Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. Emergency ambulance service involvement with residential care homes in the support of older people with dementia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Older people resident in care homes have a limited life expectancy and approximately two-thirds have limited mental capacity. Despite initiatives to reduce unplanned hospital admissions for this population, little is known about the involvement of emergency services in supporting residents in these settings. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study that tracked the involvement of emergency ambulance personnel in the support of older people with dementia, resident in care homes with no on-site nursing providing personal care only. 133 residents with dementia across 6 care homes in the East of England were tracked for a year. The paper examines the frequency and reasons for emergency ambulance call-outs, outcomes and factors associated with emergency ambulance service use. Results 56% of residents used ambulance services. Less than half (43%) of all call-outs resulted in an unscheduled admission to hospital. In addition to trauma following a following a fall in the home, results suggest that at least a reasonable proportion of ambulance contacts are for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. An emergency ambulance is not likely to be called for older rather than younger residents or for women more than men. Length of residence does not influence use of emergency ambulance services among older people with dementia. Contact with primary care services and admission route into the care home were both significantly associated with emergency ambulance service use. The odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from a relative’s home were 90% lower than the odds of using emergency ambulance services for residents admitted from their own home. Conclusions Emergency service involvement with this vulnerable population merits further examination. Future research on emergency ambulance service use by older people with dementia in care homes, should account for important contextual factors, namely, presence or absence of on-site nursing, GP involvement, and access to residents’ family, alongside resident health characteristics. PMID:25164581

  2. Observational Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abebe, Asheber

    This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

  3. Cortical regions involved in the observation of bimanual actions

    PubMed Central

    Heitger, Marcus H.; Macé, Marc J.-M.; Jastorff, Jan; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2012-01-01

    Although we are beginning to understand how observed actions performed by conspecifics with a single hand are processed and how bimanual actions are controlled by the motor system, we know very little about the processing of observed bimanual actions. We used fMRI to compare the observation of bimanual manipulative actions with their unimanual components, relative to visual control conditions equalized for visual motion. Bimanual action observation did not activate any region specialized for processing visual signals related to this more elaborated action. On the contrary, observation of bimanual and unimanual actions activated similar occipito-temporal, parietal and premotor networks. However, whole-brain as well as region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that this network functions differently under bimanual and unimanual conditions. Indeed, in bimanual conditions, activity in the network was overall more bilateral, especially in parietal cortex. In addition, ROI analyses indicated bilateral parietal activation patterns across hand conditions distinctly different from those at other levels of the action-observation network. These activation patterns suggest that while occipito-temporal and premotor levels are involved with processing the kinematics of the observed actions, the parietal cortex is more involved in the processing of static, postural aspects of the observed action. This study adds bimanual cooperation to the growing list of distinctions between parietal and premotor cortex regarding factors affecting visual processing of observed actions. PMID:22914649

  4. Observing Task and Ego Involvement in a Club Volleyball Setting

    E-print Network

    Schwarzlose, Tori

    2013-04-30

    suggested that the parents and the players both identified as task involved individuals, implying that their motivations lie in improving skills relative to the sport instead of becoming the best athlete relative to others on the court. The study results...

  5. Studies That Observe Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may also be called a follow-up or longitudinal study.) A cohort study usually observes groups and compares ... factors affect their outcomes. Cohort studies can be prospective , meaning that the researchers select a group and ...

  6. Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

  7. Studies involving low protein broiler diets

    E-print Network

    Parkin, David Palmer

    1971-01-01

    STUDIES INVOLVING L(% PROTEIN BROILER DIETS A Thesis by David Palmer Parkin Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject...: Poultry Science STUDIES INVOLVING LS& PROTEIN BROILER DIETS A Thesis by David Palmer Parkin Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit e) ead of. Departmen Me er) (Member) (Memb ) May 1971 ABSTRACT Studies Involving Low Protein...

  8. Public Involvement in Austin's Rate Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric P. Rothstein; Elaine Jones

    1993-01-01

    Rate increases are inherently unpopular; some utility customers oppose them regardless of how badly they are needed or how frugal the utility is. In Austin, Texas, a public involvement program conducted in concert with a cost-of-service rate study assisted the Austin Water and Wastewater Utility in achieving implementable rates. In this article the authors review business values that enhance the

  9. Environmental science and ecology involve studies

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    Environmental science and ecology involve studies of the biosphere, hydro- sphere, and lithosphere in environmental science is conducted on spatial scales varying from a single algal cell to the Earth as a whole's environmental scientists require investigation by an interdisciplinary team, including members from several

  10. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  11. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  12. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  13. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  14. Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

    2012-01-16

    The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and imitation sessions and outline a framework explaining the discrepant findings in the literature. PMID:21983182

  15. Multicultural Parental Involvement: A Case Study of Korean Immigrant Parental Involvement in their Children's Schooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-June Hwang

    This study examines the characteristics of multicultural parental involvement in their children's education and explores the factors which contribute to a pattern of parental involvement among Korean immigrant families. This study investigates the variables as analytical tools that describe the nature of parental educational aspiration, difficulties and barriers to participate in their child's schooling, and social capital as parental network.

  16. Observational Studies and Experiments Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-21

    This activity will allow students to learn the difference between observational studies and experiments, with emphasis on the importance of cause-and-effect relationships. The activity will also familiarize students with key terms such as factors, treatments, retrospective and prospective studies, etc. This is an easy to follow lesson plan for those teaching a course in statistics.

  17. MAXimising Involvement in MUltiMorbidity (MAXIMUM) in primary care: protocol for an observation and interview study of patients, GPs and other care providers to identify ways of reducing patient safety failures

    PubMed Central

    Daker-White, Gavin; Hays, Rebecca; Esmail, Aneez; Minor, Brian; Barlow, Wendy; Brown, Benjamin; Blakeman, Thomas; Bower, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increasing numbers of older people are living with multiple long-term health conditions but global healthcare systems and clinical guidelines have traditionally focused on the management of single conditions. Having two or more long-term conditions, or ‘multimorbidity’, is associated with a range of adverse consequences and poor outcomes and could put patients at increased risk of safety failures. Traditionally, most research into patient safety failures has explored hospital or inpatient settings. Much less is known about patient safety failures in primary care. Our core aims are to understand the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures, to explore the different ways in which patients and services respond (or fail to respond), and to identify opportunities for intervention. Methods and analysis We plan to undertake an applied ethnographic study of patients with multimorbidity. Patients’ interactions and environments, relevant to their healthcare, will be studied through observations, diary methods and semistructured interviews. A framework, based on previous studies, will be used to organise the collection and analysis of field notes, observations and other qualitative data. This framework includes the domains: access breakdowns, communication breakdowns, continuity of care errors, relationship breakdowns and technical errors. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee for Wales. An individual case study approach is likely to be most fruitful for exploring the mechanisms by which multimorbidity leads to safety failures. A longitudinal and multiperspective approach will allow for the constant comparison of patient, carer and healthcare worker expectations and experiences related to the provision, integration and management of complex care. This data will be used to explore ways of engaging patients and carers more in their own care using shared decision-making, patient empowerment or other relevant models. PMID:25138807

  18. 21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2000-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these experiments, tests of the positional accuracy, system sensitivity, and receiver response are inherent in this series of experiments. The MRT was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  19. Countesthorpe College: an observant study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Ann; Stamatabis, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Discussed the objectives and the conditions which made possible a new school embodying radical innovations. The results of a observational study at an early stage of the school's development, undertaken by a group of students, are summarised here by two of them, both now teaching in Leicestershire Upper Schools. (Editor/RK)

  20. PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

  1. A case study of parent involvement and school outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Brad Gibson

    1991-01-01

    This study was concerned with the role parents play in improving the education of their child. This research was designed to investigate whether parent involvement in the decision-making process can affect student achievement, school climate, and school leadership. The research questions investigated were: (1) How does each of Epstein's five types of parent involvement relate to academic performance? (2) Does

  2. Two studies of low income parents' involvement in schooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Jose A. Lopez; Perry Nelson; Howard S. Adelman

    1992-01-01

    An interview and an intervention study are reported. Interview findings extend research on the positive relationship of parent involvement to school success. That is, although most of the low income families reported low-moderate participation, a postive relationship was found between parent involvement and school adjustment as early as kindergarten. With respect to negative valuing and barrier interpretations of low participation,

  3. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  4. Halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen: CSD search and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhou

    2011-08-25

    The Cambridge Structure Database search shows that there are over seventy crystal structures containing halogen bonds in which hypervalent halogens, not monovalent halogens as usual, behave as acceptors of electron density. The nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen has been investigated by using several theoretical methods with different basis sets. The HF calculations for the complexes studied cover most of their binding energies, which indicates the electrostatic nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen. The MP2 methods with medium basis sets fail to predict the relative strength of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen and the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen. Accurate computational results show that the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen may be weaker than the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen even in the case that the hypervalent halogen is more positively charged than the monovalent halogen, the reasons of which were discussed in some detail. In comparison with the halogen bond involving monovalent halogen, the bonding characteristic and electron-density transfer of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen were also analyzed with the "atoms in molecules" theory and the natural bond orbital theory. PMID:21770446

  5. Analysis of computed tomography and pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement

    PubMed Central

    QI, YUAN-GANG; FANG, ZE-HUI; HUANG, YONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between computed tomography (CT) images and the pathological observations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement. In total, 26 patients suffering from an NHL with peritoneal, omental or mesenteric involvement were reviewed retrospectively, and the observed CT scan characteristics were analyzed. In addition, associations among the CT scan characteristics and the NHL subtypes, including diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, follicular cell and T-cell lymphoma, were evaluated. The CT scan characteristics of the NHLs with peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement included peritoneal cord-like thickening, peritoneal omental nodular and swelling thickening, omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass. The probability of peritoneal linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening was found to be higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases compared with cases of other NHL subtypes (P<0.05). However, the probability of omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass was not found to be significantly different among the NHL subtypes (P>0.05). Signs of peritoneal, omental and mesenteric involvement were observed in the CT scans of all the NHL subtypes, particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases. Therefore, linear, omental nodular and swelling thickening were characteristic of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while omental cake-like thickening and mesenteric mass were observed in all NHL subtypes. PMID:25667648

  6. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  7. BIOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL STUDIES FOR DISEASES INVOLVING MTDNA MUTATIONS

    E-print Network

    Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

    BIOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL STUDIES FOR DISEASES INVOLVING MTDNA MUTATIONS FENGZHU SUN Abstract of human degenerative diseases and aging (Taylor 1992, Wallace 1992). The study of mtDNA mu- tation;2 FENGZHU SUN by nucleus-encoded polypeptides. Because of the dual roles of nuclear and mitochondrial

  8. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ?kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  9. Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

  10. The Political Involvement of Social Studies Teachers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Watt L.; And Others

    Attitudes toward and participation in politics by elementary and secondary school social studies teachers in Texas from 1976-1977 are discussed. Political involvement is interpreted to include voting, contributing time and/or money to a political party, running for political office, belonging to a teachers organization, watching news on…

  11. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    E-print Network

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  12. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  13. Observations and Modeling of the Early Acceleration Phase of Erupting Filaments Involved in Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Elmore, Christopher; Kliem, Bernhard; Török, Tibor; Title, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    We examine the early phases of two near-limb filament destabilizations involved in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on 2005 June 16 and July 27, using high-resolution, high-cadence observations made with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), complemented by coronagraphic observations by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The filaments' heights above the solar limb in their rapid-acceleration phases are best characterized by a height dependence h(t)~tm with m near, or slightly above, 3 for both events. Such profiles are incompatible with published results for breakout, MHD-instability, and catastrophe models. We show numerical simulations of the torus instability that approximate this height evolution in case a substantial initial velocity perturbation is applied to the developing instability. We argue that the sensitivity of magnetic instabilities to initial and boundary conditions requires higher fidelity modeling of all proposed mechanisms if observations of rise profiles are to be used to differentiate between them. The observations show no significant delays between the motions of the filament and of overlying loops: the filaments seem to move as part of the overall coronal field until several minutes after the onset of the rapid-acceleration phase.

  14. Molecular Simulation Studies of Proteins Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carloni, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    This contribution describes two recent computational studies related to proteins involved in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The first focuses on the interplay between dopamine and ?-synuclein (AS), which plays a central role in PD (unpublished results). The second deals with the protein DJ-1, whose mutations are present in patients suffering from familiar PD [1]. Computational methods are used to investigate the relationship between such mutations and the protein oligomeric state, which may be important for the progression of the disease.

  15. Religious Congregations’ Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Pitkin Derose; Peter J. Mendel; Kartika Palar; David E. Kanouse; Ricky N. Bluthenthal; Laura Werber Castaneda; Dennis E. Corbin; Blanca X. Domínguez; Jennifer Hawes-Dawson; Michael A. Mata; Clyde W. Oden

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities,\\u000a interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The\\u000a cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities\\u000a fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care

  16. Assessing the promise of user involvement in health service development: ethnographic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Fudge; Charles D A Wolfe; Christopher McKevitt

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To understand how the policy of user involvement is interpreted in health service organisations and to identify factors that influence how user involvement is put into practice.Design Ethnographic study using participant observation, interviews, and collection of documentary evidence.Setting A multiagency modernisation programme to improve stroke services in two London boroughs.Participants Service users, National Health Service managers, and clinicians.Results User

  17. Calibrating sensitivity analyses to observed covariates in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jesse Y; Small, Dylan S

    2013-12-01

    In medical sciences, statistical analyses based on observational studies are common phenomena. One peril of drawing inferences about the effect of a treatment on subjects using observational studies is the lack of randomized assignment of subjects to the treatment. After adjusting for measured pretreatment covariates, perhaps by matching, a sensitivity analysis examines the impact of an unobserved covariate, u, in an observational study. One type of sensitivity analysis uses two sensitivity parameters to measure the degree of departure of an observational study from randomized assignment. One sensitivity parameter relates u to treatment and the other relates u to response. For subject matter experts, it may be difficult to specify plausible ranges of values for the sensitivity parameters on their absolute scales. We propose an approach that calibrates the values of the sensitivity parameters to the observed covariates and is more interpretable to subject matter experts. We will illustrate our method using data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and blood lead levels. PMID:24328711

  18. Religious Congregations’ Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction. PMID:20953903

  19. What Observational Studies Can Offer Decision Makers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Black

    1999-01-01

    Observational studies, for example cohort and case-control studies in which patients are allocated treatment on a non-random basis, are thought by some investigators to be flawed. This view results from the fact that, unlike experimental methods (randomized controlled trials; RCTs), the results of such observational studies are vulnerable to confounding. However, this view assumes that satisfactory adjustment of differences in

  20. Political Involvement. Community Involvement/Career Education: An Experience-based Social Studies Program, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, James; And Others

    This collection of materials and ideas is designed for the high school student who wants to try to influence society. The guide provides background information and descriptions of experience-based learning activities for use by students as they explore political involvement opportunities in their communities. The purposes of the materials are to…

  1. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  2. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  3. What Gets Dad Involved? A Longitudinal Study of Change in Parental Child Caregiving Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wood; Rena L. Repetti

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of change in fathers' and mothers' perceptions of child caregiving involvement were examined. Middle-class 2-parent families (131 mothers and 98 fathers) with a target school-age child participated. Fathers and mothers completed annual questionnaires for 3 consecutive years. Latent growth curve modeling suggested that fathers were likely to increase their relative contribution to child caregiving over the course of 3

  4. Cultivating Cohort Studies for Observational Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Ransohoff, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Background “Discovery” research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Methods Selected examples are used to illustrate: 1) What features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? 2) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example within RCTs, other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like HMOs? Results Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer; a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer; and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be “cultivated” in the future. Conclusions and Impact By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of “cultivating cohorts” - in on-going RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs - that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:23462919

  5. Patient involvement in drug licensing: A case study.

    PubMed

    Britten, Nicky; Denford, Sarah; Harris-Golesworthy, Faith; Jibson, Steph; Pyart, Nigel; Stein, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Embodied health movements work on the boundary between lay and expert knowledge. Consumer groups, depending on their goals, may increase or decrease pharmaceuticalization. This paper reports a small case study about the retrospective evaluation of a specific second line treatment for type 2 diabetes by an existing patient involvement group. The group is part of a research collaboration between academia and the health service in England, and shares some characteristics of embodied health movements. We used the case study to explore whether an institutionally funded non activist patient group can make a more balanced contribution to drug licensing decisions than that made by either access-oriented or injury-oriented consumer groups, without being co-opted by an institutional agenda. The questions we wished to address were how this group evaluated existing mechanisms for licensing drugs; how they balanced scientific and lay knowledge; how they made their decisions; and how they viewed their experiences as panel members. The five panel members were interviewed before and after the panel discussion in July 2013. They were critical of current licensing processes, and used their own embodied experiences of medicines to evaluate expert knowledge. Their decisions on the panel were informed either by a balancing of benefits and harms, or by trust in experts. The case study suggests that such a group may have the potential both to balance the pro-pharmaceuticalization impact of access-oriented groups and to influence forms of pharmaceutical governance. PMID:25454636

  6. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  7. Direct observation of a borane–silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Adrian Y.; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E.; Tuononen, Heikki M.

    2014-11-01

    Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon–hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This ‘metal-free’ hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si–H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si–H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si–H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si–H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free ‘frustrated-Lewis-pair’ hydrosilylation reactions.

  8. Direct observation of a borane-silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Adrian Y; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E; Tuononen, Heikki M

    2014-11-01

    Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon-hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This 'metal-free' hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si-H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si-H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si-H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si-H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free 'frustrated-Lewis-pair' hydrosilylation reactions. PMID:25343603

  9. Y-balance test: a reliability study involving multiple raters.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Teyhen, Deydre S; Lorenson, Chelsea L; Warren, Rick L; Koreerat, Christina M; Straseske, Crystal A; Childs, John D

    2013-11-01

    The Y-balance test (YBT) is one of the few field expedient tests that have shown predictive validity for injury risk in an athletic population. However, analysis of the YBT in a heterogeneous population of active adults (e.g., military, specific occupations) involving multiple raters with limited experience in a mass screening setting is lacking. The primary purpose of this study was to determine interrater test-retest reliability of the YBT in a military setting using multiple raters. Sixty-four service members (53 males, 11 females) actively conducting military training volunteered to participate. Interrater test-retest reliability of the maximal reach had intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) of 0.80 to 0.85 with a standard error of measurement ranging from 3.1 to 4.2 cm for the 3 reach directions (anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral). Interrater test-retest reliability of the average reach of 3 trails had an intraclass correlation coefficients (2,3) range of 0.85 to 0.93 with an associated standard error of measurement ranging from 2.0 to 3.5cm. The YBT showed good interrater test-retest reliability with an acceptable level of measurement error among multiple raters screening active duty service members. In addition, 31.3% (n = 20 of 64) of participants exhibited an anterior reach asymmetry of >4cm, suggesting impaired balance symmetry and potentially increased risk for injury. PMID:24183777

  10. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    E-print Network

    Kenneth M. Zick; Omar Shehab; Matthew French

    2015-03-22

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N^2 to fewer than N lg N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, a type of classical post-processing error correction is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  11. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  12. Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, B.; Greneche, D. [COGEMA, Direction de la Recherche et du Developpement (France); Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y. [CEA Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire (France)

    2002-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs: i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a reactor fleet made of a mixture of LWRs and HTRs. It is reasonable to assume that if HTRs are to be deployed on an industrial scale, they will co-exist during a long period of time with already existing LWRs. The present paper investigates the symbiotic behaviour of LWRs producing plutonium, and of HTRs burning it. (authors)

  13. Direct observation of driving, self reports of driver behaviour, and accident involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT WEST; DAVINA FRENCH; RICHARD KEMP; JAMES ELANDER

    1993-01-01

    Forty-eight drivers answered a set of written questions about their driving style and drove a pre-defined, mixed urban and motorway route under observation. For 20 drivers there was a second observer in the car to check on inter-observer reliability. Relationships were examined between self-reports of driver behaviour and observers' reports, and between both of these and the number of accidents

  14. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  15. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study

  16. Direct Observation of Reversible Electronic Energy Transfer Involving an Iridium Center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A cyclometalated iridium complex is reported where the core complex comprises naphthylpyridine as the main ligand and the ancillary 2,2?-bipyridine ligand is attached to a pyrene unit by a short alkyl bridge. To obtain the complex with satisfactory purity, it was necessary to modify the standard synthesis (direct reaction of the ancillary ligand with the chloro-bridged iridium dimer) to a method harnessing an intermediate tetramethylheptanolate-based complex, which was subjected to acid-promoted removal of the ancillary ligand and subsequent complexation. The photophysical behavior of the bichromophoric complex and a model complex without the pendant pyrene were studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Reversible electronic energy transfer (REET) is demonstrated, uniquely with an emissive cyclometalated iridium center and an adjacent organic chromophore. After excited-state equilibration is established (5 ns) as a result of REET, extremely long luminescence lifetimes of up to 225 ?s result, compared to 8.3 ?s for the model complex, without diminishing the emission quantum yield. As a result, remarkably high oxygen sensitivity is observed in both solution and polymeric matrices. PMID:24555716

  17. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

  18. Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Syndrome with Retro-Orbital Involvement: A Retrospective Study of Eight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yumei; Lip, Gerald; Chong, Vincent; Yuan, Jianhua; Ding, Zhongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to document the clinical findings and radiological features of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome with retro-orbital involvement. Methods We searched for ophthalmological patients who received orbital imaging at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between October 2003 and April 2010. Seventy-three patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome based on clinicoradiological features, with pathological confirmation of nonspecific inflammatory conditions in 47 patients. Eight patients (11%) had MRI or CT evidence of retro-orbital involvement. All 8 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome after biopsy of the orbital lesion. MR images were obtained for all 8 patients; 3 patients also had a contrast-enhanced CT scan. Results Seven out of 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement also had orbital apex lesions. Of the 65 patients without retro-orbital involvement, 19 had orbital apex lesions. The difference in the number of patients with orbital apex lesions between the two populations was significant (Fisher exact test P?=?.002). In all 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement, the inflammation spread through the superior orbital fissure. The retro-orbital lesions were isointense to grey matter on T1-weighted images, hypointense on T2-weighted images, and displayed uniform contrast enhancement; on contrast-enhanced CT scans, they were hyperdense relative to the contralateral mirror area and had radiological contours that were similar to those seen on MR images. The diffuse inflammation with marked sclerosis and hyalinization that we observed in the patients with retro-orbital involvement is consistent with the diagnosis of the sclerosing subtype of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome. All 8 patients also complained of mild to moderate periorbital pain (headache). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome, it is important to perform MRI and CT scans to identify possible retro-orbital involvement. Retro-orbital involvement is more frequent when the lesion is present in the orbital apex. PMID:23437329

  19. Observational study of interacting binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Seog; Lee, Jeong Ae; Byeon, Jae Gyu; Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Jin Hyung; Yoo, Kye Hwa; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2004-07-01

    We present a progress report on the results obtained from photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting binary stars SW Cyg, RR Dra, Y Leo, and SW Lyn in our Galaxy. Analogous studies could be eventually carried out for interacting binaries in the Local Group galaxies. From this study we note the significant H? line profile variations in spectra of SW Cyg taken at two different orbital phases.

  20. Not Just Cupcakes Anymore: A Study of Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Parent involvement can have unforeseen consequences. Article recounts complicated process of choosing a high school biology textbook in Colorado Springs district populated mainly by evangelical Christians. Although controversy arose over creationism's treatment in one text, book discussing evolution as unifying concept of biology was eventually…

  1. STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  2. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies: the STRATOS initiative.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-12-30

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even 'standard' analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  3. Surface studies of asteroids from earthbound observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, H. J.; Scaltriti, F.; Zappala, V.

    1980-04-01

    The angular diameter of minor planets under the best observation conditions of about one arcsec (seeing) at ground-based observatories usually is too small to be resolved for surface studies or diameter determinations with direct photographic or similar imaging methods. Nevertheless, the rough geometry and/or small-scale structures on the asteroid surfaces can be studied with light curve observations using high-precision photoelectric photometry and the fact that the rotation of an asteroid during a spin period is now determined for slightly more than 200 minor planets. For only a few selected asteroids (63 Ausonia, 88 Thisbe, 92 Undina, 110 Lydia, 118 Peitho, 128 Nemesis, 139 Juewa, 337 Devosa, and 599 Luisa) it is shown from details detected in the light curves, how observations of this type were carried out successfully. From the small scale features, rough linear extensions on the asteroid surface are obtained from differences in magnitude and time. Such observations will be more useful and important in the future with respect to the optimum selection of objects for a possible direct asteroid spacecraft mission.

  4. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  5. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  6. A qualitative study of parent involvement in Macomb County, Michigan: A focus group approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Sue Hiller

    1998-01-01

    The study examined the roles and activities in which parents were involved in schools, and the ways they wanted to be involved, and what they perceived schools could do to enhance parent involvement. ^ A nonexperimental qualitative research design was used for this study. Participants in the study included 99 parents of students in grades K–5 from one or two

  7. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  8. The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by assistance from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the SBA.

  9. Is patient involvement possible when decisions involve scarce resources? A qualitative study of decision-making in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene; Hillier, Sheila; Rowlands, Gillian; Curtis, Sarah

    2004-07-01

    Greater patient involvement has become a key goal of health care provision. This study explored the way in which general practitioners (GPs) in the UK manage the dual responsibilities of treating individual patients and making the most equitable use of National Health Service (NHS) resources in the context of the policy of greater patient involvement in decision-making. We undertook a qualitative study incorporating a series of interviews and focus groups with a sample of 24 GPs. We analysed GP accounts of decision-making by relating these to substantive ethical principles and the key procedural principle of explicitness in decision-making. GPs saw patient involvement in positive terms but for some GPs involvement served an instrumental purpose, for instance improving patient 'compliance'. GPs identified strongly with the role of patient advocate but experienced role tensions particularly with respect to wider responsibilities for budgets, populations, and society in general. GPs had an implicit understanding of the key ethical principle of explicitness and of other substantive ethical principles but there was incongruence between these and their interpretation in practice. Limited availability of GP time played an important role in this theory/practice gap. GPs engaged in implicit categorisation of patients, legitimating this process by reference to the diversity and complexity of general practice. If patient involvement in health care decision-making is to be increased, then questions of scarcity of resources, including time, will need to be taken into account. If strategies for greater patient involvement are to be pursued then this will have significant implications for funding primary care, particularly in terms of addressing the demands made on consultation time. Good ethics and good professional practice cost money and must be budgeted for. More explicit decision-making in primary care will need to be accompanied by greater explicitness at the national level about roles and responsibilities. Increased patient involvement has consequences for GP training and ways of addressing rationing dilemmas will need to be an important part of this training. Further research is needed to understand micro-decision-making, in particular the spaces in which processes of implicit categorisation lead to distorted communication between doctor and patient. PMID:15087146

  10. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  11. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  12. The Geyser Observation and Study Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geyser Observation and Study Association is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation who's purpose is the "collection and dissemination of information about geysers and other geothermal phenomena in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere". The Web site has descriptions and photographs of geysers from around the world with an emphasis on Yellowstone and Old Faithful. Other features include recent and historical geyser activity information, a glossary of geyser terms, an index to geysers described on the site, a "guess the geyser" game, and other interesting links round out the site nicely.

  13. STUDY OF DOSHIC INVOLVEMENT IN APASMARA (EPILEPSY) AND ITS UTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, S.; Rajagopalan, V.; Srinivasan, Kanchana

    1987-01-01

    68 cases of epilepsy are studied here for assessing the doshic dominance to understand prognosis with a view to supplement the treatment with some doshahara compounds or drugs. Most of the cases studied or vata or pitta dominant cases, thereby, requiring vatahara or pittahara treatment. PMID:22557563

  14. Human tracking studies involving an actively powered, augmented exoskeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Repperger; B. O. Hill; C. Hasser; M. Roark; C. A. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    An actively powered, augmented, exoskeleton system is studied within a speed-accuracy performance task framework with human subjects. This system has a dual use in military applications as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders

  15. Observations on the complex interactions involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Wood; S. I. McCrae; C. A. Wilson

    1984-01-01

    Although fractionation studies performed on the cellulases of the fungiPencillium funiculosum, Trichoderma koningii, andFusarium solani have shown that the solubilization of high ordered crystalline cellulose can be effected by mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase,\\u000a cellobiohydrolase, and ?-glucosidase, factors that affect the interaction of these enzymes are not well understood. Sequential\\u000a action between endo-1,4-?-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase is almost certainly a feature of these

  16. Parent-child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J L; Rapee, R M

    2001-12-01

    Past research has indicated a potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by control and rejection. However, few studies have utilised observational methods to support these findings. In the current study, mother-child interactions were observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children (n=20) and non-clinical children (n=32). After adjusting for the age and sex of the child, mothers of anxious children and mothers of oppositional children displayed greater and more intrusive involvement than mothers of non-clinical children. Mothers of anxious children were also more negative during the interactions than mothers of non-clinical children. The differences between anxious and non-clinical interactions were equivalent across three separate age groups. The results support the relationship between an overinvolved parenting style and anxiety but question the specificity of this relationship. PMID:11758699

  17. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  18. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  19. Statistical Analysis Strategies for Association Studies Involving Rare Variants

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vikas; Libiger, Ondrej; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technology has enabled studies of rare variants, but will not be sufficient for their success since appropriate analytical methods are also needed. We consider data analysis approaches to testing associations between a phenotype and collections of rare variants in a defined genomic region or set of regions. Ultimately, although a wide variety of analytical approaches exist, more work is needed to refine them and determine their properties and power in different contexts. PMID:20940738

  20. Pathology Case Study: Mass Involving Kidney and Liver

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aronica, Patricia

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a right-sided mass in her kidney, with normal CEA levels. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  1. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:25046131

  2. A Case Study Involving Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Bennett

    2008-01-01

    This interrupted case study presents a discussion about the benefits of the influenza vaccine between Mary, a nursing student, and her coworker, Karen. Karen is not convinced by Mary’s arguments in favor of vaccination, and she counters with several common rationalizations for not getting the vaccine. Students work in small groups to evaluate the arguments for and against vaccination from the perspective of each woman. In addressing the questions in the case, students learn about the general biology of viral infections, treatment of infections, and immunity. The case was designed for use in an entry-level course in microbiology for nursing students or a first-year biology course for majors.

  3. An experimental study on the relationship between consumer involvement and advertising effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shwu-Ing Wu

    2001-01-01

    States that the level of consumer involvement in a product category is a major variable relevant to advertising strategy. Suggests product category is often segmented by the level of consumer involvement; however, consumers are rarely segmented. Points out that different involvement clusters have different responses to advertising effectiveness for the same product. Presents a case study segmenting a market using

  4. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  5. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  6. Prognostic role of bowel involvement in optimally cytoreduced advanced ovarian cancer: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal debulking surgery is postulated to be useful in survival of ovarian cancer patients. Some studies highlighted the possible role of bowel surgery in this topic. We wanted to evaluate the role of bowel involvement in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent optimal cytoreduction. Methods Between 1997 and 2004, 301 patients with advanced epithelial cancer underwent surgery at Department of Gynecological Oncology of Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO) National Cancer Institute Aviano (PN) Italy. All underwent maximal surgical effort, including bowel and upper abdominal procedure, in order to achieve optimal debulking (R < 0.5 cm). PFS and OS were compared with residual disease, grading and surgical procedures. Results Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 244 patients (81.0%); R0 in 209 women (69.4.%) and R < 0.5 in 35 (11.6%). Bowel resection was performed in 116 patients (38.5%): recto-sigmoidectomy alone (69.8%), upper bowel resection only (14.7%) and both recto-sigmoidectomy and other bowel resection (15.5%). Pelvic peritonectomy and upper abdomen procedures were carried out in 202 (67.1%) and 82 (27.2%) patients respectively. Among the 284 patients available for follow-up, PFS and OS were significantly better in patients with R < 0.5. Among the 229 patients with optimal debulking (R < 0.5), 137 patients (59.8%) developed recurrent disease or progression. In the 229 R < 0.5 group, bowel involvement was associated with decreased PFS and OS in G1-2 patients whereas in G3 patients OS, but not PFS, was adversely affected. In the 199 patients with R0, PFS and OS were significantly better (p < 0.01) for G1-2 patients without bowel involvement whereas only significant OS (p < 0.05) was observed in G3 patients without bowel involvement versus G3 patients with bowel involvement. Conclusions Optimal cytoreduction (R < 0.5 cm and R0) is the most important prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. In the optimally cytoreduced (R < 0.5 and R0) patients, bowel involvement is associated with dismal prognosis for OS both in patients with G1-2 grading and in patients with G3 grading. Bowel involvement in G3 patients, carries instead the same risk of recurrence for PFS. PMID:25328074

  7. Mortality in people taking selegiline: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, Margaret; Armstrong, Ben; Nichols, Tom; Hollowell, Jen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate mortality among patients with Parkinson’s disease receiving different treatment. Design: Cohort study based on computerised medical records. Setting: UK General Practice Research Database. Subjects: 12?621 patients aged between 35 and 90 years who had received a prescription for an antiparkinsonian drug, whether or not a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease had been recorded. Patients prescribed an antipsychotic drug before or at the same time as their first antiparkinsonian drug or before age 35 were excluded to avoid including drug-induced Parkinsonism. Main outcome measure: Death from any cause. Results: 1720 deaths occurred during 14?000 person-years of observation. There was a non-significant 11% (95% confidence interval 0% to 23%) increase in the risk of death associated with taking selegiline either alone or in combination with levodopa. The death rate was higher among younger patients (aged under 80 years) and those with a recorded diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease taking selegiline alone. Conclusions: The results are compatible with a small excess mortality in people taking selegiline and suggest a larger excess in patients under 80 years of age and those with a confirmed diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease taking selegiline without levodopa. Key messages A prematurely stopped randomised trial reported a 50% increase in mortality in subjects treated with selegiline combined with levodopa when compared with subjects treated with levodopa alone. This cohort study based on computerised general practice records examined 14?000 person-years of use of antiparkinsonian drugs There was a non-significant 14% increase in risk of mortality in subjects taking selegiline alone and a non-significant 10% increase for subjects taking selegiline with levodopa This study provides evidence against there being substantial excess mortality associated with use of selegiline PMID:9677215

  8. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nola M. Ries; Jane LeGrandeur; Timothy Caulfield

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort

  9. Caffeine interaction with synthetic flavylium salts. A flash photolysis study for the adduct involving 4?,7-dihydroxyflavylium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Pina

    1998-01-01

    The adducts formed between caffeine and three hydroxyflavylium salts (4-methyl-7-hydroxyflavylium, 4?-hydroxyflavylium, and 4?,7-dihydroxyflavylium) are described and the last studied by flash photolysis. A consistent evidence of the caffeine effect on the rate constants of this system is given for the first time. A net hyperchromic effect was only observed for the adduct involving 4?-hydroxyflavylium. The results confirm previous observations that

  10. Institutional Ethical Review and Ethnographic Research Involving Injection Drug Users: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators’ responses to the committee’s concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  11. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  12. Observability studies of inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Goshen-Meskin, D.

