gene contains an open reading frame of 504 bp, encodes a peptide of 167 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 18.725 kDa. The transcript levels of the IbERD15 gene in a variety of tissues were examined by digital gene expression profiling. The roots of the sweet potato were treated by 3 degrees of polyethylene glycol, and the results indicate that the IbERD15 gene might play an important role in the defense response to drought stress. Moreover, the IbERD15 gene was successfully transformed into yeast cells for analysis of drought tolerance in transgenic yeast. PMID:25526205

Shao, H H; Chen, S D; Zhang, K; Cao, Q H; Zhou, H; Ma, Q Q; He, B; Yuan, X H; Wang, Y; Chen, Y H; Yong, B

2014-01-01

161

Bone Marrow Involvement in Neuroblastoma: A Study of Hemato-morphological Features.  

PubMed

Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma indicates advanced stage of disease. The recent use of autologous bone marrow "rescue", has provided an additional important reason for accurate assessment of bone marrow status in newly diagnosed patients. In this study, we analyzed 44 cases of neuroblastoma for bone marrow infiltration status and their hematological parameters. Eighty-eight bone marrow aspirate and trephine touch imprint smears and 44 trephine biopsy sections were examined in these 44 patients. Of these, 24 cases (54.5 %) showed marrow infiltration. Leucopenia and bicytopenia were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with marrow infiltration. Both bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were positive for infiltration in 16 out of 24 positive cases. Only aspirate smears were positive in 4 and only trephine biopsy in another 4 cases. The pattern of infiltration consisted of rosette formation in 40.7 % cases on aspirate smears and 22.2 % cases in trephine biopsies. Remaining cases showed diffuse and interstitial presence of tumor cells and cases positive only on trephine biopsy, showed marked stromal reaction. Bilateral trephine biopsies combined with aspirate smears picked up all positive cases compared to when they were assessed alone. PMID:25548446

Rastogi, Pulkit; Naseem, Shano; Varma, Neelam; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

2015-03-01

162

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

163

CNODES: the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3)?for each question, a study team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are “blind” to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6)?analyses using multivariable methods are lodged centrally with a methods team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects studying acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in study populations totalling over 40 million. PMID:23687528

Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; LeLorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary

2012-01-01

164

Arctic Sea ice studies with passive microwave satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this research are: (1) to improve sea ice concentration determinations from passive microwave space observations; (2) to study the role of Arctic polynyas in the production of sea ice and the associated salinization of Arctic shelf water; and (3) to study large scale sea ice variability in the polar oceans. The strategy is to analyze existing data sets and data acquired from both the DMSP SSM/I and recently completed aircraft underflights. Special attention will be given the high resolution 85.5 GHz SSM/I channels for application to thin ice algorithms and processes studies. Analysis of aircraft and satellite data sets is expected to provide a basis for determining the potential of the SSM/I high frequency channels for improving sea ice algorithms and for investigating oceanic processes. Improved sea ice algorithms will aid the study of Arctic coastal polynyas which in turn will provide a better understanding of the role of these polynyas in maintaining the Arctic watermass structure. Analysis of satellite and archived meteorological data sets will provide improved estimates of annual, seasonal and shorter-term sea ice variability.

Cavalieri, D. J.

1988-01-01

165

Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.  

PubMed

Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

2012-09-01

166

Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15%) patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32%) had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35%) had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR) seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal. PMID:21466702

2011-01-01

167

Large-scale study of the interactions between proteins involved in type IV pilus biology in Neisseria meningitidis: characterization of a subcomplex involved in pilus assembly.  

PubMed

The functionally versatile type IV pili (Tfp) are one of the most widespread virulence factors in bacteria. However, despite generating much research interest for decades, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the various aspects of Tfp biology remain poorly understood, mainly because of the complexity of the system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis for example, 23 proteins are dedicated to Tfp biology, 15 of which are essential for pilus biogenesis. One of the important gaps in our knowledge concerns the topology of this multiprotein machinery. Here we have used a bacterial two-hybrid system to identify and quantify the interactions between 11 Pil proteins from N. meningitidis. We identified 20 different binary interactions, many of which are novel. This represents the most complex interaction network between Pil proteins reported to date and indicates, among other things, that PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, which are involved in pilus assembly, indeed interact. We focused our efforts on this subset of proteins and used a battery of assays to determine the membrane topology of PilN and PilO, map the interaction domains between PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, and show that a widely conserved N-terminal motif in PilN is essential for both PilM-PilN interactions and pilus assembly. Finally, we show that PilP (another protein involved in pilus assembly) forms a complex with PilM, PilN and PilO. Taken together, these findings have numerous implications for understanding Tfp biology and provide a useful blueprint for future studies. PMID:22486968

Georgiadou, Michaella; Castagnini, Marta; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Pelicic, Vladimir

2012-06-01

168

Theoretical study on the photodissociation of methylamine involving S1, T1, and S0 states.  

PubMed

Various photodissociation pathways of methylamine involving the three lowest electronic states, namely, singlet ground S0 state, singlet first excited S1 state, and triplet ground T1 state, were studied by the (MS-)CAS(8e,8o)PT2/6-31++G** method. All critical points, i.e., minima, transition states, minimum energy conical intersections, and minima on the seam of crossing, were explored systematically by the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy utilizing the anharmonic downward distortion following (ADDF) and artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) methods. On the basis of obtained structures, we discuss the photodissociation mechanism of methylamine in the experimental excitation wavelength range 222-240 nm in detail. Especially, the T1 potential energy surface was explored systematically for the first time. The N-H bond rupture is a primary channel on the S1 state. Along the N-H dissociation path on S1, there is a low-energy conical intersection (CI), and through this CI the system can go back to the S0 state; from the CI the system can directly dissociate to CH3NH + H or reproduce the original CH3NH2 on S0. There is a seam of crossing between S0 and T1 in a partially dissociated CH3---NH2 geometry, and through this seam the system may go up to the T1. On the T1 state, a roaming-like pathway giving CH4 + NH (X(3)?(-)) products was found, which would explain the recently proposed intersystem crossing mediated roaming dynamics. PMID:23789818

Xiao, Hongyan; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

2013-07-18

169

The study of canine atopic dermatitis involving the isolation of dogs.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven pruritic dogs were used in this study. When a hypoallergenic diet was fed to these 27 dogs for six weeks, none of the dogs showed improvement of the pruritus. These dogs had a history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis (AD) as defined by Prelaud's diagnostic criteria. Subsequently, the 27 dogs were isolated for observation for two weeks in the hospital. In the isolation room in the veterinary clinic, cages and tableware were all stainless steel, and carpet was not used. A hypoallergenic diet was continuously fed to the 27 dogs for two weeks, during which time they were kept in the isolation room. PVAS (Pruritus Visual Analog Scale) was performed prior to starting the isolation, at the start of the study and 2 weeks after starting the isolation. In 17 dogs (63%) the pruritus improved in the isolation room. A statistically significant reduction (p < 0.01) of PLS (Pruritus liners score) was recorded 2 weeks after isolation. It was hypothesized that the 17 dogs whose pruritus improved in the isolation room had AD caused by an environmental antigen that was not present in the isolation room. Pruritus of the remaining 10 dogs (37%) did not improve. For 6/10 dogs, the intradermal allergy testing was positive for an environmental antigen. For 4/10 dogs, the intradermal allergy testing was negative for all environmental antigens. Dogs for which sensitivity to an environmental antigen was not identified were thought to have atopic-like dermatitis. PMID:21721413

Fujimura, M

2011-01-01

170

Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

Saykally, Richard James

2003-01-01

171

Bowenoid papulosis. A clinicopathologic study with ultrastructural observations.  

PubMed

One hundred eight patients were studied who had anogenital lesions showing microscopic features as seen in bowenoid papulosis (BP), a recently described condition occurring most commonly in young adults. Patients typically show multiple papules, small nodules, or plaques that clinically mimic verrucae or nevocellular nevi. Although the lesions show microscopic cytologic atypia, a distinction from Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and other forms of carcinoma in situ can usually be made on the basis of histologic and clinical criteria. The disorder responds to conservative treatment, although recurrences are not uncommon. Evolution of the lesions to invasive carcinoma was not observed. Mounting evidence links the development of BP to infection with human papilloma virus, but other viruses, as well as hormonal and immunologic factors, may also play a role. PMID:3002589

Patterson, J W; Kao, G F; Graham, J H; Helwig, E B

1986-02-15

172

Studying the System-Level Involvement of MicroRNAs in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD. Result We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD. Conclusion Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:24690883

Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Roy, Debjani

2014-01-01

173

A daily diary study of mental health and community involvement outcomes for three Chinese American social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 100 American youths of Chinese descent participated in a 14-day diary study, completing daily reports on ethnic feelings, American feelings, ethnic community involvement, and psychological well-being. Participants were divided into 4 identity orientations (Chinese, American, bicultural, or other) and then assessed for differential patterns of mental health and community involvement. Chinese-centered identities were characterized by positive well-being and positive

Tiffany Yip; Cross William E Jr

2004-01-01

174

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

175

High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being: A study of New Zealand worker experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-involvement work processes are at the heart of the current interest in high- performance work systems. A study of 775 New Zealand employees shows that greater experience of high-involvement processes is associated with higher job satisfaction. To a lesser extent, there are also better outcomes in terms of job- induced stress, fatigue and work-life imbalance. However, in situations where pressures

Keith Macky; Peter Boxall

2008-01-01

176

Is Sonic Hedgehog Involved in Human Fracture Healing? - A Prospective Study on Local and Systemic Concentrations of SHH  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a new signalling pathway in bone repair. Evidence exist that SHH pathway plays a significant role in vasculogenesis and limb development during embryogenesis. Some in vitro and animal studies has already proven its potential for bone regeneration. However, no data on the role of SHH in the human fracture healing have been published so far. Methods Seventy-five patients with long bone fractures were included into the study and divided in 2 groups. First group contained 69 patients with normal fracture healing. Four patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group. 34 volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 1 year following a standardized time schedule. In addition, SHH levels were measured in fracture haematoma and serum of 16 patients with bone fractures. Results Fracture haematoma and patients serum both contained lower SHH concentrations compared to control serum. The comparison between the patients' serum SHH level and the control serum revealed lower levels for the patients at all measurement time points. Significantly lower concentrations were observed at weeks 1 and 2 after fracture. SHH levels were slightly decreased in patients with impaired fracture healing without statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study to report local and systemic concentration of SHH in human fracture healing and SHH serum levels in healthy adults. A significant reduction of the SHH levels during the inflammatory phase of fracture healing was found. SHH concentrations in fracture haematoma and serum were lower than the concentration in control serum for the rest of the healing period. Our findings indicate that there is no relevant involvement of SHH in human fracture healing. Fracture repair process seem to reduce the SHH level in human. Further studies are definitely needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25501422

Eipeldauer, Stefan; Thomas, Anita; Hoechtl-Lee, Leonard; Kecht, Mathias; Binder, Harald; Koettstorfer, Julia; Gregori, Markus; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

2014-01-01

177

Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.  

PubMed

Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24?h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ?5.8?cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ?25.6?cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72?h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

2014-12-01

178

Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24?h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ?5.8?cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ?25.6?cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72?h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

2014-01-01

179

Involving patients in HTA activities at local level: a study protocol based on the collaboration between researchers and knowledge users  

PubMed Central

Background The literature recognizes a need for greater patient involvement in health technology assessment (HTA), but few studies have been reported, especially at the local level. Following the decentralisation of HTA in Quebec, Canada, the last few years have seen the creation of HTA units in many Quebec university hospital centres. These units represent a unique opportunity for increased patient involvement in HTA at the local level. Our project will engage patients in an assessment being carried out by a local HTA team to assess alternatives to isolation and restraint for hospitalized or institutionalized adults. Our objectives are to: 1) validate a reference framework for exploring the relevance and applicability of various models of patient involvement in HTA, 2) implement strategies that involve patients (including close relatives and representatives) at different stages of the HTA process, 3) evaluate intervention processes, and 4) explore the impact of these interventions on a) the applicability and acceptability of recommendations arising from the assessment, b) patient satisfaction, and c) the sustainability of this approach in HTA. Methods For Objective 1, we will conduct individual interviews with various stakeholders affected by the use of alternatives to isolation and restraint for hospitalized or institutionalized adults. For Objective 2, we will implement three specific strategies for patient involvement in HTA: a) direct participation in the HTA process, b) consultation of patients or their close relatives through data collection, and c) patient involvement in the dissemination of HTA results. For Objectives 3 and 4, we will evaluate the intervention processes and the impact of patient involvement strategies on the recommendations arising from the HTA and the understanding of the ethical and social implications of the HTA. Discussion This project is likely to influence future HTA practices because it directly targets knowledge users' need for strategies that increase patient involvement in HTA. By documenting the processes and outcomes of these involvement strategies, the project will contribute to the knowledge base related to patient involvement in HTA. PMID:22248231

2012-01-01

180

Funding sources for continuing medical education: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Aims: Medical accreditation bodies and licensing authorities are increasingly mandating continuing medical education (CME) credits for maintenance of licensure of healthcare providers. However, the costs involved in participating in these CME activities are often substantial and may be a major deterrent in obtaining these mandatory credits. It is assumed that healthcare providers often obtain sponsorship from their institutions or third party payers (i.e. pharmaceutical-industry) to attend these educational activities. Data currently does not exist exploring the funding sources for CME activities in India. In this study, we examine the relative proportion of CME activities sponsored by self, institution and the pharmaceutical-industry. We also wanted to explore the characteristics of courses that have a high proportion of self-sponsorship. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective audit of the data during the year 2009 conducted at an autonomous clinical training academy. The details of the sponsor of each CME activity were collected from an existing database. Participants were subsequently categorized as sponsored by self, sponsored by institution or sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. Results: In the year 2009, a total of 2235 participants attended 40 different CME activities at the training academy. Of the total participants, 881 (39.4%) were sponsored by self, 898 (40.2%) were sponsored by institution and 456 (20.3%) by pharmaceutical-industry. About 47.8% participants attended courses that carried an international accreditation. For the courses that offer international accreditation, 63.3% were sponsored by self, 34.9% were sponsored by institution and 1.6% were sponsored by pharmaceutical-industry. There were 126 participants (5.6%) who returned to the academy for another CME activity during the study period. Self-sponsored (SS) candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activity compared with the other two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In our study, majority of healthcare professionals attending CME activities were either self or institution sponsored. There was a greater inclination for self-sponsoring for activities with international accreditation. SS candidates were more likely to sponsor themselves again for subsequent CME activities. PMID:25136190

Venkataraman, Ramesh; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Ponnish, Arun S.; Abraham, Babu K.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

2014-01-01

181

Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by “online” self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures—known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding—demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

2014-01-01

182

Observational Study of Contracts Processing at 29 CTSA Sites  

PubMed Central

We measured contracts Final Negotiation (FN) and Full Execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of Master Agreements (MAs) and Previously Negotiated Terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p<0) and 22 days (p<0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p<.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study startup time by examining causes of variation and outliers. PMID:23919362

Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

2013-01-01

183

2D vs. 3D mammography observer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

2011-03-01

184

The Saturn Ring Observer: In situ studies of planetary rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey recently undertaken by the NRC's Space Studies Board for the National Academy of Sciences, studies were commissioned for a number of potential missions to outer planet targets. One of these studies examined the technological feasibility of a mission to carry out in situ studies of Saturn's rings, from a spacecraft placed in a circular orbit above the ring plane: the Saturn Ring Observer. The technical findings and background are discussed in a companion poster by T. R. Spilker et al. Here we outline the science goals of such a mission. Most of the fundamental interactions in planetary rings occur on spatial scales that are unresolved by flyby or orbiter spacecraft. Typical particle sizes in the rings of Saturn are in the 1 cm - 10 m range, and average interparticle spacings are a few meters. Indirect evidence indicates that the vertical thickness of the rings is as little as 5 - 10 m, which implies a velocity dispersion of only a few mm/sec. Theories of ring structure and evolution depend on the unknown characteristics of interparticle collisions and on the size distribution of the ring particles. The SRO could provide direct measurements of both the coefficient of restitution -- by monitoring individual collisions -- and the particles’ velocity dispersion. High-resolution observations of individual ring particles should also permit estimates of their spin states. Numerical simulations of Saturn’s rings incorporating both collisions and self-gravity predict that the ring particles are not uniformly distributed, but are instead clustered into elongated structures referred to as “self-gravity wakes”, which are continually created and destroyed on an orbital timescale. Theory indicates that the average separation between wakes in the A ring is of order 30-100 m. Direct imaging of self-gravity wakes, including their formation and subsequent dissolution, would provide critical validation of these models. Other targets of observation by the SRO will include “propellers” (thought to be the signature of sub-km moonlets embedded in the rings), the “ropy” and “straw” structure seen in images of strong density waves and gap edges, and km-scale radial oscillations which may be signatures of “viscous overstabilities” in high-optical depth regions. Most of the science goals identified above could be accomplished by high-resolution nadir imaging of the rings from a platform that co-orbits with the ring particles, i.e., from a spacecraft in circular orbit a few km above the rings. The vertical displacement of the spacecraft is maintained by a continuous low-thrust ion engine, which can be tilted to provide a slow inward radial drift across the rings. Chemical thrusters permit the craft to `hop' over vertical obstacles in the rings (e.g., bending waves and inclined ringlets). In addition to an imaging system with a resolution of at least 10 cm (with 1 cm a desirable goal), other instrumentat ion might include a laser altimeter/range-finder to measure the effective thickness of the rings, as well as the vertical component of particle motions, aswell as in situ instruments to measure the density and composition of the neutral and ionized ring atmosphere, meteoritic and secondary dust fluxes, and local electric fields (especially in spoke regions).

Nicholson, P. D.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Spilker, L. J.

2010-12-01

185

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban setting of Southeastern Brazil: an ecological study involving spatial analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe physical characteristics of the environment influence the composition, distribution and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), thereby affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, urbanization of human VL is a recent phenomenon and represents an issue of particular concern to local health authorities. The present study aimed to establish the degree of spatial dependency between canine and human VL in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify priority risk areas in which stricter control measures should be implemented.MethodsThe selected canine population comprised 3,652 dogs distributed within 11 strata and 1,247 urban blocks. Serum samples were collected between March 2013 and February 2014. Serodiagnosis of dogs was performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. The blocks sampled for canine VL and the addresses of the 16 confirmed cases of human VL notified in Divinópolis during the period 2007¿2013 were georeferenced. Spatial analysis of the data was performed using Kernel density estimation, Ripley¿s bivariate K-function and directional distribution methods.ResultsThe overall prevalence of seropositive animals was 4.63% (range 3.95 - 5.31) (n =169) and varied in different strata between 0.9 (range 0.0 - 1.91) and 8.73% (range 5.65 - 11.81). A positive spatial dependency was detected between human and canine VL in which the occurrence of human cases of the disease tended to concentrate in locations that were close to areas with a higher incidence of canine VL. The priority risk area could be clearly distinguished from Kernel density estimation and standard deviational ellipse plots in which the human VL ellipse was totally enclosed within the canine VL ellipse.ConclusionsThe results presented herein will enable the Municipal Health Office of Divinópolis to devise a more effective management plan for human VL in which specific strategies would be applied to areas presenting different levels of risk. This spatial evaluation of leishmaniasis model could be applied in other urban areas of Brazil. PMID:25326767

Teixeira-Neto, Rafael; da Silva, Eduardo; Nascimento, Renata; Belo, Vinícius; de Oliveira, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Letícia; Gontijo, Célia

2014-10-20

186

Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on…

Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

2006-01-01

187

A Longitudinal Study of Breadth and Intensity of Activity Involvement and the Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined prospective relations between activity involvement and successful transitioning to university. A sample of 656 students from 6 Canadian universities completed questionnaires before beginning university and at the end of their first year. Breadth (number of different activity domains) and intensity (mean frequency) of activity…

Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Adams, Gerald R.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Wintre, Maxine Gallander

2011-01-01

188

Employee Involvement, Attitudes, and Productivity in High Technology Manufacturing: A Two-Year, Experimental Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate methods of improving both employees' productivity and the quality of their work life, workers from four businesses were surveyed before and after their organizations implemented a total employees involvement program. Survey questions covered employees' perceptions of (1) the quality of the product produced, (2) the leadership's…

Stinnett, William D.; And Others

189

The case for government involvement in human resource development: A study of the Thai hotel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the case for government involvement in human resource development in the hotel industry in developing countries; relates the analysis to the hotel sector in Thailand in order to identify roles of public and private sectors related to inherent human resource problems; and suggests improvements needed in education and training if Thailand's tourism is to compete successfully in

Tom Baum

1998-01-01

190

Observational Study of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 2 and 3  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the short-term course of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in a genetically and clinically well-defined cohort of patients with SMA. Design A comprehensive multicenter, longitudinal, observational study. Setting The Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network for SMA, a consortium of clinical investigators at 3 clinical sites. Participants Sixty-five participants with SMA types 2 and 3, aged 20 months to 45 years, were prospectively evaluated. Intervention We collected demographic and medical history information and determined the SMN2 copy number. Main Outcome Measures Clinical outcomes included measures of motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure and expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity), and muscle strength (myometry). Participants were evaluated every 2 months for the initial 6 months and every 3 months for the subsequent 6 months. We evaluated change over 12 months for all clinical outcomes and examined potential correlates of change over time including age, sex, SMA type, ambulatory status, SMN2 copy number, medication use, and baseline function. Results There were no significant changes over 12 months in motor function, pulmonary function, and muscle strength measures. There was evidence of motor function gain in ambulatory patients, especially in those children younger than 5 years. Scoliosis surgery during the observation period led to a subsequent decline in motor function. Conclusions Our results confirm previous clinical reports suggesting that SMA types 2 and 3 represent chronic phenotypes that have relatively stable clinical courses. We did not detect any measurable clinical disease progression in SMA types 2 and 3 over 12 months, suggesting that clinical trials will have to be designed to measure improvement rather than stabilization of disease progression. PMID:21320981

Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard; Kang, Peter; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Sproule, Douglas Michael; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy; Martens, Bill; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean M.; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Irvine, Carrie; Annis, Christine L.; Butler, Hailly; Caracciolo, Jayson; Montgomery, Megan; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin; De Vivo, Darryl C.

2013-01-01

191

Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

Comiso, Josefino C.

2012-01-01

192

Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: Observational and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting observations of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, observations of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous studies indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new observations indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such method is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy was employed only at infrared wavelengths. The final phase of this dissertation work was to design, build and test a velocity modulation spectrometer which functions at millimeter/sub-mm wavelengths. This system was then used to measure the previously unknown pure rotational spectrum of SH+ (X3E- ).

Savage, Chandra Shannon

2004-11-01

193

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy

Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

2009-04-01

194

An observational study of driving distractions on urban roads in Spain.  

PubMed

The present research investigated the prevalence of driver engagement in secondary tasks and whether there were any differences by age and gender, as well as day of the week and time of the day. Two independent researchers observed 6578 drivers at nine randomly selected urban locations in Girona, Spain. Nearly 20% of the drivers observed were engaged in some type of secondary task, with the most common being: conversing with a passenger (11.1%), smoking (3.7%) and talking on a handheld mobile phone (1.3%). Surprisingly there were no differences by gender, but there were age-related differences with younger drivers being more frequently observed engaged in a number of different types of secondary tasks while driving (i.e. drinking, talking on a handheld mobile phone, and texting or keying numbers). Logistic regression showed that younger drivers, and to a lesser extent middle-age drivers, were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a technological distraction than older drivers. Conversely, non-technological distractions were significantly predicted by day of the week, time of the day and location. A substantial number of the drivers observed in this study were putting themselves at an increased risk of becoming involved in a crash by engaging in non-driving related tasks at the same time as driving. Furthermore, the higher crash rate among young drivers may be partially accounted for by their more frequent engagement in some types of secondary tasks while driving. PMID:25463939

Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

2015-01-01

195

Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives  

SciTech Connect

Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

Raab, J. (Raab (J.), Boston, MA (United States)); Schweitzer, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-02-01

196

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the

C. Aubrecht; C. D. Elvidge; D. Ziskin; K. E. Baugh; B. Tuttle; E. Erwin; N. Kerle

2009-01-01

197

Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study†  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586

Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.

2014-01-01

198

Temperament in young adulthood and later mortality: prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To determine the association between a clinician assessment of temperament in early adulthood and cause specific mortality. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Glasgow University. Participants: 9239 male former students aged 16–30 (mean 20.5) years who participated in an ongoing health survey from 1948–68. A physician recorded free text assessment of temperament, which seemed to capture aspects of personality (trait) and mental health (state), was coded into: stable, anxious, schizoid, hypomanic, odd, depressed, immature, hypochondriacal, unstable, and obsessive. Associations between temperament and mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Main results: There were 878 deaths. Most students—8342 (90.3%)—were assessed as stable, the remaining 897 (9.7%) having at least one, and 103 (1.1%) having more than one, temperament type. The second most common temperament was anxiety, recorded in 520 (5.6%) students. In multivariable analyses, having at least one temperament type was associated with increased all cause and stroke mortality, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.23 (1.01 to 1.50) and 1.95 (1.06 to 3.59) respectively, compared with stable students. Students with more than one temperament type had higher risk of death from: all causes, 2.05 (1.36 to 3.09); stroke, 3.26 (1.01 to 10.56); and cancer, 2.90 (1.62 to 5.20). Anxiety was positively associated with all cause and cancer mortality, respective hazard ratios: 1.36 (1.07 to 1.72) and 1.51 (1.04 to 2.20). Men labelled hypomanic had increased cardiovascular mortality risk, 1.90 (1.05 to 3.44). Conclusions: Markers of early adult psychological distress are associated with increased mortality. Mechanisms underlying these associations require investigation. PMID:14600116

McCarron, P; Gunnell, D; Harrison, G; Okasha, M; Davey, S

2003-01-01

199

Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPerceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant\\/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures.AimTo develop an

Fredrik Lindstedt; Bo Johansson; Sofia Martinsen; Eva Kosek; Peter Fransson; Martin Ingvar

2011-01-01

200

Dalfampridine in patients with downbeat nystagmus--an observational study.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of dalfampridine, the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine, on slow phase velocity (SPV) and visual acuity (VA) in patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and the side effects of the drug. In this proof-of-principle observational study, ten patients received dalfampridine 10 mg bid for 2 weeks. Recordings were conducted at baseline, 180 min after first administration, after 2 weeks of treatment and after 4 weeks of wash-out. Mean SPV decreased from a baseline of 2.12 deg/s ± 1.72 (mean ± SD) to 0.51 deg/s ± 1.00 180 min after first administration of dalfampridine 10 mg and to 0.89 deg/s ± 0.75 after 2 weeks of treatment with dalfampridine (p < 0.05; post hoc both: p < 0.05). After a wash-out period of 1 week, mean SPV increased to 2.30 deg/s ± 1.6 (p < 0.05; post hoc both: p < 0.05). The VA significantly improved during treatment with dalfampridine. Also, 50 % of patients did not report any side effects. The most common reported side effects were abdominal discomfort and dizziness. Dalfampridine is an effective treatment for DBN in terms of SPV. It was well-tolerated in all patients. PMID:23589193

Claassen, Jens; Feil, Katharina; Bardins, Stanislav; Teufel, Julian; Spiegel, Rainer; Kalla, Roger; Schneider, Erich; Jahn, Klaus; Schniepp, Roman; Strupp, Michael

2013-08-01

201

A European Network for Atmospheric Hydrogen observations and studies: EUROHYDROS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and the EuroHydros team In a future energy supply chain, molecular hydrogen is expected to play an increasingly important role as a carrier of energy for mobile applications, in particular in the automotive sector. Such an increased use of molecular hydrogen is prone to lead to additional emissions into the atmosphere, due to leakages in the supply chain. While molecular hydrogen does not influence the radiation budget of the atmosphere directly, it affects its oxidation capacity, through reaction with the OH radical. This in turn leads to an increased atmospheric lifetime of many atmospheric constituents (e.g. Methane), making H2 an indirect greenhouse gas. An increase of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere also leads to increasing H2O in the stratosphere, influencing the radiation budget of the atmosphere and ozone chemistry. In the light of these uncertainties, a thorough understanding of hydrogen in the atmosphere is necessary, and, most notably, a good understanding of the present day global distribution and budget of atmospheric hydrogen. The EU funded project Eurohydros aims at improving the understanding of the budget of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere through a combination of atmospheric monitoring, source-sink studies and modelling work. In this presentation we focus on the observational network, showing first results from different European and Global sites, from the calibration of the data sets and a first intercomparison experiment.

Werner, A.; Engel, A.

2008-12-01

202

Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1 year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women >99% (n = 11,124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2 months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common. PMID:25132521

Axelsson, Daniel; Blomberg, Marie

2014-10-01

203

Observational study of prehospital delays in patients with chest pain  

PubMed Central

Method: A prospective observational study of prehospital times and events was undertaken on a target population of patients presenting with acute chest pain attributable to an acute coronary syndrome over a three month period. Results: Patients who decided to call the ambulance service were compared with patients who contacted any other service. Most patients who contact non-ambulance services are seen by general practitioners. The prehospital system time for 121 patients who chose to call the ambulance service first was significantly shorter than for 96 patients who chose to call another service (median 57 min v 107 min; p<0.001). Of the 42 patients thrombolysed in the emergency department, those who chose to call the ambulance service had significantly shorter prehospital system times (number 21 v 21; median 44 v 69 min; p<0.001). Overall time from pain onset to initiation of thrombolysis was significantly longer in the group of patients who called a non-ambulance service first (median 130 min v 248 min; p=0.005). Conclusions: Patient with acute ischaemic chest pain who call their general practice instead of the ambulance service are likely to have delayed thrombolysis. This is likely to result in increased mortality. The most beneficial current approach is for general practices to divert all patients with possible ischaemic chest pain onset within 12 hours direct to the ambulance service. PMID:12748152

Hitchcock, T; Rossouw, F; McCoubrie, D; Meek, S

2003-01-01

204

Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

Stein, H S; Jones, I S

1988-01-01

205

Sexual dysfunction (K?cchra Vyav?ya) in obesity (Sthaulya): Validation by an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study intends to evaluate the relationship between Sthaulya (obesity) and K?cchra Vyav?ya (sexual dysfunction) with respect to different phases of sexual intercourse through a single-centered, observational study in male patients of obesity. Materials and Methods: The study involved 33 obese males from the outpatient department of the Institution whose sexual functioning was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, which was meant to assess five specific areas of sexual functioning. Results: A varying degree of sexual dysfunction was observed in four out of five areas of sexual functioning viz. erectile function (P < 0.02), orgasmic function (P < 0.02), sexual desire (P < 0.08), and overall satisfaction (P < 0.000) in obese individuals. Statistically significant dysfunction was not observed in intercourse satisfaction. Conclusions: Varying degree of sexual dysfunction is present in obese males, suggesting that obesity has a possible role in reducing the quality of sexual functioning in males as indicated in the classical ayurvedic literature. PMID:24167331

Geetha, Parampalli; Aravind, B.S.; Pallavi, G.; Rajendra, V.; Rao, Radhakrishna; Akhtar, Naseema

2012-01-01

206

Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

2014-01-01

207

Brainstem involvement in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1): An MRI and (1)H MRS study.  

PubMed

MRI of the brain and proton MRS ((1)H MRS) of the pons and dentate were obtained in 10 patients with genetically confirmed Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) and 20 control subjects. Patients with EPM1 showed (p < or = 0.01) loss of bulk of the basis pontis, medulla, and cerebellar hemispheres. Cerebral atrophy was present in six patients. The N-acetylaspartate/creatine and choline/creatine ratios were reduced in the pons but not in the dentate (p < or = 0.005). Brainstem involvement could play a role in pathophysiology of EPM1. PMID:12058102

Mascalchi, M; Michelucci, R; Cosottini, M; Tessa, C; Lolli, F; Riguzzi, P; Lehesjoki, A E; Tosetti, M; Villari, N; Tassinari, C A

2002-06-11

208

Differential motor neuron involvement in progressive muscular atrophy: a comparative study with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a clinical diagnosis characterised by progressive lower motor neuron (LMN) symptoms/signs with sporadic adult onset. It is unclear whether PMA is simply a clinical phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which upper motor neuron (UMN) signs are undetectable. To elucidate the clinicopathological features of patients with clinically diagnosed PMA, we studied consecutive autopsied cases. Design Retrospective, observational. Setting Autopsied patients. Participants We compared clinicopathological profiles of clinically diagnosed PMA and ALS using 107 consecutive autopsied patients. For clinical analysis, 14 and 103 patients were included in clinical PMA and ALS groups, respectively. For neuropathological evaluation, 13 patients with clinical PMA and 29 patients with clinical ALS were included. Primary outcome measures Clinical features, UMN and LMN degeneration, axonal density in the corticospinal tract (CST) and immunohistochemical profiles. Results Clinically, no significant difference between the prognosis of clinical PMA and ALS groups was shown. Neuropathologically, 84.6% of patients with clinical PMA displayed UMN and LMN degeneration. In the remaining 15.4% of patients with clinical PMA, neuropathological parameters that we defined as UMN degeneration were all negative or in the normal range. In contrast, all patients with clinical ALS displayed a combination of UMN and LMN system degeneration. CST axon densities were diverse in the clinical PMA group, ranging from low values to the normal range, but consistently lower in the clinical ALS group. Immunohistochemically, 85% of patients with clinical PMA displayed 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while 15% displayed fused-in-sarcoma (FUS)-positive basophilic inclusion bodies. All of the patients with clinical ALS displayed TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions PMA has three neuropathological background patterns. A combination of UMN and LMN degeneration with TDP-43 pathology, consistent with ALS, is the major pathological profile. The remaining patterns have LMN degeneration with TDP-43 pathology without UMN degeneration, or a combination of UMN and LMN degeneration with FUS-positive basophilic inclusion body disease. PMID:24833696

Riku, Yuichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Yoshida, Mari; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mimuro, Maya; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2014-01-01

209

Prevention of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B: An Observation Study  

PubMed Central

Background For mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the US Centers for Disease Control recommend immunoprophylaxis to decrease perinatal transmission; however, its effectiveness and risk factors for failure have not been well studied in community practice. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a contemporary immunoprophylaxis protocol. Design Observational study. Setting HBV perinatal immunoprophylaxis program within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health services delivery organization. Patients 4,446 infants born to 3,253 HBV positive mothers, between 1997-2010. Measurements Compliance with immunoprophylaxis, follow-up testing rates, maternal risk factors for HBV transmission and transmission rates. Results The infant infection rate was 0.75 per 100 births for 1997-2010 (Poisson 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.10)]. Rates were 3.37 per 100 (95% CI 2.08-5.14) for e-antigen positive mothers; and 0.04 (95% CI 0.001-0.24) for e-antigen negative mothers. Among mothers with viral load testing, the lowest level associated with transmission was 63,200,000 IU/ml. Infection rates per 100 were 3.61 (95% CI 0.75-10.56) among the 83 births to mothers with viral loads ?50,000,000 IU/mL and 0.00 among the 831 births to mothers with viral loads <50,000,000 IU/mL, regardless of e-antigen status. Limitations Testing for HBV immunity and infection was somewhat less complete in earlier years. Viral load testing was only consistently available starting in 2007. Conclusion Pre-natal HBV screening followed by post-natal prophylaxis is highly effective in preventing vertical transmission of HBV. A negative e-antigen status or a viral load of <50,000,000 IU/mL (90.9% of women tested) identifies women at extremely low risk of transmission after immunoprophylaxis who are unlikely to benefit from further interventions. Primary Funding Source Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Grant (CN-09LShla-01-H); National Institute of Health (K07CA166143-01A1 and KL2TR000143). PMID:24862434

Kubo, Ai; Shlager, Lyle; Marks, Amy R.; Lakritz, Dena; Beaumont, Colette; Gabellini, Kim; Corley, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

210

Contribution of amateur observations to Saturn storm studies  

E-print Network

Since 2004, Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs), which are the radio signatures of lightning in Saturn's atmosphere, have been observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument (RPWS). Despite their important time coverage, these observations lack the resolution and positioning given by imaging around visible wavelengths. Amateur observations from Earth have been increasing in quality and coverage since a few years, bringing information on positions, drift rates and shape evolutions of large visible white spots in Saturn's atmosphere. Combining these two complementary sources has brought better analysis of Saturn's storms evolutions.

Delcroix, Marc

2010-01-01

211

INvolvement of breast CAncer patients during oncological consultations: a multicentre randomised controlled trial—the INCA study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies on patient involvement show that physicians make few attempts to involve their patients who ask few questions if not facilitated. On the other hand, the patients who participate in the decision-making process show greater treatment adherence and have better health outcomes. Different methods to encourage the active participation during oncological consultation have been described; however, similar studies in Italy are lacking. The aims of the present study are to (1) assess the effects of a preconsultation intervention to increase the involvement of breast cancer patients during the consultation, and (2) explore the role of the attending companions in the information exchange during consultation. Methods and analysis All female patients with breast cancer who attend the Oncology Out-patient Services for the first time will provide an informed consent to participate in the study. They are randomly assigned to the intervention or to the control group. The intervention consists of the presentation of a list of relevant illness-related questions, called a question prompt sheet. The primary outcome measure of the efficacy of the intervention is the number of questions asked by patients during the consultation. Secondary outcomes are the involvement of the patient by the oncologist; the patient's perceived achievement of her information needs; the patient's satisfaction and ability to cope; the quality of the doctor–patient relationship in terms of patient-centeredness; and the number of questions asked by the patient's companions and their involvement during the consultation. All outcome measures are supposed to significantly increase in the intervention group. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of the Hospital Trust of Verona. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01510964 PMID:23645911

Goss, Claudia; Ghilardi, Alberto; Deledda, Giuseppe; Buizza, Chiara; Bottacini, Alessandro; Del Piccolo, Lidia; Rimondini, Michela; Chiodera, Federica; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Ballarin, Mario; Bighelli, Irene; Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Molino, Annamaria; Fiorio, Elena; Nortilli, Rolando; Caliolo, Chiara; Zuliani, Serena; Auriemma, Alessandra; Maspero, Federica; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Ragni, Fulvio; Brown, Richard; Zimmermann, Christa

2013-01-01

212

Cortical regions involved in visual texture perception: a fMRI study.  

PubMed

To determine visual areas of the human brain involved in elementary form processing, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure regional responses to two types of achromatic textures. Healthy young adults were presented with 'random' textures which lacked spatial organization of the black and white pixels that make up the image, and 'correlated' textures in which the pixels were ordered to produce extended contours and rectangular blocks at multiple spatial scales. Relative to a fixation condition, random texture stimulation resulted in increased signal intensity primarily in the striate cortex, with slight involvement of the cuneus and middle occipital, lingual and fusiform gyri. Correlated texture stimulation also resulted in activation of these areas, yet the regional extent of this activation was significantly greater than that produced by random textures. Unlike random stimulation, correlated stimulation additionally resulted in middle temporal activation. Direct comparison of the two stimulation conditions revealed significant differences most consistently in the anterior fusiform gyrus, but also in striate, middle occipital, lingual and posterior temporal regions in subjects with robust activation patterns. While both random and correlated stimulation produced activation in similar areas of the occipital lobe, the increase in regional activation during the correlated condition suggests increased recruitment of neuronal populations occurs in response to textures containing visually salient features. This increased recruitment occurs within striate, extrastriate and temporal regions of the brain, also suggesting the presence of receptive field mechanisms in the ventral visual pathway that are sensitive to features produced by higher-order spatial correlations. PMID:9774714

Beason-Held, L L; Purpura, K P; Krasuski, J S; Maisog, J M; Daly, E M; Mangot, D J; Desmond, R E; Optican, L M; Schapiro, M B; VanMeter, J W

1998-10-01

213

Involvement of nitric oxide in dopaminergic transmission in rat striatum: an in vivo electrochemical study.  