    1989-01-01

    The present work deals with an undamped three-channel inertial-navigation-system error model. It is shown that it is possible to fully observe, and thus estimate, all the states of the system. This is in contrast to a previous two-channel system, in which it was impossible to fully observe and estimate all the states of the system. The conclusions of the analysis are verified through covariance simulation, which yields identical results.

  13. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  14. Climate Change Studies Using Space Based Observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranganath R. Navalgund; Raghavendra P. Singh

    Climate change is associated with earth radiation budget that depends upon incoming solar radiation, surface albedo and radiative\\u000a forcing by greenhouse gases. Human activities are contributing to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere\\u000a (greenhouse gases, aerosols) and biosphere (deforestation, urbanization, irrigation). Long term and precise measurements from\\u000a calibrated global observation constellation is a vital component in climate system

  15. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  16. An Urban School District's Parent Involvement: A Study of Teachers' and Administrators' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnyak, Natalie Conrad; McNelly, Tracy A.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the practices and beliefs of administrators and teachers regarding parent involvement in an urban school district following the first year of the implementation of an action plan based on six national standards for parent involvement (National PTA, 1997). The theoretical framework is based upon Bandura's social…

  17. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  18. Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

  19. Exploring Users' Desire To Be Involved in Computer Systems Development: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoako-Gyampah, Kwasi

    1997-01-01

    This study examined factors (user satisfaction with computer information system function, desired involvement, attitudes toward computer information system staff, and user beliefs about the system) motivating users to become involved in new computer system development and found that user overall satisfaction with computer information system…

  20. Ultrastructural study of renal involvement in two females with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Tosoni, A; Nebuloni, M; Zerbi, P; Vago, L; Comotti, C; Sessa, A

    2005-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare X-linked lipid storage disorder due to a deficient lysosomal a-galactosidase A (a-Gal) activity. In males with the classic form of the disease the enzymatic defect leads to progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GL) in different organs, mainly in the kidney, heart, and brain, causing severe multisystem failure. AFD is usually mild in heterozygous females, but severe cerebrovascular, renal, and cardiac manifestations have been rarely described. The aim of this study is to describe renal involvement of mild symptomatic female carriers by ultrastructural analysis focusing to microvascular lesions, considered to be one of the major causes of systemic disease in AFD. Resin-embedded renal biopsies from 2 sisters with isolated mild proteinuria and belonging to a family group with AFD were observed by light and electron microscopy. In spite of the mild clinical symptoms, diffuse GL storages were demonstrated in all types of glomerular cells and in interstitial endothelial cells. Moreover, platelets were frequently observed in glomerular vassels, a feature coherent with a possible role of prothrombotic state, and platelet activation, in early glomerular lesions. PMID:16036875

  1. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  2. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  3. Connection between psychosis, trauma and dissociation: an exploratory study involving patients in forensic mental health settings 

    E-print Network

    Austin, Jessica Ann

    2011-11-25

    Background: High levels of dissociation have been found in recent studies involving psychiatric inpatients. Proponents of the ‘dissociative psychoses’ have found that trauma-focused intervention strategies can improve ...

  4. Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence, E-mail: moureaul@ipc.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Monaco (France); Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Teissier, Eric [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France)] [Azurean Cancer Center, Mougins (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Timone Academic Hospital and North Academic Hospital, Marseille (France); Department of Radiation Therapy, Val d'Aurelle Cancer Center, Montpellier (France); Salem, Nagi [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); Lemanski, Claire [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France)] [Catalan Oncology Center, Perpignan (France); Ellis, Steve [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)] [French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France); Resbeut, Michel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France) [Department of Radiation Therapy, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille (France); French Red Cross Center, Toulon (France)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to use of a BCT boost technique, as well as emphasizing the important of investigating the benefit of BCT boost in prospective randomized trials.

  5. The Effect of Employee Involvment on Firm Performance: Evidence from an Econometric Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Takao Kato

    2003-01-01

    We provide some of the most reliable evidence to date on the direct impact of employee involvement through participatory arrangements such as teams on business performance. The data we use are extraordinary --daily data for rejection, production and downtime rates for all operators in a single plant during a 35 month period, almost 53,000 observations. Our key findings are that:

  6. A helicopter observation platform for atmospheric boundary layer studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Eichinger Holder

    2009-01-01

    Spatial variability of the Earth's surface has a considerable impact on the atmosphere at all scales and understanding the mechanisms involved in land-atmosphere interactions is hindered by the scarcity of appropriate observations. A measurement gap exists between traditional point sensors and large aircraft and satellite-based sensors in collecting measurements of atmospheric quantities. Point sensors are capable of making long time

  7. Study of Possible Mechanisms Involved in the Inhibitory Effects of Coumarin Derivatives on Neutrophil Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drábiková, Katarína; Pere?ko, Tomáš; Nosál', Radomír; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, Jan; Jan?inová, Viera

    2013-01-01

    To specify the site of action of the synthetic coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) coumarin (HHC) and 7-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxyphenyl) dihydrocoumarin (HHDC), we evaluated their effects on extra- and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated human neutrophils. We studied also the effects of HHC and HHDC on possible molecular mechanisms which participate in the activation of NADPH oxidase, that is, on PKC activity, on phosphorylation of some PKC isoforms (?, ?II, and ?), and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox. Without affecting cytotoxicity, both coumarines tested were effective inhibitors/scavengers of ROS produced by neutrophils on extracellular level. HHC markedly diminished oxidant production and also, intracellularly, decreased PKC activity and partly phosphorylation of PKC?, ?II. On the other hand, we did not observe any effect of coumarin derivatives on phosphorylation of PKC? and on phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p40phox, which were suggested to be involved in the PMA-dependent intracellular activation process. In agreement with our previous findings, we assume that the different molecular structures of HHC and HHDC with their different physicochemical and free radical scavenging characteristics are responsible for their diverse effects on the parameters tested. PMID:24349608

  8. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

  9. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  10. Total Quality Management and employees' involvement: A case study of an Australian organisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilrukshi Welikala; Amrik S. Sohal

    2008-01-01

    Although much has been said about people being the primary resource in an organisation practising Total Quality Management (TQM), this area has been neglected by many companies implementing TQM. This paper presents a detailed case study of an Australian organisation that is recognised as a ‘quality’ company and discusses a number of issues relating to employee involvement. The case study

  11. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  12. Supplemental Submission Form for Studies Involving Neonates 1 of 2 Form Date: 12/15/05

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    this research proposal. Category 1: Preclinical and clinical studies to provide data for assessing potential this research proposal. Category 1: Preclinical and clinical studies to provide data for assessing potential. Will the research involve neonates of uncertain viability? Yes No If no, go to question #3. If yes, answer

  13. The Effects of Employee Involvement on Firm Performance: Evidence from an Econometric Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Takao Kato

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We provide some of the most reliable evidence to date on the direct impact of employee involvement,through participatory arrangements,such as teams on business performance. The data we use are extraordinary --daily data for rejection, production and downtime rates for all operators in a single plant during a 35 month period, almost 53,000 observations. Our key findings are that: (i)

  14. Some observations on alternative mechanisms for public involvement: the hearing, public opinion poll, the workshop and the quasi-experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of several alternative mechanisms for public involvement focuses on citizen involvement in a specific project or policy. Two factors in natural resource-related decisions which reduce the level of trust and lead to an increased demand for public participation are the variety of potentially conflicting uses of a natural resource and the rapid change in public values associated with the environmental crisis. For effective citizen involvement, individuals should represent all groups affected, be well-informed, use interactive techniques, and rely upon actual experience and behavior. Neither the public hearing, pool, workshop, or quasi-experiment is without flaws, but the latter two hold the most promise.

  15. Psoriasis beyond the skin surface: a pilot study on the ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Neri, P; Giuliodori, K; Arapi, I; Carbonari, G; Borioni, E; Herbort, C P; Mariotti, C; Giovannini, A; Offidani, A

    2014-05-01

    The ocular involvement in psoriasis is not a completely well-known problem. The ophthalmologic involvement occurs in about 10 % of patients, particularly in case of arthropathic or pustular psoriasis. Ocular lesions are more common in males, and they often occur during psoriasis exacerbations. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence and type of ocular involvement in psoriasis, by a comparison between psoriasis and healthy subjects, and if/how a 12-week long systemic immunosuppressive therapy is able to modify them. This study involved thirty-two psoriatic patients and thirty-two healthy subjects. Dermatological evaluation was done using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (PASI, PGA, and DLQI score). Ophthalmological evaluation included ocular surface involvement (Schirmer, Jones, break-up time-BUT, DR-1 camera), retinal pathologies, and ocular surface disease index. Laboratory investigations including the C-reactive protein (CRP) of all the patients were performed. At baseline, the values of Schirmer, Jones, and BUT tests in the patient group were significantly lower compared to controls; moreover, conjunctival hyperemia was more frequent in psoriatic patients than in healthy subjects. Ocular involvement was more prominent in the subset of psoriatic patients with sebo-psoriasis than in general psoriatic population. A statistically significant correlation was found in sebo-psoriasis between PASI and Schirmer, between PASI and Jones, and between PASI and BUT. On the other hand, the results obtained from DR1 camera showed statistically significant difference between psoriatic and sebo-psoriatic patients at the end of the follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean values of PASI, PGA, DLQI, CRP, and BUT showed significant changes in psoriatic patients. Our findings suggest a high rate of ocular involvement in psoriatic patients, emphasizing the need of performing periodic ophthalmological examinations in order to avoid underestimating eye diseases and to allow early diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:24799345

  16. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  17. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  18. Voices from immigrant youth: Perceptions of their involvement with the Canadian justice system. A qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elba C. Martell

    2002-01-01

    The development of the thesis project “Voices from Immigrant Youth: Perceptions of their Involvement with the Canadian Justice System. A Qualitative Study” satisfies two purposes. First, it fulfills an academic requirement that I have to meet in order to obtain the Masters of Arts in Community Psychology, and, second, it explores an issue that was identifies as a social concern

  19. Social Influence In a High-Ego-Involvement Situation: A Field Study of Petition Signing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keasey, Charles Blake; Keasey, Carol T.

    This study used the national crisis following President Nixon's decision to send troops into Cambodia as an opportunity to investigate the effectiveness of social influence variables (sex and clothing attire) under conditions of high ego-involvement. Four hundred and forty-six adult passersby were presented an antiwar petition by the authors (one…

  20. American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

    This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

  1. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  3. METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...

  4. Post-stroke depression: research methodology of a large multicentre observational study (DESTRO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Toso; C. Gandolfo; S. Paolucci; L. Provinciali; R. Torta; N. Grassivaro

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneity of published data regarding post-stroke depression (PSD) prompted an Italian multicenter observational study (DESTRO), which took place in 2000–2003. The investigation involved 53 Italian neurology centers: of these, 50 treat acute patients and 3 provide rehabilitation care; 21 centres are in Northern Italy, 20 are in Central Italy, and 12 are in Southern Italy. The time schedule was

  5. High Performance and Meeting Participation: An Observational Study in Software Design Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Sonnentag

    2001-01-01

    This study compared high and moderate performers' involvement in cooperation processes. The author used an observational method to examine meeting participation of 60 software professionals from 10 software projects. Analyses showed that high performers participated more in the overall meeting process. In poorly structured meetings, high performers contributed more to process regulation activities, such as meeting management, goal setting, problem

  6. Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. Methods After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only observational variables with p?studied, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute???500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass?>?45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p?=?0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy must be avoided during TURP procedures in the elderly. PMID:24782656

  7. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

  8. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  9. Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. A study of autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

    1997-02-01

    A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578

  10. Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. Involving them in the development of the assessment plan is also crucial to optimize their influence and impact on HTA research. The project objectives are: 1) setting up interventions to promote patient participation in three stages of the HTA process: identification of HTA topics, prioritization, and development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized; and 2) assessing the impact of patient participation on the relevance of the topics suggested, the prioritization process, and the assessment plan from the point of view of patients and other groups involved in HTA. Methods Patients and their representatives living in the catchment area of the HTA Roundtable of Université Laval’s Integrated University Health Network (covering six health regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada) will be involved in the following HTA activities: 1) identification of potential HTA topics in the field of cancer; 2) revision of vignettes developed to inform the prioritization of topics; 3) participation in deliberation sessions for prioritizing HTA topics; and 4) development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized. The research team will coordinate the implementation of these activities and will evaluate the process and outcomes of patient involvement through semi-structured interviews with representatives of the different stakeholder groups, structured observations, and document analysis, mainly involving the comparison of votes and topics suggested by various stakeholder groups. Discussion This project is designed as an integrated approach to knowledge translation and will be conducted through a close collaboration between researchers and knowledge users at all stages of the project. In response to the needs expressed by HTA producers, the knowledge produced will be directly useful in guiding practices regarding patient involvement in the early phases of HTA. PMID:24950739

  11. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  12. White matter involvement in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Shigenori; Abe, Nobuhito; Saito, Makoto; Takagi, Masahito; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Akiko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hanaki, Risa; Kikuchi, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Osamu; Takeda, Atsushi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the white matter damage involved in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the relationship between this damage and clinical presentation. Twenty patients with INPH, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (as disease control groups) were enrolled in this study. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were determined using DTI, and these measures were analysed to compare the INPH group with the control groups and with certain clinical correlates. On average, the supratentorial white matter presented higher MD and lower FA in the INPH group than in the control groups. In the INPH group, the mean hemispheric FA correlated with some of the clinical measures, whereas the mean hemispheric MD did not. On a voxel-based statistical map, white matter involvement with high MD was localised to the periventricular regions, and white matter involvement with low FA was localised to the corpus callosum and the subcortical regions. The total scores on the Frontal Assessment Battery were correlated with the FA in the frontal and parietal subcortical white matter, and an index of gait disturbance was correlated with the FA in the anterior limb of the left internal capsule and under the left supplementary motor area. DTI revealed the presence of white matter involvement in INPH. Whereas white matter regions with high MD were not related to symptom manifestation, those with low FA were related to motor and cognitive dysfunction in INPH. PMID:21512742

  13. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  14. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2014-11-26

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  15. Help-Seeking in Elementary Classrooms: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Le Gall, Sharon; Glor-Scheib, Susan

    A study was undertaken to explore how elementary school children employ help seeking as a means of problem solving in the classroom. High-, average-, and low-ability students at the first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels were targeted for in-depth observation. A "focal-child" observational procedure was used to gather data on naturally occurring…

  16. Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An Observation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA R. GREEN; CAROL A. SELMAN; VINCENT RADKE; DANNY RIPLEY; JAMES C. MACK; DAVID W. REIMANN; TAMMI STIGGER; MICHELLE MOTSINGER; LISA BUSHNELL

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which

  17. Attributing Effects to Treatment in Matched Observational Studies

    E-print Network

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    Attributing Effects to Treatment in Matched Observational Studies Paul R. Rosenbaum An effect is attributable to treatment if it would not have been observed had the individual been exposed to control instead of the effects of cadmium exposure with a continuous outcome measuring kidney function. Unlike tests of no effect

  18. A study of factors involved in quality of homestyle potato chips

    E-print Network

    Schoelles, Dale Brian

    1987-01-01

    of fzesh and stored crop potatoes and chips derived f zom those lots were studied foz factors involved in the finished quality. Potatoes were measured for specific gravity, moisture, starch, and amylose content, starch granule size distribution, starch..., as cell size increased textuze also increased for stored potatoes. Also. increased starch density or middle size granule percentage had an inverse effect on chip texture. Moisture content between 1. 9 to 3. 26 did have a corzelation to texture. When...

  19. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  20. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  1. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  2. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  3. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  4. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  5. A further experience of propranolol for severe infantile hemangiomas of the face: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Greco, Antonella; D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Zamma Gallarati, Barbara; Caputo, Roberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common proliferating embrional tumors of infancy, which are constituted by endothelial cell hyperproliferation. The authors want to report their observations of further 14 patients suffering from complicated IHs involving the facial district who were treated with propranolol. 14 patients, with ages between 3 and 12 months, completed a cycle of treatment with propanolol. The observational study aimed at focusing IHs involving the facial district. The treatment with propranolol showed good to very good results in the major part of the treated young patients. The authors want to report their experience and add more data in the confirmation of the use of ?-blockers for IH (either in efficacy or in safety profile), focusing on the efficacy of propanolol when IHs involve the face. PMID:24548454

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescents' Smoking Involvement: A Multi-informant Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Seglem, Karoline Brobakke; Waaktaar, Trine; Ask, Helga; Torgersen, Svenn

    2015-03-01

    Studying monozygotic and dizygotic adolescent twin pairs of both sexes reared together, the present study examined the extent to which the variance in smoking involvement is attributable to genetic and environmental effects, and to what extent there are sex differences in the etiology. Questionnaire data on how often the adolescent had ever smoked tobacco was collected from a population-based twin sample consisting of seven national birth cohorts (ages 12-18), their mothers, and their fathers (N = 1,394 families). The data was analyzed with multivariate genetic modeling, using a multi-informant design. The etiological structure of smoking involvement was best represented in an ACE common pathway model, with smoking defined as a latent factor loading onto all three informants' reports. Estimates could be set equal across sexes. Results showed that adolescent lifetime smoking involvement was moderately heritable (37 %). The largest influence was from the shared environment (56 %), while environmental effects unique to each twin had minimal influence (7 %). PMID:25604452

  7. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  8. A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying

    PubMed Central

    Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

  9. Markers in cutaneous lupus erythematosus indicating systemic involvement. A multicenter study on 296 patients.

    PubMed

    Tebbe, B; Mansmann, U; Wollina, U; Auer-Grumbach, P; Licht-Mbalyohere, A; Arensmeier, M; Orfanos, C E

    1997-07-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disorder, involving the skin and/or other internal organs. As cutaneous variants, chronic discoid LE (CDLE) and subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE) usually have a better prognosis, however, involvement of internal organs with transition into systemic disease may occur. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of some clinical and laboratory criteria that could serve as markers for early recognition of systemic involvement in cutaneous LE. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients with LE, seen in five cooperating Departments of Dermatology during the years 1989-1994, were documented by electronic data processing according to a common protocol. Two hundred and forty-five of these patients had cutaneous LE (CDLE or SCLE), and 51 had systemic LE (SLE) and were included in this study. Forty-nine patients with either CDLE/SCLE or SLE were not evaluated because of incomplete documentation; also, 34 patients suffered from other LE subsets and were likewise excluded from the evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess the value of seven selected variables for distinguishing between the CDLE/SCLE and SLE groups: ESR, titers of antinuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA-antibodies, photosensitivity, presence of arthralgias, recurrent headaches and signs of nephropathy. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the obtained data showed that signs of nephropathy (proteinuria, hematuria) was the variable with the highest statistical relevance for distinguishing between patients with cutaneous (CDLE/SCLE) and with systemic LE (SLE) in all statistical models tested, followed by the presence of arthralgias and of high ANA titers (> or =1:320). In contrast, low ANA titers as well as anti-dsDNA antibodies showed little or no statistical relevance as a criterion for distinction. It seems, therefore, that cutaneous LE patients showing signs of nephropathy, presence of arthralgias and elevated ANA titers (> or =1:320) should be carefully monitored, because they may be at risk of developing systemic LE involvement. PMID:9228225

  10. Observation of double charm production involving open charm in pp collisions at $\\\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Aaij; C Abellan Beteta; B Adeva; M Adinolfi; C Adrover; A Affolder; Z Ajaltouni; J Albrecht; F Alessio; M Alexander; S Ali; G Alkhazov; P Alvarez Cartelle; A A Alves Jr; S Amato; Y Amhis; J Anderson; R B Appleby; O Aquines Gutierrez; F Archilli; A Artamonov; M Artuso; E Aslanides; G Auriemma; S Bachmann; J J Back; V Balagura; W Baldini; R J Barlow; C Barschel; S Barsuk; W Barter; A Bates; C Bauer; Th Bauer; A Bay; I Bediaga; S Belogurov; K Belous; I Belyaev; E Ben-Haim; M Benayoun; G Bencivenni; S Benson; J Benton; R Bernet; M-O Bettler; M van Beuzekom; A Bien; S Bifani; T Bird; A Bizzeti; P M Bjørnstad; T Blake; F Blanc; C Blanks; J Blouw; S Blusk; A Bobrov; V Bocci; A Bondar; N Bondar; W Bonivento; S Borghi; A Borgia; T J V Bowcock; C Bozzi; T Brambach; J van den Brand; J Bressieux; D Brett; M Britsch; T Britton; N H Brook; H Brown; A Büchler-Germann; I Burducea; A Bursche; J Buytaert; S Cadeddu; O Callot; M Calvi; M Calvo Gomez; A Camboni; P Campana; A Carbone; G Carboni; R Cardinale; A Cardini; L Carson; K Carvalho Akiba; G Casse; M Cattaneo; Ch Cauet; M Charles; Ph Charpentier; N Chiapolini; K Ciba; X Cid Vidal; G Ciezarek; P E L Clarke; M Clemencic; H V Cliff; J Closier; C Coca; V Coco; J Cogan; P Collins; A Comerma-Montells; A Contu; A Cook; M Coombes; G Corti; B Couturier; G A Cowan; R Currie; C D'Ambrosio; P David; I De Bonis; K De Bruyn; S De Capua; M De Cian; J M De Miranda; L De Paula; P De Simone; D Decamp; M Deckenhoff; H Degaudenzi; L Del Buono; C Deplano; D Derkach; O Deschamps; F Dettori; J Dickens; H Dijkstra; P Diniz Batista; F Domingo Bonal; S Donleavy; F Dordei; A Dosil Suárez; D Dossett; A Dovbnya; F Dupertuis; R Dzhelyadin; A Dziurda; S Easo; U Egede; V Egorychev; S Eidelman; D van Eijk; F Eisele; S Eisenhardt; R Ekelhof; L Eklund; Ch Elsasser; D Elsby; D Esperante Pereira; A Falabella; C Färber; G Fardell; C Farinelli; S Farry; V Fave; V Fernandez Albor; M Ferro-Luzzi; S Filippov; C Fitzpatrick; M Fontana; F Fontanelli; R Forty; O Francisco; M Frank; C Frei; M Frosini; S Furcas; A Gallas Torreira; D Galli; M Gandelman; P Gandini; Y Gao; J-C Garnier; J Garofoli; J Garra Tico; L Garrido; D Gascon; C Gaspar; R Gauld; N Gauvin; M Gersabeck; T Gershon; Ph Ghez; V Gibson; V V Gligorov; C Göbel; D Golubkov; A Golutvin; A Gomes; H Gordon; M Grabalosa Gándara; R Graciani Diaz; L A Granado Cardoso; E Graugés; G Graziani; A Grecu; E Greening; S Gregson; B Gui; E Gushchin; Yu Guz; T Gys; C Hadjivasiliou; G Haefeli; C Haen; S C Haines; T Hampson; S Hansmann-Menzemer; R Harji; N Harnew; J Harrison; P F Harrison; T Hartmann; J He; V Heijne; K Hennessy; P Henrard; J A Hernando Morata; E van Herwijnen; E Hicks; K Holubyev; P Hopchev; W Hulsbergen; P Hunt; T Huse; R S Huston; D Hutchcroft; D Hynds; V Iakovenko; P Ilten; J Imong; R Jacobsson; A Jaeger; M Jahjah Hussein; E Jans; F Jansen; P Jaton; B Jean-Marie; F Jing; M John; D Johnson; C R Jones; B Jost; M Kaballo; S Kandybei; M Karacson; T M Karbach; J Keaveney; I R Kenyon; U Kerzel; T Ketel; A Keune; B Khanji; Y M Kim; M Knecht; R F Koopman; P Koppenburg; M Korolev; A Kozlinskiy; L Kravchuk; K Kreplin; M Kreps; G Krocker; P Krokovny; F Kruse; K Kruzelecki; M Kucharczyk; V Kudryavtsev; T Kvaratskheliya; V N La Thi; D Lacarrere; G Lafferty; A Lai; D Lambert; R W Lambert; E Lanciotti; G Lanfranchi; C Langenbruch; T Latham; C Lazzeroni; R Le Gac; J van Leerdam; J-P Lees; R Lefèvre; A Leflat; J Lefrançois; O Leroy; T Lesiak; L Li; L Li Gioi; M Lieng; M Liles; R Lindner; C Linn; B Liu; G Liu; J von Loeben; J H Lopes; E Lopez Asamar; N Lopez-March; H Lu; J Luisier; F Machefert; I V Machikhiliyan; F Maciuc; O Maev; J Magnin; S Malde; R M D Mamunur; G Manca; G Mancinelli; N Mangiafave; U Marconi; R Märki; J Marks; G Martellotti; A Martens; L Martin; A Martín Sánchez; M Martinelli; D Martinez Santos; A Massafferri; Z Mathe; C Matteuzzi; M Matveev; E Maurice; B Maynard; A Mazurov; G McGregor; R McNulty; M Meissner; M Merk; J Merkel; S Miglioranzi; D A Milanes; M-N Minard; J Molina Rodriguez; S Monteil; D Moran; P Morawski; I Mous; F Muheim; K Müller; R Muresan; B Muryn; B Muster; J Mylroie-Smith; P Naik; T Nakada; R Nandakumar; I Nasteva; M Needham; N Neufeld; A D Nguyen; C Nguyen-Mau; M Nicol; V Niess; N Nikitin; T Nikodem; A Nomerotski; A Novoselov; A Oblakowska-Mucha; V Obraztsov; S Oggero; S Ogilvy; O Okhrimenko; R Oldeman; M Orlandea; J M Otalora Goicochea; P Owen; B K Pal; J Palacios; A Palano; M Palutan; J Panman; A Papanestis; M Pappagallo; C Parkes; C J Parkinson; G Passaleva; G D Patel; M Patel; S K Paterson; G N Patrick; C Patrignani; C Pavel-Nicorescu; A Pazos Alvarez; A Pellegrino; G Penso; M Pepe Altarelli; S Perazzini; D L Perego; E Perez Trigo; A Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo; P Perret; M Perrin-Terrin; G Pessina; A Petrolini; A Phan; E Picatoste Olloqui; B Pie Valls; B Pietrzyk; T Pila?; D Pinci; R Plackett; S Playfer; M Plo Casasus; G Polok; A Poluektov

    2012-01-01

    The production of $J\\/\\\\psi$ mesons accompanied by open charm, and of pairs of open charm hadrons are observed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of $355pb^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. Model independent measurements of absolute cross-sections are given together with ratios to the measured $J\\/\\\\psi$ and open charm cross-sections. The properties

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Observed Personality: Evidence From the German Observational Study of Adult Twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Borkenau; Rainer Riemann; Alois Angleitner; Frank M. Spinath

    2001-01-01

    Previous behavior-genetic research on adult personality relied primarily on self-reports or peer reports that may be subject to contrast effects, resulting in biased estimates of genetic and environmental influences. In the German Observational Study of Adult Twins (GOSAT), personality traits of 168 monozygotic (MZ) and 132 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were rated on 35 adjective scales, largely markers of the

  12. Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tova Rosenbloom

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionThrough spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance.

  13. An Observational Study of Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    E-print Network

    An Observational Study of Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars A thesis submitted for the degree model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type post- asymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars opportunity to study stellar evolution almost on a human time-scale. Post-AGB stars have spectral types

  14. Incarceration Among Street-Involved Youth in a Canadian Study: Implications for Health and Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Omura, John D; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for incarceration have been well described among adult drug using populations; however, less is known about incarceration among at-risk youth. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of incarceration among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. Methods From September 2005 to May 2012, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14 – 26 who use illicit drugs. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with recent incarceration defined as incarceration in the previous six months. Results Among 1019 participants, 362 (36%) reported having been recently incarcerated during the study period. In multivariate GEE analysis, homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.60), daily crystal methamphetamine use (AOR= 1.56), public injecting (AOR= 1.33), drug dealing (AOR= 1.48) and being a victim of violence (AOR= 1.68) were independently associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conversely, female gender (AOR= 0.48), lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or two-spirited (LGBTT) identification (AOR= 0.47) and increasing age of first hard drug use (AOR= 0.96) were negatively associated with incarceration (all p <0.05). Conclusion Incarceration was common among our study sample. Youth who were homeless, used crystal methamphetamine, and engaged in risky behaviors including public injection and drug dealing were significantly more likely to have been recently incarcerated. Structural interventions including expanding addiction treatment and supportive housing for at-risk youth may help reduce criminal justice involvement among this population and associated health, social and fiscal costs. PMID:24405564

  15. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter) was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3%) eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%); screening for hypertension (81.8%), diabetes (76.0%) and dyslipidemia (56.9%); and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%); however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively). The main barriers to the provision of these services in current practice were lack of: time (86.1%), coordination with other health care professionals (61.1%), staff or resources (57.2%), financial compensation (50.8%), and clinical tools (45.5%). Conclusions Although community pharmacists think they should play a significant role in health promotion and prevention, they recognize a wide gap between their ideal and actual levels of involvement. The efficient integration of primary-care pharmacists and pharmacies into public health cannot be envisioned without addressing important organizational barriers. PMID:22420693

  16. Study of the ligands involved in metal binding to alfalfa biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemann, K.J.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Sias, S.; Gamez, G.; Rodriguez, O. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Renner, M.W.; Furenlid, L.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previously performed studies have shown that the alfalfa shoot biomass can bind an appreciable amount of copper(II), nickel(II), cadmium(II), chromium(III), lead(II), and zinc(II) ions from aqueous solution. Of the seven different alfalfa populations studied, Malone and African demonstrated the highest capacity for metal binding. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the pH profiles, time dependency, capacity for metal binding, as well as the recovery of the metals bound. For most of the metal ions studied, the biomass showed a high affinity for metal binding around pH 5.0 within a short time period. Binding capacity experiments revealed the following amounts of metal ions bound per gram of biomass: 19.7 mg Cu(II), 4.11 mg Ni(II), 7.1 mg Cd(II), 7.7 mg Cr(III), 43 mg Pb(II), and 4.9 mg Zn(II). Most of these metals were recovered from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 M HCl with the exception of Cr(III). Because no Cr(VI) binding occurred, none was recovered. Direct and indirect approaches were applied to study the possible mechanisms involved in metal binding by the alfalfa biomass. The direct approach involves investigations of the alfalfa shoot biomass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis (XANES and EXAFS), which were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  17. Atrial septal defect: echocardiographic observations. Studies in 120 patients.

    PubMed

    Radtke, W E; Tajik, A J; Gau, G T; Schattenberg, T T; Giuliani, E R; Tancredi, R G

    1976-03-01

    Previous studies on small numbers of patients have indicated a high incidence of increased right ventricular dimension and abnormal ventricular septal motion in patients with atrial septal defect. However, recent evidence suggests that septal motion may be normal in as many as 46% of patients with atrial septal defect when observed at proper levels. We have analyzed the echocardiograms of 120 patients with sinus venosus or secundum atrial septal defect in an attempt to define sensitivity of the foregoing two echocardiographic abnormalities. Right ventricular dimension index was increased in 98% of patients. When both sides of the ventricular septum were analyzed, abnormal ventricular septal motion was observed in 87% of patients. It is important to observe both right and left septal echoes at all levels. Other measurements and observations were made when possible and are included in the study. PMID:1259258

  18. Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the data sets. Globally, there is the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, the Nordic Geodetic Observing System (NGOS) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss in general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such a database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravity, with the Nordic Geodetic Commission NKG2005LU land uplift model for Fennoscandia. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. The primary aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by multidisciplinary projects, such as Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas (DynaQlim) or the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an existing observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development. To make comparisons between different studies possible and reliable, the researcher should document what they have in detail, either in appendixes, supplementary material or some other available format.

  19. A model study of factors involved in adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to meat.

    PubMed

    Piette, J P; Idziak, E S

    1992-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model meat surfaces (tendon slices). Adhesion was fast (less than 2.5 min) and was not suppressed by killing the cells with UV, gamma rays, or heat, indicating that physiological activity was not required. In various salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2), adhesion increased with increasing ionic strength up to 10 to 100 mM, suggesting that, at low ionic strengths, electrostatic interactions were involved in the adhesion process. At higher ionic strengths (greater than 10 to 100 mM) or in the presence of Al3+ ions, adhesion was sharply reduced. Selectively blocking of carboxyl or amino groups at the cell surface by chemical means did not affect adhesion. These groups are therefore not directly involved in an adhesive bond with tendon. Given a sufficient cell concentration (10(10) CFU.ml-1) in the adhesion medium, the surface of tendon was almost entirely covered with adherent bacteria. This suggests that if the adhesion is specific, the attachment sites on the tendon surface must be located within collagen or proteoglycan molecules. PMID:1444387

  20. A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  1. Left Ventricular Involvement in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy – A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghannudi, Soraya El; Nghiem, Anthony; Germain, Philippe; Jeung, Mi-Young; Gangi, Afshin; Roy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies evaluated left ventricular (LV) involvement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency, clinical presentation, and pattern of LV involvement in ARVD/C (LV-ARVD/C). METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 202 patients referred between 2008 and 2012 to our institution, and we determined the presence or the absence of CMR criteria in the revised task force criteria 2010 for the diagnosis of ARVD/C. A total of 21 patients were diagnosed with ARVD/C according to the revised task force criteria 2010. All included patients had no previous history of myocarditis, acute coronary syndrome, or any other cardiac disease that could interfere with the interpretations of structural abnormalities. The LV involvement in ARVD/C was defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV; >95 mL/m2), LV ejection fraction (LVEF; <55%), LV late enhancement of gadolinium (LVLE) in a non-ischemic pattern, and LV wall motion abnormalities (WMAs). In the follow-up for the occurrence of cardiac death, ventricular tachycardia (VT) was obtained at a mean of 31 ± 20.6 months. RESULTS A total of 21 patients had ARVD/C. The median age was 48 (33–63) years. In all, 11 patients (52.4%) had LV-ARVD/C. The demographic characteristics of patients with or without LV were similar. There was a higher frequency of left bundle-branch block (LBBB) VT morphology in ARVD/C (P = 0.04). In CMR, regional WMAs of right ventricle (RV) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF; <45%) were strongly correlated with LV-WMAs (r = 0.72, P = 0.02, r = 0.75, P = 0.02, respectively). RV late enhancement of gadolinium (RVLE) was associated with LV-WMs and LVLE (r = 0.7, P = 0.03; r = 0.8, P = 0.006). LVLE was associated with LV-WMAs, LVEF, and LVEDV (r = 0.9, P = 0.001; r = 0.8, P = 0.001; r = 0.8, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION LV involvement in ARVD/C is common and frequently associated with moderate to severe right ventricular (RV) abnormalities. The impact of LV involvement in ARVD/C on the prognosis needs further investigations.

  2. Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the datasets. Globally, there is the IAG GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, NGOS (Nordic Geodetic Observing System) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss on general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravimeter, with the Nordic NKG2005LU land uplift model. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. It is also important to consider the relation between geodetic observing systems and specific projects like DynaQlim (Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas) or EPOS (European Plate Observing System). The natural aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by such multidisciplinary projects, but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development.