PubMed

In vivo electrochemical detection with a Nafion-coated carbon fiber working electrode, which provides information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of dopamine overflow, was used to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the dopaminergic transmission in the striatum of urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. A mixture of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nomifensine, a dopamine uptake blocker, was locally pressure-ejected to elicit a transient dopamine overflow from the dopamine-containing nerve terminals in the striatum. Local application of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which blocks endogenous NO formation, increased the magnitude of dopamine/release evoked by a subsequent NMDA and nomifensine application but resulted in no significant alteration in the time course. Furthermore, microejection of L-arginine, an NO precursor, or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO generator, did not cause detectable changes in dopamine level in the striatal extracellular space. However, NMDA-induced dopamine release was profoundly inhibited with L-arginine or SNP pretreatment. In addition, NO affects dopamine uptake in rat striatum. Exogenous dopamine applied through a micropipette, reversibly and reproducibly, elicited an electrochemical signal. The time course of these signals was significantly prolonged by L-NAME treatment. These data suggest that NO is diversely involved in regulating dopaminergic transmission in rat striatum. PMID:7595488

Lin, A M; Kao, L S; Chai, C Y

1995-11-01

214

Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather  

E-print Network

Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

Saldin, Dilano

215

A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

Zeeck, Kirk A.

2012-01-01

216

Queer Student Leaders: A Case Study of Leadership Development and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Student Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between involvement in student leadership activities and the development of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT; "queer") campus activists and leaders. This paper focuses on the experience of planning a regional LGBT conference; later papers will explore long-term…

Renn, Kristen A.; Bilodeau, Brent

217

Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat  

PubMed Central

A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP) rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15–30 Hz) and gamma (40–90 Hz). All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loop. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density (CSD) analysis combined with multi-unit activity (MUA) recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly the upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL) and superficial areas of granule cell layer (GRL). In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings. PMID:25126057

Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Buonviso, Nathalie

2014-01-01

218

Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the…

Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

2011-01-01

219

Study of the involvement of research ethics committees in the constitution and use of biobanks in France  

E-print Network

1 Study of the involvement of research ethics committees in the constitution and use of biobanks Ethics Committees and Biobanks Key words: Research Ethics Committee, Genetic Databases, Biomedical items of a questionnaire sent to the 48 French research ethics committees (RECs) to investigate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The

Rebecca A Bruni; Andreas Laupacis; Wendy Levinson; Douglas K Martin

2007-01-01

221

The Role of Leadership and Management in Six Southern Public Health Partnerships: A Study of Member Involvement and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has led to greater understanding of what is needed to create and sustain well-functioning public health partnerships. However, a partnership's ability to foster an environment that encourages broad member involvement in discussions, decision making, and activities has received scant empirical attention. This study examined the…

Weiss, Elisa S.; Taber, Shahnaz K.; Breslau, Erica S.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Li, Yuelin

2010-01-01

222

The relationship between serious leisure characteristics and recreation involvement: a case study of Taiwan’s surfing activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the relationship between serious leisure and recreation involvement by treating the former as a type of personal characteristic. Questionnaires were distributed to 434 Taiwanese surfers, and a structural equation model was used to examine the causal relationships among the variables. Research results show that a higher level of serious leisure characteristics leads to higher levels of recreation

Tien-Ming Cheng; Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur

2012-01-01

223

The relationship between serious leisure characteristics and recreation involvement: a case study of Taiwan’s surfing activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the relationship between serious leisure and recreation involvement by treating the former as a type of personal characteristic. Questionnaires were distributed to 434 Taiwanese surfers, and a structural equation model was used to examine the causal relationships among the variables. Research results show that a higher level of serious leisure characteristics leads to higher levels of recreation

Tien-Ming Cheng; Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur

2011-01-01

224

Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

Burton, Lindy

225

Responses of the human motor system to observing actions across species: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics. PMID:25463135

White, Nicole C; Reid, Connor; Welsh, Timothy N

2014-10-22

226

Expression and Study of Recombinant ExoM, a ?1-4 Glucosyltransferase Involved in Succinoglycan Biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Here we report on the overexpression and in vitro characterization of a recombinant form of ExoM, a putative ?1-4 glucosyltransferase involved in the assembly of the octasaccharide repeating subunit of succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti. The open reading frame exoM was isolated by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pET29b, allowing inducible expression under the control of the T7 promoter. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing exoM expressed a novel 38-kDa protein corresponding to ExoM in N-terminal fusion with the S-tag peptide. Cell fractionation studies showed that the protein is expressed in E. coli as a membrane-bound protein in agreement with the presence of a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region. E. coli membrane preparations containing ExoM were shown to be capable of transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to glycolipid extracts from an S. meliloti mutant strain which accumulates the ExoM substrate (Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Gal-pyrophosphate-polyprenol). Thin-layer chromatography of the glycosidic portion of the ExoM product showed that the oligosaccharide formed comigrates with an authentic standard. The oligosaccharide produced by the recombinant ExoM, but not the starting substrate, was sensitive to cleavage with a specific cellobiohydrolase, consistent with the formation of a ?1-4 glucosidic linkage. No evidence for the transfer of multiple glucose residues to the glycolipid substrate was observed. It was also found that ExoM does not transfer glucose to an acceptor substrate that has been hydrolyzed from the polyprenol anchor. Furthermore, neither glucose, cellobiose, nor the trisaccharide Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Glc inhibited the transferase activity, suggesting that some feature of the lipid anchor is necessary for activity. PMID:9973339

Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Geremia, Roberto A.

1999-01-01

227

Model studies in cytochrome P-450-mediated toxicity of halogenated compounds: radical processes involving iron porphyrins.  

PubMed Central

Haloalkane toxicity originates from attack on biological targets by reactive intermediates derived from haloalkane metabolism by a hemoprotein, cytochrome P-450. Carbon-centered radicals and their peroxyl derivatives are most likely involved. The reactions of iron porphyrin--a model for cytochrome P-450--with various carbon-centered and peroxyl radicals generated by pulse radiolysis are examined. Competition between iron porphyrin and unsaturated fatty acids for attack by peroxyl radicals is pointed out. These kinetic data are used to derive a model for toxicity of haloalkanes with particular attention to carbon tetrachloride and halothane. The importance of local oxygen concentration and structural arrangement of fatty acids around cytochrome P-450 is emphasized. PMID:3007100

Brault, D

1985-01-01

228

Encouraging Summer Students in Science by Involving them with EPO: Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

You have a bevy of high school and undergraduate students showing up soon for a summer "research experience." You know they are not going to become facile with the IDL or Matlab tools they need to analyze your data. What are you going to do with them to stimulate their interest and encourage them to continue in science? We chose to involve our summer studnets in our education and outreach projets, training them in inquiry-based methods, hands-on activities, and collaborative learning, along with providing opportunities for them to acquire knowledge of solar science. Our presentation will highlight, in their own words, projects our students undertook, their trials, tribulations, and learning experiences.

Scherrer, D.; Kosovicheva, A.; Lee, S.; Liu, S.; Scherrer, B.; Madison, J.; Winegarden, S.

2007-12-01

229

Association between metabolic syndrome and bone fractures: a meta-analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging epidemiological evidence suggest an association between metabolic syndrome and fractures. However, whether metabolic syndrome is an independent risk or protective factor of fractures remains controversial. Our goal is to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between metabolic syndrome and bone fractures by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods The PubMed and Embase database were searched through to March 2013 to identify studies that met pre-established inclusion criteria. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a fixed or random effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results Eight epidemiologic studies involving 39,938 participants were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, metabolic syndrome was not associated with prevalent fractures [pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 - 1.03] in cross-sectional studies or incident fractures [pooled relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.37 - 2.12] in prospective cohort studies. No evidence of heterogeneity was found in cross-sectional studies (p?=?0.786, I 2 ?=?0.0%). A substantial heterogeneity was detected in cohort studies (p?=?0.001, I 2 ?=?85.7%). No indication of significant publication bias was found either from Begg’s test or Egger’s test. Estimates of total effects were substantially consistent in the sensitivity and stratification analyses. Conclusions The present meta-analysis of observational studies suggests that the metabolic syndrome has no explicit effect on bone fractures. PMID:24506931

2014-01-01

230

Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. Studies with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk. PMID:9055712

Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

1997-01-01

231

Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study  

PubMed Central

Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy) with special attention to public engagement, and provided a concrete plan to operationalize a strategy for improving public involvement in this, and other, wait time initiatives. PMID:18021393

Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

2007-01-01

232

Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

Dittmer, P. H.

1977-01-01

233

The treatment of hypertension in people with dementia: a systematic review of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is very common in older people and a number of trials of antihypertensives have demonstrated benefit from treatment in even the oldest old. However, people with dementia were significantly under-represented in these studies and as a population are more likely to be physically frail, to suffer orthostatic hypotension and to experience adverse effects from polypharmacy at a lower drug count. It may be that different thresholds for commencement and cessation of treatment should be considered and may already be used for this group. Against this background this review sets out to describe the prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia, its treatment, change in treatment over time and the achievement of blood pressure (BP) control. Methods The PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and PsychINFO databases were searched for observational studies involving people with dementia and a diagnosis of hypertension. The search was limited to English language articles involving adults and humans published from 1990 onwards. Abstracts and titles were then reviewed with eligible articles read in full. Bibliographies were examined for further relevant studies. The final selection of studies was then analysed and appraised. Results Thirteen articles were identified for analysis. The prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia was 45% (range 35%-84%). 73% of these were on at least one antihypertensive, with diuretics being the most common. The reported prevalence of hypertension in study populations remained unchanged over time. ACEi/ARBs and calcium channel blockers were prescribed more frequently in more recent studies whilst use of ?-blockers and diuretics remained unchanged. Target blood pressure was achieved in 55% of those on treatment. Conclusion Hypertension is as common in people with dementia as in other populations and is as commonly treated with antihypertensive drugs. The findings presented here will support further work to establish the risk-benefit of antihypertensive treatment in patients with dementia and, if differing ratios are identified, to establish dementia-specific guidelines for management. PMID:24520843

2014-01-01

234

Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

2014-06-01

235

Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

1977-01-01

236

An observational study of post-asymptotic-giant-branch stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present an LTE model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type postasymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars. With initial masses ? 9M?, post-AGB stars form an important group of evolved stars and provide a unique opportunity to study stellar evolution almost on a human time-scale. Post-AGB stars have spectral types ranging from K to B and luminosities between 103 and 104L?. These objects ended their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution phase with a period of strong mass loss (10-7 - 10-4M? yr-1) and have been evolving from cooler to hotter temperatures at almost constant luminosity on a timescale of ˜ 104yr. B-type pAGB stars span a wide range in effective temperature (10 000 - 30 000K). Their expected surface gravities (log g ) and effective temperatures ( Teff ) coincide with those of B stars evolving from the main sequence. Therefore systematic observational analyses are required to distinguish these two groups. Furthermore, p! ost-AGB stars may be divided into four distinct groups based on their chemical composition. In this thesis, groups I and II represent post-AGB stars which are very metal deficient with C/O ? 1 and metal poor with C/O<1, when compared with the Sun, respectively. The question is whether hot pAGB stars belong to either of these four groups. Three further objectives included: 1. to discover whether post-AGB star have helium-normal or helium-rich photospheres. 2. the detection and measurement of s-process element abundances (e.g. Sr, Y, Ba, Hf). 3. to determine whether they show any anomaly in phosphorus abundance such as that seen in the extreme helium stars (EHes). High-resolution ´echelle spectra of several post-AGB stars were obtained at the AAT in 1999 and 2005 in order to study chemical composition, rotation velocities and other fundamental properties. Echelle spectra present many difficulties for data reduction, including the problems of order rectification and merging. To address these problems we developed an ´echelle spectrum reduction package, known as TIGER. These spectra were analyzed using model atmospheres and synthetic spectra computed with the Armagh LTE stellar atmospheres software. The semiautomated spectral fitting package SFIT was used to measure the stellar surface parameters and composition. The results show that Teff of the programme stars are in the range 15 000 - 25 000 K and log g are in the range 2.5 - 3.0. In addition to being metal-poor stars, they show mostly C/O<1. Several of our programme stars, namely HD119608, LSS4331, LSS5112, and LB3116 confirm this. The majority of hot post-AGB stars can be identified with the group II, metal-poor and C-deficient post-AGB stars. The model atmosphere parameters, LTE element abundances and estimated distance obtained here support the idea that programme stars are in true post-AGB stars. We detected helium enrichment in the post-AGB stars Hen3-1428 and LSS4331. We did not detect any evidence of s-process elements, primarily because of the high Teff of our targets. Our results do not show overabundance in phosphorus for any hot pAGB stars. Since we used the same atomic data and methods, we conclude that the enhancement of phosphorus previously found in some EHe stars is real. We studied stellar wind signatures for the post-AGB star LSIV-12 111. Emission line equivalent widths for Balmer lines show changes between two different epochs. Hen3-1428 and LSIV-12 111 show blue shifted absorption lines. A stellar wind is clearly present in both stars. We compared variability of a group of post-AGB and a group EHe stars using archival photometry. We did not detect variability in EHe stars. We detected variability in five post-AGB stars. Large variations in HR4049, HD213985, and HD52961 appear to be related to the binary period.

Sahin, T.

2008-05-01

237

The effect of a preoperative education programme on perioperative anxiety in children: an observational study.  

PubMed

The distress of children at the induction of anesthesia (DAI) is unpleasant for all involved and potentially harmful. Many strategies such as premedication or parental presence at induction have been described to minimize it. A preoperative education programme [the 'Saturday Morning Club' or (SMC)] has been in existence in our institution for a number of years and an observational study of children undergoing day case surgery was undertaken to assess the influence of attendance at the SMC on DAI. Ninety-four children aged between 2 and 16 years of age were included in the study; 21 attended the SMC and 73 did not. Patient anxiety using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was measured by blinded observers on the day ward, in the preoperative waiting room and at induction of anesthesia. Parental anxiety at the same locations was self reported using a visual analogue scale. Attendance at the SMC had a favorable effect on patient anxiety levels in all three locations but only reached statistical significance in the waiting room (P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). At present there is little evidence to support the use of preoperative education programmes in the UK and further studies are required to determine their benefit. PMID:18384339

Rice, Mariam; Glasper, Alan; Keeton, Diana; Spargo, Paul

2008-05-01

238

Thirty studies involving the scientific attitude inventory: What confidence can we have in this instrument?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to show how conceptual analysis may be used to investigate the validity of a research instrument. The instrument chosen here, the Scientific Attitude Inventory (SAI), is by far the most popular of its type, yet the studies in which it has been used give reason to question its validity. Using the conceptual perspectives developed

Hugh Munby

1983-01-01

239

Joint and tendon subclinical involvement suggestive of gouty arthritis in asymptomatic hyperuricemia: an ultrasound controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to investigate ultrasonographic (US) changes suggestive of gouty arthritis in the hyaline cartilage, joints and tendons from asymptomatic individuals with hyperuricemia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, controlled study including US examinations of the knees and first metatarsal-phalangeal joints (first MTPJs), as well as of the tendons and enthesis of the lower limbs. Differences were

Carlos Pineda; Luis M Amezcua-Guerra; Carla Solano; Pedro Rodriguez-Henríquez; Cristina Hernández-Díaz; Angelica Vargas; Fritz Hofmann; Marwin Gutiérrez

2011-01-01

240

Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals…

Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

241

Temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscle involvement in myotonic dystrophy: A study by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myotonic dystrophy (MD) patients. Study Design. MRI of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was performed in 15 MD patients, 11 male and 4 female, aged 16 to 53 years (mean, 31 years). Many of them had dental

Edmar Zanoteli; Helio K. Yamashita; Hideo Suzuki; Acary S. B. Oliveira; Alberto A. Gabbai

2002-01-01

242

Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

2009-01-01

243

LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

Omodei, Nicola [INFN of Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127 (Italy); Norris, Jay [University of Denver, Denver CO 80208 (United States)

2007-07-12

244

A Proxy Outcome Approach for Causal Effect in Observational Studies: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Known and unknown/unmeasured risk factors are the main sources of confounding effects in observational studies and can lead to false observations of elevated protective or hazardous effects. In this study, we investigate an alternative approach of analysis that is operated on field-specific knowledge rather than pure statistical assumptions. Method. The proposed approach introduces a proxy outcome into the estimation system. A proxy outcome possesses the following characteristics: (i) the exposure of interest is not a cause for the proxy outcome; (ii) causes of the proxy outcome and the study outcome are subsets of a collection of correlated variables. Based on these two conditions, the confounding-effect-driven association between the exposure and proxy outcome can then be measured and used as a proxy estimate for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders on the outcome of interest. Performance of this approach is tested by a simulation study, whereby 500 different scenarios are generated, with the causal factors of a proxy outcome and a study outcome being partly overlapped under low-to-moderate correlations. Results. The simulation results demonstrate that the conventional approach only led to a correct conclusion in 21% of the 500 scenarios, as compared to 72.2% for the alternative approach. Conclusion. The proposed method can be applied in observational studies in social science and health research that evaluates the health impact of behaviour and mental health problems. PMID:24695548

Liang, Wenbin; Zhao, Yuejen; Lee, Andy H.

2014-01-01

245

Clinical features of pancreatic involvement in von Hippel-Lindau disease: a retrospective study of 55 cases in a single center.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors in the central nervous system and visceral organs. In this study, we describe clinical features of pancreatic involvement in VHL disease, of which there have been few reported studies to date. Methods. We reviewed medical records of 63 VHL patients, diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2013. Demographic, genetic, and radiologic features, and the clinical course of VHL patients with pancreatic involvement were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Among the 63 VHL patients, 55 (87.4%) had VHL-associated pancreatic lesions (male: female, 31:24; median age at onset, 33 years; range, 12-67 years). These presented as single simple cysts (n = 5, 9.1%), multiple simple cysts (n = 14, 25.5%), serous cystadenoma (n = 29, 52.7%), or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (n = 17, 30.9%). Genetic tests were performed on 35 of the 55 patients (63.6%) and VHL gene mutations were observed in 28 of them (80%). Of the 55 patients, 11 received surgical treatment, 2 received endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol ablation therapy as local treatment for NET, and 42 patients were followed regularly without intervention (20%, 3.6%, and 76.4%, respectively). Conclusion. Pancreatic involvement in VHL disease is common, with a prevalence of 87.4%. Serial screening imaging studies for the early detection of VHL-associated NET are necessary in individuals at risk of VHL disease. A large-scale epidemiological study of VHL disease is needed to examine the natural course of the disease and the prognosis for pancreatic involvement. PMID:25562111

Park, Tae Young; Lee, Sung Koo; Park, Jin-Seok; Oh, Dongwook; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

2015-03-01

246

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

247

Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1983-01-01

248

A study of palladium catalyzed intra/intermolecular cascade cross coupling/cyclizations involving bicyclopropylidene.  

PubMed

The compounds [3-(2-Bromocyclohex-2-enyloxy)prop-1-ynyl]-tert-butyl-dimethylsilane 3, [4-(2-bromocyclohex-2-en-1-yloxy)but-2-yn-1-yloxy]tert-butyldimethylsilane 5 and dimethyl 2-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-2-(3-(tert-butyldimethylsilanyl)prop-2-ynyl)malonate 9 were prepared and subjected to palladium-catalyzed intra-intermolecular cascade cross couplings incorporating bicyclopropylidene 10 under two types of conditions. In the presence of Pd(OAc)2, PPh3 and K2CO3 in acetonitrile at 80 °C, the products were indene analogues, cross-conjugated tetraenes 11, 12 and 13, respectively. The corresponding spirocyclopropanated tricycle 16 in dimethylformamide at 110 °C was obtained, albeit in low yield (24%), and observed as an equimolar mixture of diastereomers, whereas 14, 15 were not fully isolated. PMID:24828378

Demircan, Aydin

2014-01-01

249

Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of patients with chondrosarcoma of bone have an excellent overall survival after local therapy. However, in case of unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease the outcome is poor and limited treatment options exist. Therefore we conducted a survey of clinical phase I or II trials and retrospective studies that described systemic therapy for chondrosarcoma patients. Materials and methods Using PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, the Cochrane controlled trial register and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts a literature survey was conducted. From the identified items, data were collected by a systematic analysis. We limited our search to semi-recent studies published between 2000 and 2013 to include modern drugs, imaging techniques and disease evaluations. Results A total of 31 studies were found which met the criteria: 9 phase I trials, 11 phase II and 8 retrospective studies. In these studies 855 chondrosarcoma patients were reported. The tested drugs were mostly non-cytotoxic, either alone or in combination with another non-cytotoxic agent or chemotherapy. Currently two phase I trials, one phase IB/II trial and three phase II trials are enrolling chondrosarcoma patients. Conclusion Because chondrosarcoma of bone is an orphan disease it is difficult to conduct clinical trials. The meagre outcome data for locally advanced or metastatic patients indicate that new treatment options are needed. For the phase I trials it is difficult to draw conclusions because of the low numbers of chondrosarcoma patients enrolled, and at different dose levels. Some phase II trials show promising results which support further research. Retrospective studies are encouraged as they could add to the limited data available. Efforts to increase the number of studies for this orphan disease are urgently needed. PMID:25126409

2014-01-01

250

Extra- and intracranial cerebral vasculitis in giant cell arteritis: an observational study.  

PubMed

Recognizing giant cell arteritis (GCA) in patients with stroke may be challenging. We aimed to highlight the clinical spectrum and long-term follow-up of GCA-specific cerebrovascular accidents.Medical charts of all patients followed in a French Department of Internal Medicine for GCA between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with cerebrovascular accidents at GCA diagnosis were included. Diagnosis of GCA was based on American College of Rheumatology criteria. Transient ischemic attacks and stroke resulting from an atherosclerotic or cardioembolic mechanism were excluded. Clinical features, GCA-diagnosis workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data were analyzed.From January 2008 to January 2014, 97 patients have been followed for GCA. Among them, 8 biopsy-proven GCA patients (mean age 70?±?7.8 years, M/F sex ratio 3/1) had stroke at GCA diagnosis. Six patients reported headache and visual impairment. Brain MR angiography showed involvement of vertebral and/or basilar arteries in all cases with multiple or unique ischemic lesions in the infratentorial region of the brain in all but one case. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement was observed in 4 cases including 2 cases with cerebral angiitis. Long lasting lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences were observed in 1 case. All patients received steroids for a mean of 28.1?±?12.8 months. Side effects associated with long-term steroid therapy occurred in 6 patients. Relapses occurred in 4 patients and required immunosuppressive drugs in 3 cases. After a mean follow-up duration of 36.4?±?16.4 months, all but 1 patient achieved complete remission without major sequelae.The conjunction of headache with vertebral and basilar arteries involvement in elderly is highly suggestive of stroke associated with GCA. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement with cerebral angiitis associated with long lasting brain lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences may occur in GCA. Both frequent relapses and steroid-induced side effects argue for the use of immunosuppressive agents combined with steroids as first-line therapy. PMID:25526454

Larivière, Delphine; Sacre, Karim; Klein, Isabelle; Hyafil, Fabien; Choudat, Laurence; Chauveheid, Marie-Paule; Papo, Thomas

2014-12-01

251

Studying primary tumor–associated fibroblast involvement in cancer metastasis in mice  

PubMed Central

Stromal cells have been studied extensively in the primary tumor microenvironment. In addition, mesenchymal stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. Studying this interaction requires methods to distinguish and target stromal cells originating from the primary tumor versus their counterparts in the metastatic site. Here we illustrate a model of human tumor stromal cell—mouse cancer cell coimplantation. This model can be used to selectively deplete human stromal cells (using diphtheria toxin, DT) without affecting mouse cancer cells or host-derived stromal cells. Establishment of novel genetic models (e.g., transgenic expression of the DT receptor in specific cells) may eventually allow analogous models using syngeneic cells. Studying the role of stromal cells in metastasis using the model outlined above may take 8 weeks. PMID:22441294

Duyverman, Annique M M J; Steller, Ernst J A; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

2012-01-01

252

Laboratory and Observational Studies of Methyl Ethyl Ketone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large fraction of the detected interstellar molecules are complex organic molecules (COMs) containing five or more atoms. Despite the prominence of these species in many types of astrophysical environments, the formation processes for these molecules are not well-understood. We have therefore undertaken a combined laboratory, modeling, and observational program in an attempt to more fully understand the effects that physical environment have on the chemical composition of astronomical sources. As part of this effort, we have conducted deep submillimeter spectral line surveys of multiple interstellar sources with varying physical conditions including hot cores, shocked regions, low-mass star forming regions, and stellar outflows. These surveys were conducted using a broadband receiver at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), and are forerunner observations to our upcoming Herschel OT1 program to continue these surveys at higher frequencies. In order to fully analyze these spectral line surveys, we have also collected laboratory spectra of several suspected interstellar organic molecules. One such molecular target is methyl ethyl ketone (CH_3COCH_2CH_3, MEK), which is a likely candidate for interstellar detection. The spectra for MEK were collected from 8.7 to 18.3 GHz using the chirped-pulse waveguide Fourier Transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometer at New College Florida. We have also collected spectra of MEK in selected frequency ranges from 32 to 125 GHz using the direct absorption flow cell spectrometer at Emory University. We will report on the laboratory characterization of MEK and compare these results to our observational spectral line surveys.

Kroll, J. A.; Shipman, S.; Widicus Weaver, S. L.

2011-05-01

253

Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was

Robert A. Kruger; William L. Kiser; A. P. Romilly; Phyllis Scmidt

2001-01-01

254

Study of decays with first observation of and  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for charmless three-body decays of B 0 and mesons with a meson in the final state is performed using the pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the LHCb experiment. Branching fractions of the decay modes ( h (') = ?, K), relative to the well measured decay, are obtained. First observation of the decay modes and and confirmation of the decay are reported. The following relative branching fraction measurements or limits are obtained [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Cowie, E.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.

2013-10-01

255

Observation and studies of double J /? production at the Tevatron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observation of doubly produced J /? mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in p p ¯ collisions at ?{s }=1.96 TeV . The production cross section for both singly and doubly produced J /? mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1 fb-1 . For the first time, the double J /? production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section ?eff, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.

2014-12-01

256

Crustal Deformations Studies in Egypt Using Gravity and Geodetic Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass re-distribution and related density changes are one of the main factors affecting Earth's dynamics. Therefore, we used the observed temporal gravity variations to understand the surface tectonics and geodynamic processes. Temporal gravity variations in parallel with the geodetic technique (GPS) had been used to monitor recent crustal movements in Egypt since 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan, were the first net to be measured in Egypt. More than five times of measurements were performed till Dec. 2009. The non-tidal gravity changes were constrained by the vertical component of surface movements derived from the GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress south of the Kalabsha fault in combination with expected lake water penetration into the Nubian sandstone; the lowest gravity changes along the Kalabsha fault reflect the strike component of the stress field. Also, the gravity changes were correlated with seismic activity in the areas around Cairo, Egypt (Greater Cairo and Southern part of Delta). As example, a relative considerable increase of gravity values was noticed for the network between the epochs of 2000 and 2004. Otherwise, the temporal gravity variations were reported a considerable decrease in gravity values between the two campaigns of 2004 and 2007 for the same stations. This behavior could explain by compressive deformation and strain buildup stage before the Southwest Cairo earthquake (July 31, 2005 with Mw 4.3). Then, the stress release stage were occurred after the main-shock which showed by the negative change of gravity values from the measurements of 2007. Although, the existing of this relation from gravity campaigns in 2000 - 2004 - 2007, and due to the small number of observations, we assume there is a relation rather between gravity changes and continuous deformation process, than a direct relation to earthquake occurrence. However, the limited number of campaigns has not allowed yet developing a model of such relation. The results of geodetic measurements of the network around Cairo after five campaigns showed that the average estimated horizontal velocities for most points are about 5.15 mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. This proves the high geodynamic activity of the region and the need of further observations.

Issawy, Elsayed; Mrlina, Jan; Radwan, Anwar; Mahmoud, Salah

2010-05-01

257

Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

2008-01-01

258

MRI in 31 patients with Behçet's disease and neurological involvement: prospective study with clinical correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty one patients with Behçet's disease and neurological manifestations were prospectively studied with MRI. Cerebral venous thrombosis was diagnosed in 10 patients. MRI performed during the acute illness in eight patients showed an abnormally high signal on the T2 weighted sequences in the occluded sinus. MRI showed minor flow abnormalities suggestive of partial recanalisation of the sinus in two cases

B Wechsler; B Delllsola; M Vidailhet; D Dormont; J C Piette; O Blétry; P Godeau

1993-01-01

259

Distinct Pathways Involved in Sound Recognition and Localization: A Human fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from psychophysical studies in normal and brain-damaged subjects suggests that auditory information relevant to recognition and localization are processed by distinct neuronal populations. We report here on anatomical segregation of these populations. Brain activation associated with performance in sound identification and localization was investigated in 18 normal subjects using fMRI. Three conditions were used: (i) comparison of spatial stimuli

Philippe P. Maeder; Reto A. Meuli; Michela Adriani; Anne Bellmann; Eleonora Fornari; Jean-Philippe Thiran; Antoine Pittet; Stéphanie Clarke

2001-01-01

260

Abstract--Metagenomic studies inherently involve sampling genetic information from an environment potentially contain-  

E-print Network

potentially contain- ing thousands of distinctly different microbial organisms. This genetic information and community function of microbial organisms in their native environments on a molecular basis. Understanding of vitamins such as vitamin B12 [4]. Studies are currently under way investigating the impact of microbial

Polikar, Robi

261

A Functional Study on Prostanoid Receptors Involved in Cultured Human Iridal Melanocyte Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various prostanoids on the growth, melanogenesis and dendrification of cultured iridal melanocytes were studied. Iridal melanocytes were isolated and cultured with medium supplemented with cAMP elevating agents and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (complete medium). The iridal melanocytes were plated into multiple well plates and cultured with complete medium or various deleted media with or without various

Dan-Ning Hu; Steven A M C Cormick; David F Woodward

2001-01-01

262

Parental Involvement in the Development of Children's Reading Skill: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening

Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre

2002-01-01

263

A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…

Broome, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

264

Association Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Vascular Alterations in Elderly Hypertensives with Subjective Memory Complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have recently shown that vascular abnormalities are associated with cognitive impairment as well as with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in elderly hypertensive patients presenting with subjective memory complaints (SMC), a population at high risk of developing dementia. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants associated with the degree of cognitive impairment and the severity

Ghassan Watfa; Jean Brice Marteau; Patrick Rossignol; Anna Kearney-Schwartz; Renaud Fay; Serge Bracard; Jacques Felblinger; Jean-Marc Boivin; Patrick Lacolley; Sophie Visvikis-Siest; Athanase Benetos; Faïez Zannad

2010-01-01

265

A study of outsourcing strategy: a case involving the hotel industry in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotels in China are attempting to adopt outsourcing. However, they are not always successful. This study investigated outsourcing strategy as perceived by hotel managers in Shanghai, and identified the relationship between the determinant factors in the adoption of outsourcing and types of hotel ownership and job levels of managers. In-depth interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data.

Terry Lam; Michael X. J. Han

2005-01-01

266

Direct Observation, Study, and Control of Molecular Superrotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N =95 in oxygen and N=60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery

2014-03-01

267

Direct observation, study, and control of molecular superrotors.  

PubMed

Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N = 95 in oxygen and N = 60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored. PMID:24702361

Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery

2014-03-21

268

A simulation study of reactive flow in 2-D involving dissolution and precipitation in sedimentary rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we solve the Navier Stokes' equation using finite difference method, on a simulated porous rock structure in 2-D, to study the velocity distribution of fluid flowing through it under a constant pressure gradient. A reactive solute carried through the fluid is allowed to interact with the minerals in the rock. Depending on the rock composition, both dissolution and precipitation reactions may occur. However precipitation occurs only through the cations that are released in the solution due to dissolution. These combined dissolution-precipitation reactions change the porosity, permeability and pore geometry of the sedimentary rock. We study the temporal changes of these properties as functions of Peclet number, concentration of the reactive solute and ratio of Damkholer numbers of dissolution to precipitation. The final flow property is decided by a combination of these parameters.

Sadhukhan, S.; Gouze, P.; Dutta, T.

2014-11-01

269

Studies of the involvement of metal ions with several medicinal agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMR and CD studies indicate that Mg\\/sup 2 +\\/ and Ca\\/sup 2 +\\/ are able to change the conformation of tetracycline in DMSO solution. This may affect the in vivo effect of tetracycline. Using ²³Na NMR, the formation constant of NaLAS (LAS represents the anion of lasalocid A) was found to be 80 M⁻¹ which is much smaller than that

Shaw

1985-01-01

270

Priming of PC12 cells for semiquantitative microinjection studies involving Ras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve growth factor and activated Ras can induce differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) [Greene and Tischler (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 2424–2428] from a chromaffin cell-like morphology into one that resembles sympathetic neurones. We developed a special treatment of PC12 cells which apparently synchronises these cells such that they are more useful for semi-quantitative microinjection studies

Gudula Schmidt; Alfred Wittinghofer

2000-01-01

271

Diffuse axonal injury with selective involvement of the corticospinal tract. A diffusion tensor imaging case study.  

PubMed

The identification of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) can be difficult, especially using conventional imaging (CT or MRI), which usually appears normal. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is useful in identifying white matter abnormalities in patients with DAI. We describe the case of a 17-year-old female with severe closed head injury and right-side hemiparesis, studied with DTI and MR-tractography. In this case, DTI was useful to detect focal and diffuse signs of DAI. PMID:25196610

Tavanti, Francesca; Coppola, Valeria; Romano, Andrea; Beccia, Mario; Giuliani, Giorgia; Pierallini, Alberto; Bozzao, Alessandro

2014-09-01

272

Differential involvement of sarcomeric proteins in myofibrillar myopathies: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are rare inherited or sporadic progressive neuromuscular disorders with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In the current study, we have analyzed histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics in genetically identified MFMs. We performed a morphological and morphometrical study in a cohort of 24 genetically identified MFM patients (12 desmin, 6 alphaB-crystallin, 4 ZASP, 2 myotilin), and an extensive immunohistochemical study in 15 of these patients, using both well-known and novel antibodies directed against distinct compartments of the muscle fibers, including Z-disc and M-band proteins. Our morphological data revealed some significant differences between the distinct MFM subgroups: the consistent presence of 'rubbed-out' fibers in desminopathies and alphaB-crystallinopathies, an elevated frequency of vacuoles in ZASPopathies and myotilinopathies, and the presence of a few necrotic fibers in the two myotilinopathy patients. Immunohistochemistry showed that in MFM only a subset of Z-disc proteins, such as filamin C and its ligands myotilin and Xin, exhibited significant alterations in their localization, whereas other Z-disc proteins like alpha-actinin, myopodin and tritopodin, did not. In contrast, M-band proteins revealed no abnormalities in MFM. We conclude that the presence of 'rubbed-out' fibers are a suggestive feature for desminopathy or alphaB-crystallinopathy, and that MFM is not a general disease of the myofibril, but primarily affects a subgroup of stress-responsive Z-disc proteins. PMID:19151983

Claeys, Kristl G; van der Ven, Peter F M; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eymard, Bruno; Dubourg, Odile; Laforêt, Pascal; Faulkner, Georgine; Richard, Pascale; Vicart, Patrick; Romero, Norma B; Stoltenburg, Gisela; Udd, Bjarne; Fardeau, Michel; Voit, Thomas; Fürst, Dieter O

2009-03-01

273

Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.  

PubMed

In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety. PMID:21067673

Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

2010-10-01

274

Different structures involved during ictal and interictal epileptic activity in malformations of cortical development: an EEG-fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are commonly complicated by intractable focal epilepsy. Epileptogenesis in these disorders is not well understood and may depend on the type of MCD. The cellular mechanisms involved in interictal and ictal events are notably different, and could be influenced independently by the type of pathology. We evaluated the relationship between interictal and ictal zones in eight patients with different types of MCD in order to better understand the generation of these activities: four had nodular heterotopia, two focal cortical dysplasia and two subcortical band heterotopia (double-cortex). We used the non-invasive EEG-fMRI technique to record simultaneously all cerebral structures with a high spatio-temporal resolution. We recorded interictal and ictal events during the same session. Ictal events were either electrical only or clinical with minimal motion. BOLD changes were found in the focal cortical dysplasia during interictal and ictal epileptiform events in the two patients with this disorder. Heterotopic and normal cortices were involved in BOLD changes during interictal and ictal events in the two patients with double cortex, but the maximum BOLD response was in the heterotopic band in both patients. Only two of the four patients with nodular heterotopia showed involvement of a nodule during interictal activity. During seizures, although BOLD changes affected the lesion in two patients, the maximum was always in the overlying cortex and never in the heterotopia. For two patients intracranial recordings were available and confirm our findings. The dysplastic cortex and the heterotopic cortex of band heterotopia were involved in interictal and seizure processes. Even if the nodular gray matter heterotopia may have the cellular substrate to produce interictal events, the often abnormal overlying cortex is more likely to be involved during the seizures. The non-invasive BOLD study of interictal and ictal events in MCD patients may help to understand the role of the lesion in epileptogenesis and also determine the potential surgical target. PMID:18669486

Tyvaert, L.; Hawco, C.; Kobayashi, E.; LeVan, P.; Dubeau, F.; Gotman, J.

2013-01-01

275

Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

1987-01-01

276

Study Finds Romantic Rejection Stimulates Areas of Brain Involved in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Is romantic rejection a specific form of addiction?" This press release describes the experimental design and findings from a July 2010 study in the Journal of Neurophysiology entitled "Reward, Addiction and Emotion Regulation Systems Associated with Rejection in Love" conducted by Helen E. Fisher, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, Lucy L. Brown, Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, NY, Art Aron, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, and Greg Strong and Debra Mashek, the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-07-06

277

A theoretical study of the carbocation formation energy involved in the isomerization of ?-pinene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-Pinene isomerization starts with the formation of the pinanyl carbocation, which then undergoes rearrangement into two different isomers. One isomer yields monocyclic rings as final products, such as limonene, ?-terpinene, and terpinolene while the other isomer yields bicyclic compounds, including camphene. In this Letter, a computational study is carried out in order to find the optimal temperature and solvent for the promotion of the second path considering that the bicyclical compounds are of greater economical interest. The energies of formation of the carbocations at different temperatures were calculated in vacuum and in solvents using the PBEPBE/6-31+G(d,p) model chemistry.

Flores-Holguín, Norma; Aguilar-Elguézabal, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Valdez, Luz-María; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

2012-09-01

278

Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.  

PubMed

The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

2014-09-25

279

Experimental and Observational Data in the Study of Interlanguage Pragmatics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared (1) data on rejections of advice by native and non-native speakers collected from natural conversation with (2) data collected from a discourse completion task (DCT). Subjects were students in an academic advising session (13 native speakers, 11 non-native speakers of English) who responded to a DCT and students (18 native…

Hartford, Beverly S.; Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

1992-01-01

280

Ocean observing satellite study: instrument and satellite constellation architecture options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides: (1) an overview of the set of active and passive instruments identified by the IPO designed to make the ocean measurements including visible and infrared medium and high resolution imagers, radiometers, altimeters, and synthetic aperture radars and (2) the instrument and satellite constellation architecture options studied, and their ability to meet the set of measurement requirements.

Gerber, A. J.; McGuire, J.; Cunningham, J. D.; Pichel, W. G.

2002-01-01

281

Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

Zhang, Jie

2005-01-01

282

Staff Reactions to Challenging Behaviour: An Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video…

Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

2010-01-01

283

OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

284

NTOS symptoms and mobility: a case study on neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome involving massage therapy.  