  3. Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Togo; M Osler; TIA Sørensen; BL Heitmann

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies of patterns of food intake, as assessed by diet index, factor analysis or cluster analysis, and their associations with body mass index or obesity (BMI\\/Ob).DESIGN: Systematic literature review MEDLINE search with crosscheck of references.STUDIES: Thirty observational studies relating food intake patterns to anthropometric information were identified and reviewed. Food intake patterns were defined using a diet

  4. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  5. In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hope A. Johnson; Bradley M. Tebo

    2008-01-01

    Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work\\u000a with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly\\u000a catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies\\u000a in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp.

  6. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  7. A Case Study of Parent Involvement in the Homes of Three Puerto Rican Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Dinah

    This paper describes three case studies of interactions between mothers and their kindergarten children. Mothers and children were of Puerto Rican descent and lived in a midwestern city. Children were bilingual, but used English more competently than Spanish. During the children's kindergarten year, researchers observed mother-child interactions…

  8. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (?30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. PMID:24639900

  9. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male involvement during childbirth in rural Bangladesh. These findings have important implications for program planners, who should pursue culturally sensitive ways to involve husbands in maternal health interventions and assess the effectiveness of education strategies targeted at husbands. PMID:22494576

  10. Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas: Observational Support for Mechanisms Involving Energy Balance and Inflammation Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith G. Hauret; Roberd M. Bostick; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hussey

    To investigate the role of physical activity, energy balance, and inflammation on the risk of incident sporadic colorectal adenoma, the authors conducted a community- and colonoscopy-based case-control study (n = 177 cases, n = 228 controls) in Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina, from 1995 to 1997. Participants reported energy intake by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, daily physical activity levels

  11. Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

  12. ``Forced-Gamma Emission'' Studies Involving Nuclear Isomers Using Fast Neutrons and Bremsstrahlung X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardala, N. A.; Price, J. L.; Barkyoumb, J. H.; Abbundi, R. J.; Merkel, G.; Carroll, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    We propose to perform a series of experiments involving nuclear isomers which will investigate the probabilities and mechanisms for de-exciting the isomeric level down to the ground state upon exposure to external radiation in the form of fast neutrons and bremsstrhalung x rays. The isomers have half-lives on the order of 1 hr to 10 days which is a convenient time scale to measure statistically meaningful changes in the specific activities of the isomeric state. Furthermore, the selected isomers are relatively easy to produce in our laboratory in sufficient quantities so that they can be made in a reasonable time frame and without recourse to any exotic means of production, handling or preparation and without the need for high-purity separated isotopes as the feedstock. We believe that studies undertaken in this fashion will produce fundamentally valuable information on the factors which govern and influence "forced-gamma emission" in nuclear isomers This type of information will potentially be very useful in similar studies involving longer-lived isomers such as:178m2Hf, 242mAm and 108mAg which have the potential to be used in various emerging new technologies in the later part of the 21st Century.

  13. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

    1984-11-01

    The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

  14. Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Hallvig, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant’s sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers’ impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r?=?.588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r?=?.360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs. PMID:23724094

  15. Observational studies of transiting extrasolar planets (invited review)

    E-print Network

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterisation of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  16. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  17. Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Mortality: Prospective Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; David Blane; Charles Gillis; Victor Hawthorne

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. Design: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class

  18. Space observations for global and regional studies of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space observations for studies of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such observations for studies of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite observations for Earth system studies. The most important contribution of space observations is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem studies.

  19. Notes for STA 250, Radford M. Neal, 2000 Observational Studies

    E-print Network

    Neal, Radford M.

    Randomized experiments may be unethical --- eg, for testing whether smoking causes lung cancer. ffl Double variable to the others. In particular, do these other variables have a causal effect? For instance: Does smoking cause cancer? Problem: We can't really answer such questions from an observational study

  20. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  1. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. PMID:25623499

  2. Positive facial affect - an fMRI study on the involvement of insula and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala. PMID:23990890

  3. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Borkenau, P; Riemann, R; Angleitner, A; Spinath, F M

    2001-04-01

    Previous behavior-genetic research on adult personality relied primarily on self-reports or peer reports that may be subject to contrast effects, resulting in biased estimates of genetic and environmental influences. In the German Observational Study of Adult Twins (GOSAT), personality traits of 168 monozygotic (MZ) and 132 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were rated on 35 adjective scales, largely markers of the Big 5. The ratings were provided by 120 judges who never met the twins but observed videotaped behaviors of 1 twin of each pair in 1 of 15 different settings. The aggregated video-based trait ratings were highly reliable, and substantial correlations were obtained between MZ as well as DZ twins. Model-fit analyses suggested about 40% genetic, 25% shared environmental, and 35% nonshared environmental influence. Extraversion was the only trait that seemed not to be influenced by shared environment. PMID:11316228

  5. Strengthening Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L., Jr.; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have verified Secretary of Education William Bennett's observation on the importance of home and family life. The most successful students are those whose parents become actively engaged in the educational process at home and at school. To capitalize on potential parent involvement, principals need to understand the kinds of…

  6. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  7. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  8. A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

  9. A Generalized Model to Estimate the Statistical Power in Mitochondrial Disease Studies Involving 2×k Tables

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Jorge; González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation (i.e. haplogroups) has been analyzed in regards to a number of multifactorial diseases. The statistical power of a case-control study determines the a priori probability to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity between cases and controls. Methods/Principal Findings We critically review previous approaches to the estimation of the statistical power based on the restricted scenario where the number of cases equals the number of controls, and propose a methodology that broadens procedures to more general situations. We developed statistical procedures that consider different disease scenarios, variable sample sizes in cases and controls, and variable number of haplogroups and effect sizes. The results indicate that the statistical power of a particular study can improve substantially by increasing the number of controls with respect to cases. In the opposite direction, the power decreases substantially when testing a growing number of haplogroups. We developed mitPower (http://bioinformatics.cesga.es/mitpower/), a web-based interface that implements the new statistical procedures and allows for the computation of the a priori statistical power in variable scenarios of case-control study designs, or e.g. the number of controls needed to reach fixed effect sizes. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides with statistical procedures for the computation of statistical power in common as well as complex case-control study designs involving 2×k tables, with special application (but not exclusive) to mtDNA studies. In order to reach a wide range of researchers, we also provide a friendly web-based tool – mitPower – that can be used in both retrospective and prospective case-control disease studies. PMID:24086285

  10. Cervical spine involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - MRI follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe MRI and clinical findings in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with cervical spine involvement at onset and follow-up under therapy. Methods 13 patients with signs of cervical spine involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a median disease duration of 1.7 years were included in the study. Clinical records and MR images were retrospectively analyzed according to symptoms and findings concerning the cervical spine. Results At the onset of cervical spine involvement all patients showed limited range of motion, whereas only 5 of them complained of pain. In MR images joint hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, malalignment, ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction were found at 28, 32, 15, 2, 2 and 3 sites in 12 (93%), 13 (100%), 8 (62%), 2 (15%), 2 and 3 (20%) patients respectively. 3 of the 5 patients with pain (60%) showed ankylosis, erosions or narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction on MRI. At follow-up - after a median disease duration of cervical spine arthritis of 2.1 years and a variable duration of treatment with methotrexate (all patients) and biological agents (12 patients) - joint hyperintensity, enhancement and malalignment decreased to 15, 19 and 6 sites in 10 (77%), 11 (85%) and 3 (20%) patients respectively whereas ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction increased to 7, 6 and 4 sites in 3 (20%), 4 (31%) and 4 patients respectively. Pain was no longer reported, but 9 of 13 (69%) patients still had a limited range of motion with 6 of them (46%) showing skeletal changes on MRI. Conclusions This first MRI based follow-up study shows that cervical spine arthritis can follow a severe disease course in juvenile arthritis. While malalignments and inflammation sites decreased osseous changes with erosions, ankylosis, and narrowing of the spinal canal increased under treatment despite only minor subjective complaints. Therefore close MRI monitoring of these patients appears to be reasonable. PMID:24593886

  11. Does recent criminal involvement matter? A study of women with co-occurring disorders in a multisite national trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loretta L. C. Brady; Lisa M. Najavits; Danielle Toussaint; Diane Bonavota; Bonita Veysey

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate criminal involvement in relation to treatment outcome in a multisite study. We compared 381 women with recent criminal involvement (RCI, n = 381; past 3 months) to 681 women with no lifetime history of criminal involvement (NCI, n = 681) at baseline and at 6 months from start of treatment (RCI 6 mos: n = 282; NCI 6 mos: n = 556).Methods: Outcome measures were

  12. Meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D R

    1992-01-01

    Meta-analyses (integration of findings by quantitative analyses of results of individual studies) are already widely used in the psychological and educational sciences and in the pooling of clinical trial results. Examples of the application of such techniques to the results of observational epidemiological studies are now proliferating. In this paper meta-analysis of the results of observational epidemiological studies is reviewed. Uncritical adoption of techniques used in pooled analyses of clinical trial results may be inappropriate. Some alternative approaches, including meta-regression techniques, are discussed, and illustrated with reference to examples of meta-analyses of studies of breast cancer risk following oral contraceptive use and of patterns of post-bereavement mortality. Although substantial difficulties beset the use of meta-analysis in epidemiology, many of these problems are also implicit in the execution of traditional, narrative reviews. Foremost among these difficulties are those associated with publication bias and with making due allowance for the quality of the studies being combined. Unlike traditional narrative reviews, meta-analyses require explicit statement of the criteria for the review and hence highlight these difficulties. Nonetheless, careful and critical application of appropriate meta-analytical techniques facilitates quantitative exploration of inhomogeneities in, and (where appropriate) synthesis of study results. PMID:1556722

  13. Sharing decisions in consultations involving anti-psychotic medication: a qualitative study of psychiatrists' experiences.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Chaplin, Robert; Lelliott, Paul; Quirk, Alan

    2006-06-01

    In psychiatry, and in treating people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in particular, there are obstacles to achieving concordant, shared decision making and in building a co-operative therapeutic alliance where mutual honesty is the norm. Studies of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have revealed critical views of medical authority, particularly over the issue of enforced compliance with antipsychotic medication. Psychiatrists are known to place particular value on such medication. This qualitative study reports the views of 21 general adult psychiatrists working in UK about their experiences of consultations involving discussion of antipsychotic medication. Interviewees reported a general commitment to achieving concordant relationships with patients and described a number of strategies they used to promote this. In this respect, their self-perception differs from the picture of authoritarian practice painted by critics of psychiatry, and by some studies reporting patients' views. Interviewees also described obstacles to achieving concordance, including adverse judgements of patients' competence and honesty about their medication use. Explaining the adverse effects of medication was perceived to discourage some patients from accepting this treatment. Moments of strategic dishonesty were reported. Psychiatrists perceived that trust could be damaged by episodes of coercion, or by patients' perception of coercive powers. We conclude that a self-perception of patient-centredness may not preclude psychiatrists from fulfilling a social control function. PMID:16343722

  14. Indications for thoracic ultrasound in chest medicine: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. L. Medford; J. J. Entwisle

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThoracic ultrasound (TUS) is increasingly used in chest medicine in secondary care. The indications for TUS are well known but less is known about their relative frequency. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the common indications for TUS and their relative frequency and the impact of TUS on management in a consecutive group of patients.Methods80 consecutive inpatients

  15. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor secreted by the cells that inhibits radioadaptation leading to the upregulation of some genes which initiates the response.

  16. An observational study of adults with Down syndrome eating independently.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christina H; Teo, Yafen; Simpson, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the oral feeding in a group of adults with Down syndrome. None of the 23 participants in the study had reported oral feeding difficulties, and all independently ate a full oral diet (food and liquids). Observations were made during the consumption of one meal and one drink. The eating and drinking behaviours observed included eating rate and ability to keep food in the mouth, and these were considered in conjunction with oral and pharyngeal phase skills and difficulties. Coughing, an overt sign of possible aspiration with its attendant risk of upper respiratory tract infection, was seen in 56.5 % of participants. In addition, several of the observed oral feeding behaviours of this group of individuals may be socially unacceptable and therefore likely to compromise quality of life. A number of behaviours with implications for both health and quality of life may be amenable to simple behaviour modification or to changes to the environment. Further study into the causes of these oral feeding difficulties, their implications for social integration, and their potential remediation is required. PMID:23860585

  17. Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3840 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

  18. Heart involvement in systemic sclerosis: a combined echocardiographic and scintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Papagoras, Charalampos; Achenbach, Kerstin; Tsifetaki, Niki; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Drosos, Alexandros A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients without clinically evident heart disease for cardiac abnormalities. SSc patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls from the hospital staff underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of the left ventricle (LV) morphology and function and estimation of the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Patients further underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scintigraphy by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Thirty-seven patients were included (33 women, 19 with diffuse, and 18 with limited SSc). LV hypertrophy was more common in SSc patients than controls (24.3 vs 0 %, p?=?0.001). Impaired LV relaxation was found in 45.9 % of patients and 40.5 % controls (p?=?0.639). Excluding patients with arterial hypertension, LV hypertrophy was still found in 23.1 % and LV relaxation impairment in 38.5 %. PASP over 30 mmHg was found in 13 patients (35.1 %), 11 of whom had no history of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Of 35 patients who underwent SPECT, 21 patients (60 %) exhibited reversible LV perfusion defects. Their mean age was 51.8 years; four patients were younger than 40 years old and eight patients younger than 50 years. In all cases, ischemia was graded as mild or moderate and in a single case, graded as significant. Subclinical heart involvement is common in SSc patients even in the younger age groups. LV hypertrophy and impaired relaxation, raised PASP, and ischemia on MPI with SPECT are found in a significant proportion of SSc patients. Careful screening of SSc patients for potential heart involvement and consultation by a cardiologist may be of value. PMID:24847773

  19. Studies of the Involvement of an Endogenous Rhythm in the Photoperiodic Response of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J C; Hamner, K C

    1967-05-01

    An attempt was made to determine the involvement of an endogenous circadian rhythm in the flowering response of the long-day plant Hyoscyamus niger L. grown in a modified White's medium. Both variable-cycle-length and light interruption experiments were employed in this attempt. In the variable-cycle experiments, plants were subjected to light periods of 6, 12, or 18 hours followed by varying lengths of darkness. The total lengths of the cycles varied from 12 to 72 hours. In experiments utilizing a 6-hour photoperiod, a high level of flowering occurred in cycle lengths of 12, 36, and 60 hours. Flowering was suppressed in the 24-, 48-, and 72-hour cycles. When a 12-hour photoperiod was used the flowering response was low between 24 and 36 hours and flowering did not indicate a rhythmic response. When an 18-hour photoperiod was used, the flowering response was suppressed in the 36- and 60-hour cycles.Light-break experiments were conducted to study further the flowering response in Hyoscyamus. These experiments consisted of a 6-hour main photoperiod followed by varying lengths of darkness to make cycles of 24, 48, and 72 hours. At given intervals the dark period was interrupted by 2-hour light breaks. In a 24-hour cycle, flowering was promoted when a light break was given at either the twelfth or eighteenth hour of the cycle. In a 48-hour cycle, flowering was strongly promoted by light breaks given near the beginning or at the end of the dark period. In a 72-hour cycle, light breaks given at the eighteenth, forty-second, and sixty-sixth hour of the cycle stimulated flowering as compared with light breaks given at the thirtieth and fifty-fourth hour. These results are indicative of the involvement of an endogenous rhythm in the flowering response of Hyoscyamus niger. PMID:16656562

  20. In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Hope A.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain SD21. The optimum pH for Mn(II)-oxidizing activity was 8.0 with a specific activity of 2.5 nmol × min?1 × mg?1 and a Km = 204 µM. The activity was soluble suggesting a cytoplasmic or periplasmic protein. Mn(III) was an intermediate in the oxidation of Mn(II) and likely the primary product of enzymatic oxidation. The activity was stimulated by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), NAD+, and calcium but not by copper. In addition, PQQ rescued Pseudomonas putida MnB1 non Mn(II)-oxidizing mutants with insertions in the anthranilate synthase gene. The substrate and product of anthranilate synthase are intermediates in various quinone biosyntheses. Partially purified Mn(II) oxidase was enriched in quinones and had a UV/VIS absorption spectrum similar to a known quinone requiring enzyme but not to multicopper oxidases. These studies suggest that quinones may play an integral role in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation. PMID:17673976

  1. A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Shenzhen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Linfeng; Wang, Jinsong; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhou; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillation variations are studied using GPS measurements at the low latitude station of Shenzhen (22.59°N, 113.97°E), situated under the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly region, from the Chinese Meridian Project. The results are presented for data collected during the current phase of rising solar activity (low to high solar activity) from December 2010 to April 2014. The results show that GPS scintillation events were largely a nighttime phenomenon during the whole observation period. Scintillation events mainly occurred along the inner edge of the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly in China. The occurrence of scintillations in different sectors of the sky was also investigated, and the results revealed that it is more likely for the scintillations to be observed in the west sector of the sky above Shenzhen. During the present period of study, a total number of 512 total electron content (TEC) depletions and 460 lock loss events were observed. In addition, both of these events are likely to increase during periods of high solar activity, especially because the strong scintillations are often simultaneously accompanied by TEC depletions and lock losses by GPS receivers.

  2. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  3. Observation of a freezing drizzle episode: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, S.; Valero, F.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Gascón, E.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

    2014-11-01

    On 5 February 2012 an episode of freezing precipitation took place in the Guadarrama Mountains, at the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This precipitation affected high elevations, where temperatures remained below freezing because of snow cover that had accumulated from snowfall during the previous days. The case study was recorded by surface synoptic observations (SYNOP) at Navacerrada Pass meteorological observatory (belonging to the National Weather Service of Spain). To study winter cloud systems during the TEcoAgua project, a multichannel ground-based microwave radiometer (MMWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), and isothermal cloud chamber were installed in the study area, thus permitting the monitoring of the freezing precipitation event. Analysis using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and observations permitted the determination of factors that triggered the freezing precipitation event. Freezing drizzle was interspersed with the passage of a warm and cold front. During frontal passage, mid-level clouds inhibited the generation of freezing drizzle, with snowfall recorded in the study area. However, during the period between the two fronts, an absence of mid-level clouds permitted low-level orographic clouds to persist upwind of the mountain system, producing freezing drizzle at the surface. The decisive factors for the generation of freezing drizzle were high humidity at low levels, weak mesoscale updrafts caused by the topography, stability at mid levels, cloud-top temperatures warmer than - 15 °C, and low concentrations of ice nuclei.

  4. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  5. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  6. Supplementing Oscat winds with Saral Altika observations for cyclone studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niharika, K.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Dadhwal, V. K.; Ali, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate prediction of life cycle of cyclone is very critical to the disaster management practices. Since the cyclones originate over the oceans where in situ observations are limited, we have to resort to the remote sensing techniques. Both optical and microwave sensors help studying the cyclones. While scatterometer provide wind vectors, altimeters can give only wind speed. In this paper we present how altimeter measurements can supplement the scatterometer observations in determining the radius of maximum winds (RMW). Sustained maximum winds, indicator for the intensity of the cyclone, are within the eye wall of a cyclone at a distance of RMW. This parameter is also useful in predicting right time of the storm surge. In this paper we used the wind speed estimations from AltiKa, an altimeter operating at Ka band.

  7. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  8. Central nervous system involvement in Whipple disease: clinical study of 18 patients and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median age at diagnosis of 47 years (range, 30-56 yr). The median follow-up duration was 6 years (range, 1-19 yr). As categorized in the 3 subgroups, 11 patients had classic WD with CNS involvement, 4 had an isolated CNS infection, and 3 had a neurologic relapse of previously treated WD. CNS involvement occurred during prolonged trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment in 1 patient with classic WD. The neurologic symptoms were various and always intermingled, as follows: confusion or coma (17%) related to meningo-encephalitis or status epilepticus; delirium (17%); cognitive impairment (61%) including memory loss and attention defects or typical frontal lobe syndrome; hypersomnia (17%); abnormal movements (myoclonus, choreiform movements, oculomasticatory myorhythmia) (39%); cerebellar ataxia (11%); upper motor neuron (44%) or extrapyramidal symptoms (33%); and ophthalmoplegia (17%) in conjunction or not with progressive supranuclear palsy. No specific pattern was correlated with any subgroup. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a unique focal lesion (35%), mostly as a tumorlike brain lesion, or multifocal lesions (23%) involving the medial temporal lobe, midbrain, hypothalamus, and thalamus. Periventricular diffuse leukopathy (6%), diffuse cortical atrophy (18%), and pachymeningitis (12%) were observed. The spinal cord was involved in 2 cases. MRI showed ischemic sequelae at diagnosis or during follow-up in 4 patients. Brain MRI was normal despite neurologic symptoms in 3 cases. CSF cytology was normal in 62% of patients, whereas Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was positive in 92% of cases with tested CSF. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells were identified in cerebral biopsies of 4 patients. All patients were treated with antimicrobial therapy for a mean duration of 2 years (range, 1-7 yr) with either oral monotherapy (TMP-SMX, doxycycline, third-generation cephalosporins) or a combination of antibiotics that sometimes followed parenteral treatment with beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eight patients also received hydroxychloroquine. At the end of follow-up, the clinical outcome was favorable in 14 patients (78%), with mild to moderate sequelae in 9. Thirteen patients (72%) had stopped treatment for an average time of 4 years (range, 0.7-14 yr). Four patients had clinical worsening despite antimicrobial therapy; 2 of those died following diffuse encephalitis (n = 1) and lung infection (n = 1). In conclusion, the neurologic manifestations of WD are diverse and may mimic almost any neurologic condition. Brain involvement may occur during or after TMP-SMX treatment. CSF T. whipplei PCR analysis is a major tool for diagnosis and may be positive in the absence of meningitis. Immune reconstitution syndrome may occur in the early months of treatment. Late prognosis may be better than previously reported, as a consequence of earlier diagnosis and a better use of antimicrobial therapy, including hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline combination. PMID:24145700

  9. Making it happen: A grounded theory study of inservice teacher training for parent involvement in schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor Lemmer

    2011-01-01

    Effective parent involvement programmes depend primarily on the capacities of teachers to work effectively with families in school- based initiatives. However, teachers generally receive little preparation for parent involvement. Responding to this need, an in-service teacher education programme has been introduced at a South African university. Teachers enrolled in the programme are required to complete a field-based assignment entailing the

  10. Parents, Principals, and Power: A Historical Case Study of "Managing" Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvat, Erin McNamara; Curci, Juliet DiLeo; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship on parent-principal relationships often ignores how some parental involvement can create challenges for school leaders. We analyze parent-principal relationships at an urban public K-8 school over a 30-year period, exploring how three different principals "managed" parental involvement. Our analysis reveals how these principals…

  11. Guidelines to Evaluate Human Observational Studies for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these guidelines to case–control and cohort studies on the relation between exposure to benzene and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods We developed a three-tiered framework specific for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and used it to evaluate HOS on the relation between exposure to benzene and AML. Results The developed framework consists of 20 evaluation criteria. A specific focus of the framework was on the quality of exposure assessment applied in HOS. Seven HOS on the relation of benzene and AML were eligible for evaluation. Of these studies, five were suitable for QRA and were ranked based on the quality of the study design, conduct, and reporting on the study. Conclusion The developed guidelines facilitate a structured evaluation that is transparent in its application and harmonizes the evaluation of HOS for QRA. With the application of the guidelines, it was possible to identify studies suitable for QRA of benzene and AML and rank these studies based on their quality. Application of the guidelines in QRA will be a valuable addition to the assessment of the weight of evidence of HOS for QRA. PMID:19079723

  12. A Candidate Gene Association Study Further Corroborates Involvement of Contactin Genes in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a high degree of heritability, only a few mutated genes and mostly de novo copy number variations (CNVs) with a high phenotypic impact have as yet been identified. In families with multiple ASD patients, transmitted CNVs often do not appear to cosegregate with disease. Therefore, also transmitted single nucleotide variants which escape detection if genetic analyses were limited to CNVs may contribute to disease risk. In several studies of ASD patients, CNVs covering at least one gene of the contactin gene family were found. To determine whether there is evidence for a contribution of transmitted variants in contactin genes, a cohort of 67 ASD patients and a population-based reference of 117 healthy individuals, who were not related to the ASD families, were compared. In total, 1,648 SNPs, spanning 12.1 Mb of genomic DNA, were examined. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the strongest signal was found for a SNP located within the CNTN5 gene (rs6590473 [G], p = 4.09 × 10-7; OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 1.603-6.151). In the ASD cohort, a combination of risk alleles of SNPs in CNTN6 (rs9878022 [A]; OR = 3.749) and in CNTNAP2 (rs7804520 [G]; OR = 2.437) was found more frequently than would be expected under random segregation, albeit this association was not statistically significant. The latter finding is consistent with a polygenic disease model in which multiple mutagenic mechanisms, operating concomitantly, elicit the ASD phenotype. Altogether, this study corroborates the possible involvement of contactins in ASD, which has been indicated by earlier studies of CNVs. PMID:25337070

  13. Photophysical studies of metal to ligand charge transfer involving quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H; Brown-Xu, Samantha E; Spilker, Thomas F

    2015-03-17

    Photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions afford numerous applications in terms of photon energy harvesting. The majority of metal complexes studied to date involve diamagnetic systems of d(6), d(8), and d(10) transition metals. These typically have very short-lived, ?100 fs, singlet metal to ligand charge transfer ((1)MLCT) states that undergo intersystem crossing to triplet metal to ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) states that are longer lived and are responsible for much of the photophysical studies. In contrast, the metal-metal quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten supported by carboxylate, O2CR, and related amidinate ligands (RN)2C(R') have relatively long-lived (1)MLCT states arising from M2? to L?* transitions. These have lifetimes in the range 1-20 ps prior to intersystem crossing to T1 states that may be (3)MLCT or (3)MM??* with lifetimes of 1-100 ns and 1-100 ?s, respectively. The M2 quadruply bonded complexes take the form M2L4 or M2L4-nL'n where n = 1-3. Thus, in their photoexcited MLCT states, these compounds pose the question of how the charge resides on the ligands. This Account reviews the current knowledge of how charge is positioned with time in S1 and T1 states with the aid of active IR reported groups located on the ligands, for example, C?X multiple bonds (X = C, N, or O). Several examples of localized and delocalized charge distributions are noted along with kinetic barriers to the interconversion of MLCT and ??* states. On the 50th anniversary of the recognition of the MM quadruple bond, these complexes are revealing some remarkable features in the study of the photophysical properties of metal-ligand charge transfer states. PMID:25695495

  14. A candidate gene association study further corroborates involvement of contactin genes in autism.

    PubMed

    Poot, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a high degree of heritability, only a few mutated genes and mostly de novo copy number variations (CNVs) with a high phenotypic impact have as yet been identified. In families with multiple ASD patients, transmitted CNVs often do not appear to cosegregate with disease. Therefore, also transmitted single nucleotide variants which escape detection if genetic analyses were limited to CNVs may contribute to disease risk. In several studies of ASD patients, CNVs covering at least one gene of the contactin gene family were found. To determine whether there is evidence for a contribution of transmitted variants in contactin genes, a cohort of 67 ASD patients and a population-based reference of 117 healthy individuals, who were not related to the ASD families, were compared. In total, 1,648 SNPs, spanning 12.1 Mb of genomic DNA, were examined. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the strongest signal was found for a SNP located within the CNTN5 gene (rs6590473 [G], p = 4.09 × 10(-7); OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 1.603-6.151). In the ASD cohort, a combination of risk alleles of SNPs in CNTN6 (rs9878022 [A]; OR = 3.749) and in CNTNAP2 (rs7804520 [G]; OR = 2.437) was found more frequently than would be expected under random segregation, albeit this association was not statistically significant. The latter finding is consistent with a polygenic disease model in which multiple mutagenic mechanisms, operating concomitantly, elicit the ASD phenotype. Altogether, this study corroborates the possible involvement of contactins in ASD, which has been indicated by earlier studies of CNVs. PMID:25337070

  15. Functional Segregation within Pars Opercularis of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus: Evidence from fMRI Studies of Imitation and Action Observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Istvan Molnar-Szakacs; Marco Iacoboni; Lisa Koski; John C. Mazziotta

    2004-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is important for action observation and imitation. In order to further explore the role of IFG in action observation and imitation, we pooled data from seven functional magnetic reson- ance imaging studies involving observation and imitation of simple finger movements performed in our laboratory. For imitation we found two

  16. The Reporting of Observational Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of observational functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in observational fMRI studies involving clinical participants. Methods We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI studies in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the study. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical methods for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported observed effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This study indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of observational clinical fMRI studies is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard. PMID:24755843

  17. Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, João Claudio Gonçalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

  18. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-?B, p38 MAPK and PI3?K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  19. ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

  20. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  1. Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for substance-exposed infants. This paper describes services used by VIP-RI participants and child welfare outcomes. Methods Data collected during the first four years of VIP-RI were used to identify characteristics of program participants, services received, and child welfare outcomes: closed child welfare cases, reunification with biological mothers and identified infant permanent placements. Descriptive Results Medical and financial services were associated with positive child welfare outcomes. Medical services included family planning, pre- and post-natal care and HIV test counseling. Financial services included assistance with obtaining entitlement benefits and receiving tangible support such as food and clothing. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest services that address basic family needs were related to positive child welfare outcomes. The provision of basic services, such as health care and financial assistance through entitlement benefits and tangible donations, may help to establish a foundation so mothers can concentrate on recovery and parenting skills. Identification of services for perinatal substance users that are associated with more successful child welfare outcomes has implications for the child welfare system, treatment providers, courts and families. PMID:20807432

  2. Bone Marrow Involvement in Neuroblastoma: A Study of Hemato-morphological Features.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Pulkit; Naseem, Shano; Varma, Neelam; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma indicates advanced stage of disease. The recent use of autologous bone marrow "rescue", has provided an additional important reason for accurate assessment of bone marrow status in newly diagnosed patients. In this study, we analyzed 44 cases of neuroblastoma for bone marrow infiltration status and their hematological parameters. Eighty-eight bone marrow aspirate and trephine touch imprint smears and 44 trephine biopsy sections were examined in these 44 patients. Of these, 24 cases (54.5 %) showed marrow infiltration. Leucopenia and bicytopenia were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with marrow infiltration. Both bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were positive for infiltration in 16 out of 24 positive cases. Only aspirate smears were positive in 4 and only trephine biopsy in another 4 cases. The pattern of infiltration consisted of rosette formation in 40.7 % cases on aspirate smears and 22.2 % cases in trephine biopsies. Remaining cases showed diffuse and interstitial presence of tumor cells and cases positive only on trephine biopsy, showed marked stromal reaction. Bilateral trephine biopsies combined with aspirate smears picked up all positive cases compared to when they were assessed alone. PMID:25548446

  3. Transcriptomic study for screening genes involved in the oxidative bioconversions of Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Kwon-Young; Jung, Da-Hye; Jung, Joon-Young; Jung, Eunok; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-11-01

    Streptomyces avermitilis is a well known organism producing avermectin antibiotics, and has been utilized as an industrial host for oxidation bioconversion processes. Recently, gene screening strategies related to bioconversions have received much focus, as attempts are made to optimize oxidation and biodegradation pathways to maximize yield and productivity. Here, we have demonstrated the oxidative metabolisms of three molecules, daidzein, p-coumaric acid and mevastatin, where S. avermitilis converted each substrate to 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone, caffeic acid and hydroxyl-mevastatin to yield 9.3, 32.5 and 15.0 %, respectively. Microarray technology was exploited to investigate genome-wide analysis of gene expression changes, which were induced upon the addition of each substrate. Cytochrome P450 hydroxylases (pteC, cyp28 and olmB), diooxygenases (xylE, cdo1 and putatives) and LuxAB-like oxygenase were identified. One of them, cyp28, was indeed a gene encoding P450 hydroxylase responsible for the oxidative reaction of daidzein. Furthermore, possible electron transfer chain (fdrC ? pteE ? pteC) supporting cytochrome P450 dependent hydroxylation of daidzein has been suggested based on the interpretation of expression profiles. The result provided a potential application of transcriptomic study on uncovering enzymes involved in oxidative bioconversions of S. avermitilis. PMID:23474968

  4. Mired in Miranda misconceptions: a study of legally involved juveniles at different levels of psychosocial maturity.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Steadham, Jennifer A; Fiduccia, Chelsea E; Drogin, Eric Y; Robinson, Emily V

    2014-01-01

    The Supreme Court of the United States has long recognized that the vulnerabilities of juvenile offenders merit special protections due to deficits in experience and maturity. Appellate courts assume that Miranda warnings will inform juvenile suspects of their Miranda rights, and allow them to render knowing and intelligent waivers. This study examines Miranda misconceptions of legally involved juveniles (i.e., juvenile detainees and youth mandated to juvenile justice alternative education) at different levels of psychosocial maturity. These juveniles manifested an unexpectedly large frequency of erroneous Miranda beliefs; each group (low, middle, and high maturity) averaged a dozen or more misconceptions, thus overshadowing substantive differences between maturity groups. However, maturity played an important role in the immediate recall of a Miranda advisement. Alarmingly, both low- and middle-maturity groups displayed less than one-third immediate recall. The high-maturity group performed better, but still failed to recall almost half of the Miranda concepts. The overall findings are discussed with respect to juvenile Miranda comprehension and reasoning. PMID:24510839

  5. Patients' views of placement facilities: a participant-observer study.

    PubMed

    Christenfeld, R; Haveliwala, Y A

    1978-03-01

    The authors report a study in which five student nurses from a psychiatric hospital observed and talked with released patients in their new environments-family care homes, adult and boarding homes, nursing and health-related facilities, and their own family homes. Overall, these ex-inpatients seemed responsive to the physical and social features of their new environments. Some of the aspects most often noted as beneficial may have implications for inpatient facilities in terms of architecture, decor, clear differentiation of subunits, and greater exchange of information between inpatient and field staff. PMID:204203

  6. An Observational Study on Infective Endocarditis: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Bakhshian, Ramezan; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Abdar Esfahani, Morteza; Bahrami, Amir; Sate, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cloning of microorganisms on heart endothelium can lead to infective endocarditis (IE). The prototypic lesion of infective endocarditis, the vegetation is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant inflammatory cells. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with IE and also focusing on echocardiographic data and comparison between TTE (transthoracic echocardiography) and TEE (transesophageal echocardiography) of native and prosthetic valve endocarditis and the final impact of IE (infective endocarditis) in these patients with endocarditis. Patients and Methods: All patients with IE admitted to our center between 2007 and 2010 were studied. All echocardiographies were performed by the same echocardiographer. Echocardiography and lab tests were performed for all patients. We used SPSS 16 for data analysis. Results: We studied 35 patients, 45% male and 55% female with a mean age of 56.36 ± 12.44 years. Fever (80%) and chills (65.7%) were the most common symptoms. There was only a positive blood culture and enterococci sensitive to vancomycin and amoxicillin. The most involved valve was mitral (54.2%) and then aortic valve (48.5%) (two patients had vegetation on both aortic and mitral valves). In this study, specificity and sensitivity of TEE were 100% and 88.6%. Six patients (17.1%) died and six patients needed surgery. Conclusions: Endocarditis is an important disease with a high mortality rate if not treated appropriately. Therefore, these patients need more attention. In echocardiography, vegetation and complications of IE such as abscess and paravalvular leakage can be detected. PMID:25785248

  7. How Safe Do Teenagers Behave on Facebook? An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13–18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234

  8. Modeling the Relationship Between Sexual Psychology and Sexual Behavior Based on Questionnaire Surveys: Social Psychological Study of Ego Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang CAO

    In this contribution, in order to test a method for measuring ego involvement using questionnaire surveys, attention was focused on the influence of sexual interest on the selection of information. Specifically, for youths in their teens, the following knowledge concerning the influence of sexual interest on information selection was clarified through empirical research. A variety of individual difference was observed

  9. The determinants of dumping: a national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, M; Dorwart, R; Hoover, C; Epstein, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and determinants of economically motivated transfers (aka "dumping") from hospitals treating mental illness. DATA SOURCES: A composite data set constructed from three national random-sampled surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989: (1) of hospitals providing mental health care, (2) of community mental health centers, and (3) of psychiatrists. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses reports from administrators of community mental health centers (CMHCs) to assess the extent of patient dumping by hospitals. To assess the determinants of dumping, reported perceptions of dumping are regressed on variables describing the catchment area in terms of the proportion of for-profit hospitals, intensity of competition among hospitals, extent of utilization review, and capacity of the local treatment system, as well as competition among community mental health centers. To assess if dumping is motivated by factors distinct from those affecting other aspects of access, comparable regressions are estimated with ease of hospital admission as the dependent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Economically motivated transfers of psychiatric patients were widespread in 1988: according to the reports of CMHC administrators, 64.7 percent of all hospitals providing inpatient mental health care engaged in transfers of this sort. The extent of dumping was higher in catchment areas with more competition among hospitals, more proprietary hospitals, and less inpatient capacity in the public sector. Dumping appeared to be more sensitive to capacity in the public sector but less sensitive to involvement by for-profit hospitals than were other measures of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Economically motivated transfers of patients with mental illness were widespread in 1988 and likely have increased since that time, affecting the viability of the community mental health care system. PMID:9402901

  10. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  11. An observational study of central engines in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starling, R. L. C.