PubMed

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is a neuromuscular condition affecting brachial plexus functionality. NTOS is characterized by paresthesia, pain, muscle fatigue, and restricted mobility in the upper extremity. This study quantified massage therapy's possible contribution to treatment of NTOS. A 24-year-old female with NTOS received eight treatments over 35 days. Treatment included myofascial release, trigger point therapy, cross fiber friction, muscle stripping, and gentle passive stretching. Abduction and lateral rotation at the glenohumeral (GH joint) assessments measured range of motion (ROM). A resisted muscle test evaluated upper extremity strength. The client rated symptoms daily via a visual analog scale (VAS). Findings showed improvement in ROM at the GH joint. VAS ratings revealed a reduction in muscle weakness, pain, numbness, and 'paresthesia'. Results suggest massage may be useful as part of a broad approach to managing NTOS symptoms and improving mobility. PMID:24411148

Streit, Robin S

2014-01-01

285

Thrombocytopenia in vivax and falciparum malaria: an observational study of 131 patients in Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Thrombocytopenia has been reported in the majority of malaria studies. Some but not all studies suggest the possible role of platelets in the pathology of severe malaria. We assess the association of admission platelet count with malaria complications and mortality in vivax and falciparum malaria. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study of patients aged 18 years and above admitted in a tertiary care teaching hospital from August 2004 to July 2006 in Manipal, India. Malaria was diagnosed based on clinical features along with positive Quantitative Buffy Coat method (QBC MP) or thin blood smear examination (Giemsa stain). Platelet counts were measured using Coulter LH 756 Analyser. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count <150×109/l. Results: A total of 131 consecutive patients were included. Sixty patients (46%) were infected with Plasmodium vivax and the rest with Plasmodium falciparum. Forty-six (35%) patients had non-severe and 24 (18%) had severe falciparum infection. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was similar in vivax and falciparum malaria. Patients with severe falciparum malaria had a statistically significant lower platelet count (P?=?0.01) compared to non-severe falciparum malaria. Severe malaria patients with renal failure (P?=?0.02) or hyperparasitaemia (P?=?0.03) had a statistically significant lower mean platelet count compared to non-severe falciparum malaria. Patients with involvement of more than one organ system had a lower mean platelet count compared to those with single organ involvement. Conclusions: The incidence of thrombocytopenia was similar in vivax and falciparum malaria. The admission platelet count is significantly lower in patients who have hyperparasitaemia and acute renal failure compared to patients without complications. PMID:22325818

Saravu, K; Docherla, M; Vasudev, A; Shastry, B A

2011-01-01

286

Expression and replication studies to identify new candidate genes involved in normal hearing function.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P

2014-01-01

287

A clinicopathologic study of 24 cases of systemic mastocytosis involving the gastrointestinal tract and assessment of mucosal mast cell density in irritable bowel syndrome and asymptomatic patients.  

PubMed

Counting mast cells in gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal biopsies is becoming an increasingly common practice. The primary reason for this exercise is to evaluate for possible involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM). However, the features of mastocytosis in GI biopsies are not well described. In addition, recent studies have suggested that increased mast cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of some cases of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the term "mastocytic enterocolitis" has been proposed for such cases. As the baseline mast cell density in colonic biopsies from normal patients has not been established in large cohorts, there is no widely accepted threshold for what constitutes increased mucosal mast cells. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the utility of GI biopsies for the diagnosis of SM, (2) to characterize the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of mastocytosis in the GI tract, (3) to determine mast cell density in normal colonic mucosa from a large cohort of asymptomatic patients, and (4) to compare these findings with those from patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Twenty-four patients with SM involving the GI tract, 100 asymptomatic patients, and 100 patients with IBS (the latter 2 groups with histologically normal colonic biopsies) were included. For the mastocytosis group, 107 biopsies (70 involved by mastocytosis; 67 mucosal, 3 liver) from 20 women and 4 men were evaluated (median age 59 y). The most commonly involved site was the colon (19 patients, 95%), followed by ileum (86%), duodenum (80%), and stomach (54%). In 16 cases (67%), the first diagnosis of SM was made on the basis of GI biopsies. Seventeen patients had documented cutaneous mastocytosis. Fifteen of 17 patients who underwent bone marrow biopsy had marrow involvement by SM. Eighteen patients had indolent disease, and 6 had aggressive disease (including all 3 with liver involvement). The most common GI symptom was diarrhea, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss, bloating, vomiting, or reflux. Liver disease presented with hepatomegaly and ascites. Endoscopic abnormalities (observed in 62%) included erythema, granularity, and nodules. Histologically, involved biopsies were characterized by infiltrates of ovoid to spindle-shaped mast cells in aggregates or sheets in the lamina propria, sometimes forming a confluent band underneath the surface epithelium; 25% of biopsies had only focal involvement (single aggregate). Prominent eosinophils were seen in 44% of involved colonic/ileal biopsies and 16% of duodenal biopsies. Mast cells were highlighted by diffuse membranous staining for KIT and CD25. In the nonmastocytosis groups, all biopsies contained singly dispersed mast cells with no aggregates. The mean highest mast cell counts (in a single high-power field) for asymptomatic patients and IBS patients were 26 (range, 11 to 55) and 30 (range, 13 to 59), respectively. In summary, GI (especially colonic) biopsies can establish a diagnosis of SM in patients with GI symptoms. GI involvement is usually subtle and is often associated with prominent eosinophils, which may obscure the mast cell infiltrate. KIT and CD25 are invaluable markers for the diagnosis. Mast cell density in colonic mucosa from asymptomatic patients is highly variable. Although patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS on average have mildly increased mast cells, the overlap in range with that of control patients is too great for this difference to be clinically useful. These findings argue against the utility of counting GI mucosal mast cell in patients with chronic diarrhea. PMID:24618605

Doyle, Leona A; Sepehr, Golrokh J; Hamilton, Matthew J; Akin, Cem; Castells, Mariana C; Hornick, Jason L

2014-06-01

288

A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

289

Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

Brüssow, Harald

2013-01-01

290

Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was 7.60 ± 1.23, which reduced to 0.70 ± 0.92 at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids. PMID:24058916

Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti

2013-01-01

291

Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

292

Studies on protein kinases involved in regulation of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport.  

PubMed Central

The rate of energy-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)-mediated nucleocytoplasmic translocation of poly(A)-containing mRNA [poly(A)+mRNA] across the nuclear envelope is thought to be regulated by poly(A)-sensitive phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear-envelope protein. Studying the phosphorylation-related inhibition of the NTPase, we found that phosphorylation of one polypeptide of rat liver envelopes by endogenous NI- and NII-like protein kinase was particularly sensitive to poly(A). This polypeptide (106 kDa) was also phosphorylated by nuclear-envelope-bound Ca2+-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Activation of kinase C by tumour-promoting phorbol esters resulted in inhibition of nuclear-envelope NTPase activity and in a concomitant decrease of mRNA (actin) efflux rate from isolated rat liver nuclei. Protein kinase C, but not nuclear envelope NI-like or NII-like protein kinase, was found to be solubilized from the envelope by Triton X-100, whereas the presumable poly(A)-binding site [the 106 kDa polypeptide, representing the putative carrier for poly(A)+mRNA transport] remained bound to this structure. RNA efflux from detergent-treated nuclei lost its susceptibility to phorbol esters. Addition of purified protein kinase C to these nuclei restored the effect of the tumour promoters. Protein kinase C was found to bind also to isolated rat liver nuclear matrices in the absence but not in the presence of ATP. The NII-like nuclear-envelope protein kinase co-purified together with the 106 kDa polypeptide which specifically binds to poly(A) in an ATP-labile linkage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:2844156

Schröder, H C; Rottmann, M; Wenger, R; Bachmann, M; Dorn, A; Müller, W E

1988-01-01

293

Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

2014-01-01

294

Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study  

PubMed Central

Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use) study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ?3?months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22999494

2012-01-01

295

Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline). To adequately address local concerns, cases found it necessary to also search and appraise primary studies, resulting in hybrid (adaptation plus de novo) guideline development strategies that required advanced methodological skills. Adaptation was found to be an action element in the knowledge translation continuum that required integration of an implementation perspective. Accordingly, the adaptation methodology and resources were reformulated and substantially augmented to provide practical assistance to groups not supported by a dedicated guideline panel and to provide more implementation planning support. The resulting framework is called CAN-IMPLEMENT. PMID:23656884

2013-01-01

296

Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

2001-06-01

297

An observational and theoretical study of Colorado lee cyclogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cyclogenesis event that occurred over Colorado in early March of 1981 is the focus of this study. Two features that seemed to play a role in storm initiation were a traveling upper troposphere disturbance associated with an undulation on the subtropical front and a warm-cored shallow surface trough that was guided along the eastern slope of the Rockies from Canada to Colorado. The arrival of the latter feature initiated a sudden shift of the surface flow from upslope to downslope on the eastern side of the continental divide. A time-dependent quasi-geostrophic model was used to study the interaction of the traveling short wave and a broad topographic surface ridge in the presence of a baroclinic mainly westerly background flow. Westerly and easterly background surface winds were used to determine whether the surface trough arrival had any influence on the vigor of lee cyclogenesis initiated by the upper troposphere short-wave trough. With surface westerlies rapid cyclogenesis occurred, while with surface easterlies little cyclogenesis was found to the east of the Rockies. Thus, the shallow surface trough's arrival seemed to be crucial to storm initiation. These findings were based on a linear model. It is shown, however, that the height of the Rockies necessitates the inclusion of finite amplitude effects associated with the lower boundary into the model.

Clark, John H. E.

1990-01-01

298

[Studies on male infertility: 6. Clinical observation on male infertility].  

PubMed

Results of clinical observations of male infertility cases seen in S eoul, Korea, National University's Department of Urology between January 1955 and December 1969 are presented. 920 infertile men were seen, repr esenting 3.2% of 36,071 urological outpatients, and 3.9% of 30,125 male outpatients seen during this 15-year period. The number of male inferti lity cases has increased from 10 (1.09%) cases in 1955 to 166 (18.04%) cases in 1969. Primary sterility was found in 78% of the 920 infertile cases in 1969. Primary sterility was found in 22%. The ages of the infertile men ranged from 24 to 61 years (mean=35); the ages of their sp ouses ranged from 24 to 49 years (mean=32). Infertile marital life ranged from 1 to 40 years (mean=7). The duration of infertility cases seen between 1955 and 1959 was 10 years, between 1960 and 1964, 8 years; and between 1965 and 1969, 6 years. There was no close correlation between incidence of infertility and occupation (290 cases were white-collar workers and 414 were physical laborers). Etiological classifications indicate that 40% of the male infertility cases were due to faulty spermatogenesis, 21% due to faulty transportation, 14% due to faulty seminal composition, .5% due to faulty ejaculation, and 24% from unknown causes. In 840 cases where semen was analyzed, 51% had azoospermia, 34% had oligospermia, and 7% had normospermia. In 41 cases analysis revealed normal semen, however, no children have been conceived in 3 years. Testicular biopsies of azoospermias revealed 30% hypospermatogenesis, 27% germinal aplasia, 20% germinal cell arrest, 11% efferent duct occlusion, 9% peritubular fibrosis, and 3% normospermatogenesis. There was no significant difference in average frequency of sexual intercourse between fertile and infertile couples. Medical treatment combined with various drugs (e.g., testosterone, vitamedine) for 3-12 months was most effective in oligospermia (52 out of 101 cases) and azoospermia (13 out of 126 cases). In 22 cases of bilateral epididymal obstruction treated by epidiymovasostomy, viable sperm appeared in the ejaculates of 9. Vasovasostomy performed on 85 previously vasectomized men yielded successful results in 62 of 71 azoospermia cases in which the semen could be repeatedly examined. PMID:12177911

Lee, H Y

1970-12-01

299

Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.  

PubMed

Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865

Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-11-01

300

UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations  

E-print Network

Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

2012-01-01

301

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.  

PubMed

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

302

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

2014-01-01

303

Unintentional Child Neglect: Literature Review and Observational Study.  

PubMed

Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78 % of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow for health care personnel to screen for high-risk children and intervene before it is too late. Screening could also be done in the schools and organized after school activities. Parenting classes have been shown to be an effective intervention strategy by decreasing parental stress and potential for abuse, but there has been limited research done on this approach. Parenting classes can be part of the corrective actions for parents found to be neglectful or abusive, but parenting classes may also be useful as a preventative measure, being taught in schools or readily available in higher-risk communities. More research has to be done to better define child abuse and neglect so that it can be effectively addressed and treated. PMID:25398462

Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

2014-11-15

304

Dissection as Inquiry: Using the "Peanut Observation" Activity to Promote a Revised Paradigm of Dissection and Facilitate Student Involvement and Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the peanut observation activity to teach about the pros and cons of dissection. As an inquiry-based approach, dissection is one way to teach process skills. Lists the progression of the activity as observation, questioning and finding the answer, challenge, discussion, and further examination. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

Bernstein, Penny L.

2000-01-01

305

Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmother’s pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) – odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.9) – and during the mother’ pregnancies – OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–3.3) – were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmother’s and mother’s pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

Ortega-García, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; López-Fernández, María T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaquín; López-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

2011-01-01

306

Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE  

PubMed Central

Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. Methods An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of studies that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching. PMID:16919159

Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer

2006-01-01

307

LESSONS LEARNED FROM FOUR EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES: THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER STUDIES INVOLVING ELDERLY COHORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its collaborators are conducting a series of human exposure panel studies on elderly (65+ years) subpopulations. The primary objectives of these studies are -To determine personal and indoor exposures to particles and relate...

308

Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

2013-01-01

309

Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

Crawford, Lyall

310

An observational study of the initial management of hypothyroidism in France: the ORCHIDÉE study  

PubMed Central

Objective To document the initial management of hypothyroidism in France with respect to diagnostic setting, investigations, and therapeutic approach. Design Observational study of the management by primary care practitioners (PCPs) and endocrinologists of patients diagnosed with, and treated for, hypothyroidism during the enrollment period or the previous 6 months. Methods A representative sample of PCPs and endocrinologists enrolled up to five consecutive patients and reported sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic, and laboratory data. Data were submitted at baseline and at the first measurement of TSH after starting the treatment. Results The analysis population comprised 1255 patients (mean (s.d.) age 52.8 (16.3) years; 84% female). Hypothyroidism was suspected on clinical grounds in 77% of patients, with goiter in 16%. Autoimmune thyroiditis, supported by positive anti-thyroid antibodies, was the most frequent diagnosis (59%), followed by iatrogenic causes (28%), of which thyroidectomy was the most common. The median baseline TSH was 8.6?mIU/l, suggesting a high incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism. Imaging studies were requested in over 75% of patients, with ultrasound performed in 98% and scintigraphy performed in 19% of these patients. Both groups of physicians treated their patients almost exclusively with levothyroxine. Endocrinologists were more likely than PCPs to provide counseling on how to take medication correctly. Conclusions This observational study of a large cohort of patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism in France illustrates current practice and indicates some areas where physician education may be required to optimize adherence to guidelines and cost-effectiveness. PMID:23034782

Delemer, Brigitte; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Nys, Pierre; Landron, Frédéric; Bouée, Stéphane

2012-01-01

311

An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

2010-01-01

312

Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

313

Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus on the prognosis in secondary space infection. Materials and Methods Medical records, radiographic images, computed tomography, and microbial studies of 51 patients (25 diabetic patients and 26 non-diabetic patients) were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as secondary fascial space infections with odontogenic origin and underwent treatment at Chonnam National University Hospital, in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, from January 2007 to February 2009. Results Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were presented with the following characteristics: older age (diabetic patients: 62.9 years, non-diabetic patients, 47.8 years), more spaces involved (diabetic patients, 60%; non-diabetic patients, 27.3%), more intense treatment, longer hospitalization (diabetic patients, 28.9 days; non-diabetic patients, 15.4 days), higher white blood cell and C-reactive protein values, higher incidence of complication (diabetic patients, 40%; non-diabetic patients, 7.7%), and distinctive main causative microorganisms. Conclusion These results suggest that the prognosis of diabetic patients is poorer than that of non-diabetic patients in secondary space infections since they had greater incidence rates of involved spaces, abnormal hematologic findings, more complications, and additional procedures, such as tracheostomy. PMID:24471039

Chang, Je-Shin; Yoo, Kil-Hwa; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jiwon; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk; Park, Hong-Ju; Ryu, Sun-Youl

2013-01-01

314

Genes Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum N-Glycosylation Pathway of the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.: A Bioinformatic Study  

PubMed Central

N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

2014-01-01

315

Genes involved in the endoplasmic reticulum N-glycosylation pathway of the red microalga Porphyridium sp.: a bioinformatic study.  

PubMed

N-glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications that influence protein polymorphism, including protein structures and their functions. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, only limited knowledge exists regarding glycosylation in algae. The current research is focused on the red microalga Porphyridium sp., which is a potentially valuable source for various applications, such as skin therapy, food, and pharmaceuticals. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and processing of N-glycans remain undefined in this species, and the mechanism(s) of their genetic regulation is completely unknown. In this study, we describe our pioneering attempt to understand the endoplasmic reticulum N-Glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp., using a bioinformatic approach. Homology searches, based on sequence similarities with genes encoding proteins involved in the ER N-glycosylation pathway (including their conserved parts) were conducted using the TBLASTN function on the algae DNA scaffold contigs database. This approach led to the identification of 24 encoded-genes implicated with the ER N-glycosylation pathway in Porphyridium sp. Homologs were found for almost all known N-glycosylation protein sequences in the ER pathway of Porphyridium sp.; thus, suggesting that the ER-pathway is conserved; as it is in other organisms (animals, plants, yeasts, etc.). PMID:24514561

Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Weinstein, Yacob; Tekoah, Yoram; Arad, Shoshana Malis

2014-01-01

316

School Expectations for Parental Involvement and Student Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study of Middle Schools in the US and South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental…

Zhao, Hui; Akiba, Motoko

2009-01-01

317

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict drug-drug interactions involving inhibitory metabolite: a case study of amiodarone.  