    2004-02-01

    This thesis studies the central engines of Active Galactic Nuclei. I investigate the role of accretion discs in AGN by analysis of their multiwavelength observational properties, both in individual sources and in a sample of objects. Particular attention is paid to the interpretation of the big blue bump as thermal emission from an accretion disc. The X-ray properties of contrasting individual galaxies are studied from spectral and temporal data obtained with the XMM satellite. Observational constraints on accretion disc viscosity values are obtained for a subset of the Palomar Green quasar sample. Limits on the viscosity parameter, alpha, assuming a standard Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity prescription, are derived for the sample using the variability in their optical lightcurves. The role of an accretion disc in an unusual Seyfert 1 galaxy, RE J2248-511, is investigated taking a multiwavelength approach. I combine X-ray data from XMM with optical and ultraviolet spectrophotometry and infrared photometry to obtain the spectral energy distribution of an AGN which exhibits both broad optical emission lines (FWHM 3000 km/s) and a soft X-ray excess. I model the observed big blue bump as emission from an accretion disc to explore the physics of a disc within this system and determine the corresponding black hole mass. The results are discussed within the context of normal and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. XMM data is also used to gain a deeper insight into the X-ray properties of the Seyfert 1 galaxy with LINER (low-ionisation nuclear emission-line region) characteristics, NGC 7213. The broad-band spectral energy distribution of this source gives an insight into accretion in the central regions of LINER galaxies.

  12. Thermal Sciences The thermal sciences area involves the study of energy conversion and transmission, power

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and yet its purpose is to control the flow of air and fuel in such a way that a thrust is developed and an airplane can be propelled forward. The processes involved are a superb example of thermal science processes

  13. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  14. Studying the Impact of Parental Involvement on College Student Development: A Review and Agenda for Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda J. Sax; Katherine Lynk Wartman

    \\u000a Although parental involvement in higher education has received significant attention on college campuses and by the media,\\u000a this topic has received scarce consideration in the empirical literature on college student development. The chapter begins\\u000a with a review of theoretical concepts and methodologies used in research on parental involvement in higher education. Next,\\u000a the chapter reviews relevant findings from this body

  15. Study of Bilingual-Bicultural Projects Involving Native American, Indo-European, Asian and Pacific Language Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie A.; And Others

    This is the final report of one of three studies in an overall project entitled "Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs." This study was sponsored in response to a need for more information regarding bilingual-bicultural education for other than Spanish language groups. The study's objectives were to: (1) identify the major issues involved in…

  16. Computational Estimation in the Primary School: A Single Case Study of One Teacher's Involvement in a Professional Learning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula; Hackling, Mark; Swan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial analysis of a study of a professional learning intervention. Using a case study design it was possible to describe one teacher's involvement in this research. The study revealed how the teacher's beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge of computational estimation was altered as a result of participating in the…

  17. The effect of parental involvement upon student achievement and student diligence: A study of students and parents in Grenada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lana Cheryl Bevill

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental involvement upon student achievement and diligence. For the purpose of this study, achievement was a measure of students' academic success\\/ability as determined by scores on the high school placement examination given to students in Grenada, which determines qualification for attending high school. The study examined the relationship of diligence, concentration and assimilation, and

  18. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment…

  19. Computational and Observational Studies of Interstellar Thioformaldehyde Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Lisa; Hoffman, I. M.

    2013-06-01

    Interstellar spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) holds considerable promise because of the close relationship between the H2CS molecule and the well-studied formaldehyde (H2CO) molecule. In particular, the well-known J(Ka,Kc) = 1(1,0) to 1(1,1) transition of H2CO at 6 cm (4.8 GHz) has an analogous H2CS transition at 1046 MHz. However, the 1046-MHz line of H2CS has never been detected astronomically. We present here a summary of: (1) a computational investigation of H2CS level populations related to known H2CO 6-cm masers, and (2) an observational campaign of four isotopologues of H2CS. Maser emission from H2CO has been observed at 6 cm for which Boland and de Jong (1981) have developed a pump model. We have extended this model to H2CS and we present preliminary calculations for a 1046-MHz maser. We intend to develop a quantitative tool for interpreting H2CS observations toward Galactic and extragalactic locations of H2CO maser emission by constructing a radiative-transfer maser model for H2CS. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in a few Galactic sources via J>1 transitions. However, interpretation of these results has two outstanding problems: the H2CS/H2CO abundances do not agree with known sulfur-to-oxygen ratios nor do the J>1 populations have the expected Boltzmann relationship to the J=1 states. A detection of the 1046-MHz transition of H2CS with J=1 would alleviate many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of existing observational results. We describe our forthcoming experiment to search in a Galactic star-forming region for thermal and nonthermal emission and absorption from four thioformaldehyde isotopologues: H2(12C)(32S), H2(13C)(32S), H2(12C)(34S), and D2(12C)(32S). Taken together, both parts of this research effort will provide valuable and novel constraints on H2CS and H2CO. New observations of H2CS isotopologues will yield new measurements of deuterium-to-hydrogen and sulfur-to-oxygen ratios in star-forming environments. Also, the application of the H2CO maser pump model to H2CS will provide new insights on the rare and enigmatic H2CO masers in the Galaxy. This work is supported by Wittenberg University through the Physics Department and the Student Development Board.

  20. Communication behaviours in a hospital setting: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico; Tombs, Vanessa

    1998-01-01

    Objective: An exploratory study to identify patterns of communication behaviour among hospital based healthcare workers. Design: Non-participatory, qualitative observational study. Setting: British district general hospital. Subjects: Eight doctors and two nurses. Results: Communication behaviours resulted in an interruptive workplace, which seemed to contribute to inefficiency in work practice. Medical staff generated twice as many interruptions via telephone and paging systems as they received. Hypothesised causes for this level of interruption include a bias by staff to interruptive communication methods, a tendency to seek information from colleagues in preference to printed materials, and poor provision of information in support of contacting individuals in specific roles. Staff were observed to infer the intention of messages based on insufficient information, and clinical teams demonstrated complex communication patterns, which could lead to inefficiency. Conclusion: The results suggest a number of improvements to processes or technologies. Staff may need instruction in appropriate use of communication facilities. Further, excessive emphasis on information technology may be misguided since much may be gained by supporting information exchange through communication technology. Voicemail and email with acknowledgment, mobile communication, improved support for role based contact, and message screening may be beneficial in the hospital environment. Key messages We observed communication behaviour among 10 hospital based healthcare workers Communication behaviours resulted in an interruptive work place, which seemed to contribute to inefficiency in work practice Medical staff generated twice as many interruptions via telephone and paging systems as they received, and possible causes for this included a bias by staff to interruptive communication methods, a tendency to seek information from colleagues in preference to printed materials, and poor provision of information in support of contacting individuals in specific roles Staff were observed to infer the intention of messages based on insufficient information, and clinical teams showed complex communication patterns, which could lead to inefficiency We conclude that hospital staff may need instruction in appropriate use of communication facilities and that some communication technology—voicemail and email with acknowledgment, cellular telephones for mobile communication, improved support for role based contact, and message screening—may be beneficial PMID:9522794

  1. CNODES: the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies

    PubMed Central

    Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; LeLorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3)?for each question, a study team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are “blind” to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6)?analyses using multivariable methods are lodged centrally with a methods team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects studying acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in study populations totalling over 40 million. PMID:23687528

  2. Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

  3. Treatment of molar furcation involvement using root separation and a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hou, G L; Tsai, C C; Weisgold, A S

    1999-09-01

    Because of the inconsistent results of periodontal and prosthetic therapy, periodontists may choose to treat maxillary molar furcation involvements (FI) with poor root morphology utilizing a root resection technique (RRT). In addition, poor root morphology of the remaining root following RRT is usually considered a high risk factor for long-term periodontal and prosthetic success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the differences in the clinical periodontal parameters between molar abutments with and without molar root separation and/or resection (RSR) before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy, using a crown and sleeve-coping telescopic denture (CSCTD). A total of 85 molars (47 maxillary and 38 mandibular) were treated in 25 subjects. There were 33 abutments without root separation/resection and 52 abutments with RSR. Forty-three CSCTD were placed, 23 in the maxillary arch and 20 in the mandibular arch. The mean observation period was 6.7+/-1.9 years (range, 5 to 13 years). The plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and alveolar bone change were recorded. The differences in these parameters before and after periodontal and prosthetic therapy between the advanced furcation-involved molars with and without RSR were evaluated. The results revealed a remarkable improvement in the periodontal parameters in advanced Class II and Class III FI in molars with RSR as compared to those without RSR. It was, therefore, concluded that molar abutments with RSR in conjunction with a specifically designed telescopic device provide a modified approach for treating molars with advanced Class II and III FI. PMID:10505813

  4. Studying the System-Level Involvement of MicroRNAs in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Roy, Debjani

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that affects movement and balance. Recent studies have revealed the importance of microRNA (miR) in PD. However, the detailed role of miR and its regulation by Transcription Factor (TF) remain unexplored. In this work for the first time we have studied TF-miR-mRNA regulatory network as well as miR co-expression network in PD. Result We compared the 204 differentially expressed miRs from microarray data with 73 PD related miRs obtained from literature, Human MicroRNA Disease Database and found a significant overlap of 47 PD related miRs (p-value<0.05). Functional enrichment analyses of these 47 common (Group1) miRs and the remaining 157 (Group2) miRs revealed similar kinds of over-representative GO Biological Processes and KEGG pathways. This strengthens the possibility that some of the Group 2 miRs can have functional roles in PD progression, hitherto unidentified in any study. In order to explore the cross talk between TF, miR and target mRNA, regulatory networks were constructed. Study of these networks resulted in 14 Inter-Regulatory hub miRs whereas miR co-expression network revealed 18 co-expressed hub miRs. Of these 32 hub miRs, 23 miRs were previously unidentified with respect to their association with PD. Hierarchical clustering analysis further strengthens the roles of these novel miRs in different PD pathways. Furthermore hsa-miR-92a appeared as novel hub miR in both regulatory and co-expression network indicating its strong functional role in PD. High conservation patterns were observed for most of these 23 novel hub miRs across different species including human. Thus these 23 novel hub miRs can be considered as potential biomarkers for PD. Conclusion Our study identified 23 novel miR markers which can open up new avenues for future studies and shed lights on potential therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:24690883

  5. Endometrial stromal sarcoma involving the urinary bladder: a study of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Latour, Mathieu; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-07-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) involving the urinary bladder is very rare, with no prior series reported. We identified 6 cases of low-grade ESS involving the bladder at our institution (1998 to 2013), 5 of them consults. The median age at bladder involvement was 60 years (range, 44 to 77 y). One patient presented with bladder involvement at initial diagnosis of ESS. The remaining 5 cases with bladder involvement presented 7 to 30 years (mean 18 y) after a known diagnosis of ESS (n=2) or after a remote history of hysterectomy with an uncertain diagnosis (n=3). The location of bladder involvement included dome (n=1), trigone (n=2), diffuse (n=1), and unknown (n=2). Two cases demonstrated worm-like infiltrating tumor nests classic of low-grade ESS with little stromal reaction with retraction artifact mimicking vascular invasion. One case originating from the ovary showed focal glandular differentiation in the bladder, resembling endometriosis. Two cases had abundant keloidal collagen formation, arranged haphazardly or in a sunburst pattern. One case showed primitive cells infiltrating entirely hyalinized stroma, after chemotherapy given for a misdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. CD31 was negative in all cases, except for 1 case with obvious large vessel invasion. The differential diagnosis included a large nested variant of urothelial carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, synovial sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and endometriosis. CD10 was strongly positive in 5 cases, and 1 case had very focal, moderate staining. Estrogen receptor showed strong and diffuse staining in all 6 cases. Progesterone receptor showed moderate to strong staining in 5 cases and focal staining in 1 case. One case showed PAX8 expression, and 2 cases showed p16 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. CD56 showed weak to strong staining in 4 cases. Two cases had diffuse synaptophysin, and 1 case had focal p63 positivity. GATA-3, CD34, and CD99 were negative in all cases. The Ki-67 index was 1% to 10% (mean 4%). The mitotic count was 0 to 3/10 HPF (mean <1/10 HPF). Two patients had metastases to pelvic lymph nodes, and 1 had possible lung metastasis. Three patients were treated with Megace and 1 with Arimidex after surgery. Follow-up averaged 19 years (0 to 33 y) after the initial diagnosis of ESS or hysterectomy and 3.5 years (0 to 11 y) after bladder surgery. ESS involving the bladder is extremely rare with a very long interval from onset to bladder involvement. In female patients, low-grade spindle cell lesions involving the bladder should include ESS in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24705317

  6. Changes in smoking behaviours following a smokefree legislation in parks and on beaches: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Andrew; Pederson, Ann; Adkins, Sarah; Rice, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an outdoor smokefree law in parks and on beaches on observed smoking in selected venues. Methods The study involved repeated observations in selected parks and beaches in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The main outcome measure was changes in observed smoking rates in selected venues from prelaw to 12 months postlaw. Results No venue was 100% smokefree at the 12-month postlaw observation time point. There was a significant decrease in observed smoking rates in all venues from prelaw to 12-month postlaw (prelaw mean smoking rate=20.5 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=4.7, p=0.04). In stratified analysis by venue, the differences between the prelaw and 12-month smoking rates decreased significantly in parks (prelaw mean smoking rate=37.1 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=6.5, p=0.01) but not in beaches (prelaw mean smoking rate=2.9 vs 12-month mean smoking rate=1.0, p=0.1). Conclusions Smokefree policies in outdoor recreational venues have the potential to decrease smoking in these venues. The effectiveness of such policies may differ by the type and usage of the venue; for instance, compliance may be better in venues that are used more often and have enforcement. Future studies may further explore factors that limit and foster the enforcement of such policies in parks and beaches. PMID:23794560

  7. A study of GPS ionospheric scintillations observed at Guilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuhua; Wang, Dongli

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of strong ionospheric scintillations with S4>=0.2 was studied using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at Guilin (25.29°N, 110.33°E; geomagnetic: 15.04°N, 181.98°E), a station located near the northern crest of equatorial anomaly in China. The results are presented for data collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The results show that amplitude scintillations occurred only during the first five months of the considered years. Nighttime amplitude scintillations, observed mainly in the south of Guilin, always occurred with phase scintillations, total electron content (TEC) depletions, and Rate Of change of TEC (ROT) fluctuations. However, TEC depletions and ROT fluctuations were weak during daytime amplitude scintillations, and daytime amplitude scintillations usually occurred in most of the azimuth directions. GPS scintillation/TEC observations recorded at Guilin and signal-to-noise-ratio measurements obtained from GPS-COSMIC radio occultation indicate that nighttime and daytime scintillations are very likely caused by ionospheric F region irregularities and sporadic E, respectively.

  8. An observational study of radiation temperature inversions in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malingowski, Julie; Atkinson, David; Fochesatto, Javier; Cherry, Jessica; Stevens, Eric

    2014-03-01

    A series of high resolution radiosonde launches were conducted over seven case-study days spanning spring 2009 and fall/winter 2010 during clear and calm nights at Fairbanks, Alaska to evaluate the effects of solar radiation, snow covered surfaces and low-level winds on the formation and evolution of surface-based temperature inversions (SBI). Transition seasons were selected because strong nighttime radiation cooling allows well-defined inversions to form while sufficient daytime solar heating allows the observation of dissipation processes in the sub-arctic latitudes. During the fall/winter period, co-located Doppler phased array acoustic soundings (SODAR) were carried out. The height of the SBI retrieved by radiosonde and SODAR did not differ more than 50 m. However, the SODAR profiles display a much more complex structure in the atmospheric boundary layer. Observations during this experiment demonstrated that the formation of the SBI is initiated by a rapid cooling at the surface followed by a steady columnar cooling and subsequent growth of the SBI depth overnight.

  9. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  10. High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being: A study of New Zealand worker experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Macky; Peter Boxall

    2008-01-01

    High-involvement work processes are at the heart of the current interest in high- performance work systems. A study of 775 New Zealand employees shows that greater experience of high-involvement processes is associated with higher job satisfaction. To a lesser extent, there are also better outcomes in terms of job- induced stress, fatigue and work-life imbalance. However, in situations where pressures

  11. Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

  12. The Impact of Observational Learning and Electronic Word of Mouth on Consumer Purchase Decisions: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expertise and Consumer Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy M. K. Cheung; Bo Xiao; Ivy L. B. Liu

    2012-01-01

    The social media revolution has created a dynamic shift in the digital marketing landscape. The voice of influence is moving from traditional marketers towards consumers through online social interactions. In this study, we focus on two types of online social interactions, namely, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and observational learning (OL), and explore how they influence consumer purchase decisions. We

  13. Combined observability\\/observation study for nonlinear processes: application to tyre-slip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Noiret; P. Bouron; D. Meizel

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes to take benefit of the simultaneous use of a state observation technique and of an observability\\/identifiability characterization software to give an integrated answer to the state estimation of nonlinear models. The whole methodology is applicable without any approximation. We motivate and illustrate it on a real system for the estimation of the tyre-slip angle of an automotive.

  14. Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan, Edgar Garcia

    2001-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the kinetics of the important stratospheric reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO (k1) (using the technique of laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence). Investigation of N2O production from the collisional deactivation of electronically excited NO 2 and OH by N2 and from the interaction of nascent O 3 with N2 have resulted in upper limit quantum yields which render all three processes as insignificant sources of atmospheric N 2O. The following expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the reaction O(1D) + N2 + M --> N2O + M (k2) in its third order low-pressure limit over the temperature range 220-324 K: k2,0(T) = (2.72 +/- 0.08) × 10-36 (T/300)-(0.92 +/- 0.37) cm6 molecule-2 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported rate coefficients is estimated to range from 30 to 40%. Preliminary calculations indicate that reaction 2 represents a source of about 0.2 Tg N2O per year to the atmosphere (i.e., about 1% of the currently estimated global source budget of N 2O). This is the first suggested mechanism that generates N2O photochemically in the atmosphere that is capable of explaining the altitude dependence of the N2O isotopic signature. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for reaction 1: k1(T ) = (4.21 +/- 0.25) × 10-12 exp[(273 +/- 18)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported values for k 1(T) is estimated to be +/-6% over the entire temperature range investigated (221-425 K). Incorporation of our kinetics results for reaction 1 into models of stratospheric chemistry would lead to somewhat lower mid-stratospheric ozone levels than would be obtained using results of previous studies.

  15. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by “online” self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures—known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding—demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding. PMID:24688464

  16. Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

  17. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  18. Employee Involvement, Attitudes, and Productivity in High Technology Manufacturing: A Two-Year, Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, William D.; And Others

    To investigate methods of improving both employees' productivity and the quality of their work life, workers from four businesses were surveyed before and after their organizations implemented a total employees involvement program. Survey questions covered employees' perceptions of (1) the quality of the product produced, (2) the leadership's…

  19. Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J McCann; Jean E Twomey; Donna Caldwell; Rosemary Soave; Lynne Andreozzi Fontaine; Barry M Lester

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for

  20. College Involvement, Perceptions, and Satisfaction: A Study of Membership in Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamowicz, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Compared perception, satisfaction, and involvement of members of student organizations with those of students who were not members. Administered College Student Experiences questionnaire to 151 organization members and to 192 nonmembers. Data revealed differences between members and nonmembers with members reporting more positive feelings about…

  1. Using Technology to Enhance Research-Based Best Practices for Increasing Parental Involvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established guidelines pertaining to student achievement and included requirements regarding parental involvement and communication between the school and home. Various issues stand in the way of realizing the level of parental engagement desired by educators and ordered by NCLB. Parental participation…

  2. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Bode; Susan Koeneke; Lutz Jäncke

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an

  3. A Study of the Indian Health Service and Indian Tribal Involvement in Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Daniel S.; And Others

    Addressing American Indians and the Indian Health Service (IHS), this report focuses on the process of Indian involvement and self-determination in health, emphasizing improvement of the effectiveness and responsiveness of Indian health services. Data derived from written documents, statistical figures, and personal interviews with over 200 people…

  4. Family and Differential Involvement with Marihuana: A Study of Suburban Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tec, Nechama

    1970-01-01

    Results point to a negative association between degree of involvement with marihuana and: (1) quality of parental models; (2) high amount of recognition received within the family; (3) perceptions of the family as warm and not simply controlling and/or indifferent; (4) subjective feelings of satisfaction and the ability to rely upon the family as…

  5. A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

  6. Parents' perspective on school strategies for parental involvement: an exploratory case study in a community based school in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wali Mohammad Khan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports a research study which was conducted as a master thesis project. The study explored parents' perspectives about strategies school can use to meaningfully involve them. Twenty parents, through purposive sampling, were selected from a community based secondary school located in Karachi. A qualitative research design was used to explore the topic which used focused group discussion, interviews

  7. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  8. Paternal involvement and fetal morbidity outcomes in HIV/AIDS: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N=4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (<35 years old), and unmarried with at least a high school education (p<.01). They were also more likely to have a history of drug (p<.01) and alcohol (p=.02) abuse. These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Infants of HIV-positive mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.05-2.82; PTB: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897

  9. Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental Design Random Samples Case Study Producing Data

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    of bacteria? 4 / 16 #12;Observational Studies Randomized Controlled Experiments Principles of Experimental. · The time and money invested can lead to a subconscious effect by the experimenter. Use an appropriate blind

  10. Observational Study of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard; Kang, Peter; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Sproule, Douglas Michael; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy; Martens, Bill; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean M.; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Irvine, Carrie; Annis, Christine L.; Butler, Hailly; Caracciolo, Jayson; Montgomery, Megan; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin; De Vivo, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the short-term course of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in a genetically and clinically well-defined cohort of patients with SMA. Design A comprehensive multicenter, longitudinal, observational study. Setting The Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network for SMA, a consortium of clinical investigators at 3 clinical sites. Participants Sixty-five participants with SMA types 2 and 3, aged 20 months to 45 years, were prospectively evaluated. Intervention We collected demographic and medical history information and determined the SMN2 copy number. Main Outcome Measures Clinical outcomes included measures of motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure and expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity), and muscle strength (myometry). Participants were evaluated every 2 months for the initial 6 months and every 3 months for the subsequent 6 months. We evaluated change over 12 months for all clinical outcomes and examined potential correlates of change over time including age, sex, SMA type, ambulatory status, SMN2 copy number, medication use, and baseline function. Results There were no significant changes over 12 months in motor function, pulmonary function, and muscle strength measures. There was evidence of motor function gain in ambulatory patients, especially in those children younger than 5 years. Scoliosis surgery during the observation period led to a subsequent decline in motor function. Conclusions Our results confirm previous clinical reports suggesting that SMA types 2 and 3 represent chronic phenotypes that have relatively stable clinical courses. We did not detect any measurable clinical disease progression in SMA types 2 and 3 over 12 months, suggesting that clinical trials will have to be designed to measure improvement rather than stabilization of disease progression. PMID:21320981

  11. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques will be discussed. An important issue is the organization and storage of hundreds of terabytes of data collected by even just a few of these satellite sensors. Advances in mass storage and computer technology have made it possible to overcome many of the collection and archival problems and the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets put together by NASA's Earth Observing System project will be discussed.

  12. Neural Circuits Involved in the Recognition of Actions Performed by Nonconspecifics: An fMRI Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Buccino; Fausta Lui; Nicola Canessa; Ilaria Patteri; Giovanna Lagravinese; Francesca Benuzzi; Carlo A. Porro; Giacomo Rizzolatti

    2004-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of mouth actions performed by humans and by individuals belonging to other species (monkey and dog). Two types of actions were presented: biting and oral communicative actions (speech reading, lip-smacking, barking). As a control, static images of the same actions were shown. Observation of biting,

  13. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy

  14. An observational study of driving distractions on urban roads in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the prevalence of driver engagement in secondary tasks and whether there were any differences by age and gender, as well as day of the week and time of the day. Two independent researchers observed 6578 drivers at nine randomly selected urban locations in Girona, Spain. Nearly 20% of the drivers observed were engaged in some type of secondary task, with the most common being: conversing with a passenger (11.1%), smoking (3.7%) and talking on a handheld mobile phone (1.3%). Surprisingly there were no differences by gender, but there were age-related differences with younger drivers being more frequently observed engaged in a number of different types of secondary tasks while driving (i.e. drinking, talking on a handheld mobile phone, and texting or keying numbers). Logistic regression showed that younger drivers, and to a lesser extent middle-age drivers, were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a technological distraction than older drivers. Conversely, non-technological distractions were significantly predicted by day of the week, time of the day and location. A substantial number of the drivers observed in this study were putting themselves at an increased risk of becoming involved in a crash by engaging in non-driving related tasks at the same time as driving. Furthermore, the higher crash rate among young drivers may be partially accounted for by their more frequent engagement in some types of secondary tasks while driving. PMID:25463939

  15. Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, J. [Raab (J.), Boston, MA (United States); Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

  16. Involving communities in the design of clinical trial protocols: The BAN Study in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Corneli, Amy L.; Piwoz, Ellen; Bentley, Margaret E.; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline R.; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Adair, Linda; Mtimuni, Beatrice; Ahmed, Yusuf; Duerr, Ann; Kazembe, Peter; van der Horstfor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Objective To learn the attitudes and concerns of the local community on participating in research, infant feeding practices, and maternal nutrition in order to inform the design of a clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi on the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV. Design Formative research methods were used, including semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, home observations, and taste trials. Data were collected, analyzed, and incorporated into the protocol within three months. Results Participants were supportive of the clinical trial, although their overall understanding of research was limited. Mothers agreed that infants’ blood could be drawn by venipuncture, yet concern was raised about the amount of blood proposed to be collected from both infants and mothers. Data demonstrated that rapid breastfeeding cessation would be difficult and malnutrition could be a risk if infants were weaned early. Mothers selected a maternal supplement suitable for use in the clinical trial. Conclusions The protocol was rapidly modified to achieve cultural acceptability while maintaining study objectives. Without the formative research, several significant areas would have been undetected and may have jeopardized the implementation of the trial. Additional research was carried out to develop a meaningful informed consent process, the amount of blood collected was reduced to acceptable levels, and the protocol was modified to reduce the risk of malnutrition. Researchers who conduct clinical trials are encouraged to incorporate formative research into their protocol design to ensure participant understanding of the research, to safeguard participants, and to increase feasibility and acceptance of the clinical research in the community. PMID:17000137

  17. Mechanisms involved in VPAC receptors activation and regulation: lessons from pharmacological and mutagenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Langer, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays diverse and important role in human physiology and physiopathology and their receptors constitute potential targets for the treatment of several diseases such as neurodegenerative disorder, asthma, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the two VIP receptors, VPAC(1) and VPAC(2), with respect to mechanisms involved in receptor activation, G protein coupling, signaling, regulation, and oligomerization. PMID:23115557

  18. Estimation of diffusive boundary layer thickness in studies involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ø. A. Garmo; K. Razi Naqvi; O. Røyset; E. Steinnes

    2006-01-01

    Recent laboratory experiments and field investigations involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have shown that the\\u000a thickness (?) of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), which can affect the accuracy of the technique, is generally not negligible. Accordingly,\\u000a the determination of ? has become a matter of considerable practical importance. Though the problem has been addressed in the recent literature,

  19. "Do-It-Ourselves Science": Case Studies of Volunteer-Initiated Citizen Science Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G.; Gay, P. L.

    2009-05-01

    Galaxy Zoo is a citizen science website in which members of the public volunteer to classify galaxies, thereby helping astronomers conduct publishable research into galaxy morphologies and environments. Although the site was originally created to answer a few specific questions, some members of the community - both scientists and volunteers - have spontaneously developed an interest in a wider variety of questions. Volunteers have pursued answers to these questions with guidance from professional astronomers; in completing these projects, volunteers have independently used some of the same data viewing and analysis tools that professional astronomers use, and have even developed their own online tools. They have created their own research questions and their own plans for data analysis, and are planning to write scientific papers with the results to be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals. Volunteers have identified a number of such projects. These volunteer-initiated projects have extended the scientific reach of Galaxy Zoo, while also giving volunteers first-hand experience with the process of science. We are interested in the process by which volunteers become interested in volunteer-initiated projects, and what tasks they participate in, both initially and as their involvement increases. What motivates a volunteer to become involved in a volunteer-initiated project? How does his or her motivation change with further involvement? We are conducting a program of qualitative education research into these questions, using as data sources the posts that volunteers have made to the Galaxy Zoo forum and transcripts of interviews with volunteers.

  20. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ?16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ?16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids. PMID:20525396

  1. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This study is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such studies.

  2. Periodontal Disease and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Tu, Ming-Li; Liu, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Jing; Leng, WeiDong

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD) and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. Methods PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional) involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio?=?2.08, 95% confidence interval?=?1.48–2.91; P<0.001), with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. Conclusions Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:23094025

  3. Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Jaffar, Shabbar; Assabri, Ali; Al-Habori, Molham; Azazy, Ahmed; Al-Mahdi, Nagiba; Ameen, Khaled; Greenwood, Brian M; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the burden of malaria on health services, describe the clinical presentation of severe malaria in children, and identify factors associated with mortality by means of a prospective observational study. Setting Two public hospitals in Taiz (mountain hinterland) and Hodeidah (coastal plain), Yemen. Participants Children aged 6 months to 10 years. Results Of 12 301 paediatric admissions, 2071 (17%) were for suspected severe malaria. The proportion of such admissions varied according to the season (from 1% to 40%). Falciparum malaria was confirmed in 1332 children; 808 had severe disease as defined by the World Health Organization. Main presentations were respiratory distress (322/808, 40%), severe anaemia (291/800, 37%), and cerebral malaria (60/808, 8%). Twenty two of 26 children who died had a neurological presentation. No deaths occurred in children with severe anaemia but no other signs of severity. In multivariate analysis, a Blantyre coma score ? 2, history of fits, female sex, and hyperlactataemia predicted mortality; severe anaemia, respiratory distress, and hyperparasitaemia were not significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions Severe malaria puts a high burden on health services in Yemen. Although presentation is similar to African series, some important differences exist. Case fatality is higher in girls. PMID:17053235

  4. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Aubrecht; C. D. Elvidge; D. Ziskin; K. E. Baugh; B. Tuttle; E. Erwin; N. Kerle

    2009-01-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the

  5. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER D. FRIEDMANN; ELIZABETH C. KATZ; ANNE G. RHODES; FAYE S. TAXMAN; DANIEL J. OCONNELL; LINDA K. FRISMAN; WILLIAM M. BURDON; BENNETT W. FLETCHER; MARK D. LITT; JENNIFER CLARKE; STEVEN S. MARTIN

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement

  6. The optimum level of parent participation: A study of three intensity levels of parent involvement during three "Playtime is Science" units in three third-grade classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Kelly Lynn

    The study describes the experience of introducing three intensity levels of parent participation in three third-grade classes for science instruction using Playtime is Science; an equity curriculum that utilizes parent participation. The study sought to determine the optimum level of participation by ascertaining the most influential aspect of involvement on proficiency scores and the most important aspect of involvement to participants. The levels of participation intensity were distinguished by: (1) the number of parents in the classroom; (2) the responsibilities of the parents; (3) the training received; and (4) the number of students with whom the parents worked. Involvement at each level would potentially manifest aspects of role modeling, lowered student-to-adult instructional ratio, and parent expertise to varying degrees. The three levels of participation were introduced during explorations in three Playtime is Science units following a rotation schedule. Student proficiency was assessed through scores on pre- and post-tests, journals, and discourse. ANCOVA was used to identify main and interaction effects of the independent variables (class, unit and level) on student proficiency taking into account existing differences in groups. Participant attitudes were assessed through journals and interviews. Observations of explorations triangulated findings and assessed participant interactions. Field notes, transcripts and photographs were coded according to the aspects of parent involvement. The results showed level of parent intensity of involvement had no affect on proficiency scores. Therefore, no aspect of parent involvement was determined to be the most influential. Participants felt that lowered instructional ratio and role modeling were the most important aspects of involvement. The level of involvement that utilized the lowest ratio and the most role modeling was level III, small group facilitators. Level III was recognized as the optimum level of participation in science instruction for this study. Although no level of involvement was significantly influential for student scores, there was a main effect for units, supporting the finding that teacher conceptions of science are more influential on student proficiency than parent participation at any level. The influence of teacher conceptions was unanticipated but is critical to consider when implementing any program or methodology to improve science instruction.

  7. Observation and Study of Proton Aurora by using Scanning Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Ono, T.; Kadokura, A.; Sato, N.

    2009-12-01

    The proton auroras have significant differences from electron auroras in their spectral shape. They show Doppler-shifted and broadened spectra: the spectra have Doppler-shifted (~0.5 nm shorter) peak and both bluewing (~2-4 nm) and redwing (~1.5 nm) extending. Energy spectra of precipitating protons have been estimated from this shape. Recently it is found that the intensity in the extent of the blue wing reflects more effectively by the change of the mean energy of precipitating protons than the shift of peak wavelength [Lanchester et al., 2003]. Another character of the H-beta aurora is that it is diffuse form because a proton becomes hydrogen atom due to a charge-exchange reaction with atmospheric constituent and then possible to move across the magnetic field line. By using a scanning photometer, the movement of the proton auroral belt and change of a spectrum shape associated with the variation of proton source region due to storm and substorm were reported, however, not discussed in detail yet [Deehr and Lummerzheim, 2001]. The purpose of this study is to obtain the detail characteristics of H-beta aurora for understanding of source region of energetic protons in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, a new meridian-scanning photometer (SPM) was installed at Husafell station in Iceland in last summer season and Syowa Station, Antarctica. It will contribute to investigate the distribution of energetic protons and plasma waves which cause the pitch angle scattering in the magnetosphere. The meridian-scanning photometer is able to observe at five wavelengths for H-beta emission. One channel is to measure the background level. By analyzing the data obtained by the SPM, the H-beta spectrum can be estimated by fitting a model function with it. Then it is possible to obtain distribution of precipitating protons in north-south direction. It is also possible to estimate an energy spectrum of precipitating proton, simultaneously. The instrumental parameters of the SPM is defined by the transmission characteristics of the interference filters; they are 485.7 nm (FWHM: 3.0 nm), 484.5 nm (0.6 nm), 485.5 nm (0.6 nm), 486.5 nm (0.6 nm) and 487.5 nm (0.6 nm) for H-beta auroras, and OI 630 nm (0.6 nm), N_2 1PG 670.5 nm (5.0 nm) and OI 844.6 nm (0.6 nm) for electron auroras. We analyzed the event at 2100 UT 23rd June, 2009 observed at Syowa station. This is typical auroral breakup event. And in this event, breakup occurred in FOV of the photometer and expanded to poleward. Then NS aurora appeared and pulsating aurora occurred. We calculated Doppler profile and each parameter is below. The peak intensity is 80 R/nm, wavelength at peak intensity is 486.0 nm, HWHM of bluewing is 1.7 nm and HWHM of redwing is 0.9 nm. These value are within past studies, although the Doppler shift of peak intensity is 0.1 nm and shorter than the average of past studies (0.5 nm). And intensity and Doppler profile of proton aurora changed with eqatorward moving in substorm growth phase. This suggests that the source of precipitating proton moves Earthward and its energy increases, and correspond to the result of Deehr and Lummerzheim, 2001. We are going to report the more detailed result of this event and new events of proton aurora.

  8. The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study

    SciTech Connect

    Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

    1983-06-01

    The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

  9. An Observational Study of Algol-Type Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Algol-Type binary systems are a subtype of binary systems. Their unique semi-detached structure leads to have abundant physical phenomena, including the dramatically distorted donor star, strong magnetic activities, various ways of mass transfer, the evolution stage quite different from that of single stars, and specific formation tracks. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental physics of light curves, as well as the models or programs used in the past. We show the influence of different parameters on the light curves, including the inclination, temperature, abundance, surface gravity, the third light, radius, orbital eccentricity, and the argument of periastron. Based on the current catalog of Algols, we investigate their statistic characteristics. We observe three Algols and analyze the data in detail. The results are as follows: (1)Our statistical analyses of Algols support the previous suggestion that most of the detached component stars are main sequence stars. The distribution of the mass ratio agrees to our calculated critical value of the mass ratio for Algols. We suggest that there could be a lower limit of the radius ratio. We also show that there are good correlations among the temperature, luminosity, radius, and the mass of the component stars. (2) The binary FG Gem is observed, and the data are analyzed. Based on the solutions of large combinations of the temperature and luminosity, we use a new age-comparing method to show that the FG Gem is a semi-detached system, and a new temperature-searching method to get a better estimate of the temperature of the detached component star. We suggest that a combination of the intermittent mass flow and the continuous magnetic braking can explain its orbital period change. (3) Taking the VV Vir as an example, we discuss some properties of the mass flow in a semi-detached binary. Some of them can reflect the common characteristics of the mass flows in the Algol systems, e.g., the radius of the mass flow is very small, so is its impact spot. If the mass transfer rate is high, the energy transfer rate can be comparable to the intrinsic luminosity of the detached component star. The position of the impact spot can be determined by the orbital period, mass ratio, and the dimensionless potential. The temperature of the impact spot is very high, and it can be directly reflected by the humps on the light curves. (4) We discover a rare Algol binary V753 Mon, which is just in the process of mass ratio inversion. The mass ratio of this binary is very close to one, and the key evolutional stage provides an important observational source for the theoretical studies of binary evolution. (5) We introduce the light curve models and the related physical factors, including the shape of the orbit, the shape of the stars, gravity brightening, atmosphere model, limb darkening, reflection effect, eclipse effect, the third body and its third light, dark spots and magnetic effect, hot spots, asteroseismology, atmospheric eclipse, and circumstellar matter. The light curve analysis programs are presented. We analyze the parameters and show the relevant results, including the orbital inclination, surface temperature, metal abundance, gravity acceleration, the third light, stellar radius (expressed by the surface potential), the eccentricity of the orbit, and anomaly.

  10. Conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jan; Neale, Joanne; Bloor, Michael; Jenkins, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper examines client/staff conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making. Methods Seventy-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with new treatment clients in two residential and two community drug treatment agencies. Fifty-nine of these clients were interviewed again after twelve weeks. Twenty-seven interviews were also conducted with staff, who were the keyworkers for the interviewed clients. Results Drug users did not expect, desire or prepare for conflict at treatment entry. They reported few actual conflicts within the treatment setting, but routinely discussed latent conflicts – that is, negative experiences and problematic aspects of current or previous treatment that could potentially escalate into overt disputes. Conflict resulted in a number of possible outcomes, including the premature termination of treatment; staff deciding on the appropriate outcome; the client appealing to the governance structure of the agency; brokered compromise; and staff skilfully eliciting client consent for staff decisions. Conclusion Although the implementation of user involvement in drug treatment decision-making has the potential to trigger high levels of staff-client conflict, latent conflict is more common than overt conflict and not all conflict is negative. Drug users generally want to be co-operative at treatment entry and often adopt non-confrontational forms of covert resistance to decisions about which they disagree. Staff sometimes deploy user involvement as a strategy for managing conflict and soliciting client compliance to treatment protocols. Suggestions for minimising and avoiding harmful conflict in treatment settings are given. PMID:18837989

  11. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B K

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5'-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe(+3), Al(+3) and Cr(+3)) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)](3+) below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log?11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe(+3), Al(+3) and Cr(+3) ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al(3+) at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al(3+) from Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al(3+) and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe(3+) and Cr(3+). Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies. PMID:25703371

  12. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n?=?59), case-control (8.5%, n?=?24), and cohort (6.0%, n?=?17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n?=?181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n?=?24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n?=?112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n?=?38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n?=?178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n?=?659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs comparison groups and representative samples is urgently needed. PMID:25197965

  13. How to Improve the Implementation of Academic Clinical Pediatric Trials Involving Drug Therapy? A Qualitative Study of Multiple Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Delphine; Bourdon, Olivier; Abdoul, Hendy; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Brion, Françoise; Tibi, Annick; Alberti, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The need for encouraging pediatric drug research is widely recognized. However, hospital-based clinical trials of drug treatments are extremely time-consuming, and delays in trial implementation are common. The objective of this qualitative study was to collect information on the perceptions and experience of health professionals involved in hospital-based pediatric drug trials. Methods Two independent researchers conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with principal investigators (n?=?17), pharmacists (n?=?7), sponsor representatives (n?=?4), and drug regulatory agency representatives (n?=?3) who participated in institutionally sponsored clinical trials of experimental drugs in pediatric patients between 2002 and 2008. Results Dissatisfaction was reported by 67% (16/24) of principal investigators and pharmacists: all 7 pharmacists felt they were involved too late in the trial implementation process, whereas 11 (65%) principal investigators complained of an excessive regulatory burden and felt they were insufficiently involved in the basic research questions. Both groups perceived clinical trial implementation as burdensome and time-consuming. The sponsor and regulatory agency representatives reported a number of difficulties but were not dissatisfied. Conclusions The heavy burden related to regulatory requirements, and suboptimal communication across disciplines involved, seem to be the main reasons for the major delays in pediatric drug trial implementation. The pharmaceutical aspects are intrinsically tied to trial methodology and implementation and must therefore be examined, in particular by involving Clinical Research Pharmacists at early stages of study conception. PMID:23724056

  14. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p?=?0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p?=?0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r?=?0.54, p?=?0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r?=??0.46, p?=?0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  15. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    PubMed Central

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)–N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. PMID:23387624

  16. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Weitao [Duke University, North Carolina] [Duke University, North Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  17. Studies on the enzymes involved in puparial cuticle sclerotization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, M; Giglio, L; Kundzicz, H; Saul, S; Semensi, V

    1992-01-01

    The properties of cuticular enzymes involved in sclerotization of Drosophila melanogaster puparium were examined. The cuticle-bound phenoloxidase from the white puparium exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 in phosphate buffer and oxidized a variety of catecholic substrates such as 4-methylcatechol, N-beta-alanyldopamine, dopa, dopamine, N-acetyldopamine, catechol, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phenoloxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide and sodium fluoride inhibited the enzyme activity drastically, but phenylthiourea showed marginal inhibition only. This result, coupled with the fact that syringaldazine served as the substrate for the insoluble enzyme, confirmed that cuticular phenoloxidase is of the "laccase" type. In addition, we also examined the mode of synthesis of the sclerotizing precursor, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine. Our results indicate that this catecholamine derivative is biosynthesized from N-acetyldopamine through the intermediate formation of N-acetyldopamine quinone and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide as established for Sarcophaga bullata [Saul, S. and Sugumaran, M., F.E.B.S. Letters 251, 69-73 (1989)]. Accordingly, successful solubilization and fractionation of cuticular enzymes involved in the introduction of a double bond in the side chain of N-acetyldopamine indicated that they included o-diphenoloxidase, 4-alkyl-o-quinone:p-quinone methide isomerase, and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide:dehydro N-acetyldopamine isomerase and not any side chain desaturase. PMID:1600191

  18. Whistleblowing: An integrative literature review of data-based studies involving nurses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Hickman, Louise D; Hutchinson, Marie; Andrew, Sharon; Smith, James; Potgieter, Ingrid; Cleary, Michelle; Peters, Kath

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Aim To summarise and critique the research literature about whistleblowing and nurses. Background Whistleblowing is identified as a crucial issue in maintenance of healthcare standards and nurses are frequently involved in whistleblowing events. Despite the importance of this issue, to our knowledge an evaluation of this body of the data-based literature has not been undertaken. Method An integrative literature review approach was used to summarise and critique the research literature. A comprehensive search of five databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Health Science: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Google, were searched using terms including: 'whistleblow*', 'nurs*'. In addition, relevant journals were examined, as well as reference lists of retrieved papers. Papers published during the years 2007-2013 were selected for inclusion. Findings Fifteen papers were identified, capturing data from nurses in seven countries. The findings in this review demonstrate a growing body of research for the nursing profession at large to engage and respond appropriately to issues involving suboptimal patient care or organisational wrongdoing. Conclusions Nursing plays a key role in maintaining practice standards and in reporting care that is unacceptable although the repercussions to nurses who raise concerns are insupportable. Overall, whistleblowing and how it influences the individual, their family, work colleagues, nursing practice and policy overall, requires further national and international research attention. PMID:25346267

  19. A study of protein synthesis in cells cultured from involved psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Easty, D J; Patel, K; Otto, W R; Dunn, M J; Kiil, J; Evans, D J

    1991-01-01

    Using histochemical techniques an abnormal programme of epidermal differentiation has been well documented in psoriasis. In order to characterise further the biochemistry of this process we have cultured dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes from involved psoriatic skin. This has facilitated metabolic radiolabelling of skin cells and analysis of protein synthesis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The expression of keratin and differentiation markers was identical to that of normal keratinocytes, suggesting that psoriatic epidermal differentiation is not truncated in vitro as has been postulated to be the case in vivo. Low molecular mass components (5-8.5 kDa), previously shown to be upregulated in suprabasal keratinocytes, were detected in epidermal fractions from psoriatic skin enriched for basal cells. Of special interest was a component of 26 kDa, pI 5.9, which was highly upregulated in psoriatic as compared to normal cultured keratinocytes and was not detected in fibroblasts. These findings are in accord with a qualitatively abnormal pattern of differentiation for keratinocytes in the involved psoriatic epidermis. PMID:1915249

  20. Pallial oviduct of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda): ultrastructural studies of the parenchymal cellular types involved in the metabolism of perivitellins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Catalán; M. S. Dreon; H. Heras; R. J. Pollero; S. N. Fernández; B. Winik

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the morphology of the parenchymal mass and function of the albumen gland\\/capsule gland complex have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, together with the cellular types involved in the synthesis and secretion of perivitellin fluid components. The two major parenchymal cell types, albumen secretory cells (AS) and labyrinthic cells (LC), undergo seasonal variations throughout the annual reproductive cycle,

  1. Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

  2. Queer Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study of Identity Development and LGBT Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen A. Renn; Brent Bilodeau

    2005-01-01

    Using the first phase of a longitudinal study of student leaders of the 2002 Midwest Bi-, Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Allies College Conference (MBLGTACC), the authors explore the intersections of involvement in identity-specific leadership activities and development of LGBT\\/Queer identity. LGBT leadership experiences appear to have contributed substantively to the identity development of these college students. Based on this finding,

  3. BEING A GRADUATE STUDENT-What does it mean? Graduate studies involve the experimental research and coursework. Coursework means going

    E-print Network

    Pesic, Batric

    BEING A GRADUATE STUDENT- What does it mean? Graduate studies involve the experimental research and coursework. Coursework means going to classes according to schedule, doing homework and taking exams (it need, or like to take that fit your interests. Subject-wise, these always revolve around the research

  4. Queer Student Leaders: A Case Study of Leadership Development and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Kristen A.; Bilodeau, Brent

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between involvement in student leadership activities and the development of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT; "queer") campus activists and leaders. This paper focuses on the experience of planning a regional LGBT conference; later papers will explore long-term…

  5. A Simple Loglinear Model for Haplotype Effects in a Case-Contro Study Involving Two Unphased Genotypes

    Cancer.gov

    Statistical Software A Simple Loglinear Model for Haplotype Effects in a Case-Control Study Involving Two Unphased Genotypes (written by Stuart G. Baker) These programs were based on a publication by Baker SG. A simple loglinear model for haplotype effects

  6. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus G. Grunert; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Niels A. Nielsen; Jacob B. Poulsen; Oydis Ueland; Annika Åström

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use

  7. Student Involvement with Online Forum and Its Effects on Intention to Seek and Intention to Share: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulus Insap Santosa; Kwok Kee Wei; Hock Chuan Chan

    Online forum is a popular approach for sharing of ideas and problem resolution. It is a very useful tool for education where students and lecturers can communicate with each other without time and space constraints. This paper presents an exploratory study to investigate students' involvement with online forum, which in turn may affect their intention to seek answers and share

  8. The Role of Leadership and Management in Six Southern Public Health Partnerships: A Study of Member Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Elisa S.; Taber, Shahnaz K.; Breslau, Erica S.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Li, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Research has led to greater understanding of what is needed to create and sustain well-functioning public health partnerships. However, a partnership's ability to foster an environment that encourages broad member involvement in discussions, decision making, and activities has received scant empirical attention. This study examined the…

  9. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeeck, Kirk A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

  10. Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Buonviso, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP) rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (40-90 Hz). All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loop. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density (CSD) analysis combined with multi-unit activity (MUA) recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly the upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL) and superficial areas of granule cell layer (GRL). In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings. PMID:25126057

  11. An Exploratory Study of Mexican-Origin Fathers' Involvement in Their Child's Education: The Role of Linguistic Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera

    2007-01-01

    The present exploratory study examined the involvement of 77 Mexican-origin fathers in their school-age (grades 4-6) child's education. Fathers were classified into one of three groups based on their linguistic acculturation status. The three groups were predominantly English-speakers (n = 25), English/Spanish-speakers (n = 27), and predominantly…

  12. Prevention of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B: An Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Ai; Shlager, Lyle; Marks, Amy R.; Lakritz, Dena; Beaumont, Colette; Gabellini, Kim; Corley, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the US Centers for Disease Control recommend immunoprophylaxis to decrease perinatal transmission; however, its effectiveness and risk factors for failure have not been well studied in community practice. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a contemporary immunoprophylaxis protocol. Design Observational study. Setting HBV perinatal immunoprophylaxis program within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health services delivery organization. Patients 4,446 infants born to 3,253 HBV positive mothers, between 1997-2010. Measurements Compliance with immunoprophylaxis, follow-up testing rates, maternal risk factors for HBV transmission and transmission rates. Results The infant infection rate was 0.75 per 100 births for 1997-2010 (Poisson 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.10)]. Rates were 3.37 per 100 (95% CI 2.08-5.14) for e-antigen positive mothers; and 0.04 (95% CI 0.001-0.24) for e-antigen negative mothers. Among mothers with viral load testing, the lowest level associated with transmission was 63,200,000 IU/ml. Infection rates per 100 were 3.61 (95% CI 0.75-10.56) among the 83 births to mothers with viral loads ?50,000,000 IU/mL and 0.00 among the 831 births to mothers with viral loads <50,000,000 IU/mL, regardless of e-antigen status. Limitations Testing for HBV immunity and infection was somewhat less complete in earlier years. Viral load testing was only consistently available starting in 2007. Conclusion Pre-natal HBV screening followed by post-natal prophylaxis is highly effective in preventing vertical transmission of HBV. A negative e-antigen status or a viral load of <50,000,000 IU/mL (90.9% of women tested) identifies women at extremely low risk of transmission after immunoprophylaxis who are unlikely to benefit from further interventions. Primary Funding Source Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Grant (CN-09LShla-01-H); National Institute of Health (K07CA166143-01A1 and KL2TR000143). PMID:24862434

  13. Plasma sheet fast flows observations during substorm: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodkova, N. L.; Yahnin, A. G.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Lutsenko, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    INTERBALL-1 observations of a substorm development in the mid-tail are compared with the auroral dynamics and with the observations performed by adjacent spacecraft. It was shown that in the mid plasma sheet, the flows were directed tailward when the auroral bulge developed equatorward of the spacecraft ionospheric footprint. When active auroras moved poleward of the INTERBALL-1 projection, earthward bursty bulk flows (BBFs) were observed. This confirms the concept that flow reversal region is the source of auroras forming the poleward edge of the auroral bulge. The comparison of the fast flows directions obtained by nearby satellites in the plasma sheet during the substorm was done.

  14. Photometric Observation and Apsidal motion Study of V1143 Cyg

    E-print Network

    A. Dariush; N. Riazi; A. Afroozeh

    2004-11-30

    Photometric observations of the eccentric eclipsing binary V1143 Cygni were performed during the August-September 2000 and July 2002, in B and V bands of the Johnson system. The analysis on both light curves was done separately using the 1998 version of Wilson's LC code. In order to find a new observed rate of apsidal motion, we followed the procedure described by Guinan and Maloney (1985). A new observed rate of apsidal motion of 3.72 degrees/100yr was computed which is close to the one reported earlier by Khaliullin (1983), Gimenez and Margrave (1985), and Burns et al.(1996).

  15. Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment. PMID:23323203

  16. Parametric studies on traveling compression regions observed in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugai, M.; Zheng, L.

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model, the traveling compression region (TCR) is studied by magnetohydrodynamic simulations for various plasma parameters. Once the fast reconnection mechanism involving slow shocks builds up, the general features of TCR, observed by virtual satellites located in the simulation box, are in good agreement with actual satellite observations. Quantitatively, the TCR signature is not significantly influenced by plasma ?, whereas its duration time is proportional to VAe-1, where VAe is the Alfvén velocity in the magnetic field region; also, the compression ratio of TCR is larger for the smaller plasma density ?e in the magnetic field region because of larger compressibility. In the diffusion region, resistive tearing is likely to occur, giving rise to multiple small-scale TCRs following the major TCR. For the uniform resistivity model, where the fast reconnection mechanism is not realized, any TCR signature cannot be observed. Hence, the TCR signature, observed in association with substorms, provides a definite evidence such that the fast reconnection mechanism is realized in the Earth's magnetotail.

  17. Live-cell studies with the Axio Observer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugen Wehner

    2006-01-01

    The Axio Observer inverted research microscope from Carl Zeiss, available with three different stand formats and a variety of other optional features, gives users a flexible and powerful tool for performing fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Photometric Observation And Period Study of GO Cygni

    E-print Network

    S. M. Zabihinpoor; A. Dariush; N. Riazi

    2005-08-07

    Photometric observations of GO Cyg were performed during the July-October 2002, in B and V bands of Johnson system. Based on Wilson's model, the light curve analysis were carried out to find the photometric elements of the system. The O-C diagram which is based on new observed times of minima suggests a negative rate of period variation (dP/dt<0) for the system.

  19. CFTR involvement in nasal potential differences in mice and pigs studied using a thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Danieli B; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Finkbeiner, Walter F; Nielson, Dennis W; Verkman, A S

    2004-11-01

    Nasal potential difference (PD) measurements have been used to demonstrate defective CFTR function in cystic fibrosis (CF) and to evaluate potential CF therapies. We used the selective thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 to define the involvement of CFTR in nasal PD changes in mice and pigs. In normal mice infused intranasally with a physiological saline solution containing amiloride, nasal PD was -4.7 +/- 0.7 mV, hyperpolarizing by 15 +/- 1 mV after a low-Cl- solution, and a further 3.9 +/- 0.5 mV after forskolin. CFTR(inh)-172 produced 1.1 +/- 0.9- and 4.3 +/- 0.7-mV depolarizations when added after low Cl- and forskolin, respectively. Systemically administered CFTR(inh)-172 reduced the forskolin-induced hyperpolarization from 4.7 +/- 0.4 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mV but did not reduce the low Cl(-)-induced hyperpolarization. Nasal PD was -12 +/- 1 mV in CF mice after amiloride, changing by <0.5 mV after low Cl- or forskolin. In pigs, nasal PD was -14 +/- 3 mV after amiloride, hyperpolarizing by 13 +/- 2 mV after low Cl- and a further 9 +/- 1 mV after forskolin. CFTR(inh)-172 and glibenclamide did not affect nasal PD in pigs. Our results suggest that cAMP-dependent nasal PDs in mice primarily involve CFTR-mediated Cl- conductance, whereas cAMP-independent PDs are produced by a different, but CFTR-dependent, Cl- channel. In pigs, CFTR may not be responsible for Cl- channel-dependent nasal PDs. These results have important implications for interpreting nasal PDs in terms of CFTR function in animal models of CFTR activation and inhibition. PMID:15246976

  20. Clinical Association of Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain with Syndesmotic InvolvementA Stress Radiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik D. Uys; Arie M. Rijke

    2002-01-01

    Background: Information concerning the clinical association between syndesmosis injury and grade of lateral ankle ligament damage would aid in the diagnosis and treatment of ankle sprains.Hypothesis: Evaluation of lateral ligament injury in terms of percentage tear of both the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments can provide information on the extent of syndesmotic involvement.Study Design: Prospective cohort study.Methods: Twenty-five patients volunteered

  1. Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To validate use of the Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Emergency departments of a university hospital and a teaching hospital in the Netherlands, 2006-7. Participants 17?600 children (aged <16) visiting an emergency department over 13 months (university hospital) and seven months (teaching hospital). Intervention Nurses triaged 16?735/17?600 patients (95%) using a computerised Manchester triage system, which calculated urgency levels from the selection of discriminators embedded in flowcharts for presenting problems. Nurses over-ruled the urgency level in 1714 (10%) children, who were excluded from analysis. Complete data for the reference standard were unavailable in 1467 (9%) children leaving 13?554 patients for analysis. Main outcome measures Urgency according to the Manchester triage system compared with a predefined and independently assessed reference standard for five urgency levels. This reference standard was based on a combination of vital signs at presentation, potentially life threatening conditions, diagnostic resources, therapeutic interventions, and follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for high urgency (immediate and very urgent) and 95% confidence intervals for subgroups based on age, use of flowcharts, and discriminators. Results The Manchester urgency level agreed with the reference standard in 4582 of 13?554 (34%) children; 7311 (54%) were over-triaged and 1661 (12%) under-triaged. The likelihood ratio was 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 3.2) for high urgency and 0.5 (0.4 to 0.5) for low urgency; though the likelihood ratios were lower for those presenting with a medical problem (2.3 (2.2 to 2.5) v 12.0 (7.8 to 18.0) for trauma) and in younger children (2.4 (1.9 to 2.9) at 0-3 months v 5.4 (4.5 to 6.5) at 8-16 years). Conclusions The Manchester triage system has moderate validity in paediatric emergency care. It errs on the safe side, with much more over-triage than under-triage compared with an independent reference standard for urgency. Triage of patients with a medical problem or in younger children is particularly difficult. PMID:18809587

  2. A study involving mordenite, titanate nanotubes, perfluoroalkoxy polymers, and ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Shaneela

    Zeolites and molecular sieves are finding applications in many areas of catalysis due to appreciable acid activity, shape selectivity, and ion-exchange capacity, as they possess an unbalanced framework charge. For catalytic applications, zeolites become more valuable as the ratio of SiO2/Al2O 3 increases. Acid resistance and thermal stability of zeolite are both improved with increasing SiO2/Al2O3. This part of the thesis deals with the control of morphology focused on decreasing the crystal diameter of mordenite zeolite and to increase the SiO2/Al 2O3 ratio by changing synthesis conditions. A high SiO 2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR15) of mordenite was prepared in a very short reaction time. We studied the role of hydroxide in the crystallization of the mordenite as a structure director, nucleation time modifier, and crystallite aggregate enhancer. The formation of nano-aggregates of mordenites was greatly enhanced using a combination of alcohol additives and conventional heating. Mordenite nucleation was also increased without using alcohols when microwave heating was employed, but the alcohols further accelerated the nucleation process. The different heating techniques affected the morphology; microwave heating produced crystallites of ˜40 nm, while the conventional hydrothermal method formed larger size crystallites of ˜88 nm. We controlled the size and shape of the mordenite crystals because they have important implications in hydrocarbon conversion and separation processes. Mordenite synthesized showed jellyfish, acicular, flower, and wheat grain like structures. In the second part of this thesis, a phase transition was successfully achieved from TiO2 particles to titanate nanotubes by the breakage of Ti-O bonds and the creation of oxygen vacancies without using expensive precursors, high temperatures, high chemical concentrations of alkaline solutions, and long synthesis times. A combination of anatase nano-particles/titanate nano-tubes was synthesized using TiO2 (anatase) and a temperature of only 100°C. When TiO2 (P-25) was used with the same concentration of alkaline solution (1 molar NaOH), the same processing time of 12 hours, and a higher temperature at 110°C, only titanate nano-tubes were observed. The linkages of 'Ti-O' play a very important role in the structural features of different phases. Two crystalline phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) were synthesized as products in the case of TiO 2 (anatase) and one crystalline phase (monoclinic) for products of TiO 2 (P-25). The third part of the thesis concerns surface modification of hydrophobic fluoropolymers that have low surface energies and are very difficult to metallize. Surface modification was done to enhance surface roughness and hence to boost surface energy for metallization processes. We used low impact, environmentally friendly non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure to strip off F - ions and replace them with reactive unsaturated hydrocarbon functionalities such as CH=CH2 on the surface of a polymer. As these hydrocarbon functionalities are reactive with metals, they form composites that have good adhesion between layers of polymer. Due to surface modification, polymeric chains were broken by the loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.33) and the gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.17) using methane/argon plasmas. Methane/hydrogen/argon plasmas on the other hand produced extensive loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.07-0.33) and gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.08-0.16) that was far better than pristine PFA. The surface of PFA was modified by defluorination and oxidation. Further enhancement of COF and COO groups revealed that the surface was modified to a hydrophilic membrane that can further be easily hydrolyzed to COOH in the presence of atmospheric humidity. The last part of the thesis deals with ammonia borane which was studied as a potential source of hydrogen for fuel cells. We analyzed the viability of ammonia borane as a hydrogen carrier compound for fuel cell applications using a thermolysis method. Ammonia borane is an attractive source for hydrogen productio

  3. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. Studies with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk. PMID:9055712

  4. Observations of the magnetospheric boundary layers. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    Results on magnetospheric boundary layers are reviewed, emphasizing their dynamical importance based on hot plasma observations, energetic particle signatures, heavy ion contributions and the effects of wave-particle interactions. Satellite plasma observations show that 1% to 2% of the oncoming solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere and is initially transported within the magnetospheric boundary layer. Some of this boundary layer plasma is entrained within the Earth's magnetotail where it can be accelerated. Tests are needed to determine the relative contributions of the primary acceleration processes whose effects are especially evident in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  5. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

  6. The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon

    2006-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

  7. 78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

  8. 78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office, 6701...writing. Proposed Collection: Women's Health Initiative Observational...

  9. 75 FR 17411 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study...Proposed Collection: Title: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational...Eason Ludlam, Project Officer, Women's Health Initiative Program Office,...

  10. Schistosomin from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: Expression studies suggest no involvement in trematode-mediated castration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Nian, Hong; Wang, Bo; Loker, Eric S.; Adema, Coen M

    2013-01-01

    By inhibiting reproductive hormones, the neuropeptide schistosomin produced by the snail Lymnaea stagnalis plays an essential role in parasitic castration mediated by the schistosome parasite Trichobilharzia ocellata during late stage infection. Here we report on the presence and expression of schistosomin in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a prominent intermediate host of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences from complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from B. glabrata contain a 17 aa signal peptide and a 79 aa mature peptide with 62–64% identity to schistosomin from L. stagnalis. Ontogenic expression at the protein and mRNA levels showed that schistosomin was in higher abundance in embryos and juveniles relative to mature snails, suggesting that schistosomin is likely involved in developmental processes, not in reproduction. Moreover, expression data demonstrated that infection with two different digenetic trematodes, S. mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei, did not provoke elevated expression of schistosomin in B. glabrata from early stage infection (4 days post exposure; dpe) to patent infection (up to 60 dpe), by which time parasitic castration has been accomplished. In conclusion, our data suggest that a role of schistosomin in parasitic castration cannot be established in B. glabrata infected with either of two trematode species. PMID:19393164

  11. Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

    This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals…

  12. Frontal-Lobe Involvement in Spatial Memory: Evidence from PET, fMRI, and Lesion Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy P. C. Kessels; Albert Postma; Elze M. Wijnalda; Edward H. F. de Haan

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have identified the prefrontal cortex as the brain area that is critical for spatial memory, both in humans and in other primates. Other studies, however, have failed to establish this relation. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the literature regarding the role of the human prefrontal lobe in spatial memory. This was done by examining

  13. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjie Liu; Shuli Yu; Lesley Cottrell; Sonja Lunn; Lynette Deveaux; Nanika V Brathwaite; Sharon Marshall; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and

  14. Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

  15. School expectations for parental involvement and student mathematics achievement: a comparative study of middle schools in the US and South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhao; Motoko Akiba

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental involvement in the US and South Korea and the

  16. Participação paterna no cuidado de crianças pequenas: um estudo etnográfico com famílias de camadas populares Paternal involvement in the care of small children: an ethnographic study of low-income families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Bustamante; Leny A. Bomfim Trad

    The present study focused on father's involve- ment in the health care of small children (under six years) in low-income families. An ethno- graphic study was performed with interviews and participatory observation. We visited fami- lies in an outlying low-income urban neighbor- hood in Northeast Brazil, for nine months. Chil- dren appeared as a fundamental dimension in the lives of

  17. Resident Involvement and Participation in Urban Tourism Development: A Comparative Study in Maun and Gaborone, Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Moswete; Brijesh Thapa; Elisha N. Toteng; Joseph E. Mbaiwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of urban tourism development in two areas, Maun and Gaborone, located in northern and\\u000a southeastern Botswana. More specifically, the study evaluated residents’ tourism awareness and its importance in their lives;\\u000a assessed economic benefits and employment derived from tourism; and examined impacts of tourism and development issues as\\u000a perceived by the residents. Data were collected

  18. Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1998-04-01

    A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

  19. Observational and numerical study of Atlantic tropical instability waves

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qiaoyan

    2009-06-02

    Regression maps for SST and wind velocity in the period of JJA . . . . . . 41 15 Time series of SST anomalies in JJA 1998 at the reference point (15?W, 2?N). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 16 Regression maps for SST.... . . . . . 60 27 Regression maps for surface wind convergence, column-integrated water vapor and rain from observations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 28 Regression maps for surface wind convergence, mixing ratio and rain from model...