PubMed

Evaluation of drug-drug interaction (DDI) involving circulating inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs has recently drawn more attention from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. Here, using amiodarone (AMIO) as an example, we demonstrate the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to assess how a potential inhibitory metabolite can contribute to clinically significant DDIs. Amiodarone was reported to increase the exposure of simvastatin, dextromethorphan, and warfarin by 1.2- to 2-fold, which was not expected based on its weak inhibition observed in vitro. The major circulating metabolite, mono-desethyl-amiodarone (MDEA), was later identified to have a more potent inhibitory effect. Using a combined "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach, a PBPK model was built to successfully simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of AMIO and MDEA, particularly their accumulation in plasma and liver after a long-term treatment. The clinical AMIO DDIs were predicted using the verified PBPK model with incorporation of cytochrome P450 inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA. The closest prediction was obtained for CYP3A (simvastatin) DDI when the competitive inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA was considered, for CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan) DDI when the competitive inhibition from AMIO and the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from MDEA were incorporated, and for CYP2C9 (warfarin) DDI when the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from AMIO and the competitive inhibition from MDEA were considered. The PBPK model with the ability to simulate DDI by considering dynamic change and accumulation of inhibitor (parent and metabolite) concentration in plasma and liver provides advantages in understanding the possible mechanism of clinical DDIs involving inhibitory metabolites. PMID:25324279

Chen, Yuan; Mao, Jialin; Hop, Cornelis E C A

2015-02-01

318

Epidemiology and outcome of cardiac arrests reported in the lay-press: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which cardiac arrests are reported in newspapers, assess the level of detail reported and ascertain whether this coverage gives a realistic portrayal of cardiac arrest outcomes to the lay-reader. Design Observational study. Setting All UK newspaper articles published between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2010. Participants Articles containing the words ‘cardiac arrest’, ‘CPR’ or ‘resuscitation’ were screen for eligibility. Any articles not involving reference to a real cardiac arrest were excluded. Main outcome measures Data relating to patient demographics, arrest characteristics, treatment (CPR and defibrillation) and survival using the Utstein template were extracted. The results were then compared with cardiac arrest statistics from epidemiological studies. Results Six hundred and forty-eight articles were reviewed, 203 of which referred to individual cardiac arrest events; 22 events occurred in-hospital and 181 occurred out-of-hospital. In the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) group 32 (17.7%) were reported to survive to hospital discharge, almost all with good neurological outcome. The median age group was 31–45-year-olds, 52 (28.7%) were women and 40 were children. Seventy-five percent of victims received bystander CPR with 13 being attended to by lay-responders using AEDs, eight of which presented with a shockable rhythm of which six made a full recovery. Conclusion Survival to hospital discharge rate among newspaper reports was double that of complete epidemiological studies of OHCAs in urban environments. Newspapers may give readers an over-optimistic portrayal of cardiac arrest survival and neurological outcome following successful resuscitation. PMID:22179296

Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P; Perkins, Gavin D

2011-01-01

319

Tooth Loss and Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC. Methods We searched for relevant observational studies that tested the association between tooth loss and risk of HNC from PubMed and were conducted up to January 30, 2013. Data from the eligible studies were independently extracted by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.2 software. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of various inclusions. Publication bias was also detected. Results Ten articles involving one cohort and ten case-control studies were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, an association between tooth loss and HNC risk was identified [increased risk of 29% for 1 to 6 teeth loss (OR?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?0.52–3.20, p?=?0.59), 58% for 6 to 15 teeth loss (OR?=?1.58, 95% CI?=?1.08–2.32, p?=?0.02), 63% for 11+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI?=?1.23–2.14, p<0.001), 72% for 15+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.72, 95% CI?=?1.26–2.36, p<0.001), and 89% for 20+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.27–2.80, p<0.001)]. The sensitivity analysis shows that the result was robust, and publication bias was not detected. Conclusions Based on the current evidence, tooth loss is probably a significant and dependent risk factor of HNC, which may have a dose-response effect. People who lost six or more teeth should pay attention to symptoms of HNC, and losing 11 teeth or 15 teeth may be the threshold. PMID:24260154

Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Yi; Leng, Wei-Dong

2013-01-01

320

Adjusting team involvement: a grounded theory study of challenges in utilizing a surgical safety checklist as experienced by nurses in the operating room  

PubMed Central

Background Even though the use of perioperative checklists have resulted in significant reduction in postoperative mortality and morbidity, as well as improvements of important information communication, the utilization of checklists seems to vary, and perceived barriers are likely to influence compliance. In this grounded theory study we aimed to explore the challenges and strategies of performing the WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist as experienced by the nurses appointed as checklist coordinators. Methods Grounded theory was used in gathering and analyzing data from observations of the checklist used in the operating room, in conjunction with single and focus group interviews. A purposeful sample of 14 nurse-anesthetists and operating room nurses as surgical team members in a tertiary teaching hospital participated in the study. Results The nurses’ main concern regarding checklist utilization was identified as “how to obtain professional and social acceptance within the team”. The emergent grounded theory of “adjusting team involvement” consisted of three strategies; distancing, moderating and engaging team involvement. The use of these strategies explains how they resolved their challenges. Each strategy had corresponding conditions and consequences, determining checklist compliance, and how the checklist was used. Conclusion Even though nurses seem to have a loyal attitude towards the WHO’s checklist regarding their task work, they adjusted their surgical team involvement according to practical, social and professional conditions in their work environment. This might have resulted in the incomplete use of the checklist and therefore a low compliance rate. Findings also emphasized the importance of: a) management support when implementing WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist, and b) interprofessional education approach to local adaptation of the checklists use. PMID:22958326

2012-01-01

321

TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY  

SciTech Connect

We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

Zhu Ming [Joint Astronomy Centre/National Research Council Canada, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Papadopoulos, Padeli P. [Argelander Instituet fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Xilouris, Emmanuel M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Kuno, Nario [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Lisenfeld, Ute, E-mail: m.zhu@jach.hawaii.ed, E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d, E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g, E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j, E-mail: ute@ugr.e [Departamento de fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

2009-12-01

322

Study Finds that Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Have Altered Expression of Genes Involved in Digestion  

E-print Network

of Genes Involved in Digestion These changes may also affect the mix of bacteria present in the digestive disturbances have altered expression of genes involved in digestion. These variations may contribute to changes

Salzman, Daniel

323

Child factors associated with parent involvement in usual clinical care of children and adolescents: a national register study.  

PubMed

The study examined the role of child level characteristics of age, gender, disorder and experience of family breakdown on parent involvement in the treatment of children and adolescents in a usual clinical care setting. Data from the national register of 20,856 children and adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Norway in 2002 were analyzed using a three-level hierarchical model. Consultations attended by the child, mother and father were constructed as level 1, child characteristics as level 2 and clinics as level 3. Results indicated that 42% of the variance was explained by within-family differences of consultations and 56% by child characteristics. Only 2% of the variance was explained by clinic-to-clinic differences. In the total model, child factors of gender, disorder and family breakdown (but not age) were significant predictors of consultation with children and parents. Therapists should take into account the role of the gender, disorder and family breakdown in promoting parent involvement and hindering premature termination. PMID:17523028

Israel, Pravin; Thomsen, Per H; Langeveld, Johannes H; Stormark, Kjell M

2007-01-01

324

Involvement of the Inconstant Bursa of the Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Psoriatic Arthritis: A Clinical and Ultrasonographic Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the involvement of the bursa located next to the head of the 5th metatarsal bone in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with the other seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. All patients with PsA seen during a period of 24 months were enrolled. The control group included healthy subjects and patients with the other SpA. All subjects underwent clinical and ultrasound (US) examination of the lateral surface of the 5th metatarsal. Results. 150 PsA patients (88?M; 62?F), 172 SpA (107?M; 65?F), and 95 healthy controls (58?M; 37?F) were evaluated. Based on clinical and US evaluation, bursitis was diagnosed in 17/150 (11.3%) PsA patients but in none of the SpA (P < 0.0001) and healthy (P = 0.0002) controls. In detecting bursitis, US was more sensitive than clinical examination, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusion. The bursa of the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint appears to be involved in PsA more frequently than by chance. If confirmed by other studies, this finding could be considered as a distinctive clinical sign of PsA, useful for differential diagnosis with the other SpA. In asymptomatic patients, US proved to be more sensitive in the detection of bursitis. PMID:25061602

Ciancio, Giovanni; Volpinari, Stefania; Fotinidi, Maria; Furini, Federica; Bandinelli, Francesca; Orzincolo, Carlo; Trotta, Francesco

2014-01-01

325

The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: A case study combining Viking, DMSP, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study involving data from three satellites and a ground-based radar are presented. Focus is on a detailed discussion of observations of the dynamic cusp made on 24 Sep. 1986 in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere and interior magnetosphere. The relevant data from space-borne and ground-based sensors is presented. They include in-situ particle and field measurements from the DMSP-F7 and Viking spacecraft and Sondrestrom radar observations of the ionosphere. These data are augmented by observations of the IMF and the solar wind plasma. The observations are compared with predictions about the ionospheric response to the observed particle precipitation, obtained from an auroral model. It is shown that observations and model calculations fit well and provide a picture of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp in an invariant latitude versus local time frame. The combination of Viking, Sondrestrom radar, and IMP-8 data suggests that we observed an ionospheric signature of the dynamic cusp. Its spatial variation over time which appeared closely related to the southward component of the IMF was monitored.

Watermann, Jurgen; Delabeaujardiere, Odile; Lummerzheim, Dirk; Woch, Joachim; Newell, Patrick T.; Potemra, Thomas A.; Rich, Frederick J.; Shapshak, Mans

1992-01-01

326

Studies of X inactivation and isodisomy in twins provide further evidence that the X chromosomes is not involved in Rett syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Rett syndrome (RS), a progressive encephalopathy with onset in infancy, has been attributed to an X-linked mutation, mainly on the basis of its occurrence almost exclusively in females and its concordance in female MZ twins. The underlying mechanisms proposed are an X-linked dominant mutation with male lethality, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome, and/or some disturbance in the process of X inactivation leading to unequal distribution of cells expressing maternal or paternal alleles (referred to as a {open_quotes}nonrandom{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}skewed {close_quotes} inactivation). To determine if the X chromosome is in fact involved in RS, we studied a group of affected females including three pairs of MZ twins, two concordant for RS and one uniquely discordant for RS. Analysis of X-inactivation patterns confirms the frequent nonrandom X inactivation previously observed in MZ twins but indicates that this is independent of RS. Analysis of 29 RS females reveals not one instance of uniparental X disomy, extending the observations previously reported. Therefore, our findings contribute no support for the hypothesis that RS is an X-linked disorder. Furthermore, the concordant phenotype in most MZ females twins with RS, which has not been observed in female twins with known X-linked mutations, argues against an X mutation. 41 refs., 2 figs.

Migeon, B.R.; Dunn, M.A.; Schmeckpeper, B.J.; Naidu, S. [Johns Hophins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Kreiger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-03-01

327

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

328

Measurement of stressful postures during daily activities: An observational study with older people.  

PubMed

This study measured the postures of older people during cooking and laundry. A sample of men and women aged 75+ years (n=27) was recruited and observed in a home-like environment. Postures were recorded with a measurement system in an objective and detailed manner. The participants were videotaped to be able to see where 'critical' postures occurred, as defined by a trunk inclination of ?60°. Analysis of data was facilitated by specially developed software. Critical postures accounted for 3% of cooking and 10% of laundry, occurring primarily during retrieving from and putting in lower cabinets, the refrigerator, laundry basket or washing machine as well as disposing into the waste bin. These tasks involve a great variation in postural changes and pose a particular risk to older people. The results suggest that the use of stressful postures may decrease efficiency and increase fatigue, eventually leading to difficulties with daily activities. The specific tasks identified during which critical postures occurred should be targeted by designers in order to improve the activities. A few examples are given of how better design can reduce or eliminate some of the postural constraints. PMID:21764584

Seidel, David; Hjalmarson, Jenny; Freitag, Sonja; Larsson, Tore J; Brayne, Carol; Clarkson, P John

2011-07-01

329

Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.  

PubMed

Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

2014-10-01

330

Central nervous system involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood: results from a multicentre European and Japanese study.  

PubMed

In an international study of systemic childhood ALCL, 12/463 patients had CNS involvement, three of which had isolated CNS disease. Comparative analysis of CNS positive and negative patients showed no difference in ALK positivity, immunophenotype, presence of B symptoms or other sites of disease. The lymphohistiocytic variant was over represented in the CNS positive group (36% vs. 5%). With multi-agent chemotherapy, including high dose methotrexate, Ara-C and intrathecal treatment, the event free and overall survival of the CNS positive group at 5 years were 50% (95%CI, 25-75%) and 74% (45-91%), respectively with a median follow up of 4.1 years. PMID:23720354

Williams, Denise; Mori, Tetsuya; Reiter, Alfred; Woessman, Wilhelm; Rosolen, Angelo; Wrobel, Grazyna; Zsiros, Jozsef; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Marky, Ildiko; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Brugières, Laurence

2013-10-01

331

Effect of Pollen-Specific Sublingual Immunotherapy on Oral Allergy Syndrome: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) triggered by fruit and vegetables often occurs in patients with pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis because of cross-reactive epitopes in pollen and associated foods. This open observational study examined the effect of pollen-specific sublingual immunotherapy ([SLIT] B. U. Pangramin or SLITone involving birch/alder/hazel, grasses/rye, and/or mugwort) on OAS triggered by several foods in patients treated in standard practice. Very few studies have examined SLIT use in this situation. Methods Patients (n = 102) had pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis and OAS and were followed for up to 12 months. Baseline OAS (triggers, symptoms, and symptom severity) was assessed by questionnaire and patient history. Change in OAS was assessed using oral challenge test with 1 or 2 dominant food triggers (and compared with the sum score calculated from the OAS questionnaire at baseline) and clinician ratings of change. Pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use were also measured. Results In the oral challenge test, 77.0% of patients were considered responders (decrease in sum score of ? 50%; no difference in patients receiving B. U. Pangramin or SLITone). At baseline, investigators rated OAS severity as at least moderate in 94.9% of patients compared with 36.9% after 12 months of treatment. After 12 months, OAS was rated as much or very much improved in 72.9% of patients. Sublingual immunotherapy significantly reduced rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use. Only 10% of patients experienced adverse drug reactions. Conclusion This study supplements the sparse literature on this topic and suggests that pollen-specific SLIT can reduce OAS triggered by pollen-associated foods in patients with pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:23282323

2008-01-01

332

Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly. PMID:20663129

2010-01-01

333

Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas\\u000a (MZLs) are present in 10–30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs\\u000a are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs\\u000a (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis,

Sung Yong Oh; Won Seog Kim; Jin Seok Kim; Seok Jin Kim; Suee Lee; Dae Ho Lee; Jong-Ho Won; In Gyu Hwang; Min Kyoung Kim; Soon Il Lee; Yee Soo Chae; Deok-Hwan Yang; Hye Jin Kang; Chul Won Choi; Jinny Park; Hyo Jung Kim; Jung Hye Kwon; Ho Sup Lee; Gyeong-Won Lee; Hyeon Seok Eom; Jae-Yong Kwak; Won Sik Lee; Cheolwon Suh; Hyo-Jin Kim

2010-01-01

334

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

335

The effectiveness of multistrategies on disruptive vocalization of people with dementia in institutions: a multicentered observational study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the daily interventions used by the nurses on disruptive vocalization (DV). DV includes all types of disturbing or unacceptable vocal expression: repetitive vocalization, verbal or nonverbal utterances, presented as inappropriate language, repeated and insistent demands, repeated calling out, shouting, complaining, or moaning that does not pertain to their circumstances or environment. A convenience sample of five nursing homes from the north of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, was included in the study. A randomized selection of 87 daily shifts was selected. Institutionalized patients with dementia, but with no associated psychiatric disorders, were eligible. Nurses involved in the study added patients progressively. Nurses involved were asked to keep diaries to record strategies and durations for each episode of DV encountered during the allotted shift. In the total amount of observation time (36,540 minutes), 23.6% (8,653 minutes) of nursing care time involved working with and managing DV patients. The nurses recorded an average of 6.5 (302/46) vocalizations on morning shifts and 7.3 (302/41) during afternoon shifts, with an average duration of about a quarter of an hour each. Managing DV with multistrategies reduces the duration of the DV episode and increases the perceived effectiveness of management. PMID:19678505

Palese, Alvisa; Menegazzo, Elisa; Baulino, Francesca; Pistrino, Raffaella; Papparotto, Carla

2009-08-01

336

Discontinuation and non-publication of surgical randomised controlled trials: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the rate of early discontinuation and non-publication of randomised controlled trials involving patients undergoing surgery. Design Cross sectional observational study of registered and published trials. Setting Randomised controlled trials of interventions in patients undergoing a surgical procedure. Data sources The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for interventional trials registered between January 2008 and December 2009 using the keyword “surgery”. Recruitment status was extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov database. A systematic search for studies published in peer reviewed journals was performed; if they were not found, results posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database were sought. Email queries were sent to trial investigators of discontinued and unpublished completed trials if no reason for the respective status was disclosed. Main outcome measures Trial discontinuation before completion and non-publication after completion. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of funding source on publication status, with adjustment for intervention type and trial size. Results Of 818 registered trials found using the keyword “surgery”, 395 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 21% (81/395) were discontinued early, most commonly owing to poor recruitment (44%, 36/81). The remaining 314 (79%) trials proceeded to completion, with a publication rate of 66% (208/314) at a median time of 4.9 (interquartile range 4.0-6.0) years from study completion to publication search. A further 6% (20/314) of studies presented results on ClinicalTrials.gov without a corresponding peer reviewed publication. Industry funding did not affect the rate of discontinuation (adjusted odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.55) but was associated with a lower odds of publication for completed trials (0.43, 0.26 to 0.72). Investigators’ email addresses for trials with an uncertain fate were identified for 71.4% (10/14) of discontinued trials and 83% (101/122) of unpublished studies. Only 43% (6/14) and 20% (25/122) replies were received. Email responses for completed trials indicated 11 trials in press, five published studies (four in non-indexed peer reviewed journals), and nine trials remaining unpublished. Conclusions One in five surgical randomised controlled trials are discontinued early, one in three completed trials remain unpublished, and investigators of unpublished studies are frequently not contactable. This represents a waste of research resources and raises ethical concerns regarding hidden clinical data and futile participation by patients with its attendant risks. To promote future efficiency and transparency, changes are proposed to research governance frameworks to overcome these concerns. PMID:25491195

Chapman, Stephen J; Shelton, Bryony; Mahmood, Humza; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Harrison, Ewen M

2014-01-01

337

Deciding on success criteria for predictability of pharmacokinetic parameters from in vitro studies: an analysis based on in vivo observations.  

PubMed

Prediction accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameters is often assessed using prediction fold error, i.e., being within 2-, 3-, or n-fold of observed values. However, published studies disagree on which fold error represents an accurate prediction. In addition, "observed data" from only one clinical study are often used as the gold standard for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) studies, despite data being subject to significant interstudy variability and subjective selection from various available reports. The current study involved analysis of published systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) values taken from over 200 clinical studies. These parameters were obtained for 17 different drugs after intravenous administration. Data were analyzed with emphasis on the appropriateness to use a parameter value from one particular clinical study to judge the performance of IVIVE and the ability of CL and Vss values obtained from one clinical study to "predict" the same values obtained in a different clinical study using the n-fold criteria for prediction accuracy. The twofold criteria method was of interest because it is widely used in IVIVE predictions. The analysis shows that in some cases the twofold criteria method is an unreasonable expectation when the observed data are obtained from studies with small sample size. A more reasonable approach would allow prediction criteria to include clinical study information such as sample size and the variance of the parameter of interest. A method is proposed that allows the "success" criteria to be linked to the measure of variation in the observed value. PMID:24989891

Abduljalil, Khaled; Cain, Theresa; Humphries, Helen; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

2014-09-01

338

Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. Recently a controversial vascular hypothesis for MS, termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been advanced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative prevalence of the venous abnormalities that define CCSVI. Methods A case-control study was conducted in which 100 MS patients aged between 18–65 y meeting the revised McDonald criteria were randomly selected and stratified into one of four MS subtypes: relapsing/remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive and benign. Control subjects (16–70 y) with no known history of MS or other neurological condition were matched with the MS cases. All cases and controls underwent ultrasound imaging of the veins of the neck plus the deep cerebral veins, and magnetic resonance imaging of the neck veins and brain. These procedures were performed on each participant on the same day. Results On ultrasound we found no evidence of reflux, stenosis or blockage in the internal jugular veins (IJV) or vertebral veins (VV) in any study participant. Similarly, there was no evidence of either reflux or cessation of flow in the deep cerebral veins in any subject. Flow was detected in the IJV and VV in all study participants. Amongst 199 participants there was one MS subject who fulfilled the minimum two ultrasound criteria for CCSVI. Using MRI we found no significant differences in either the intra- or extra-cranial venous flow velocity or venous architecture between cases and controls. Conclusion This case-control study provides compelling evidence against the involvement of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis. PMID:23967312

Rodger, Ian W.; Dilar, Dorothy; Dwyer, Janet; Bienenstock, John; Coret, Andu; Coret-Simon, Judith; Foster, Gary; Franchetto, Arlene; Franic, Slobodan; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Koff, David; Konyer, Norman B.; Levine, Mitchell; McDonald, Ellen; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Paulseth, John; Ribeiro, Luciana; Sayles, Mary Jane; Thabane, Lehana

2013-01-01

339

Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of human intestinal biotin uptake: A study of the hSMVT system.  