  20. The Method Quality of Cross-Over Studies Involved in Cochrane Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xue Yan; Chen, Qing; Threapleton, Diane Erin; Zhou, Zeng Huan

    2015-01-01

    Background It is possible that cross-over studies included in current systematic reviews are being inadequately assessed, because the current risk of bias tools do not consider possible biases specific to cross-over design. We performed this study to evaluate whether this was being done in cross-over studies included in Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs). Methods We searched the Cochrane Library (up to 2013 issue 5) for CSRs that included at least one cross-over trial. Two authors independently undertook the study selection and data extraction. A random sample of the CSRs was selected and we evaluated whether the cross-over trials in these CSRs were assessed according to criteria suggested by the Cochrane handbook. In addition we reassessed the risk of bias of these cross-over trials by a checklist developed form the Cochrane handbook. Results We identified 688 CSRs that included one or more cross-over studies. We chose a random sample of 60 CSRs and these included 139 cross-over studies. None of these CSRs undertook a risk of bias assessment specific for cross-over studies. In fact items specific for cross-over studies were seldom considered anywhere in quality assessment of these CSRs. When we reassessed the risk of bias, including the 3 items specific to cross-over trials, of these 139 studies, a low risk of bias was judged for appropriate cross-over design in 110(79%), carry-over effects in 48(34%) and for reporting data in all stages of the trial in 114(82%).Assessment of biases in cross-over trials could affect the GRADE assessment of a review’s findings. Conclusion The current Cochrane risk of bias tool is not adequate to assess cross-over studies. Items specific to cross-over trials leading to potential risk of bias are generally neglected in CSRs. A proposed check list for the evaluation of cross-over trials is provided. PMID:25867772

  1. Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

  2. A study of palladium catalyzed intra/intermolecular cascade cross coupling/cyclizations involving bicyclopropylidene.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    The compounds [3-(2-Bromocyclohex-2-enyloxy)prop-1-ynyl]-tert-butyl-dimethylsilane 3, [4-(2-bromocyclohex-2-en-1-yloxy)but-2-yn-1-yloxy]tert-butyldimethylsilane 5 and dimethyl 2-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-2-(3-(tert-butyldimethylsilanyl)prop-2-ynyl)malonate 9 were prepared and subjected to palladium-catalyzed intra-intermolecular cascade cross couplings incorporating bicyclopropylidene 10 under two types of conditions. In the presence of Pd(OAc)2, PPh3 and K2CO3 in acetonitrile at 80 °C, the products were indene analogues, cross-conjugated tetraenes 11, 12 and 13, respectively. The corresponding spirocyclopropanated tricycle 16 in dimethylformamide at 110 °C was obtained, albeit in low yield (24%), and observed as an equimolar mixture of diastereomers, whereas 14, 15 were not fully isolated. PMID:24828378

  3. Comprehensive analysis of published studies involving systemic treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone between 2000 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of patients with chondrosarcoma of bone have an excellent overall survival after local therapy. However, in case of unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease the outcome is poor and limited treatment options exist. Therefore we conducted a survey of clinical phase I or II trials and retrospective studies that described systemic therapy for chondrosarcoma patients. Materials and methods Using PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, the Cochrane controlled trial register and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts a literature survey was conducted. From the identified items, data were collected by a systematic analysis. We limited our search to semi-recent studies published between 2000 and 2013 to include modern drugs, imaging techniques and disease evaluations. Results A total of 31 studies were found which met the criteria: 9 phase I trials, 11 phase II and 8 retrospective studies. In these studies 855 chondrosarcoma patients were reported. The tested drugs were mostly non-cytotoxic, either alone or in combination with another non-cytotoxic agent or chemotherapy. Currently two phase I trials, one phase IB/II trial and three phase II trials are enrolling chondrosarcoma patients. Conclusion Because chondrosarcoma of bone is an orphan disease it is difficult to conduct clinical trials. The meagre outcome data for locally advanced or metastatic patients indicate that new treatment options are needed. For the phase I trials it is difficult to draw conclusions because of the low numbers of chondrosarcoma patients enrolled, and at different dose levels. Some phase II trials show promising results which support further research. Retrospective studies are encouraged as they could add to the limited data available. Efforts to increase the number of studies for this orphan disease are urgently needed. PMID:25126409

  4. Arctic stratospheric dehydration - Unprecedented observations and microphysical modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Ines; Luo, Beiping P.; Khaykin, Sergey; Wienhold, Frank G.; Vömel, Holger; Kivi, Rigel; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Santee, Michelle L.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Peter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) may form in the lower stratosphere above the winter poles at sufficiently low temperatures. Ice PSCs require the coldest conditions, with temperatures some degrees below the frost point to nucleate ice particles. When the particles grow to sizes large enough to sediment, they may result in dehydration, i.e. irreversible redistribution of water vapor, as it frequently occurs above the Antarctic. Conversely, there are no observations above the Arctic that would have provided clear evidence for vertical redistribution of water vapor. Here we report on unequivocal in situ observations in January 2010 above Sodankylä, Finland, which mesh with vortex-wide satellite measurements. Within the LABPIAT-II field campaign, a series of balloon-borne aerosol backscatter and water vapor measurements has been performed. The balloon payload comprised the backscatter sonde COBALD in combination with the cryogenic frost point hygrometer CFH and the fluorescent Lyman-Alpha stratospheric hygrometer FLASH-B. Together with satellite measurements from the Aura microwave limb sounder MLS and the cloud-aerosol lidar CALIOP, a unique and coherent picture of de- and rehydration in the Arctic vortex will be presented within this paper. An extensive coverage of synoptic scale ice PSCs has been observed by CALIOP and COBALD by mid-January due to exceptionally low temperatures in the Arctic vortex. This observation goes along with a simultaneously measured strong reduction in water vapor by 1.6 ppmv relative to background conditions. Subsequent sedimentation and sublimation of ice particles led to a vertical redistribution of water inside the vortex, which was tracked remotely and could be quantified again by in situ measurements some five days later. By means of a microphysical column model, we are able to connect the individual balloon soundings by trajectories and simulate the formation, evolution and sedimentation of the ice particles. Simulated water vapor profiles are verified by CFH, FLASH-B and MLS measurements. Optical T-Matrix calculations enable us to additionally compare the simulations with COBALD and CALIOP backscatter measurements. We examine the effect of different PSC formation pathways - in particular homogeneous vs. heterogeneous ice formation - and changing temperatures and finally show that synoptic scale ice PSCs and concurrent reduction in water vapor are tightly linked with the observed de- and rehydration signatures.

  5. Ab initio study of chain branching reactions involving second generation products in hydrocarbon combustion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alexander C; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-01-28

    sec-Alkyl radicals are key reactive intermediates in the hydrocarbon combustion and atmospheric decomposition mechanisms that are formed by the abstraction of hydrogen from an alkane, or as a second generation product of n-alkyl H-migrations, C-C bond scissions in branched alkyl radicals, or the bimolecular reaction between olefins and n-alkyl radicals. Since alkanes and branched alkanes, which the sec-alkyl radicals are derived from, make up roughly 40-50% of traditional fuels an understanding of their chemistry is essential to improving combustion systems. The present work investigates all H-migration reactions initiated from an sec-alkyl radical that involve the movement of a secondary hydrogen, for the 2-butyl through 4-octyl radicals, using the CBS-Q, G2, and G4 composite methods. The resulting thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are compared to similar reactions in n-alkyl radicals in order to determine underlying trends. Particular attention is paid to the effect of cis/trans and 1,3-diaxial interactions on activation energies and rate coefficients. When combined with our previous work on n-alkyl radical H-migrations, a complete picture of H-migrations in unbranched alkyl radicals is obtained. This full data set suggests that the directionality of the remaining branched chains has a minimal effect on the rate coefficients for all but the largest viable transition states, which is in stark contrast to the differences predicted by the structurally similar dimethylcycloalkanes. In fact the initial location of the secondary radical site has a greater effect on the rate than does the directionality of the remaining alkyl chains. The activation energies for secondary to secondary reactions are much closer to those of the secondary to primary H-migrations. However, the rate coefficients are found to be closer to the corresponding primary to primary reaction values. A significant ramification of these results is that there will be multiple viable reaction pathways for these reactions instead of only one dominant pathway as previously believed. PMID:22048707

  6. Extra- and intracranial cerebral vasculitis in giant cell arteritis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Delphine; Sacre, Karim; Klein, Isabelle; Hyafil, Fabien; Choudat, Laurence; Chauveheid, Marie-Paule; Papo, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing giant cell arteritis (GCA) in patients with stroke may be challenging. We aimed to highlight the clinical spectrum and long-term follow-up of GCA-specific cerebrovascular accidents. Medical charts of all patients followed in a French Department of Internal Medicine for GCA between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with cerebrovascular accidents at GCA diagnosis were included. Diagnosis of GCA was based on American College of Rheumatology criteria. Transient ischemic attacks and stroke resulting from an atherosclerotic or cardioembolic mechanism were excluded. Clinical features, GCA-diagnosis workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data were analyzed. From January 2008 to January 2014, 97 patients have been followed for GCA. Among them, 8 biopsy-proven GCA patients (mean age 70±7.8 years, M/F sex ratio 3/1) had stroke at GCA diagnosis. Six patients reported headache and visual impairment. Brain MR angiography showed involvement of vertebral and/or basilar arteries in all cases with multiple or unique ischemic lesions in the infratentorial region of the brain in all but one case. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement was observed in 4 cases including 2 cases with cerebral angiitis. Long lasting lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences were observed in 1 case. All patients received steroids for a mean of 28.1±12.8 months. Side effects associated with long-term steroid therapy occurred in 6 patients. Relapses occurred in 4 patients and required immunosuppressive drugs in 3 cases. After a mean follow-up duration of 36.4±16.4 months, all but 1 patient achieved complete remission without major sequelae. The conjunction of headache with vertebral and basilar arteries involvement in elderly is highly suggestive of stroke associated with GCA. Intracranial cerebral arteries involvement with cerebral angiitis associated with long lasting brain lesions on diffusion-weight brain MRI sequences may occur in GCA. Both frequent relapses and steroid-induced side effects argue for the use of immunosuppressive agents combined with steroids as first-line therapy. PMID:25526454

  7. Commercial Drivers' Health: A Naturalistic Study of Body Mass Index, Fatigue, and Involvement in Safety-Critical Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Wiegand; Richard J. Hanowski; Shelby E. McDonald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation of commercial truck drivers' body mass indexex (BMI) to fatigued driving episodes and involvement in safety-critical events.Methods: One hundred and three professional truck drivers participated in a long-term naturalistic (on-road) driving study whereby vehicle motion data as well as video of the driver and driving environment were gathered continuously. This data set was analyzed to

  8. Trauma symptoms in pupils involved in school bullying--a cross sectional study conducted in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Obrdalj, Edita Cerni; Sesar, Kristina; Santic, Zarko; Klari?, Miro; Sesar, Irena; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2013-03-01

    To determine the association between involvement in school bullying and trauma symptoms and to find whether children with presence of trauma symptoms participate in school bullying more as victims, as bullies or as bully/victims. The study included 1055, 6th to 8th grade (12-14 years of age) elementary school pupils from the western part of Mostar, The pupils were self-interviewed using a Questionnaire on School Violence developed in 2003 and validated in Croatia, and Trauma Symptoms Check List for Children (TSCC). The pupils involved in the school violence, either as victims, bullies, bully/victims had significantly more trauma symptoms than the not involved. Involvement in school bullying as a bully/ victim was a strong indicator of trauma symptoms, particularly anxiety, anger, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, obvious dissociation, and dissociation fantasy symptoms, while the victims of school violence had the highest odds ratio for the development of depressive symptoms. There is strong association between bullying and trauma symptoms in young adolescents. From our results, emphasis should be placed at the regularly screening on bullying in praxis of family physicians and regularly conduction of preventive measures and early intervention in every primary school. PMID:23697244

  9. Cardiac involvement is a constant finding in acute Chagas' disease: a clinical, parasitological and histopathological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Parada; Hugo A. Carrasco; Néstor Añez; Carmen Fuenmayor; Ignacio Inglessis

    1997-01-01

    During the last 8 years 58 acute cases of Chagas' disease were studied. Patients from an endemic area of the state of Barinas, Venezuela, showed fever (98%) and circulating forms of T. cruzi (100%), and were treated with oral benznidazole. The recorded mortality was 8.6%. Acute myocarditis was constantly found either in myocardial biopsies or at necropsy, even in patients

  10. A Comparative Study of Gang-Involved and Other Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulmire, Sandra Rodden

    Adolescent women have been a part of gangs in the United States since the early 1800s, but they have been neglected in gang research. To address the shortfall, this study used structured interviews, standardized questionnaires, and collaborative records to gather information about adolescent women in a metropolitan area with an emerging gang…

  11. Parental Involvement in the Development of Children's Reading Skill: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Senechal; Jo-Anne LeFevre

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent re- ceptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening

  12. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks. PMID:11680506

  13. FOUR STUDIES INVOLVING THE USE OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENTWISLE, DORIS R.

    FOUR EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS DESIGNED FOR TEACHING CIRCUIT THEORY AND FORTRAN AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLES CONCERNED WITH PROACTIVE AND RETROACTIVE INHIBITION (NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF LEARNING) WERE STUDIED. THE REMAINING THREE EXPERIMENTS WERE DESIGNED TO…

  14. The Involvement of PGCE Students with an LEA Field Study Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Keith; Scott, William

    1982-01-01

    Describes the relationship between a local authority field study centre (LEA) and the School of Education at the University of Bath, allowing students earning a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) to focus on field work at the center as part of their practice teaching. (Author/JN)

  15. Blurring the Boundaries: A Case Study of Private Sector Involvement in Philadelphia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Herold, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    As a result of a state takeover, the School District of Philadelphia has been implementing a "diverse provider model" in which for-profit and nonprofit organizations have been hired as school managers. This study explores the first three years of the model, examining the shift away from the rhetoric of competition to the evolution of a…

  16. A Study of the Involvement of NCATE Institutions in the Support of Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishler, Peggy F.; Selke, Mary J.

    This study examined higher education institutions' compliance with Standard IIB, Criterion #35 of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which focuses on arrangements the teacher education program has made with school districts to provide assistance to its graduates who are first year teachers. Data were obtained from…

  17. study involving about 2000 HPV-positive women in Costa Rica who were monitored for 12

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Nava

    to responses to self-constituents in humans and in a variety of animal models. Previ- ous studies have shown, including Thalassodromeus and the giant Quetzalcoatlus (with a wingspan of up to 15 m), could have fed, human papillomavirus (HPV), play an essential role in the pathogenesis of this cancer. Newly developed

  18. Observation and studies of double J /? production at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present the observation of doubly produced J /? mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in p p ¯ collisions at ?{s }=1.96 TeV . The production cross section for both singly and doubly produced J /? mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1 fb-1 . For the first time, the double J /? production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section ?eff, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  19. Clinical features of patients showing Candida hypersensitivity: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Asero; G Bottazzi

    Background: The significance of Candida albicans as an allergen is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the clinical features of patients monosensitized to Candida. Methods: Thirty-four adult patients monosensitized to the yeast Candida albicans selected from a population of >7000 subjects and referred for suspect respiratory allergy were studied. Ninety subjects monosensitized to different airborne allergens served as controls.

  20. Parental involvement in a private primary school in Karachi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navbukhor Mamadyusufov

    2005-01-01

    This research is a case study on how parental involvement is enacted in a private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The study looked at the ways in which parents are involved in education in the school. Data was collected through interviews, observations and document analysis. Findings from the study indicate that all the stakeholders positively view the involvement of parents

  1. Adverse drug reactions in older patients: an Italian observational prospective hospital study

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Anita; Costantini, Davide; Zanetti, Francesca; Moretti, Ugo; Grezzana, Matteo; Leone, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background In adults over 65 years of age, the frequency of adverse drug reaction (ADRs) related hospital admissions is higher than in younger adults, and the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay highly ranges. The review was designed to evaluate the frequency of ADRs, both resulting in hospital admission and occurring during the hospital stay of older patients, while identifying the types of reactions and the associated drugs. Methods Age, sex, date, and diagnosis of admission of all patients aged 65 and over admitted in three geriatric wards of University Hospital of Verona, Italy, from February to July 2009 were registered by nurses on a special form. In the specific cases of admissions caused by an ADR as well as in the cases of an ADR occurring during the hospital stay, the type of reactions and the suspected drugs were also registered by nurses and physicians involved in the study. Results During the six months of the study, 1023 patients matched the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. One hundred fourteen hospital admissions (11.1%) were caused by ADRs, while 256 patients (25.0%) had an ADR during their hospital stay. The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients who developed an ADR during their time in hospital, 18.7 (95% CI: 17.2–20.1) days versus 12.6 (95% CI: 11.9–13.3) days. Electrolyte disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, anemia, and International Normalized Ratio increase were the more frequent observed ADRs, with diuretics, antithrombotic agents, and antibacterials as the main involved drugs. Our study confirms that ADRs are an important cause of hospitalization in older patients. In addition, the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay is high and causes prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22888275

  2. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  3. Census study of fatal car-to-car intersection crashes in Sweden involving modern vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Sunnevång; Ola Boström; Anders Lie; Helena Stigson

    2011-01-01

    Objective Intersections are challenging for many road users. According to US, European, and global statistics, intersection-related crashes with fatal outcome represent approximately 20% of all traffic fatalities. The aim of this study was to use Swedish data to investigate, and characterize, fatal car-to-car intersection crashes for modern cars equipped with frontal and side airbags.Method The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) national

  4. A standard neuroscience technique involves record-ing the extracellular activity of single neurons to study

    E-print Network

    using spike-sorting algo- rithms (BOX 1), and the information from the population of neurons must-detection and -sorting algorithms18 (BOX 1). In this respect automatic spike-sorting algo- rithms are needed for studying13 9PL, UK. Correspondence to R.Q.Q. e-mail: rqqg1@leicester.ac.uk doi:10.1038/nrn2578 Spike sorting

  5. Direct Observation, Study, and Control of Molecular Superrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery

    2014-03-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N =95 in oxygen and N=60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

  6. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-01-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.

  7. The Path to Self-Management: A Qualitative Study Involving Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Mark W.; Murdoch, Michelle; Kearney, Anne; Godwin, Marshall; Stefanelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This qualitative study sought to explore older people's experience of ageing with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the natural history of self-management from their points of view. Methods: Eighteen people over age 55 and living with MS for at least 20 years were recruited from an MS clinic and rehabilitation outpatient records. Interviews (60–80 min), using open-ended questions, explored participants' lifelong experiences of MS. Following interview transcription, data were coded and analyzed; themes, subthemes, and their relationships were described based on consensus. Results: Participants recounted their diagnosis process, their life experience with MS, and how they eventually accepted their disease, adapted, and moved toward self-management. The findings included vivid descriptions of social relationships, health care interactions, overcoming barriers, and the emotions associated with living with MS. A conceptual model of phases of self-management, from diagnosis to integration of MS into a sense of self, was developed. Conclusions: Study participants valued self-management and described its phases, facilitators, and inhibitors from their points of view. Over years and decades, learning from life experiences, trial and error, and interactions with health care professionals, participants seemed to consolidate MS into their sense of self. Self-determination, social support, strong problem-solving abilities, and collaborative relationships with health professionals aided adaptation and coping. Findings from this study make initial steps toward understanding how MS self-management evolves over the life course and how self-management programmes can help people with MS begin to manage wellness earlier in their lives. PMID:23277680

  8. A correlation study involving a comparison of professional science teaching standards and student performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schum, Paul A.

    If international report cards were issued today, to all industrialized nations world wide, the United States would receive a "C" at best in mathematics and science. This is not simply a temporary or simple cause and effect circumstance that can easily be addressed. The disappointing truth is that this downward trend in mathematics and science mastery by American students has been occurring steadily for at least the last eight years of international testing, and that there are numerous and varied bases for this reality. In response to this crisis, The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and The National Research Council (NRC) each have proposed relatively consistent, but individual sets of professional science teaching standards, designed to improve science instruction in American schools. It is of extreme value to the scientific, educational community to know if any or all of these standards lead to improved student performance. This study investigates the correlation between six, specific teacher behaviors that are common to these national standards and which behaviors, if any, result in improved student performance, as demonstrated on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT Assessment. These standards focus classroom science teachers on professional development, leading toward student mastery of scientific interpretation, concept development, and constructive relationship building. Because all individual teachers interpret roles, expectations, and guiding philosophies from different lenses, effective professional practice may reflect consistency in rationale and methodology yet will be best evidenced by an examination of specific teaching techniques. In this study, these teaching techniques are evidenced by self-reported teacher awareness and adherence to these consensual standards. Assessment instruments vary widely, and the results of student performance often reflect the congruency of curricular methodology and explicit testing domains. Although the recent educational impetus for change is most notably governed numerically by test scores, the true goal of scientific literacy is in the application of logic. Therefore, the ultimate thematic analysis in this study attempts to relate both educational theory and practice with positive change at the classroom level. The data gathered in this study is insufficient in establishing a significant correlation between adherence to national science teaching standards and student performance on the ACT in Jefferson County, Kentucky, for either public or Catholic school students. However, with respect to mean student scores on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT, there is statistically significant evidence for superior performance of Catholic school students compared with that of public school students in this region.

  9. Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

  10. Astronomy and religion (1780-1915). Four case studies involving ideas of extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    The present essay discusses four examples of interactions, two from the eighteenth century and two from the nineteenth. All four cases concern the relations between religion and the astronomical claim that intelligent beings exist elsewhere in space. In each of these four cases religious claims influenced astronomy. Cases 3 and 4 share a feature not usually encountered in studies on the interactions of astronomy and religion in that they are instances where not just theistic belief but in fact core doctrines of a specific religion, Christianity, influenced astronomy. I begin by surveying the interactions between religion and the idea of extraterrestrial intelligent life in the early modern period.

  11. Serotonergic involvement in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity: A detailed pharmacological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Steed; Caitlin A. Jones; Andrew C. McCreary

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) increases locomotor activity may be attributable to indirect activation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In the present study, the ability of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists WAY100635, GR127935, M100907 and SB242084, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonists WAY163909 and Ro 60-0175 or the 5-HT

  12. Study Finds Romantic Rejection Stimulates Areas of Brain Involved in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-07-06

    "Is romantic rejection a specific form of addiction?" This press release describes the experimental design and findings from a July 2010 study in the Journal of Neurophysiology entitled "Reward, Addiction and Emotion Regulation Systems Associated with Rejection in Love" conducted by Helen E. Fisher, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, Lucy L. Brown, Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, NY, Art Aron, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, and Greg Strong and Debra Mashek, the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  13. 004 op: enacting ppi in qualitative mental health research: peer researcher involvement in data analysis in the 'core' study.

    PubMed

    Morant, N; Lloyd-Evans, B

    2015-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is now an expected component of UK publicly-funded health research. Compatibilities with PPI aims and values mean that qualitative research is often a vehicle for enacting PPI. This presentation focuses on the involvement of "peer researchers" (service users and carers) in qualitative data analysis, and offers critical reflections of the practicalities of this process in the context of mental health research and an academic-led project. "CORE" (Crisis resolution team Optimisation and RElapse prevention) is a large NIHR-funded research project that aims to optimise the functioning of crisis resolution teams (CRTs). CRTs provide intensive home-based treatment for people experiencing an acute mental health crisis, as an alternative to hospital admission. They exist in all NHS Mental Health Trusts in England, but their performance and effectiveness is variable. The CORE project adopts a collaborative model of service user and carer involvement within an academic-led project. A large service user and carer working group contributes to a range of project activities including a qualitative study of stakeholders' views on current and best CRT practice, in which peer researchers have conducted interviews and been involved in data analysis. Faced with a large data set of more than 100 pieces of data, and little existing guidance on peer researcher involvement in qualitative data analysis, we attempted to develop an approach that enabled genuine involvement and maximised the methodological benefits of collaboration. Additional aims were to build research skills and capacity, and to obtain feedback from participants about their experiences of this. Peer researcher involvement began in the early stages of thematic analysis, in order to maximise contributions to the development of thematic codes at the point when these were most fluid and open. This was part of a staged process that meshed the work and perspectives of peer researchers with those of the academic researcher team. The presentation will describe this process and the rationale behind it, and discuss critical issues such as whether academic-led collaborations perpetuate or have the capacity to challenge existing power inequalities that are greater in mental health than other healthcare contexts. PMID:25869713

  14. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    PubMed

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety. PMID:21067673

  15. An ongoing study of group treatment for men involved in problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Orzack, Maressa Hecht; Voluse, Andrew C; Wolf, David; Hennen, John

    2006-06-01

    Exponential advances have been made regarding computer/Internet technology in the past decade. This growth, in large part, can be attributed to greater access to, affordability of, and anonymity while on the computer. However, this progress has also produced negative psychological issues. Problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior (IESB) has increasingly affected individuals' family relationships, work productivity, and academic success. This article is the first-known, empirically based outcome study regarding the effectiveness of group therapy treatment for men with problematic IESB. These closed-groups, which ran for 16 weeks, used a combination of Readiness to Change (RtC), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions. Five groups were analyzed for this paper (yielding a total N of 35), with the average member's age being 44.5 years old. Three different scales (the Orzack Time Intensity Survey, the BASIS-32, and the BDI) were used to track participants' progress across time. The results demonstrated that this group treatment intervention significantly increased members' quality of life and decreased the severity of their depressive symptoms. However, the protocol failed to reduce participants' inappropriate computer use. Regarding comorbidity, the results showed the following: members in the "anxiety" category responded best to the current treatment, those in the "mood" cluster responded relatively positively, and those in the "A-D/HD" category failed to respond significantly. It is clear from this report that more attention must be focused on the treatment of problematic IESB, as opposed to exploratory studies. PMID:16780403

  16. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2014-09-25

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792

  17. 75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance...review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of...

  18. 78 FR 8152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study SUMMARY: In compliance...review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of...

  19. NTOS symptoms and mobility: a case study on neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome involving massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Streit, Robin S

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is a neuromuscular condition affecting brachial plexus functionality. NTOS is characterized by paresthesia, pain, muscle fatigue, and restricted mobility in the upper extremity. This study quantified massage therapy's possible contribution to treatment of NTOS. A 24-year-old female with NTOS received eight treatments over 35 days. Treatment included myofascial release, trigger point therapy, cross fiber friction, muscle stripping, and gentle passive stretching. Abduction and lateral rotation at the glenohumeral (GH joint) assessments measured range of motion (ROM). A resisted muscle test evaluated upper extremity strength. The client rated symptoms daily via a visual analog scale (VAS). Findings showed improvement in ROM at the GH joint. VAS ratings revealed a reduction in muscle weakness, pain, numbness, and 'paresthesia'. Results suggest massage may be useful as part of a broad approach to managing NTOS symptoms and improving mobility. PMID:24411148

  20. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(4), 21-26.]. PMID:25800405

  1. Expression and Replication Studies to Identify New Candidate Genes Involved in Normal Hearing Function

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

  2. Expression and replication studies to identify new candidate genes involved in normal hearing function.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Giorgia; Vuckovic, Dragana; Buniello, Annalisa; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Lewis, Morag; Gasparini, Paolo; Steel, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying deafness genes, but still little is known about the genetic basis of normal variation in hearing function. We recently carried out a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of quantitative hearing traits in southern European populations and found several SNPs with suggestive but none with significant association. In the current study, we followed up these SNPs to investigate which of them might show a genuine association with auditory function using alternative approaches. Firstly, we generated a shortlist of 19 genes from the published GWAS results. Secondly, we carried out immunocytochemistry to examine expression of these 19 genes in the mouse inner ear. Twelve of them showed distinctive cochlear expression patterns. Four showed expression restricted to sensory hair cells (Csmd1, Arsg, Slc16a6 and Gabrg3), one only in marginal cells of the stria vascularis (Dclk1) while the others (Ptprd, Grm8, GlyBP, Evi5, Rimbp2, Ank2, Cdh13) in multiple cochlear cell types. In the third step, we tested these 12 genes for replication of association in an independent set of samples from the Caucasus and Central Asia. Nine out of them showed nominally significant association (p<0.05). In particular, 4 were replicated at the same SNP and with the same effect direction while the remaining 5 showed a significant association in a gene-based test. Finally, to look for genotype-phenotype relationship, the audiometric profiles of the three genotypes of the most strongly associated gene variants were analyzed. Seven out of the 9 replicated genes (CDH13, GRM8, ANK2, SLC16A6, ARSG, RIMBP2 and DCLK1) showed an audiometric pattern with differences between different genotypes further supporting their role in hearing function. These data demonstrate the usefulness of this multistep approach in providing new insights into the molecular basis of hearing and may suggest new targets for treatment and prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:24454846

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 as Tool for Functional Study of Genes Involved in Preimplantation Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient gene-editing tool for genome modification of cells and organisms. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in pig embryos have not been studied in depth. Here, we aimed to remove porcine OCT4 function as a model case using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Injection of Cas9 and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) against OCT4 decreased the percentages of OCT4-positive embryos to 37–50% of total embryos, while ~100% of control embryos exhibited clear OCT4 immunostaining. We assessed the mutation status near the guide sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, and a portion of blastocysts (20% in exon 2 and 50% in exon 5) had insertions/deletions near protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs). Different target sites had frequent deletions, but different concentrations of sgRNA made no impact. OCT4 mRNA levels dramatically decreased at the 8-cell stage, and they were barely detectable in blastocysts, while mRNA levels of other genes, including NANOG, and CDX2 were not affected. In addition, the combination of two sgRNAs led to large-scale deletion (about 1.8 kb) in the same chromosome. Next, we injected an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) vector targeting the OCT4 exon with Cas9 and sgRNA to create a knockin. We confirmed eGFP fluorescence in blastocysts in the inner cell mass, and also checked the mutation status using PCR and DNA sequencing. A significant portion of blastocysts had eGFP sequence insertions near PAM sites. The CRISPR/CAS9 system provides a good tool for gene functional studies by deleting target genes in the pig. PMID:25775469

  4. Involved-Node and Involved-Field Volumetric Modulated Arc vs. Fixed Beam Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Female Patients With Early-Stage Supra-Diaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Comparative Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@medecine.unige.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Peguret, Nicolas; Dipasquale, Giovanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: A comparative treatment planning study was performed to compare volumetric-modulated arc (RA) to conventional intensity modulated (IMRT) for involved-field (IFRT) and involved-node (INRT) radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for RA and IMRT. First, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OAR) dose deposition was assessed between the two modalities. Second, the OAR (lung, breast, heart, thyroid, and submandibular gland) dose-volume histograms were computed and compared for IFRT and INRT, respectively. Results: For IFRT and INRT, PTV coverage was equally homogeneous with both RA and IMRT. By and large, the OAR irradiation with IFRT planning was not significantly different between RA and IMRT. For INRT, doses computed for RA were, however, usually lower than those with IMRT, particularly so for the lung, breast, and thyroid. Regardless of RA and IMRT modalities, a significant 20-50% decrease of the OAR computed mean doses was observed with INRT when compared with IFRT (Breast D{sub Mean} 1.5 +- 1.1 vs. 2.6 +- 1.7 Gy, p < 0.01 and 1.6 +- 1.1 vs. 2.9 +- 1.9 Gy, p < 0.01 for RA and IMRT, respectively). Conclusions: RA and IMRT results in similar level of dose homogeneity. With INRT but not IFRT planning, the computed doses to the PTV and OAR were usually higher and lower with RA when compared to IMRT. Regardless of the treatment modality, INRT when compared with IFRT planning led to a significant decrease in OAR doses, particularly so for the breast and heart.

  5. A matched observational study of survival in cats with enucleation due to diffuse iris melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kalishman, J.B.; Chappell, R.; Flood, L.A.; Dubielzig, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Although a small number of cases of feline diffuse iris melanoma have been documented to metastasize, the prognosis is not known. In this matched observational study, the survival time of 34 cats with enucleation due to histologically confirmed diffuse iris melanoma was recorded. These results are compared to the survival times of 83 age-matched control cats. Affected cats had enucleation between 2 and 10 years prior to the study. One group of control cats with eye disease had enucleation for either lymphoplasmacytic uveitis (27 cases), ocular trauma (seven cases), or endophthalmitis (four cases). In these control cats, enucleations were performed between 2 and 10 years prior to this study. Forty-five additional control cats presented for vaccination between 2 and 10 years prior to the study. The extent of diffuse iris melanoma at the time of enucleation in affected cats was graded according to the extent of involvement of ocular tissues and the invasiveness of the tumor. Affected cats have a significantly decreased survival compared with control cats and cats with extensive tumors at the time of enucleation have the lowest survival rates. Cats with tumors confined to the iris survive at the same rate as controls. These results suggests that early enucleation is important to avoid premature death, presumed to be due to cancer metastasis in cats with diffuse iris melanoma. PMID:11397206

  6. A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

  7. The Foreigner Talk of a Family Physician: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dana Kristine

    A study analyzed the characteristics of one male physician's foreigner talk over the telephone with non-native speakers (NNSs) of English and compared it to that of native speakers (NSs). The conversations all related to requests that patients come into the office for a periodic, preventative physical exam. Data came from tape recordings of the…

  8. Infliximab treatment in ankylosing spondylitis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nikas, S; Alamanos, Y; Voulgari, P; Pliakou, X; Papadopoulos, C; Drosos, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: 35 patients with AS with mean (SD) age 42.5 (12.6) years and mean (SD) disease duration 14.5 (8.0) years were studied for 2 years. Patients entering the study had a negative tuberculin skin test, were fully informed about the treatment, and were followed up regularly. Infliximab, 5 mg/kg weight, was given intravenously at weeks 0, 2, 6, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Data concerning infliximab tolerability, adverse events, interval, and drug discontinuation were all recorded. Clinical improvement according to the BASDAI and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Assessment Study group (ASAS) 20%, 40%, and ASAS 5/6 response criteria were recorded. Results: After 1 year, 20 (57%) patients achieved the BASDAI 50% response criteria, 25 (71%) achieved ASAS 20%, 23 (66%) reached ASAS 40%, and 18 (51%) attained ASAS 5/6. After 2 years' treatment, 11 (31%) patients achieved BASDAI 50% response criteria, 14 (40%) ASAS 20%, 11 (31%) ASAS 40%, and 9 (26%) ASAS 5/6. Clinical improvement was associated with an improved BASFI and reduction of CRP. After 2 years' treatment, "infliximab survival" was 89%. Treatment was well tolerated and adverse events were mild; 3 patients discontinued the study. Conclusion: Infliximab was effective, safe, and well tolerated in patients with AS. PMID:15564309

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

  10. An Observational Study of Co-Rumination in Adolescent Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Glick, Gary C.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' "tendency" to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of…

  11. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  12. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  13. Pharyngeal cancer prevention: evidence from a case--control study involving 232 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Escribano Uzcudun, Ana; Rabanal Retolaza, Ignacio; García Grande, Antonio; Miralles Olivar, Lara; García García, Alfredo; González Barón, Manuel; Gavilán Bouzas, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for pharyngeal cancer and to propose 10 result-based preventive measures. It was a case-control study conducted in Madrid, Spain, with 232 consecutive patients diagnosed between January 1 1990 and December 31, 1995, sex- and age-matched with 232 control individuals with no oncological disease or history. By means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, seven different epidemiological areas were surveyed, namely: (1) sociodemographic variables, (2) familial all-site cancer history, (3) medical history, (4) lifestyle (habits), (5) diet, (6) occupational exposure, and (7) non-occupational exposure. Of the great number of factors within each epidemiological area, the following were found to be risk factors after adjustment for tobacco smoking and alcoholic beverage drinking: (1) tobacco smoking, (2) alcoholic beverage drinking, (3) low and low-middle socioeconomic background, (4) low educational level, (5) rural milieu, (6) working, or having worked, as a manual worker in agriculture, (7) working, or having worked as a manual worker in building industry, (8) having an upper aerodigestive tract cancer familial history, (9) having a medical history of alcholism, low weight/malnutrition, gastroesophageal reflux or chronic obstructive bronchopneumonia, (10) low dietary intake of fruit, fruit juice, uncooked vegetables, dietary fibre-containing foods, fish and milk and dairy products, (11) high dietary intake of meat and fried foods, (12) deficient oral and dental hygiene, (13) abuse of black coffee, (14) abuse of 'carajillo' (a typical Spanish drink composed of black coffee and flambéed brandy), (15) occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents and dust of different origins. On the basis of our results and those reported by other authors, we put forward 10 measures for the prevention of pharyngeal cancer. However, due to the small size of the nasopharyngeal cancer subsample (n = 35, 15.08 per cent), our results as well as the preventive measures are to considered as referring uniquely to oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. In addition, from descriptive statistical data inspection one can conclude that nasopharyngeal cancer is likely to bear risk factors different from those for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, thus nasopharyngeal cancer warrants specific epidemiological investigation with a sufficiently large patient sample. PMID:12238672

  14. HIV: An Epidemiologic study on Head and Neck Involvement in 50 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Sarvghad, Mohammad Reza; Khazaeni, Kamran; Movahed, Rahman; Hoseinpour, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide infection. Because of the vast array of manifestations of AIDS and its many atypical presentations, it is becoming increasingly challenging for clinicians to accurately diagnose new lesions. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 2007 to 2010, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the findings of a physical examination and paraclinic tests, HIV signs and symptoms were recorded. Results: The mean (range) age of the patients was 35.45 ±5.24 (5–55) years. Forty-two (84%) cases were male and eight were female. The mean duration of carrying the virus was 4.51 ±1.03 years. Oral manifestations were the most common (94%), followed by rhinologic (88%), otologic (66%), and finally neck (44%) manifestations. Conclusion: Head and neck presentations are very common in HIV patients; therefore otolaryngologists, as the first physicians who may encounter such patients, should be aware of this condition. PMID:24744998

  15. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  16. An Examination of the Influence of No Child Left Behind on Parental Involvement Policies, Practices, and Programs in Oklahoma Public Schools: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Dana Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined superintendents' or designees' perceptions in light of NCLB (2002) and to understand parental involvement through the lens of Epstein's Framework of Parent Involvement (1992, 1995, 2002). The central problem was that despite parental involvement legislation, implementation and effectiveness of policies, and programs varies…

  17. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Cynthia D. Mulrow; Stuart J. Pocock; Charles Poole; James J. Schlesselman; Matthias Egger

    2007-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

  18. Theoretical studies of quantum amplified isomerizations for imaging systems involving hexamethyl Dewar benzene and related systems.