PubMed

Biotin, a water-soluble micronutrient, is vital for cellular functions, including growth and development. The human intestine utilizes the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) for biotin uptake. Evidence exists showing that the intestinal biotin uptake process is adaptively regulated during biotin deficiency. Nothing, however, is known about molecular mechanism(s) involved during this adaptive regulation. This study compared two human-derived intestinal epithelial cell lines (HuTu-80 and Caco-2) during biotin-deficient or biotin-sufficient states and with an approach that assessed carrier-mediated biotin uptake, hSMVT protein and RNA levels, RNA stability, and hSMVT promoter activity. The results showed that during biotin deficiency, a significant and specific upregulation in carrier-mediated biotin uptake occurred in both human intestinal epithelial cell lines and that this increase was associated with an induction in protein and mRNA levels of hSMVT. The increase in mRNA levels was not due to an increase in RNA stability but was associated with an increase in activity of the hSMVT promoter in transfected human intestinal cells. Using promoter deletion constructs and mutational analysis in transiently transfected HuTu-80 and Caco-2 cells, a biotin deficiency-responsive region was mapped to a 103-bp area within the hSMVT promoter that contains gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor (GKLF) sites that confer the response to biotin deficiency. These results confirm that human intestinal biotin uptake is adaptively regulated and provide novel evidence demonstrating that the upregulation is not mediated via changes in hSMVT RNA stability but rather is due to transcriptional regulatory mechanism(s) that likely involve GKLF sites in the hSMVT promoter. PMID:16959947

Reidling, Jack C; Nabokina, Svetlana M; Said, Hamid M

2007-01-01

340

Cardiovascular involvement in leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular involvement was studied in 50 patients with serologically proved leptospirosis. Twelve (24%) patients had dyspnoea and 18 (36%) had transient hypotension during the illness. None of them had cardiac enlargement, development of new murmur or pericardial rub. Various electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 70 percent of patients. Atrial fibrillation was the most common major arrhythmia (14%). Conduction system abnormalities were seen in 36 percent of patients. T-wave changes were observed in 30 percent of patients. Left ventricular function as assessed by echocardiography and Doppler examination was normal. Three (6%) patients died due to renal failure. In conclusion, even though ECG abnormalities were frequently seen in leptospirosis, there was no data to support associated left ventricular dysfunction. Dyspnoea and hypotension occurring in patients of leptospirosis must be due to a noncardiac mechanism. PMID:9062020

Rajiv, C; Manjuran, R J; Sudhayakumar, N; Haneef, M

1996-01-01

341

Ataxia and tremor due to lesions involving cerebellar projection pathways: a DTI tractographic study in six patients.  

PubMed

Focal lesions of brainstem, thalamus, and subcortical white matter may cause movement disorders that are clinically indistinguishable from cerebellar symptoms. It is suspected that ataxia in these cases is due to damage of efferent or afferent pathways of the cerebellum. However, the precise anatomical correlate often remains undefined. We used deterministic diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) tractography to study the anatomical relationship between lesions causing ataxia and efferent cerebellar pathways. Study subjects were six male patients with focal lesions of different etiology (demyelination, hemorrhage, ischemia, neoplasm) outside the cerebellum. Five patients had cerebellar-like ataxia with prominent contralateral upper limb involvement. One patient with an almost midline mesencephalic lesion had a symmetrical ataxic syndrome. We used 3T MRI (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands) and DTI tractography (32 directions, StealthViz DTI, Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, USA) to delineate the dentato-rubro-thalamo-cortical tract (DRT). In all patients, tractography demonstrated focal lesions affecting the DRT in different locations. We conclude that in vivo mapping of cerebral pathways using DTI tractography in patients with focal extracerebellar brain lesions may provide direct evidence of circumscribed damage to the DRT, causing unilateral cerebellar-like ataxia. Also, a unilateral mesencephalic lesion at the level of the crossing of the DRT may cause bilateral ataxia. PMID:25287016

Marek, M; Paus, S; Allert, N; Mädler, B; Klockgether, T; Urbach, H; Coenen, V A

2014-10-01

342

Development of a targeted metagenomic approach to study a genomic region involved in light harvesting in marine Synechococcus.  

PubMed

Synechococcus, one of the most abundant cyanobacteria in marine ecosystems, displays a broad pigment diversity. However, the in situ distribution of pigment types remains largely unknown. In this study, we combined flow cytometry cell sorting, whole-genome amplification, and fosmid library construction to target a genomic region involved in light-harvesting complex (phycobilisome) biosynthesis and regulation. Synechococcus community composition and relative contamination by heterotrophic bacteria were assessed at each step of the pipeline using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the petB and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. This approach allowed us to control biases inherent to each method and select reliable WGA products to construct a fosmid library from a natural sample collected off Roscoff (France). Sequencing of 25 fosmids containing the targeted region led to the assembly of whole or partial phycobilisome regions. Most contigs were assigned to clades I and IV consistent with the known dominance of these clades in temperate coastal waters. However, one of the fosmids contained genes distantly related to their orthologs in reference genomes, suggesting that it belonged to a novel phylogenetic clade. Altogether, this study provides novel insights into Synechococcus community structure and pigment type diversity at a representative coastal station of the English Channel. PMID:24862161

Humily, Florian; Farrant, Gregory K; Marie, Dominique; Partensky, Frédéric; Mazard, Sophie; Perennou, Morgan; Labadie, Karine; Aury, Jean-Marc; Wincker, Patrick; Segui, Audrey Nicolas; Scanlan, David J; Garczarek, Laurence

2014-05-01

343

In vitro studies on the mechanisms involved in chemoprevention using Calluna vulgaris on vascular endothelial cells exposed to UVB.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the in vitro effect of UVB on endothelial vascular cells (HUVECs) pretreated with a photochemopreventive agent, the Calluna vulgaris (Cv) extract. Two concentrations of Cv, below the limit of cytotoxicity IC50 (2.5 and 7.5 ?g GAE/ml) and two doses of UVB (50 and 100 mJ/cm(2)) were used. Oxidative stress parameters were quantified at 1 h and 24 h after irradiation and apoptosis, DNA damage and the induction/activation of NF-?B were evaluated at 24 h. UVB exposure led to the formation of lipid peroxides in a dose dependent manner (p<0.001), induced apoptosis, increased the ?-H2AX levels and the activation of NF-?B. Pretreatment with 2.5 ?g GAE/ml Cv improved the antioxidant defense, protected against DNA lesions and was able to decrease cellular death at low dose of irradiation. 7.5 ?g GAE/ml Cv was prooxidant, favored the formation of DNA lesions, amplified the NF-?B activation UVB-induced (p<0.01) and led to high levels of cellular death. Both doses of Cv inhibited caspase-3 activation. The modulatory effect of Cv extract on endothelial cells exposed to UVB depend on the concentration of Cv used. This study provides insides into the mechanisms triggered by UVB and antioxidants on skin endothelial cells. PMID:24844620

Olteanu, D; Baldea, I; Clichici, S; Bolfa, P; Cenariu, M; Schrepler-Perde, M; Alupei, M; Muresan, A; Filip, A

2014-07-01

344

When the Subject Is More than Just the Subject: Two Case Studies of Family Involvement in Human Subjects Research  

PubMed Central

Institutional review boards (IRBs) protect human research subjects by reviewing research to ensure compliance with federal regulations and institutional policies. One of the most important functions of IRBs is to ensure that investigators anticipate, plan for, and minimize risks to subjects. Under certain circumstances, however, participation in research may pose risks to nonsubject family members or other members of a subject’s social network. In the context of a research protocol designed to test an intervention to prevent depression among a population of culturally diverse, urban mothers, we present two case studies of unanticipated problems, which demonstrate how nonsubject family members can either impact, or be impacted by, an individual’s participation in research. The case studies illustrate the incongruence between federal regulations addressing IRB approval of research— which focus specifically on risks to subjects—and regulations on reporting incidents that occur during the conduct of the research, which extend to risks involving “others” as well. The cases also illustrate how risks to “others” can be accentuated in certain cultures where codependent family structures may increase the role that family members play in an individual’s decision to participate in research. The question is raised as to whether this incongruence can inadvertently result in investigators and IRBs under-appreciating the risks that participation in research can pose to nonsubjects. PMID:21460585

Sauder, Sara; Stein, Rachel; Feinberg, Emily; Bauchner, Howard; Banks, Mary; Silverstein, Michael

2011-01-01

345

Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

2015-01-01

346

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration  

PubMed Central

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research. PMID:17941715

Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

2007-01-01

347

Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

2011-01-01

348

Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care. Design and setting Observational cohort study involving five GP out-of-hours services. Method Clinical information was registered and manually recoded. Children (<16 years) with fever having a face-to-face contact with a GP were included. Children who were already using antibiotics or referred to secondary care were excluded. The relation between alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections and antibiotic prescription was tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of the 8676 included patients (median age 2.4 years), antibiotics were prescribed in 3167 contacts (36.5%). Patient characteristics and alarm signs and/or symptoms positively related to antibiotic prescription were: increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.02 to 1.05), temperature measured by GP (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.59 to 1.86), ill appearance (OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 2.85 to 5.42), being inconsolable (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.58 to 3.22), shortness of breath (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.88 to 3.56), duration of fever (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.35). Negative associations were found for neurological signs (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.76), signs of urinary tract infection (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and vomiting and diarrhoea (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.74). These variables explained 19% of the antibiotic prescriptions. Conclusion Antibiotics are often prescribed for febrile children. These data suggest that treatment of a supposed serious bacterial infection is a consideration of GPs. However, the relatively low explained variation indicates that other considerations are also involved. PMID:23834880

Elshout, Gijs; van Ierland, Yvette; Bohnen, Arthur M; de Wilde, Marcel; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriëtte A; Berger, Marjolein Y

2013-01-01

349

Several common themes have emerged from recent structural and functional studies of proteins involved in the formation of  

E-print Network

of the heterote- trameric adaptor complexes AP1, AP2, AP3 and AP4, or one the monomeric adaptors the GGAs (the involvement of clathrin with AP3 and AP4 is unconfirmed). Coat sys- tems that do not involve clathrin include

Evans, Phil

350

Kids in Action: A Guide for Involving Elementary Students in Civic Participation. K-5 Social Studies. Fall 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to provide information and recommendations for involving elementary students in civic participation. This document suggests activities and resources teachers can use in the classroom to involve their students in civic duties. There is also a section on tips for parents to help develop effective citizens. A list of…

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2004

2004-01-01

351

Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.  

PubMed

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired. PMID:25354126

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

2014-11-01

352

Studies on the expression of 6S RNA from E. coli: involvement of regulators important for stress and growth adaptation.  

PubMed

The small bacterial 6S RNA has been recognized as a transcriptional regulator, facilitating the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase by preferentially inhibiting E sigma 70 RNA polymerase holoenzyme transcription. Consistent with this function, the cellular concentration of 6S RNA increases with stationary phase. We have studied the underlying mechanisms responsible for the growth phase-dependent differences in 6S RNA concentration. To this aim, we have analyzed the effects of the typical bacterial growth phase and stress regulators FIS, H-NS, LRP and StpA on 6S RNA expression. Measurements of 6S RNA accumulation in strains deficient in each one of these proteins support their contribution as potential regulators. Specific binding of the four proteins to DNA fragments containing 6S RNA promoters was demonstrated by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting. Moreover, in vitro transcription analysis with both RNA polymerase holoenzymes, E sigma 70 and E sigma 38, demonstrated a direct inhibition of 6S RNA transcription by H-NS, StpA and LRP, while FIS seems to act as a dual regulator. In vitro transcription in the presence of ppGpp indicates that 6S RNA promoters are not stringently regulated. Our results underline that regulation of 6S RNA transcription depends on a complex network, involving a set of bacterial regulators with general importance in the adaptation to changing growth conditions. PMID:18177266

Neusser, Thomas; Gildehaus, Nina; Wurm, Reinhild; Wagner, Rolf

2008-03-01

353

Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients' acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase. This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government). Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key to the sustained deployment of point-of-use disinfection technologies. PMID:25252361

Roma, E; Bond, T; Jeffrey, P

2014-09-01

354

Birth weight of offspring and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between birth weight of offspring and mortality among fathers and mothers in the west of Scotland. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: 794 married couples in Renfrew district of the west of Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease over 15 year follow up. RESULTS: Women who had heavier babies were taller, had higher body mass index and better lung function, and were less likely to be smokers than mothers of lighter babies. Fathers of heavier babies were taller and less likely to be smokers than fathers of lighter babies. Mortality was inversely related to offspring's birth weight for both mothers (relative rate for a 1 kg lower birth weight 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.70)) and fathers (relative rate 1.35 (1.03 to 1.79)). For mortality from cardiovascular disease, inverse associations were seen for mothers (2.00 (1.18 to 3.33)) and fathers (1.52 (1.03 to 2.17)). Adjustment for blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, body mass index, height, social class, area based deprivation category, smoking, lung function, angina, bronchitis, and electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemia had little effect on these risk estimates, although levels of statistical significance were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Birth weight of offspring was related inversely to mortality, from all causes and cardiovascular disease, in this cohort. The strength of this association was greater than would have been expected by the degree of concordance of birth weights across generations, but an extensive range of potential confounding factors could not account for the association. Mortality is therefore influenced by a factor related to birth weight that is transmissible across generations. PMID:9393220

Davey Smith, G.; Hart, C.; Ferrell, C.; Upton, M.; Hole, D.; Hawthorne, V.; Watt, G.

1997-01-01

355

CNS involvement in Fabry disease: clinical and imaging studies before and after 12 months of enzyme replacement therapy.  

PubMed

We report the clinical and radiological central nervous system (CNS) findings of 8 Fabry disease patients, before (8/8) and after (7/8) 12 months of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase-alpha. Eight biochemically proven Fabry disease patients (from four families) were included. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at regular intervals during 12 months of ERT. Evaluations included a thorough, standardized neurological examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA). Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was also performed in 5/8 patients. The presence and location of grey- and white-matter lesions, the presence of vascular occlusion or ectasia on MRA and the metabolite ratios on MRS were determined, as well as their relation to age, symptoms and neurological examination. Neurological examination showed few abnormalities in these patients: scores varied (on a 0-100 scale) from zero to 5, at baseline and in the 12th month of ERT. The most consistent findings on MRI were asymmetric, widespread patterns of deep white-matter (WM) lesions, hyperintense on T2 and FLAIR-weighted images, found in 4/8 patients at baseline, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes. These lesions did not correlate with other clinical variables, although there was a trend towards an association of the lesions with age and hearing loss. The youngest patient with MRI lesions was 24 years old. After 12 months of ERT, MRI was normal in 3/7, showed the same WM lesions in 2/7, and showed worsening of WM lesions in 2/7 patients (from the same family). Abnormal MRS metabolite ratios were detected at baseline in 4/5 patients. While neurological examination remained almost normal during the 12 months of ERT, new small-vessel CNS involvement still appeared in 2/7 patients. We do not know why ERT was not able to prevent this in these two related male patients. This could be due either to their older ages (46 and 36 years), or to a more pathogenic mutation. We conclude that MRI was more sensitive than neurological examination in detecting CNS involvement and progression in Fabry disease in the time interval studied. PMID:15159654

Jardim, L; Vedolin, L; Schwartz, I V D; Burin, M G; Cecchin, C; Kalakun, L; Matte, U; Aesse, F; Pitta-Pinheiro, C; Marconato, J; Giugliani, R

2004-01-01

356

Observed Changes in the Alertness and Communicative Involvement of Students with Multiple and Severe Disability Following In-Class Mentor Modelling for Staff in Segregated and General Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The improvement of engagement and involvement in communicative and socially centred exchanges for individuals with multiple and severe disability (MSD) presents complex and urgent challenges to educators. This paper reports the findings of an intervention study designed to enhance the interactive skills of students with MSD using an…

Foreman, P.; Arthur-Kelly, M.; Bennett, D.; Neilands, J.; Colyvas, K.

2014-01-01

357

Inter-Observer Reliability Assessments in Time Motion Studies: The Foundation for Meaningful Clinical Workflow Analysis  

PubMed Central

Understanding clinical workflow is critical for researchers and healthcare decision makers. Current workflow studies tend to oversimplify and underrepresent the complexity of clinical workflow. Continuous observation time motion studies (TMS) could enhance clinical workflow studies by providing rich quantitative data required for in-depth workflow analyses. However, methodological inconsistencies have been reported in continuous observation TMS, potentially reducing the validity of TMS’ data and limiting their contribution to the general state of knowledge. We believe that a cornerstone in standardizing TMS is to ensure the reliability of the human observers. In this manuscript we review the approaches for inter-observer reliability assessment (IORA) in a representative sample of TMS focusing on clinical workflow. We found that IORA is an uncommon practice, inconsistently reported, and often uses methods that provide partial and overestimated measures of agreement. Since a comprehensive approach to IORA is yet to be proposed and validated, we provide initial recommendations for IORA reporting in continuous observation TMS. PMID:24551381

Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Bai, Shasha; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert; Embi, Peter; Payne, Philip R.O.

2013-01-01

358

How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients.  

PubMed

This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level. PMID:25108237

Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

2014-12-01

359

Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

Koeck, Julia, E-mail: Julia_Koeck@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Abo-Madyan, Yasser [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Lohr, Frank; Stieler, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kriz, Jan; Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

2012-05-01

360

Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

2007-01-01

361

An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The propensity score is the probability of treatment assignment conditional on observed baseline characteristics. The propensity score allows one to design and analyze an observational (nonrandomized) study so that it mimics some of the particular characteristics of a randomized controlled trial. In particular, the propensity score is a balancing…

Austin, Peter C.

2011-01-01

362

A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST  

E-print Network

A study of black aurora from aircraft-based optical observations and plasma measurements on FAST L 2002. [1] Black aurora was observed on 30 January 1998 in a narrow-field camera forty seconds before. Electron energy flux measured by FAST provided strong evidence that FAST passed over black aurora

California at Berkeley, University of

363

Plasma Choline Metabolites and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic). Colorectal cancer was assessed by self-report and confirmed by medical records over the mean of 5.2 years of follow-up. Baseline plasma choline metabolites were measured by LC/MS-MS. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, plasma choline tended to be positively associated with rectal cancer risk [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)highest vs. lowest quartile = 2.44 (0.93-6.40); P trend = 0.08], whereas plasma betaine was inversely associated with colorectal cancer overall [0.68 (0.47-0.99); P trend = 0.01] and with local/regional tumors [0.64 (0.42-0.99); P trend = 0.009]. Notably, the plasma betaine:choline ratio was inversely associated with colorectal cancer overall [0.56 (0.39-0.82); P trend = 0.004] as well as with proximal [0.66 (0.41-1.06); P trend = 0.049], rectal [0.27 (0.10-0.78); P trend = 0.02], and local/regional [0.50 (0.33-0.76); P trend = 0.001] tumors. Finally, plasma TMAO, an oxidative derivative of choline produced by intestinal bacteria, was positively associated with rectal cancer [3.38 (1.25-9.16); P trend = 0.02] and with overall colorectal cancer risk among women with lower (vs. higher) plasma vitamin B12 levels (P interaction = 0.003). Collectively, these data suggest that alterations in choline metabolism, which may arise early in disease development, may be associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer. The positive association between plasma TMAO and colorectal cancer risk is consistent with an involvement of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 74(24); 7442-52. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25336191

Bae, Sajin; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Neuhouser, Marian L; Malysheva, Olga; Bailey, Lynn B; Xiao, Liren; Brown, Elissa C; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Zheng, Yingye; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Miller, Joshua W; Green, Ralph; Lane, Dorothy S; Beresford, Shirley A A; Caudill, Marie A

2014-12-15

364

Does Parental Involvement Influence the Academic Achievement of Mexican-American Eighth Graders? Results From the National Education Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental involvement is being touted as one mechanism by which academic achievement can be increased. If parental involvement is indeed effective, it may be one approach for improving the achievement of Mexican-American students. Many Mexican-American children are educationally disadvantaged, are at-risk for academic failure, and have not demonstrated the academic achievement that other immigrant groups have, even after they have

Patricia B. Keith; Marilyn V. Lichtman

1994-01-01

365

Hepatic FoxO1 Acetylation Is Involved in Oleanolic Acid-Induced Memory of Glycemic Control: Novel Findings from Study 2  