    PubMed

    Norton, Joseph E; Olson, Leif P; Houk, K N

    2006-06-21

    The ring-opening reactions of the radical cations of hexamethyl Dewar benzene (1) and Dewar benzene have been studied using density functional theory (DFT) and complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. Compound 1 is known to undergo photoinitiated ring opening by a radical cation chain mechanism, termed "quantum amplified isomerization" (QAI), which is due to the high quantum yield. Why QAI is efficient for 1 but not other reactions is explained computationally. Two radical cation minima of 1 and transition states located near avoided crossings are identified. The state crossings are characterized by conical intersections corresponding to degeneracy between doublet surfaces. Ring opening occurs by formation of the radical cation followed by a decrease in the flap dihedral angle. A rate-limiting Cs transition state leads to a second stable radical cation with an elongated transannular C-C bond and an increased flap dihedral. This structure proceeds through a conrotatory-like pathway of Cs symmetry to give the benzene radical cation. The role of electron transfer was investigated by evaluating oxidation of various systems using adiabatic ionization energies and electron affinities calculated from neutral and cation geometries. Electron-transfer theory was applied to 1 to investigate the limiting effects of back-electron transfer as it is related to the unusual stability of the two radical cations. Expected changes in optical properties between reactants and products of Dewar benzene compounds and other systems known to undergo QAI were characterized by computing frequency-dependent indices of refraction from isotropic polarizabilities. In particular, the reaction of 1 shows greater contrast in index of refraction than that of the Dewar benzene parent system. PMID:16771497

  19. The Timing of Drug Funding Announcements Relative to Elections: A Case Study Involving Dementia Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S.; Gupta, Neeraj; Bell, Chaim M.; Rochon, Paula A.; Austin, Peter C.; Laupacis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Following initial regulatory approval of prescription drugs, many factors may influence insurers and health systems when they decide whether to add these drugs to their formularies. The role of political pressures on drug funding announcements has received relatively little attention, and elections represent an especially powerful form of political pressure. We examined the temporal relationship between decisions to add one class of drugs to publicly funded formularies in Canada's ten provinces and elections in these jurisdictions. Methods Dates of provincial formulary listings for cholinesterase inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, were compared to the dates of provincial elections. Medical journal articles, media reports, and proceedings from provincial legislatures were reviewed to assemble information on the chronology of events. We tested whether there was a statistically significant increase in the probability of drug funding announcements within the 60-day intervals preceding provincial elections. Results Decisions to fund the cholinesterase inhibitors were made over a nine-year span from 1999 to 2007 in the ten provinces. In four of ten provinces, the drugs were added to formularies in a time period closely preceding a provincial election (P?=?0.032); funding announcements in these provinces were made between 2 and 47 days prior to elections. Statements made in provincial legislatures highlight the key role of political pressures in these funding announcements. Conclusions Impending elections appeared to affect the timing of drug funding announcements in this case study. Despite an established structure for evidence-based decision-making, drug funding remains a complex process open to influence from many sources. Awareness of such influences is critical to maintain effective drug policy and public health decision-making. PMID:23460820

  20. Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n?=?15) and pre-model (n?=?65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n?=?15), the sham-point group (n?=?15), and the ST36 group (n?=?15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495

  1. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

  2. Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

  3. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

  4. Carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed by general practitioners: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Claes, F; Bernsen, H; Meulstee, J; Verhagen, W I M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the results of both clinical testing and standardised nerve conduction studies performed on patients with Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) complaints, who had been referred to the neurologist by their general practitioners. Analysis of the data of neurological examination and electrodiagnostic tests (EDX) were performed on patients that had been referred by general practitioners. A total of 232 patients with clinically defined CTS, who had been referred by general practitioners, were seen by a neurologist and subsequently underwent electrodiagnostic testing. The diagnosis of CTS made by general practitioners was clinically confirmed by the neurologist in 187 of 232 (81%) patients. In these 187 patients, EDX confirmed CTS clinical diagnosis in 180. In 40 (17%), the neurologists disagreed with the clinical diagnosis of CTS because signs and symptoms were not those of clinical CTS. We showed that general practitioners are very well capable of making a clinical diagnosis of CTS. Therefore, direct referral of patients by general practitioners for nerve conduction studies to have their diagnosis of CTS confirmed is a desirable and time-saving procedure. PMID:22198648

  5. The impact of consent on observational research: a comparison of outcomes from consenters and non consenters to an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Una Macleod; Graham CM Watt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health benefits from research often rely on the use of data from personal medical records. When neither patient consent nor anonymisation is possible, the case for accessing such records for research purposes depends on an assessment of the probabilities of public benefit and individual harm. METHODS: In the late 1990s, we carried out an observational study which compared

  6. Diurnal cycle on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, J. A.; Saenz, F.

    2013-05-01

    The atmospheric diurnal cycle in tropical regions under different atmospheric environments is crucial to understand the role of convective activity (both, thermal and mechanical) in the global circulation energy budget. Many of the physical mechanisms involved in the diurnal cycle, such as the land-sea and mountain-valley breezes, are not well understood, partly because of lack of observational studies and the deficiencies shown by numerical models to capture the essence of the process. Studies of the diurnal cycle, and its interaction with other processes at different time and space scales, such as trade winds, have been relatively scarce. In this paper, preliminary results are presented for available observational data of precipitation and wind from several automatic meteorological stations in order to identify major features of the mean diurnal cycle on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. The analyzed region includes a relatively flat area near the coast and a mountain range to its west, being partly influenced by the trade wind system all year round. This factor provides the opportunity to investigate the diurnal cycle under different synoptic and climate conditions. Data consists of a set of 19 stations with hourly resolution for 2006-2011and 8 stations for 2000-2006. The spatial distribution of the stations covers a transect of about 350 km long, which allows a wide range of topographical conditions to be considered. Observational results over the region show a large contrast among the stations in the mean precipitation diurnal cycle patterns that seem to be the result of the interaction of the large scale environment (trades), the local land-sea characteristics, and the topography.

  7. Atmospheric Tides over the Pyrenees. Observational study and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz de Argandoña, Javier; Ezcurra, Agustin; Saenz, Jon; Campistron, Bernard; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel; Saïd, Frederique

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric tides refer to the oscillations in the atmosphere whose periods are integral fractions of a day. In some magnitudes (e.g. temperature), these oscillations are quite evident but in others, such as the pressure in the midlatitudes, they are usually masked by the greater variations produced during the transient pass of synoptic weather systems. The main forcing agent for these oscillations, as opposed to ocean tides, is not the solar or lunar gravity pull, but the daily variations in solar insolation and the thermal effect derived from it. The main components of the solar atmospheric tides are the semidiurnal, with a 12-hour period, and the 24-hour period component or diurnal tide. The global scale tides are usually referred to as migrating tides, and are the result of a gravity wave which travels westerly with the apparent motion of the sun. Nevertheless, a significant part of the tide can be related to local characteristics, and this part is considered as the non-migrating component of the tide. Barometric tides around the Pyrenees mountain range are analyzed by means of ground synoptic stations data recorded during one year, ground data from PYREX experiment and the CRA/LA VHF wind profiler installed in the North of the range. Tides are decomposed in their diurnal and semidiurnal components. Diurnal tides show a strong non migrating component and are very dependent on local conditions. Semidiurnal tides are more homogeneous and present a north-south asymmetry, also noted in the Alps. This cross-range asymmetry seems to be related to some interference effect caused by the mountain range in the migrating semidiurnal tide wave. The diurnal component asymmetry presents a very strong seasonal variation, so its cause must be probably related to thermal local conditions. A three month simulation carried out with NCAR's WRF limited area model reproduces this asymmetry and some of the features of the observed tides.

  8. Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

    Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

  9. Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

  10. Active Commuting to Elementary School and Adiposity: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth-grade adiposity. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (n=7938). Enrollment in kindergarten (1998–1999) was nationally representative of the United States and follow-up occurred in 2004. Kindergarten ACS was the main exposure variable and fifth-grade BMI z-score was the main outcome measure. Covariates included (1) neighborhood safety and BMI z-score in kindergarten and (2) demographics (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, single- vs. two-parent households, region of country, and urbanicity in fifth grade). Three interactions were included: school travel*neighborhood safety; school travel*BMI z-score (kindergarten); and school travel*socioeconomic status. Analysis of covariance accounted for the complex sampling design. Results: Kindergarten ACS was associated with lower BMI z-score in fifth grade. The interaction of school travel*neighborhood safety indicated that children from less-safe neighborhoods who did ACS in kindergarten had a lower fifth-grade BMI z-score (p<0.05) than their peers who did not do ACS in kindergarten (i.e., in terms of BMI, this difference was ?0.49?kg/m2 for children of average height in less-safe neighborhoods). Conclusion: Among children from less-safe neighborhoods, kindergarten ACS independently predicted lower BMI z-score in fifth grade among a national US cohort. Interventions and policies to increase ACS among young children, especially from unsafe neighborhoods, are warranted and should address parents' safety concerns. PMID:24443901

  11. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline). To adequately address local concerns, cases found it necessary to also search and appraise primary studies, resulting in hybrid (adaptation plus de novo) guideline development strategies that required advanced methodological skills. Adaptation was found to be an action element in the knowledge translation continuum that required integration of an implementation perspective. Accordingly, the adaptation methodology and resources were reformulated and substantially augmented to provide practical assistance to groups not supported by a dedicated guideline panel and to provide more implementation planning support. The resulting framework is called CAN-IMPLEMENT. PMID:23656884

  12. An observational study of arm structure in normal spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Christopher

    Multivariate data were obtained and analyzed in an effort to develop a new classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is not necessarily based on morphological properties. By comparing morphological measures with the intrinsic parameters on which the new system is based, it can be seen just how fundamentally important a galactic property arm structure truly is. A sample of 492 moderately bright northern Sa, SBa, Sc, and SBc spirals was chosen for statistical analysis. The literature was searched for redshifts, optical and near-infrared photometric data, 20 cm fluxes, and H I 21 cm line parameters. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; in addition, IRAS fluxes were obtained from archival data. These data were subjected to principal component analysis, modified in that non-detections were explicitly acknowledged. Spiral galaxies have two fundamental properties, confirming previous work done with fewer data. While scale (bulk) is most important, galaxies of given scale can vary in form (color, bulge/disk ratio, H I surface density). Arm strength is unrelated to other properties. Forty-five spatially isolated spirals were chosen for two-color optical CCD imaging, for 20 cm continuum imaging, and for CO 2.6 mm spectroscopy. Isolated Sa's are often found to be misclassified; they are either armless SO's or else peculiar victims of collisions. Isolated Sc's are surprising in that all but the most isolated examples have symmetric arms over at least part of the disk, contrary to the predictions of stochastic models for arm formation. Given the extreme isolation of all highly chaotic disks, the presence of tidal companions (or at least candidates) for the other normal isolated spirals, the apparent prevalence of violent processes in isolated Sa's, and recent N-body simulations of tidal encounters, it is likely that arm structure in most spirals is produced by tidal encounters with small companions. Arm structure is not an intrinsic property of a given galaxy. All of these results can be explained by supposing that protogalactic environments is the determining influence for spirals.

  13. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  14. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  15. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    E-print Network

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  16. Ultrastructural study of muscle in vocal fold: postmortem damage observations.

    PubMed

    Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Leão, Henrique Záquia; Coiro, José Rafael Rosito

    2003-12-01

    Various authors have published results related to the ultrastructure of vocal folds in specific areas proceeding from human cadavers. Nevertheless, starting from the premise that a fundamental principle of sampling and the samples should be a true representative of the whole, the authors decided to examine vocal folds from human cadavers and compare them to normal vocal folds from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). The findings of these authors demonstrated clearly that the conclusion of Rhodin (1954) is correct, that a biological sample must be preserved immediately after blood circulation ceases, and that the intermediary time between biopsy and fixation cannot be more than 3 minutes. Cells fixed a few hours after death appeared disaggregated, and many of their endocellular components were profoundly altered. The results obtained by the authors suggests that ultrastructural studies with cadaverous material may lead to serious risks or doubts about the accuracy of the results and consequently result in dubious interpretations. PMID:14740927

  17. Study of Factors Involved in Tongue Color Diagnosis by Kampo Medical Practitioners Using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and Tongue Color Images

    PubMed Central

    Oji, Takeshi; Namiki, Takao; Ueda, Keigo; Takeda, Kanako; Nakamura, Michimi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine), tongue color is important in discerning a patient's constitution and medical conditions. However, tongue color diagnosis is susceptible to the subjective factors of the observer. To investigate factors involved in tongue color diagnosis, both color discrimination and tongue color diagnosis were researched in 68 Kampo medical practitioners. Color discrimination was studied by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, and tongue color diagnosis was studied by 84 tongue images. We found that overall color discrimination worsened with aging. However, the color discrimination related to tongue color regions was maintained in subjects with 10 or more years of Kampo experience. On the other hand, tongue color diagnosis significantly differed between subjects with <10 years of experience and ?10 years of experience. Practitioners with ?10 years of experience could maintain a consistent diagnosis of tongue color regardless of their age. PMID:24808919

  18. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78 % of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow for health care personnel to screen for high-risk children and intervene before it is too late. Screening could also be done in the schools and organized after school activities. Parenting classes have been shown to be an effective intervention strategy by decreasing parental stress and potential for abuse, but there has been limited research done on this approach. Parenting classes can be part of the corrective actions for parents found to be neglectful or abusive, but parenting classes may also be useful as a preventative measure, being taught in schools or readily available in higher-risk communities. More research has to be done to better define child abuse and neglect so that it can be effectively addressed and treated. PMID:25398462

  19. Observational and modelling studies of Australian severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Milton Samuel

    1998-09-01

    The forecastability of severe weather conditions over sub-tropical Australia are tested with a mesoscale model capable of running at high resolutions over a region of interest anywhere in the world. Improved forecast output, for example, of precipitation, wind speed/direction and humidity which are required to indicate severe weather conditions are dependent on model improvements and the following areas are addressed: (1)data; (2)theory; (3)model; and, (4)computing. The initial condition uncertainty inherent in the data which is used in the analysis to initialise numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is addressed through two ensemble forecasting studies, one on rainfall from a mesoscale system and the other on the central low position, wind and rainfall distribution of an explosive east coast low. Also, relating to data, some major mesoscale phenomena are described in the form of New South Wales coastal ridging which helps produce severe weather in this area and which needs to be captured by a mesoscale NWP model in order that improved predictions can be made. In terms of theory the major focus is on the ensemble methodology and on the use of improved precipitation parameterisations, namely, those of Fritsch-Chappell and Kain-Fritsch. The mesoscale model development is extended through the use of increased resolution studies, for example, by showing statistically significant greater than operational skill in predicting details of wind, relative humidity and temperature patterns both near the surface and above the boundary layer in relation to the Sydney January 1994 bushfire weather; by including an option for a Lagrangian particle dispersion model; and by replacement of a previously inadequate representation of cumulus convection which was required to represent the effects of mesoscale downdrafts which are essential for the successful prediction of the squall-line over Sydney in Chapter 7. Mesoscale weather prediction is one of the so called `grand challenges' of computational science in that it requires large amounts of memory and very efficient use of high performance computers. In this thesis the computations ranged form multiprocessor shared memory main frames; high performance work stations; and, now state-of-the-art Pentium PCs. Each of these machines has its distinct requirements for optimisation. Much work has been dedicated in producing code that transfers easily between platforms.

  20. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study.

    PubMed

    Aulická, Stefania Rusnáková; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, Marek; Bo?ková, Martina; Chrastina, Jan; Rektor, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    We studied the appearance of broadband oscillatory changes (ranging 2-45 Hz) induced by a cognitive task with two levels of complexity. The event-related de/synchronizations (ERD/S) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were evaluated in an executive function test. Four epilepsy surgery candidates with intracerebral electrodes implanted in the ACC and three Parkinson's disease patients with externalized deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in the STN participated in the study. A Flanker test (FT) with visual stimuli (arrows) was performed. Subjects reacted to four types of stimuli presented on the monitor by pushing the right or left button: congruent arrows to the right or left side (simple task) and incongruent arrows to the right or left side (more difficult complex task). We explored the activation of STN and the activation of the ACC while processing the FT. Both conditions, i.e. congruent and incongruent, induced oscillatory changes in the ACC and also STN with significantly higher activation during incongruent trial. At variance with the ACC, in the STN not only the ERD beta but also the ERD alpha activity was significantly more activated by the incongruent condition. In line with our earlier studies, the STN appears to be involved in activities linked with increased cognitive load. The specificity and complexity of task-related activation of the STN might indicate the involvement of the STN in processes controlling human behaviour, e.g. in the selection and inhibition of competing alternatives. PMID:24658745

  1. Abnormalities of nerve conduction studies in myotonic dystrophy type 1: primary involvement of nerves or incidental coexistence?

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Seok; Kim, Oeung-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2008-10-01

    The involvement of peripheral nerves in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is controversial and the features of peripheral neuropathy (PN) are not well known. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of abnormal nerve conduction findings and the electrophysiological characteristics of PN in DM1. We analyzed medical records, data from nerve conduction studies (NCS), and the results of genetic analysis of 18 patients with DM1 and 30 healthy individuals. The early changes identified in NCS were determined using the sural/ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitude ratio (SUAR). To correlate the neuropathic changes with cardiac abnormality, we compared the corrected Q-wave/T-wave interval (QTc) with the NCS parameters. Eight of 18 patients had abnormal NCS findings. Of these, abnormal peroneal motor nerve conduction and H-reflex abnormalities were most common. Only one patient complained of sensory symptoms and had abnormal sensory and motor nerve conduction compatible with sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. There were no significant correlations between SUAR and disease duration, age, gene CTG repeats, or the QTc. The presence of diabetes was not related to abnormal nerve conduction or SUAR. The frequency of PN or abnormal NCS results was lower in our patients with DM1 than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that most abnormal NCS results in DM1 patients are more likely to result from myopathic changes, coincidental neuropathies, or radiculopathies than from primary involvement of the nerve. PMID:18657426

  2. Examining the Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McGwin, Gerald; Mitchell, Bradford; Searcey, Karen; Albert, Michael A.; Feist, Richard; Mason, John O.; Thomley, Martin; Owsley, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about motor vehicle collision (MVC) risk in older drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study is to examine associations between MVC involvement and AMD presence and severity. Methods In a retrospective cohort study pooling the samples from four previous studies, we examined associations between MVC rate and older drivers with early, intermediate, or advanced AMD as compared to those in normal eye health. MVC data were based on accident reports obtained from the state agency that compiles this information. Results MVC rate was highest among those in normal eye health and progressively declined among those with early and intermediate disease, and then increased for those with advanced AMD. However, only for drivers with intermediate AMD was the MVC rate significantly different (lower) as compared to those in normal eye health, regardless of whether the rate was defined in terms of person-years (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.89) or person-miles (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13–0.91) of driving. Conclusion These results suggest that older drivers with intermediate AMD have a reduced risk of collision involvement. Further research should investigate whether self-regulatory driving practices by these drivers (avoiding challenging driving situations) underlies this reduced risk. PMID:23832967

  3. [Perioperative nursing education and client satisfaction: an observational study].

    PubMed

    Mecugni, Daniela; Iemmi, Marina; Formisano, Debora; Caffarri, Cristiana; Brindani, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, an important goal has been reached in recognizing that the client plays a central role in the caring process. The educational relationship that is created between nurses and patients makes it possible to make the patient aware of his health problems and to understand and actively participate in the caring process. The main aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the teaching process undertaken by nurses , before discharging surgical patients , for rendering patients autonomous once they returned home and their level of "satisfaction" regarding the information they received. For this purpose they were asked to fill in a questionnaire when they returned for their first outpatient control. Results showed that, on the whole, patients were satisfied with the information they received during hospitalization, particularly in terms of postoperative pain, prevention of infections, medical therapy, mobilization and a return to normal eating and drinking. Some aspects still need to be improved regarding a post-discharge phone contact and better hospital-territorial integration. PMID:22044546

  4. Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; López-Fernández, María T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaquín; López-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmother’s pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) – odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.9) – and during the mother’ pregnancies – OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–3.3) – were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmother’s and mother’s pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

  5. [Observation and study on atmospheric VOCs in Changsha city].

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the key precursors of atmospheric ozone (O3), which also contribute to the production of SOA. During 2008, VOCs were measured near Changsha City. Weekly integrated canister samples were collected and analyzed in the morning and afternoon of each Tuesday. Simultaneously, concentration, potential ozone production and sources of VOCs in the atmosphere of Changsha were studied. The results indicated that the total VOCs species had higher concentrations in the morning (38.4 x 10(-9)), and lower in the afternoon (22.7 x 10(-9)), where the concentration of halo carbon was the highest, and alkanes, aromatics and alkenes came next. The m/p-xylene had the highest OH reactivity concentration (10.71 x 10(-9) C), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (6.04 x 10(-9) C) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (2.23 x 10(-9) C) came next. Aromatics (66%) had the most significant contribution to the production of O3 in the atmospheric VOCs of Changsha, and alkenes (26%) and alkanes (8%) came next. The highest concentrations of propane and isopentane indicated vehicular exhaust and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) appear to be the main source of VOCs in Changsha City. Benzene/toluene ratio was higher than 0.5 which was close to 0.8, showing solvent volatilization was also a main source of VOCs. PMID:22468515

  6. An observational study of turbulence in the SPBL

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    1997-09-01

    Turbulence in the stable planetary boundary layer (SPBL) is complicated by intermittency, gravity waves, long time scales and meso-scale forcing. Surface features and topography are also important. This study examines turbulence near the top of the SPBL with data taken from a network of 61 m towers. The focus is on the role of moderately complex terrain on turbulent intermittency and spatial variation. The Savannah River Site is {approx}150 km from the Atlantic Ocean and is characterized by rolling forested hills and an average elevation of {approx}80 m ASL. Typical variations in elevation are 50 m (peak to valley) with a horizontal scale of several km. The most important topographic feature is the Savannah River flood plain, which borders the SRS to the southwest. This flood plain is 3-7 km wide with an average elevation of 40 m ASL. Nine 60 meter towers are located on the SRS, generally at higher elevations (81 - 109 m ASL), except for the D tower which is in the Savannah River flood plain (elevation 43 m ASL). The Cl tower differs from the other 8 towers because it collects data at 2, 18, and 36 m as well as 61 m. The TV tower, located 8 km northwest of the SRS, is instrumented at 8 levels from the surface to 300 m.

  7. Dissection as Inquiry: Using the "Peanut Observation" Activity to Promote a Revised Paradigm of Dissection and Facilitate Student Involvement and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Penny L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the peanut observation activity to teach about the pros and cons of dissection. As an inquiry-based approach, dissection is one way to teach process skills. Lists the progression of the activity as observation, questioning and finding the answer, challenge, discussion, and further examination. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  8. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  9. Primary care capitation payments in the UK. An observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2004 an allocation formula for primary care services was introduced in England and Wales so practices would receive equitable pay. Modifications were made to this formula to enable local health authorities to pay practices. Similar pay formulae were introduced in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but these are unique to the country and therefore could not be included in this study. Objective To examine the extent to which the Global Sum, and modifications to the original formula, determine practice funding. Methods The allocation formula determines basic practice income, the Global Sum. We compared practice Global Sum entitlements using the original and the modified allocation formula calculations. Practices receive an income supplement if Global Sum payments were below historic income in 2004. We examined current overall funding levels to estimate what the effect will be when the income supplements are removed. Results Virtually every Welsh and English practice (97%) received income supplements in 2004. Without the modifications to the formula only 72% of Welsh practices would have needed supplements. No appreciable change would have occurred in England. The formula modifications increased the Global Sum for 99.5% of English practices, while it reduced entitlement for every Welsh practice. In 2008 Welsh practices received approximately £6.15 (9%) less funding per patient per year than an identical English practice. This deficit will increase to 11.2% when the Minimum Practice Income Guarantee is abolished. Conclusions Identical practices in different UK countries do not receive equitable pay. The pay method disadvantages Wales where the population is older and has higher health needs. PMID:20529330

  10. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  11. An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

  12. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  13. Parent Involvement

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

  14. A Case Study of Five Urban Middle School Teachers Involved In A Culturally Responsive Teaching Teacher Study Group

    E-print Network

    Kerr, Alicia Ann

    2011-08-08

    the progression of staff development with some of the following ideas: teachers talking about their own thinking, initiating change in the school environment, contributing to the knowledge base of the profession and sharing in 16 the leadership of schools...-Chairs of Committee, Patricia J. Larke Zohreh Eslami Committee Members, Stephanie Knight Radhika Viruru Head of Department, Dennie Smith May 2010 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction iii ABSTRACT A Case Study of Five Urban Middle School Teachers...

  15. Response to Intervention, Family Involvement, and Student Achievement at Tier 2: A Mixed Methods Study of K-1 Students and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzel-Short, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the importance of family involvement in student learning and achievement within the Response to Intervention framework. This study built upon the premise that family involvement in a child's education is paramount if educational gaps are to be closed. Families included in this study were randomly assigned into a…

  16. School Expectations for Parental Involvement and Student Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study of Middle Schools in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hui; Akiba, Motoko

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental…

  17. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict drug-drug interactions involving inhibitory metabolite: a case study of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Mao, Jialin; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of drug-drug interaction (DDI) involving circulating inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs has recently drawn more attention from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. Here, using amiodarone (AMIO) as an example, we demonstrate the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to assess how a potential inhibitory metabolite can contribute to clinically significant DDIs. Amiodarone was reported to increase the exposure of simvastatin, dextromethorphan, and warfarin by 1.2- to 2-fold, which was not expected based on its weak inhibition observed in vitro. The major circulating metabolite, mono-desethyl-amiodarone (MDEA), was later identified to have a more potent inhibitory effect. Using a combined "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach, a PBPK model was built to successfully simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of AMIO and MDEA, particularly their accumulation in plasma and liver after a long-term treatment. The clinical AMIO DDIs were predicted using the verified PBPK model with incorporation of cytochrome P450 inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA. The closest prediction was obtained for CYP3A (simvastatin) DDI when the competitive inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA was considered, for CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan) DDI when the competitive inhibition from AMIO and the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from MDEA were incorporated, and for CYP2C9 (warfarin) DDI when the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from AMIO and the competitive inhibition from MDEA were considered. The PBPK model with the ability to simulate DDI by considering dynamic change and accumulation of inhibitor (parent and metabolite) concentration in plasma and liver provides advantages in understanding the possible mechanism of clinical DDIs involving inhibitory metabolites. PMID:25324279

  18. Adjusting team involvement: a grounded theory study of challenges in utilizing a surgical safety checklist as experienced by nurses in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the use of perioperative checklists have resulted in significant reduction in postoperative mortality and morbidity, as well as improvements of important information communication, the utilization of checklists seems to vary, and perceived barriers are likely to influence compliance. In this grounded theory study we aimed to explore the challenges and strategies of performing the WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist as experienced by the nurses appointed as checklist coordinators. Methods Grounded theory was used in gathering and analyzing data from observations of the checklist used in the operating room, in conjunction with single and focus group interviews. A purposeful sample of 14 nurse-anesthetists and operating room nurses as surgical team members in a tertiary teaching hospital participated in the study. Results The nurses’ main concern regarding checklist utilization was identified as “how to obtain professional and social acceptance within the team”. The emergent grounded theory of “adjusting team involvement” consisted of three strategies; distancing, moderating and engaging team involvement. The use of these strategies explains how they resolved their challenges. Each strategy had corresponding conditions and consequences, determining checklist compliance, and how the checklist was used. Conclusion Even though nurses seem to have a loyal attitude towards the WHO’s checklist regarding their task work, they adjusted their surgical team involvement according to practical, social and professional conditions in their work environment. This might have resulted in the incomplete use of the checklist and therefore a low compliance rate. Findings also emphasized the importance of: a) management support when implementing WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist, and b) interprofessional education approach to local adaptation of the checklists use. PMID:22958326

  19. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jingpu; Chen, Xin; Li, Yongze; Ma, Bing; Zhang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Background Observational studies suggest an association between the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the relationship between RA and MetS is controversial and research in this area is currently lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the prevalence of MetS was higher in a group of RA patients compared to subjects without RA. Design A PubMed database search was conducted during April 2013 to identify observational studies of RA and risk of MetS. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Two authors independently extracted information on the study design, the characteristics of the study participants, exposure and outcome assessments, and the method used to control for potential confounding factors. A random-effects model was used for the risk estimates. Results Our meta-analysis of four cross-sectional controlled studies plus eight case-control studies involving a total of 2283 cases and 4403 controls identified a significant association between RA and risk of MetS, with an overall OR of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.03-1.50). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides further evidence supporting patients with RA have a higher prevalence of MetS than subjects without RA. In addition, the geographic region of the population and the criteria used for MetS diagnosis could influence the association. However, these observations would need to be evaluated using prospective, randomized studies. PMID:24205134

  20. Study Finds that Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Have Altered Expression of Genes Involved in Digestion

    E-print Network

    Salzman, Daniel

    of Genes Involved in Digestion These changes may also affect the mix of bacteria present in the digestive disturbances have altered expression of genes involved in digestion. These variations may contribute to changes

  1. Altered Expression Pattern of Molecular Factors Involved in Colonic Smooth Muscle Functions: An Immunohistochemical Study in Patients with Diverticular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattii, Letizia; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Battolla, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Dolfi, Amelio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD) is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD. Methods and Findings By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and ?SMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease. PMID:23437299

  2. Application of MATLAB and Python optimizers to two case studies involving groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matott, L. Shawn; Leung, Kenny; Sim, Junyoung

    2011-11-01

    One approach for utilizing geoscience models for management or policy analysis is via a simulation-based optimization framework—where an underlying model is linked with an optimization search algorithm. In this regard, MATLAB and Python are high-level programming languages that implement numerous optimization routines, including gradient-based, heuristic, and direct-search optimizers. The ever-expanding number of available algorithms makes it challenging for practitioners to identify optimizers that deliver good performance when applied to problems of interest. Thus, the primary contribution of this paper is to present a series of numerical experiments that investigated the performance of various MATLAB and Python optimizers. The experiments considered two simulation-based optimization case studies involving groundwater flow and contaminant transport. One case study examined the design of a pump-and-treat system for groundwater remediation, while the other considered least-squares calibration of a model of strontium (Sr) transport. Using these case studies, the performance of 12 different MATLAB and Python optimizers was compared. Overall, the Hooke-Jeeves direct search algorithm yielded the best performance in terms of identifying least-cost and best-fit solutions to the design and calibration problems, respectively. The IFFCO (implicit filtering for constrained optimization) direct search algorithm and the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) heuristic algorithm also consistently yielded good performance and were up to 80% more efficient than Hooke-Jeeves when applied to the pump-and-treat problem. These results provide empirical evidence that, relative to gradient- and population-based alternatives, direct search algorithms and heuristic variants, such as DDS, are good choices for application to simulation-based optimization problems involving groundwater management.

  3. Involvement of the Inconstant Bursa of the Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Psoriatic Arthritis: A Clinical and Ultrasonographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ciancio, Giovanni; Volpinari, Stefania; Fotinidi, Maria; Furini, Federica; Bandinelli, Francesca; Orzincolo, Carlo; Trotta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the involvement of the bursa located next to the head of the 5th metatarsal bone in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with the other seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. All patients with PsA seen during a period of 24 months were enrolled. The control group included healthy subjects and patients with the other SpA. All subjects underwent clinical and ultrasound (US) examination of the lateral surface of the 5th metatarsal. Results. 150 PsA patients (88?M; 62?F), 172 SpA (107?M; 65?F), and 95 healthy controls (58?M; 37?F) were evaluated. Based on clinical and US evaluation, bursitis was diagnosed in 17/150 (11.3%) PsA patients but in none of the SpA (P < 0.0001) and healthy (P = 0.0002) controls. In detecting bursitis, US was more sensitive than clinical examination, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusion. The bursa of the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint appears to be involved in PsA more frequently than by chance. If confirmed by other studies, this finding could be considered as a distinctive clinical sign of PsA, useful for differential diagnosis with the other SpA. In asymptomatic patients, US proved to be more sensitive in the detection of bursitis. PMID:25061602

  4. Subcellular Localization Studies Indicate That Lipoxygenases 1 to 6 Are Not Involved in Lipid Mobilization during Soybean Germination1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cunxi; Croft, Kevan P.C.; Järlfors, Ulla; Hildebrand, David F.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) lipoxygenase (LOX) has been proposed to be involved in reserve lipid mobilization during germination. Here, subcellular fractionation studies show that LOX1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6 isozymes were associated with the soluble fraction but not with purified oil bodies. The purified oil bodies contained small amounts of LOX1 (<0.01% total activity), which apparently is an artifact of the purification process. Immunogold labeling indicated that, in cotyledon parenchyma cells of LOX wild-type seeds that had soaked and germinated for 4 d, the majority of LOX protein was present in the cytoplasm. In 4-d-germinated cotyledons of a LOX1/2/3 triple null mutant (L0), a small amount of label was found in the cytoplasm. In epidermal cells, LOX appeared in vacuoles of both wild-type and L0 germinated seeds. No LOXs cross-reacting with seed LOX antibodies were found to be associated with the cell wall, plasma membrane, oil bodies, or mitochondria. Lipid analysis showed that degradation rates of total lipids and triacylglycerols between the wild type and L0 were not significantly different. These results suggest that LOX1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6 are not directly involved in reserve lipid mobilization during soybean germination. PMID:10318700

  5. Tooth Loss and Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Yi; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC. Methods We searched for relevant observational studies that tested the association between tooth loss and risk of HNC from PubMed and were conducted up to January 30, 2013. Data from the eligible studies were independently extracted by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.2 software. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of various inclusions. Publication bias was also detected. Results Ten articles involving one cohort and ten case-control studies were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, an association between tooth loss and HNC risk was identified [increased risk of 29% for 1 to 6 teeth loss (OR?=?1.29, 95% CI?=?0.52–3.20, p?=?0.59), 58% for 6 to 15 teeth loss (OR?=?1.58, 95% CI?=?1.08–2.32, p?=?0.02), 63% for 11+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI?=?1.23–2.14, p<0.001), 72% for 15+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.72, 95% CI?=?1.26–2.36, p<0.001), and 89% for 20+ teeth loss (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.27–2.80, p<0.001)]. The sensitivity analysis shows that the result was robust, and publication bias was not detected. Conclusions Based on the current evidence, tooth loss is probably a significant and dependent risk factor of HNC, which may have a dose-response effect. People who lost six or more teeth should pay attention to symptoms of HNC, and losing 11 teeth or 15 teeth may be the threshold. PMID:24260154

  6. Temporomandibular signs, symptoms, joint alterations and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease that frequently affects also the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures. The main aim of this observational study was to describe systematically orofacial clinical signs and subjective symptoms in JIA patients, classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria, and to relate the findings to disease activity and radiological TMJ condyle lesions. Methods The study was a retrospective evaluation of dental and medical records in consecutive JIA patients referred to one of three dental specialist clinics in Sweden during an eight-year period. Data concerning temporomandibular signs, symptoms and general disease activity were collected and condylar alterations were judged on panoramic radiographs. Results All ILAR categories of JIA were represented among the 266 referrals included in the study. The distribution of patients among categories resembled the pattern seen in epidemiological studies. Persistent oligoarthritis was the largest category with 36.5% of the patients. Temporomandibular clinical signs (mild, moderate or severe) occurred in 57.7% to 92.0%, and subjective symptoms (mild or severe) in 32.0% to 76.0% of the patients in all categories. Patients in the juvenile psoriatic arthritis category had the largest number of orofacial signs and symptoms, and patients in the persistent oligoarthritis category had the fewest signs and symptoms. There were significant associations between clinical signs as well as subjective symptoms and overall disease activity. Half of all the patients had undergone panoramic examinations and 37.9% of those were judged to have condylar alterations after a mean of 2.9 years after onset. No associations between radiological findings and variables, such as signs, symptoms or disease activity, were found. Conclusions Temporomandibular signs and symptoms can be expected to a varying degree, including severe cases, in all JIA categories. Clinical and subjective orofacial involvement appears to be related to disease activity but not to condylar lesions. PMID:24134193

  7. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ming [Joint Astronomy Centre/National Research Council Canada, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Papadopoulos, Padeli P. [Argelander Instituet fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Xilouris, Emmanuel M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Kuno, Nario [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Lisenfeld, Ute, E-mail: m.zhu@jach.hawaii.ed, E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d, E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g, E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j, E-mail: ute@ugr.e [Departamento de fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-01

    We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter 'excess'. We show that the dust spectral energy distribution can be fitted by an enhanced abundance of very small grains and discuss different alternatives.