PubMed Central

Our recent study (referred as Study 1) showed that the triterpenoid oleanolic acid (OA) was able to produce a sustained correction of hyperglycemia beyond treatment period in type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice with liver as a responsible site. To follow up the previous observations, the present study (referred as Study 2) investigated the possible role of acetylation of FoxO1 and associated events in this therapeutic memory by characterizing the pathways regulating the acetylation status during and post-OA treatments. OA treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, during OA treatment) reduced hyperglycemia in T2D mice by ?87% and this effect was largely (?70%) maintained even 4 weeks after the cessation of OA administration (post-OA treatment). During OA treatment, the acetylation and phosphorylation of FoxO1 were markedly increased (1.5 to 2.5-fold) while G6Pase expression was suppressed by ?80%. Consistent with this, OA treatment reversed pyruvate intolerance in high-fat fed mice. Histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) content was increased (>50%) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4 and 5 (not HDAC1) were reduced by 30–50%. The OA-induced changes in FoxO1, G6Pase, HAT1 and HDACs persisted during the post-OA treatment period when the increased phosphorylation of AMPK, SIRT1 content and reduced liver triglyceride had subsided. These results confirmed the ability of OA to control hyperglycemia far beyond treatment period in T2D mice. Most importantly, in the present study we demonstrated acetylation of FoxO1 in the liver is involved in OA-induced memory for the control of hyperglycemia. Our novel findings suggest that acetylation of the key regulatory proteins of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a plausible mechanism by the triterpenoid to achieve a sustained glycemic control for T2D. PMID:25222566

Wang, Hao; Li, Songpei; Jo, Eunjung; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Tan, Minjia; Molero, Juan C.; Ye, Ji-Ming

2014-01-01

366

Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary feeding for the characterization of candidate tick protective antigens. While an effect on tick weight and oviposition was observed, the effect on pathogen levels was not evident probably due to high tick-to-tick variations among other factors. Nevertheless, these results together with previous results of RNA interference functional studies suggest that these proteins are good candidate vaccine antigens for the control of R. microplus infestations and infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina. PMID:24450836

2014-01-01

367

Genes Involved in the Osteoarthritis Process Identified through Genome Wide Expression Analysis in Articular Cartilage; the RAAK Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Identify gene expression profiles associated with OA processes in articular cartilage and determine pathways changing during the disease process. Methods Genome wide gene expression was determined in paired samples of OA affected and preserved cartilage of the same joint using microarray analysis for 33 patients of the RAAK study. Results were replicated in independent samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Profiles were analyzed with the online analysis tools DAVID and STRING to identify enrichment for specific pathways and protein-protein interactions. Results Among the 1717 genes that were significantly differently expressed between OA affected and preserved cartilage we found significant enrichment for genes involved in skeletal development (e.g. TNFRSF11B and FRZB). Also several inflammatory genes such as CD55, PTGES and TNFAIP6, previously identified in within-joint analyses as well as in analyses comparing preserved cartilage from OA affected joints versus healthy cartilage were among the top genes. Of note was the high up-regulation of NGF in OA cartilage. RT-qPCR confirmed differential expression for 18 out of 19 genes with expression changes of 2-fold or higher, and immunohistochemistry of selected genes showed a concordant change in protein expression. Most of these changes associated with OA severity (Mankin score) but were independent of joint-site or sex. Conclusion We provide further insights into the ongoing OA pathophysiological processes in cartilage, in particular into differences in macroscopically intact cartilage compared to OA affected cartilage, which seem relatively consistent and independent of sex or joint. We advocate that development of treatment could benefit by focusing on these similarities in gene expression changes and/or pathways. PMID:25054223

Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; Bomer, Nils; van der Breggen, Ruud; Lakenberg, Nico; Keurentjes, J. Christiaan; Goeman, Jelle J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Bos, Steffan D.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

2014-01-01

368

Multi-wavelength study of Mrk 421 TeV flare observed with TACTIC telescope in February 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from multi-wavelength study of intense flaring activity from a high frequency peaked BL Lac object Mrk 421. The source was observed in its flaring state on February 16, 2010 with the TACTIC at energies above 1.5 TeV. Near simultaneous multi-wavelength data were obtained from high energy (MeV-GeV) ?-ray observations with Fermi-LAT, X-ray observations by the Swift and MAXI satellites, optical V-band observation by SPOL at Steward Observatory and radio 15 GHz observation at OVRO 40 meter-telescope. We have performed a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of TACTIC, Fermi-LAT and Swift-XRT observations of Mrk 421 during February 10-23, 2010 (MJD 55237-55250). The flaring activity of the source is studied by investigating the properties of daily light curves from radio to TeV energy range and we present the correlation and variability analysis in each energy band. The TeV flare detected by TACTIC on February 16, 2010 is well correlated with the activity in lower energy bands. The differential energy spectrum of the source, in the energy range 1.5-11 TeV, as measured by TACTIC on this night is described by a power law (dN/dE?E) with spectral index ?=2.6±0.3. After accounting for absorption of TeV photons by low energy extragalactic background light photons via pair production, the intrinsic TeV spectrum reveals a power law index of 2.3±0.3. Finally the broad band spectral energy distribution of the source in flaring state is reproduced using a simple emission model involving synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton processes. The obtained parameters are then used to understand the energetics of the source during the flaring episode.

Singh, K. K.; Yadav, K. K.; Chandra, P.; Sahayanathan, S.; Bhatt, N.; Rannot, R. C.; Tickoo, A. K.; Koul, R.

2015-02-01

369

User-friendly tools on handheld devices for observer performance study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROC studies require complex procedures to select cases from many data samples, and to set confidence levels in each selected case to generate ROC curves. In some observer performance studies, researchers have to develop software with specific graphical user interface (GUI) to obtain confidence levels from readers. Because ROC studies could be designed for various clinical situations, it is difficult task for preparing software corresponding to every ROC studies. In this work, we have developed software for recording confidence levels during observer studies on tiny personal handheld devices such as iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To confirm the functions of our software, three radiologists performed observer studies to detect lung nodules by using public database of chest radiograms published by Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The output in text format conformed to the format for the famous ROC kit from the University of Chicago. Times required for the reading each case was recorded very precisely.

Matsumoto, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Matsusako, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

2012-02-01

370

A new case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix with prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy. Case presentation A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat. Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18. On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes. Conclusion With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens. PMID:22236794

2012-01-01

371

Biochemical, stabilization and crystallization studies on a molecular chaperone (PaoD) involved in the maturation of molybdoenzymes.  

PubMed

Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes require specific chaperones for folding and cofactor insertion. PaoD is the chaperone of the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC. It is the last gene in the paoABCD operon in Escherichia coli and its presence is crucial for obtaining mature enzyme. PaoD is an unstable, 35 kDa, protein. Our biochemical studies showed that it is a dimer in solution with a tendency to form large aggregates, especially after freezing/thawing cycles. In order to improve stability, PaoD was thawed in the presence of two ionic liquids [C4mim]Cl and [C2OHmim]PF6 and no protein precipitation was observed. This allowed protein concentration and crystallization using polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate as precipitating agents. Saturation transfer difference - nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) experiments have also been performed in order to investigate the effect of the ionic liquids in the stabilization process, showing a clear interaction between the acidic ring protons of the cation and, most likely, negatively charged residues at the protein surface. DLS assays also show a reduction of the overall size of the protein aggregates in presence of ionic liquids. Furthermore, cofactor binding studies on PaoD showed that the protein is able to discriminate between molybdenum and tungsten bound to the molybdenum cofactor, since only a Mo-MPT form of the cofactor remained bound to PaoD. PMID:24498065

Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; Schwuchow, Viola; Rodrigues, David; Cabrita, Eurico J; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João; Santos-Silva, Teresa

2014-01-01

372

Biochemical, Stabilization and Crystallization Studies on a Molecular Chaperone (PaoD) Involved in the Maturation of Molybdoenzymes  

PubMed Central

Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes require specific chaperones for folding and cofactor insertion. PaoD is the chaperone of the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC. It is the last gene in the paoABCD operon in Escherichia coli and its presence is crucial for obtaining mature enzyme. PaoD is an unstable, 35 kDa, protein. Our biochemical studies showed that it is a dimer in solution with a tendency to form large aggregates, especially after freezing/thawing cycles. In order to improve stability, PaoD was thawed in the presence of two ionic liquids [C4mim]Cl and [C2OHmim]PF6 and no protein precipitation was observed. This allowed protein concentration and crystallization using polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate as precipitating agents. Saturation transfer difference – nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) experiments have also been performed in order to investigate the effect of the ionic liquids in the stabilization process, showing a clear interaction between the acidic ring protons of the cation and, most likely, negatively charged residues at the protein surface. DLS assays also show a reduction of the overall size of the protein aggregates in presence of ionic liquids. Furthermore, cofactor binding studies on PaoD showed that the protein is able to discriminate between molybdenum and tungsten bound to the molybdenum cofactor, since only a Mo-MPT form of the cofactor remained bound to PaoD. PMID:24498065

Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; Schwuchow, Viola; Rodrigues, David; Cabrita, Eurico J.; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João; Santos-Silva, Teresa

2014-01-01

373

Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes.  

E-print Network

of evidence and practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2008, 45:298-315. 4. Boote J, Telford R, Cooper C: Consumer involvement in health research: a review and research agenda. Health Policy 2002, 61(2):213-36. 5. Staniszewska S, Herron-Marx S... , Mockford C: Measuring the impact of patient and public involvement: the need for an evidence base. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2008, 20(6):373-374. 6. Staniszewska S: Patient and public involvement in health services and health research...

Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Cowe, Marion; Mendoza, Alex; Westwood, Daphne; Munday, Diane; Wilson, Patricia M; Crang, Clare; Froggatt, Katherine; Iliffe, Steve; Manthorpe, Jill; Gage, Heather; Barclay, Stephen

2011-11-23

374

Tea consumption didn’t modify the risk of fracture: a dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures are important causes of healthy damage and economic loss nowadays. The conclusions of observational studies on tea consumption and fracture risk are still inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine the effect of tea drinking on the risk of fractures. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and reference lists of the relevant articles. Observational studies that reported an estimate of the association between tea drinking and incidence of fractures were included. A meta-analysis was conducted by the STATA software. Results A total of 9 studies involving 147,950 individuals that examined the association between tea consumption and risk of fractures were included in this meta-analysis. The odds risks (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. The pooled OR of 9 observational studies for the tea consumption on risk of fracture was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-1.04). In the subgroup analyses, no significant association was detected in neither cohort studies (n?=?3; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06) nor case–control studies (n?=?6; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.19), respectively. No significant association was detected in the dose–response meta-analysis. Conclusions Tea consumption might not be associated with the risk of fractures. The following large-sample and well-designed studies are required to confirm the existing conclusions. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5309904231178427. PMID:24588938

2014-01-01

375

Biomechanics of cervical laminoplasty: kinetic studies comparing different surgical techniques, temporal effects and the degree of level involvement.  

PubMed

Laminoplasty is a common surgical technique used to treat cervical myelopathy. Both voids and contradictory information exist in the literature with regard to the initial and long-term biomechanical consequences of cervical laminoplasty. In order to clarify the existing literature, as well as provide clinically useful information, we identified three specific aims: (1) to measure the long-term differences in kinetics between the open door laminoplasty (ODL) and French door laminoplasty (FDL) techniques; (2) to delineate differences in primary and long-term cervical motion after laminoplasty; and (3) to determine whether inclusion of additional levels in the laminoplasty procedure results in a change in immediate cervical biomechanics. The study design involved both an animal (caprine) model and in vitro surgical simulation. We kinematically evaluated the cervical spine specimens (C2-C7) by applying pure bending moment loads to the cephalad vertebra (C2), while constraining the caudal vertebra (C7). Resultant intervertebral rotations (C3-C6) were determined via stereophotogrammetry. Overall, the data indicate that both FDL and ODL significantly reduce range of motion 6 months postoperatively, compared with the un-operated spine. There were no significant differences between the two techniques after 6 months. We also showed that ODL produces a significant reduction in motion 6 months postoperatively compared with the immediate postoperative condition. Finally, the data indicated that extending the laminoplasty from two to four levels did not significantly change range of motion. The choice of technique should be based upon the surgeon's experience with these technically demanding procedures. In addition, initial stability considerations should not affect the decision to extend the laminoplasty to adjacent levels. Finally, the data also suggest that early changes in biomechanics should not be a major factor when considering whether immobilization of the cervical spine is necessary after laminoplasty. In fact, our temporal study, as well as previously reported clinical data, indicates that one should expect significantly decreased intervertebral motion 6 months after laminoplasty. Therefore, early physical therapy should be considered to preserve a more physiologic pattern of cervical range of motion. PMID:15007708

Puttlitz, Christian M; Deviren, Vedat; Smith, Jason A; Kleinstueck, Frank S; Tran, Quy N H; Thurlow, Ralph W; Eisele, Pamela; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2004-05-01

376

Discover common properties of human observers' visual search and mathematical observers' scanning PART II: emperical studies using human and model observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we proposed the well-delineated-object conjecture to describe a rational observer's behavior in a search task. We discovered two intrinsic properties to describe the performance of rational search observers: rationality in classification and location uncertainty. We proposed to use the location-known-exactly (LKE) ROC curve and the effective number of well-delineated objects or effective set size (M*) to quantify these two properties. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to test the conjecture that was put forward in the companion paper. In particular, for each observer, we designed experiments to measure LKE ROC curve and M*, which were then used to predict the same observer's performance in other search tasks. The predictions were then compared to the experimentally measured observer performance. Our results indicate that modeling the search performance using the LKE ROC curve and M* leads to successful predictions in most cases.

He, Xin; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman

2014-03-01

377

Pathways for methanol steam reforming involving adsorbed formaldehyde and hydroxyl intermediates on Cu(111): density functional theory studies.  

PubMed

Plane-wave density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore possible pathways in methanol steam reforming (MSR) on Cu(111). We focus on reactions involving the adsorbed formaldehyde intermediate (CH(2)O) produced by methanol decomposition and the surface hydroxyl (OH) species generated by dissociative adsorption of H(2)O. Several possible pathways leading to the H(2) + CO(2) products have been identified. The two most likely pathways involve the formate (CHOO), rather than the carboxyl (COOH), intermediate, and they possess barriers lower than that of the rate-limiting step of MSR, namely the dehydrogenation of adsorbed methoxyl (CH(3)O) species. PMID:21487630

Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S; Smith, Gregory K; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

2011-05-28

378

Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The first group exhibits a linear velocity gradient and forms a line in our VLBI map which is consistent with a rotating disc of masers seen edge-on around a massive star. The second group of masers are blueshifted with respect to the first group and lie in a conical region south of the inferred disc. We argue that these masers probably arise in an outflow emerging approximately perpendicularly to the disc. We find that the maser positions at 6.7 and 12.2 GHz are coincident and those of the second group correspond approximately to the absolute positions of NH3, H2CO and OH masers associated with the radio-continuum and infrared source NGC7538-IRS1. In addition we find similar evidence for circumstellar discs of masers in W75N and S252. For these three sources associated with ultra compact HII regions, from the linear velocity gradients and assuming that the central protostars are massive, we derive that the radii of the circumstellar discs are in the range 300-1200 AU which is typical of protoplanetary discs. In the second part, we present the design and realization of 4 GHz cryogenic low noise amplifiers used as IF amplifiers in a radio-camera receiver (SISYFOS project) which will be installed in the Onsala 20m millimeter wave telescope. The requirements of the SISYFOS project at cryogenic temperature are a minimum gain of 25 dB and noise equivalent temperature less than 10 K over the frequency range 3.4-4.6 GHz. Because of its low noise and high gain properties, the MGF4310E series super low noise HEMT from Mitsubishi have been selected to satisfy these requirements. We show that a very simple input design using a high impedance series line viewed as a series inductor provides good matching over a broad bandwidth while ensuring the stability of the amplifier. The minimum noise equivalent temperature and gain of the amplifier measured at cryogenic ambient temperature over the specified bandwidth are 7 K and 28 dB respectively.

Minier, V.

1998-10-01

379

A pilot study of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in estrogen signaling and infant male genital phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that influence development of the male reproductive tract have been associated with male genitourinary abnormalities. However, no studies have tested the relationship between SNPs and intermediate phenotypes such as anogenital distance (AGD), anoscrotal distance (ASD) and penile width (PW). We tested whether 24 common SNPs in eight genes that influence male genital development were associated with intermediate phenotypes in 106 healthy male infants from the Study for Future Families. We used DNA from buccal smears and linear regression models to assess the relationship between anogenital measurements and SNP genotypes with adjustment for covariates. We found that the rs2077647 G allele, located in the coding region of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), was associated with a shorter AGD (P=0.02; ?7.3 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI): ?11.6 to ?3.1), and the rs10475 T allele, located in the 3? untranslated region of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), was associated with a shorter ASD (?4.3 mm, 95% CI: ?7.2 to ?1.4), although this result was not significant (P=0.07) after controlling for multiple comparisons. We observed no association between PW and the SNPs tested. Minor alleles for two SNPs in genes that regulate estrogen signaling during male genital development were associated with AGD and ASD, although the significance of the association was marginal. Our findings suggest that AGD and ASD are influenced by heritable factors in genes known to be associated with frank male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism. PMID:22580635

Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Swan, Shanna H; Farin, Federico M; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Bamshad, Michael; Grady, Richard; Zhou, Chuan; Schwartz, Stephen M

2012-01-01

380

Natural history of skeletal muscle involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a retrospective study in 204 cases.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in adult. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural history of skeletal muscle weakness in adults, in a cross-sectional, retrospective study. In a cohort of 204 adult DM1 patients, we quantified muscle impairment, handgrip force and physical disability. Muscle strength was similarly affected in the legs and in the arms, the right and left side, and distally more than proximally in patients. The earliest and the most affected skeletal muscles were the digit flexors, foot dorsiflexors and neck flexors; whereas the elbow and knee extensors and flexors were the least affected muscle groups. The rate of decline of the muscle strength was -0.111 units/year. The handgrip values were lower in DM1 patients than the normative values and the rate of decline in handgrip force per year was -0.24 kg. Limitation in mobility or walking is observed in 84 % of DM1 patients but requirement of wheelchair is infrequent (3 %). The decrease in muscle strength, handgrip force and the increase in physical disability were highly correlated with duration of the disease and the number of CTG repeats in the blood. Significant association was found between decline in muscle strength and the age at onset, physical disability and the age of patients at evaluation, handgrip force and gender. Decline in muscle weakness is very slow and although limitation when walking is a common manifestation of DM1 in patients, the requirement of wheelchair is infrequent. PMID:25380585

Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Cossette, Louise; Bassez, Guillaume; Puymirat, Jack

2014-11-01

381

Sentential Context Modulates the Involvement of the Motor Cortex in Action Language Processing: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition. PMID:23580364

Schuil, Karen D. I.; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2013-01-01

382

Parent-Community Involvement in School Governance and Its Effects on Teacher Effectiveness and Improvement of Learner Performance: A Study of Selected Primary and Secondary Schools in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed 45 selected primary and secondary schools in Botswana which aimed to identify how parent and community involvement in the governance of schools affect teacher effectiveness and improvement of learner performance. The study started from January 2005 to December 2006. Literature review, administration of questionnaires, interview…

Boaduo, Nana Adu-Pipim; Milondzo, K. S.; Adjei, Alex

2009-01-01

383

A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

Nellums, Michael W.

2011-01-01

384

The Antarctic First Regional Observing Study of the Troposphere (FROST) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the Antarctic First Regional Observing Study of the Troposphere (FROST) project, which has been organized by the Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. The goals of FROST are to study the meteorology of the Antarctic, to determine the strengths and weaknesses of operational analyses and forecasts over

John Turner; Steven Colwell; Steven Leonard; David Bromwich; Stephen Dixon; Hugh Hutchinson; Kieran Jacka; Lawrie Marsh; Stephen Pendlebury; Tim Gibson; Terry Hart; Günther Heinemann; Michael Lieder; Henry Phillpot; Mike Pook; Ian Simmonds

1996-01-01

385

Bio-optics in integrated ocean observing networks: potential for studying harmful  

E-print Network

to study as they are modulated by complex climate (global warm- ing, storms, winter cooling/summer heating85 3 Bio-optics in integrated ocean observing networks: potential for studying harmful algal blooms as the scientific community begins to establish a global, long-term presence in the ocean. Robert Detrick Ships have

Moline, Mark