  8. Association between clinically abnormal observations and subsequent in-hospital mortality: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Buist; Stephen Bernard; Tuan V. Nguyen; Gaye Moore; Jeremy Anderson

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with unexpected in-hospital cardiac arrest often have an abnormal clinical observation prior to the arrest. Previous studies have suggested that a medical emergency team responding to such patients may decrease in-hospital mortality from cardiac arrest, but the association between any abnormal clinical observation and subsequent increased mortality has not been studied prospectively. The aim of this study was

  9. Studies of X inactivation and isodisomy in twins provide further evidence that the X chromosomes is not involved in Rett syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Migeon, B.R.; Dunn, M.A.; Schmeckpeper, B.J.; Naidu, S. [Johns Hophins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Kreiger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rett syndrome (RS), a progressive encephalopathy with onset in infancy, has been attributed to an X-linked mutation, mainly on the basis of its occurrence almost exclusively in females and its concordance in female MZ twins. The underlying mechanisms proposed are an X-linked dominant mutation with male lethality, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome, and/or some disturbance in the process of X inactivation leading to unequal distribution of cells expressing maternal or paternal alleles (referred to as a {open_quotes}nonrandom{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}skewed {close_quotes} inactivation). To determine if the X chromosome is in fact involved in RS, we studied a group of affected females including three pairs of MZ twins, two concordant for RS and one uniquely discordant for RS. Analysis of X-inactivation patterns confirms the frequent nonrandom X inactivation previously observed in MZ twins but indicates that this is independent of RS. Analysis of 29 RS females reveals not one instance of uniparental X disomy, extending the observations previously reported. Therefore, our findings contribute no support for the hypothesis that RS is an X-linked disorder. Furthermore, the concordant phenotype in most MZ females twins with RS, which has not been observed in female twins with known X-linked mutations, argues against an X mutation. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Mechanistic studies for tri-targeted inhibition of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis by green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hu; Liu, Jinggong; Zhao, Wenxia; Wang, Yu; He, Qingqing; Wu, Ruibo; Li, Ding; Xu, Jun

    2014-07-21

    In the present study, we found that three enzymes, MVK, MDD and FPPS, in the mevalonate pathway (MVP) of cholesterol biosynthesis, can be simultaneously inhibited by two green tea polyphenols ((-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, ECG; (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG). Molecular dynamics simulations and pharmacophore studies were carried out to elucidate the tri-targeted inhibition mechanisms. Our results indicate that similar triangular binding pockets exist in all three enzymes, which is essential for their binding with polyphenols. Two distinct binding poses for ECG and EGCG were observed in our MD simulations. These results shed light on the potential for further selective and multi-targeted inhibitor design for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:24879560

  11. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: A case study combining Viking, DMSP, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watermann, Jurgen; Delabeaujardiere, Odile; Lummerzheim, Dirk; Woch, Joachim; Newell, Patrick T.; Potemra, Thomas A.; Rich, Frederick J.; Shapshak, Mans

    1992-01-01

    A case study involving data from three satellites and a ground-based radar are presented. Focus is on a detailed discussion of observations of the dynamic cusp made on 24 Sep. 1986 in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere and interior magnetosphere. The relevant data from space-borne and ground-based sensors is presented. They include in-situ particle and field measurements from the DMSP-F7 and Viking spacecraft and Sondrestrom radar observations of the ionosphere. These data are augmented by observations of the IMF and the solar wind plasma. The observations are compared with predictions about the ionospheric response to the observed particle precipitation, obtained from an auroral model. It is shown that observations and model calculations fit well and provide a picture of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp in an invariant latitude versus local time frame. The combination of Viking, Sondrestrom radar, and IMP-8 data suggests that we observed an ionospheric signature of the dynamic cusp. Its spatial variation over time which appeared closely related to the southward component of the IMF was monitored.

  12. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

  13. Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

  14. EQUILIBRIUM STUDY BETWEEN CONDENSED PHASES BY ISOPLETHIC THERMAL ANALYSIS WHEN A MISCIBILITY GAP IS OBSERVED

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -sodium sulfate- piperidine. The changes in state observed on the thermogram recorded during the displacement analysis, miscibility gap, critical point, piperidine, water, sodium sulfate Introduction Studying a high

  15. Prospective observational study of Klebsiella bacteremia in 230 patients: outcome for antibiotic combinations versus monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Korvick, J A; Bryan, C S; Farber, B; Beam, T R; Schenfeld, L; Muder, R R; Weinbaum, D; Lumish, R; Gerding, D N; Wagener, M M

    1992-12-01

    Combination antimicrobial agent therapy has been advocated for treatment of gram-negative bacteremia, including that caused by Klebsiella spp. We performed a prospective, observational, 10-hospital collaborative study to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy versus that of monotherapy for 230 consecutive patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. The species involved were K. pneumoniae (82%), K. oxytoca (15%), and K. ozaenae (0.4%). Of the bacteremias, 26% were polymicrobial in nature. A total of 53% of cases were nosocomial infections. The most common portals were the urinary tract (28%), biliary tract (12%), lung (10%), and abdomen (9%). Some 49 and 51% of the patients had received monotherapy and antibiotic combination therapy (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside), respectively; 14-day mortalities in the two groups were 20 and 18%, respectively. However, for the subgroup of patients who experienced hypotension within 72 h prior to or on the day of the positive blood culture, those patients who received combination therapy experienced significantly lower mortality (24%) than did those who received monotherapy (50%). We conclude that monotherapy with an antibiotic that is active in vitro against Klebsiella (beta-lactam or aminoglycoside) is sufficient therapy for less severely ill patients (immunocompetent, urinary tract portal, mentally alert, normal vital signs). On the other hand, for severely ill patients who experience hypotension, antibiotic combination therapy with a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside agent is preferred. PMID:1482131

  16. JAFROC analysis revisited: figure-of-merit considerations for human observer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, D. P.; Yoon, Hong-Jun

    2009-02-01

    Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) is a method for measuring human observer performance in localization tasks. JAFROC is being increasingly used to evaluate imaging modalities because it has been shown to have greater statistical power than conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, which neglects location information. JAFROC neglects the non-lesion localization marks ("false positives") on abnormal images. JAFROC1 is an alternative method that includes these marks. Both methods are lesion-centric in the sense that they assign equal importance to all lesions; an image with many lesions would tend to dominate the performance metric, and clinically less significant lesions are treated identically as more significant ones. In this paper weighted JAFROC and JAFROC1 analyses are described that treat each abnormal image (not each lesion) as a unit of measurement and account for different lesion clinical significances (weights). Lesion-centric and weighted methods were tested using a simulator that includes multiple-reader multiple-case multiple-modality location level correlations. For comparison, ROC analysis was also tested where the rating of the highest rated mark on an image was assumed to be its "ROC" rating. The testing involved random numbers of lesions per image, random weights, case-mixes (ratio of normal to abnormal images) and different correlation structures. We found that for either JAFROC or JAFROC1, both lesion-centric and weighted analyses had correct NH behavior and comparable statistical powers. For either lesion-centric or weighted analyses JAFROC1 yielded the highest power, followed by JAFROC and ROC yielded the least power, confirming a recent study using a less flexible single-reader dual-modality simulator. Provided the number of normal cases is not too small, JAFROC1 is the preferred method for analyzing human observer free-response data. For either JAFROC or JAFROC1 weighted analysis is preferable.

  17. Predicting drug-drug interactions involving multiple mechanisms using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling: a case study with ruxolitinib.

    PubMed

    Shi, J G; Fraczkiewicz, G; Williams, W V; Yeleswaram, S

    2015-02-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was applied to characterize the potential drug-drug interactions for ruxolitinib. A ruxolitinib physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was constructed using all baseline PK data in healthy subjects, and verified by retrospective predictions of observed drug-drug interactions with rifampin (a potent CYP3A4 inducer), ketoconazole (a potent CYP3A4 reversible inhibitor) and erythromycin (a moderate time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4). The model prospectively predicts that 100-200 mg daily dose of fluconazole, a dual inhibitor of CYP3A4 and 2C9, would increase ruxolitinib plasma concentration area under the curve by ?two-fold, and that as a perpetrator, ruxolitinib is highly unlikely to have any discernible effect on digoxin, a sensitive P-glycoprotein substrate. The analysis described here illustrates the capability of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict drug-drug interactions involving several commonly encountered interaction mechanisms and makes the case for routine use of model-based prediction for clinical drug-drug interactions. A model verification checklist was explored to harmonize the methodology and use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:25670523

  18. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  19. Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

  20. Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly. PMID:20663129

  1. Discontinuation and non-publication of surgical randomised controlled trials: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Stephen J; Shelton, Bryony; Mahmood, Humza; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Harrison, Ewen M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of early discontinuation and non-publication of randomised controlled trials involving patients undergoing surgery. Design Cross sectional observational study of registered and published trials. Setting Randomised controlled trials of interventions in patients undergoing a surgical procedure. Data sources The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for interventional trials registered between January 2008 and December 2009 using the keyword “surgery”. Recruitment status was extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov database. A systematic search for studies published in peer reviewed journals was performed; if they were not found, results posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database were sought. Email queries were sent to trial investigators of discontinued and unpublished completed trials if no reason for the respective status was disclosed. Main outcome measures Trial discontinuation before completion and non-publication after completion. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of funding source on publication status, with adjustment for intervention type and trial size. Results Of 818 registered trials found using the keyword “surgery”, 395 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 21% (81/395) were discontinued early, most commonly owing to poor recruitment (44%, 36/81). The remaining 314 (79%) trials proceeded to completion, with a publication rate of 66% (208/314) at a median time of 4.9 (interquartile range 4.0-6.0) years from study completion to publication search. A further 6% (20/314) of studies presented results on ClinicalTrials.gov without a corresponding peer reviewed publication. Industry funding did not affect the rate of discontinuation (adjusted odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.55) but was associated with a lower odds of publication for completed trials (0.43, 0.26 to 0.72). Investigators’ email addresses for trials with an uncertain fate were identified for 71.4% (10/14) of discontinued trials and 83% (101/122) of unpublished studies. Only 43% (6/14) and 20% (25/122) replies were received. Email responses for completed trials indicated 11 trials in press, five published studies (four in non-indexed peer reviewed journals), and nine trials remaining unpublished. Conclusions One in five surgical randomised controlled trials are discontinued early, one in three completed trials remain unpublished, and investigators of unpublished studies are frequently not contactable. This represents a waste of research resources and raises ethical concerns regarding hidden clinical data and futile participation by patients with its attendant risks. To promote future efficiency and transparency, changes are proposed to research governance frameworks to overcome these concerns. PMID:25491195

  2. Methodological aspects in the assessment of treatment effects in observational health outcomes studies.

    PubMed

    Haro, Josep Maria; Kontodimas, Stathis; Negrin, Miguel Angel; Ratcliffe, Mark; Suarez, David; Windmeijer, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Prospective observational studies, which provide information on the effectiveness of interventions in natural settings, may complement results from randomised clinical trials in the evaluation of health technologies. However, observational studies are subject to a number of potential methodological weaknesses, mainly selection and observer bias. This paper reviews and applies various methods to control for selection bias in the estimation of treatment effects and proposes novel ways to assess the presence of observer bias. We also address the issues of estimation and inference in a multilevel setting. We describe and compare the use of regression methods, propensity score matching, fixed-effects models incorporating investigator characteristics, and a multilevel, hierarchical model using Bayesian estimation techniques in the control of selection bias. We also propose to assess the existence of observer bias in observational studies by comparing patient- and investigator-reported outcomes. To illustrate these methods, we have used data from the SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) study, a large, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with the treatment of schizophrenia. The methods used to adjust for differences between treatment groups that could cause selection bias yielded comparable results, reinforcing the validity of the findings. Also, the assessment of observer bias did not show that it existed in the SOHO study. Observational studies, when properly conducted and when using adequate statistical methods, can provide valid information on the evaluation of health technologies. PMID:16774289

  3. Femoral Component Rotation in Patellofemoral Joint Replacement: A Study Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerbeek, Robin E; Derks, Rosalie P.H; Zonneveld, Bas J.G.L; van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The short and mid-term outcomes are related to malposition and unexplained pain. Whether external rotation of the femoral component in isolated patellofemoral joint replacement is required is unclear. The primary aim of this study is to determine the CT-measured femoral component rotation of patellofemoral joint replacement relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary aim is to correlate the CT-measured femoral component rotation with the clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up as assessed with the KOOS questionnaire. We designed a prospective observational study with medical research ethics committee and institutional review board approval. A total of 40 patients who will be treated with patellofemoral joint replacement for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis will be included. Intra-operatively, rotation of the femoral component will be assessed using anatomical landmarks including the epicondylar axis, Whiteside’s line, and lower leg axis. The aim is to insert the femoral component between 3 and 6 degrees external rotation relative to the transepicondylar axis. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists will measure the angle between the transepicondylar axis and the femoral component, two to three days after surgery. The primary outcome is the CT-based femoral component rotation of the prosthesis relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary outcome is the patient reported KOOS questionnaire at 1-year follow-up. Successful completion of this study will provide data on the actual amount of femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement, and its relationship with clinical results. (Netherlands Trial Register NTR4175).

  4. Isolation, properties and structural studies on a compound from tunicate blood cells that may be involved in vanadium accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Macara, I G; McLeod, G C; Kustin, K

    1979-01-01

    A novel compound, for which the trivial name tunichrome is proposed, was isolated from the vanadium-rich blood cells of the tunicate Ascidia niga. Preliminary structural studies suggest a molecular weight of about 390, the presence of conjugated vinyl groups, and an acidic group, possibly carboxyl, with an apparent pKa of 3.0. Elements C, H, N and O comprise 98.4% of the sample weight, the number of atoms per mol of tunichrome being 14.1, 22.2, 1.5 and 10.6 respectively, which indicates some heterogeneity in the sample. Tunichrome readily reduces Fe(III) and V(V). In an initial fast step, 2 mol of V(V) are reduced, or 4 mol of Fe(III)-phenanthroline per mol of tunichrome; in a further slow reaction, another 9 mol of Fe(III)-phenanthroline or Fe(III)-bipyridine are reduced. The initial reaction is first-order with respect to tunichrome and Fe(III). Above pH 3.5, tunichrome is rapidly hydrolysed, 13 mol of OH- being consumed per mol of tunichrome. The hydrolysis involves polymerization and loss of the characteristic absorption peak at 325 nm. It is suggested that the presence of tunichrome may be linked to vanadium accumulation by the blood cells. The mechanism involves entry of vanadate via an anionic channel into vacuoles of the blood cells, where it is reduced to V(IV) or V(III), both of which, being cationic, cannot escape from the vacuole. PMID:496893

  5. Field observations and theoretical studies relevant to enhanced in situ carbonation

    E-print Network

    Field observations and theoretical studies relevant to enhanced in situ carbonation of peridotite observations and theoretical studies relevant to enhanced in situ carbonation of peridotite Peter B. Kelemen, USA 10964 ABSTRACT ­ Veins formed by carbonation of peridotite in the large thrust sheet of mantle

  6. An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book Andreas Dünser1 , Eva books. Children aged between 6 and 7 read and interacted with one of two story books aimed at early findings of an observational study investigating how young children interact with augmented reality story

  7. Brain banks as key part of biochemical and molecular studies on cerebral cortex involvement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Rivka; Ferrer, Isidro

    2012-04-01

    Exciting developments in basic and clinical neuroscience and recent progress in the field of Parkinson's disease (PD) are partly a result of the availability of human specimens obtained through brain banks. These banks have optimized the methodological, managerial and organizational procedures; standard operating procedures; and ethical, legal and social issues, including the code of conduct for 21st Century brain banking and novel protocols. The present minireview focuses on current brain banking organization and management, as well as the likely future direction of the brain banking field. We emphasize the potentials and pitfalls when using high-quality specimens of the human central nervous system for advancing PD research. PD is a generalized disease in which ?-synuclein is not a unique component but, instead, is only one of the players accounting for the complex impairment of biochemical/molecular processes involved in metabolic pathways. This is particularly important in the cerebral cortex, where altered cognition has a complex neurochemical substrate. Mitochondria and energy metabolism impairment, abnormal RNA, microRNA, protein synthesis, post-translational protein modifications and alterations in the lipid composition of membranes and lipid rafts are part of these complementary factors. We have to be alert to the possible pitfalls of each specimen and its suitability for a particular study. Not all samples qualify for the study of DNA, RNA, proteins, post-translational modifications, lipids and metabolomes, although the use of carefully selected samples and appropriate methods minimizes pitfalls and errors and guarantees high-quality reserach. PMID:22313511

  8. Ataxia and tremor due to lesions involving cerebellar projection pathways: a DTI tractographic study in six patients.

    PubMed

    Marek, M; Paus, S; Allert, N; Mädler, B; Klockgether, T; Urbach, H; Coenen, V A

    2015-01-01

    Focal lesions of brainstem, thalamus, and subcortical white matter may cause movement disorders that are clinically indistinguishable from cerebellar symptoms. It is suspected that ataxia in these cases is due to damage of efferent or afferent pathways of the cerebellum. However, the precise anatomical correlate often remains undefined. We used deterministic diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) tractography to study the anatomical relationship between lesions causing ataxia and efferent cerebellar pathways. Study subjects were six male patients with focal lesions of different etiology (demyelination, hemorrhage, ischemia, neoplasm) outside the cerebellum. Five patients had cerebellar-like ataxia with prominent contralateral upper limb involvement. One patient with an almost midline mesencephalic lesion had a symmetrical ataxic syndrome. We used 3T MRI (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands) and DTI tractography (32 directions, StealthViz DTI, Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, USA) to delineate the dentato-rubro-thalamo-cortical tract (DRT). In all patients, tractography demonstrated focal lesions affecting the DRT in different locations. We conclude that in vivo mapping of cerebral pathways using DTI tractography in patients with focal extracerebellar brain lesions may provide direct evidence of circumscribed damage to the DRT, causing unilateral cerebellar-like ataxia. Also, a unilateral mesencephalic lesion at the level of the crossing of the DRT may cause bilateral ataxia. PMID:25287016

  9. In vitro studies on the mechanisms involved in chemoprevention using Calluna vulgaris on vascular endothelial cells exposed to UVB.

    PubMed

    Olteanu, D; Baldea, I; Clichici, S; Bolfa, P; Cenariu, M; Schrepler-Perde, M; Alupei, M; Muresan, A; Filip, A

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the in vitro effect of UVB on endothelial vascular cells (HUVECs) pretreated with a photochemopreventive agent, the Calluna vulgaris (Cv) extract. Two concentrations of Cv, below the limit of cytotoxicity IC50 (2.5 and 7.5 ?g GAE/ml) and two doses of UVB (50 and 100 mJ/cm(2)) were used. Oxidative stress parameters were quantified at 1 h and 24 h after irradiation and apoptosis, DNA damage and the induction/activation of NF-?B were evaluated at 24 h. UVB exposure led to the formation of lipid peroxides in a dose dependent manner (p<0.001), induced apoptosis, increased the ?-H2AX levels and the activation of NF-?B. Pretreatment with 2.5 ?g GAE/ml Cv improved the antioxidant defense, protected against DNA lesions and was able to decrease cellular death at low dose of irradiation. 7.5 ?g GAE/ml Cv was prooxidant, favored the formation of DNA lesions, amplified the NF-?B activation UVB-induced (p<0.01) and led to high levels of cellular death. Both doses of Cv inhibited caspase-3 activation. The modulatory effect of Cv extract on endothelial cells exposed to UVB depend on the concentration of Cv used. This study provides insides into the mechanisms triggered by UVB and antioxidants on skin endothelial cells. PMID:24844620

  10. Usage trends for memory and vitality-enhancing medicines: A pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of the Gujarat region

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna Samir; Goyal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pretested, validated questionnaire. Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included the questions regarding herbal MVEM used most commonly, percentage sale of herbal MVEM – sold with or without prescriptions – age group of patients and professional groups who used these drugs most commonly. Results: The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11–20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21–40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations. Conclusions: This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same. PMID:21170204

  11. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry), cardiovascular compliance (via ultrasound with concurrent ECG and blood pressure), noninvasive intracranial pressure (via pulsatility index, measured by transcranial Doppler), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess brain anatomy. In-flight evaluations include visual testing, optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, tonometry, cardiovascular compliance and transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Preflight, in-flight and postflight data will be presented for five Ocular Health subjects. These data will include: visual acuity, refraction, fundoscopy, OCT, ocular ultrasound, vascular compliance, TCD, IOP and MRI. One-year postflight data will be presented for two of these subjects. Data indicates that vascular compliance, retro-orbital pressure and IOP affect retinal nerve fiber layer swelling. DISCUSSION: This prospective study aims to understand the etiology of the VIIP syndrome, establish preflight baseline characteristics, define the temporal sequence for the appearance of signs and symptoms, characterize the nature of in-flight changes, document the postflight time course for recovery to baseline, and determine the impact of prolonged changes on crew health. Data from this study will improve the understanding of VIIP incidence, signs, symptoms, susceptibilities, timeline for development and recovery, and aid in guiding the development of countermeasures and targeted treatments for preventing the VIIP syndrome and its complications.

  12. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observation and regional model study of precipitation diurnal cycle in the New Guinean region

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observation and regional model study of precipitation diurnal., and Y. Wang (2006), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observation and regional model study region is studied on the basis of satellite observations from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM

  13. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research. PMID:25046751

  14. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

  15. Enhancing the patient involvement in outcomes: a study protocol of personalised outcome measurement in the treatment of substance misuse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Involving patients in treatment is becoming increasingly popular in mental health [Sales & Alves: Personalized evaluation of psychological treatments: A review of tools and research designs, submitted]. However, in substance misuse treatment settings, the patient perspective about treatment tends to be overlooked. This has been cited as a key priority by Orford et al. [Addiction, 103: 875-885, 2008] who included patient feedback about treatment as one of ten areas requiring an urgent paradigm shift in addiction research and practice. This project will apply an innovative method to involve substance misuse patients in psychological therapies, by asking them to suggest topics to evaluate their treatment. These topics suggested by patients can be written as a list of personalised items, so-called as patient-generated outcome measures (PGOM). Despite its patient-friendly features, PGOM’s have never been used in this population, which is what this project aims to overcome. Methods/design This project is part of an International Exchange Platform on Personalising Addiction Treatment. Data will be collected in two phases (pre-post study and focus groups with patients) to explore the following: 1). How reliable and sensitive to change are PGOM’s and standardised measures in substance misuse treatment? 2). Do PGOM’s add relevant information to standardised measures? 3). What are the views of substance misuse patients about personalised outcome assessment? 4). Development of guidelines on using PGOM’s in this population Discussion This research will potentially demonstrate the diversity of personal problems among patients seeking substance misuse treatment, suggesting the relevance of PGOM as a method to personalise outcome measurement and, ultimately, guiding treatment provision. It is expected that, as in previous studies, PGOM’s will be perceived as helpful and patient-friendly tools, where patients may express their own concerns in a semi-structured setting. Similarly to other populations, we also expect PGOM’s to be reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical changes in substance misuse treatment, as well as more content informative than their standardised counterparts. If these results are achieved, we might hypothesize that PGOM’s are a potentially valid supplement to traditional standardised scales, by providing a closer insight to what motivates patients to participate in substance misuse treatment programmes. PMID:24341378

  16. Renal involvement in systemic amyloidosis—an Italian retrospective study on epidemiological and clinical data at diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Bergesio; Anna Maria Ciciani; Marisa Santostefano; Rachele Brugnano

    2007-01-01

    Background. Few data are available on epidemiology and clinical picture of renal involvement in different forms of systemic amyloidosis. Methods. Patients with biopsy-proven systemic amy- loidosis diagnosed in Italy between January 1995 and December 2000 were selected from 49 Nephrology and Internal Medicine Units provided they showed signs characteristic of renal involvement. Clinical and laboratory information were collected by using

  17. Meaningful involvement of municipal purchasing departments in the procurement of consulting services: Case studies from Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Schiele

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the types of activities that were associated with meaningful involvement of municipal purchasing departments in the procurement of consulting services in Ontario, Canada. Included is a discussion of some of the key contextual factors found to enable meaningful involvement and the type of value that results as it relates to the needs of the client department and

  18. An exploratory study of the range of implications of families' criminal justice system involvement in child welfare cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Phillips; Alan J. Dettlaff; Melinda J. Baldwin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes findings from a review of child protective services case records that was conducted to further understanding of the relevance of families' criminal justice system involvement in child welfare cases. Records suggest there are four broad categories of scenarios in which families' criminal justice and child welfare involvement intersect. These include: (1) instances in which parental arrest and

  19. Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

    2007-01-01

    Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

  20. Examining the Relations of Infant Temperament and Couples' Marital Satisfaction to Mother and Father Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehall, Karissa Greving; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of infant temperament and parents' marital satisfaction to mother and father involvement in early (T1, approximately 7 months, n = 142) and later (T2, approximately 14 months, n = 95) infancy were examined. At each assessment point, mothers and fathers completed daily diaries together to measure their involvement over four days (i.e., 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days), each partner reported on marital satisfaction, and mothers reported on infants' temperament. Structural equation models indicated that when infants were more temperamentally regulated, parents were more satisfied in their marital relationships. Parents' marital satisfaction mediated the association between more regulated infant temperament and greater mother involvement at T1 (but not at T2) and father involvement at T2 (but not at T1). The findings are discussed in terms of the implications of infant temperament and family relationships for parental involvement. PMID:20221413

  1. Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Roma, E; Bond, T; Jeffrey, P

    2014-09-01

    Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients' acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase. This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government). Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key to the sustained deployment of point-of-use disinfection technologies. PMID:25252361

  2. Studying the Complexity in Dynamics and Magnetic Topology of CME with 3D MHD Simulations Involving Dynamic AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussev, I. I.; Manchester, W. B.; Gombosi, T. I.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Sokolov, I. V.; Toth, G.

    2002-05-01

    It is of fundamental importance in solar, heliospheric, and magnetospheric physics to explore the high degree of variability and complex internal magnetic and plasma structure of CMEs. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations provide excellent grounds for studying the complexity in dynamics of this and other solar phenomena. We present some results on state-of-art numerical experiments of CME propagation, including dynamic Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). All computations presented here are carried out using the BATS-R-US (Block Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe Upwind Scheme) code and involve 3D MHD. The CME is initiated through an eruption of twisted flux rope in the solar corona. The MHD shock created ahead of the CME is essential in determining geoeffective events. The physics based AMR allows to reveal the complexity of the CME development and propagation on the particular ray Sun-Earth. The applied numerical algorithm is designed to use optimal computational resources for the sake of tracing CMEs with very high spatial resolution all the way from Sun to Earth, and beyond. We further discuss the differences in using various criteria for mesh refinement on the overall physical picture of the CME dynamics.

  3. Mechanistic studies of the ethylene trimerization reaction with chromium-diphosphine catalysts: experimental evidence for a mechanism involving metallacyclic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Agapie, Theodor; Schofer, Susan J; Labinger, Jay A; Bercaw, John E

    2004-02-11

    A system for catalytic trimerization of ethylene utilizing CrCl3(THF)3 and a diphosphine ligand PNPOMe [= (o-MeO-C6H4)2PN(Me)P(o-MeO-C6H4)2] has been investigated. The coordination chemistry of chromium with PNPOMe has been explored, and (PNPOMe)CrCl3 and (PNPOMe)CrPh3 (3) have been synthesized by ether displacement from chromium(III) precursors. Salt metathesis of (PNPOMe)CrCl3 with o,o'-biphenyldiyl Grignard affords (PNPOMe)Cr(o,o'-biphenyldiyl)Br (4). Activation of 3 with H(Et2O)2B[C6H3(CF3)2]4 or 4 with NaB[C6H3(CF3)2]4 generates a catalytic system and trimerizes a 1:1 mixture of C2D4 and C2H4 to give isotopomers of 1-hexene without H/D scrambling (C6D12, C6D8H4, C6D4H8, and C6H12 in a 1:3:3:1 ratio). The lack of crossover supports a mechanism involving metallacyclic intermediates. The mechanism of the ethylene trimerization reaction has also been studied by the reaction of trans-, cis-, and gem-ethylene-d2 with 4 upon activation with NaB[C6H3(CF3)2]4. PMID:14759164

  4. Tractography of white matter based on diffusion tensor imaging in ischaemic stroke involving the corticospinal tract: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chongguang; Bai, Lijun; Cui, Fangyuan; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Wang, Hu; Wei, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhenyu; You, Youbo; Zou, Yihuai; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) provides information on diffusion anisotropy in vivo, which can be exhibited three-dimensional white matter tractography. Five healthy volunteers and five right-hand affected patients with early subacute ischaemic infarction involving the posterior limb of the internal capsule or corona radiate were recruited in this study. We used 3D white matter tractography to show the corticospinal tract in both volunteer group and stroke group. Then we compared parameters of the corticospinal tract in patients with that in normal subjects and assessed the relationships between the fiber number of the corticospinal tract in ipsilesional hemisphere and indicators of the patients' rehabilitation using Pearson correlation analysis. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the ipsilesional corticospinal tract may significantly reduce comparing with the volunteer group. In addition, the stroke patient with less fiber number of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract may bear more possibilities of better motor rehabilitation. The FA values, ADC values and fiber number of the corticospinal tract in the ipsilesional hemisphere might be helpful to the prognosis and prediction of clinical treatment in stroke patients.

  5. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services to Parents of Children Involved with Child Welfare: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Differences for American Indian Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Libby; Heather D. Orton; Richard P. Barth; Mary Bruce Webb; Barbara J. Burns; Patricia A. Wood; Paul Spicer

    2007-01-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on\\u000a mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent\\u000a Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0–14 years involved with child welfare.\\u000a Weighted statistics provided population

  6. Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses) have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of which differ from the camera eye in the degree of complexity of the eye structures and neurons participating in the visual circuit. Therefore, genes expressed in the cephalopod eye after divergence from the common molluscan ancestor could be involved in eye evolution through association with the acquisition of new structural components. To clarify the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye, we applied comprehensive transcriptomic analysis and conducted developmental validation of candidate genes involved in coleoid cephalopod eye evolution. Results We compared gene expression in the eyes of 6 molluscan (3 cephalopod and 3 non-cephalopod) species and selected 5,707 genes as cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes on the basis of homology searches against 3 molluscan species without camera eyes. First, we confirmed the expression of these 5,707 genes in the cephalopod camera eye formation processes by developmental array analysis. Second, using molecular evolutionary (dN/dS) analysis to detect positive selection in the cephalopod lineage, we identified 156 of these genes in which functions appeared to have changed after the divergence of cephalopods from the molluscan ancestor and which contributed to structural and functional diversification. Third, we selected 1,571 genes, expressed in the camera eyes of both cephalopods and vertebrates, which could have independently acquired a function related to eye development at the expression level. Finally, as experimental validation, we identified three functionally novel cephalopod camera eye genes related to optic lobe formation in cephalopods by in situ hybridization analysis of embryonic pygmy squid. Conclusion We identified 156 genes positively selected in the cephalopod lineage and 1,571 genes commonly found in the cephalopod and vertebrate camera eyes from the analysis of cephalopod camera eye specificity at the expression level. Experimental validation showed that the cephalopod camera eye-specific candidate genes include those expressed in the outer part of the optic lobes, which unique to coleoid cephalopods. The results of this study suggest that changes in gene expression and in the primary structure of proteins (through positive selection) from those in the common molluscan ancestor could have contributed, at least in part, to cephalopod camera eye acquisition. PMID:21702923

  7. PRELIMINARY. COMMENTS WELCOMED. DO NOT QUOTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT AUTHORS' CONSENT. The Effects of Employee Involvement on Firm Performance: Evidence from an Econometric Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Takao Kato

    We provide some of the most reliable evidence to date on the direct impact of employee involvement through participatory arrangements such as teams on business performance. The data we use are extraordinary --daily data for rejection, production and downtime rates for all operators in a single plant during a 35 month period, almost 53,000 observations. Our key findings are that:

  8. Pilot study examining the frequency of several gene polymorphisms involved in morphine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in a morbidly obese population.

    PubMed

    Lloret Linares, Célia; Hajj, Aline; Poitou, Christine; Simoneau, Guy; Clement, Karine; Laplanche, Jean Louis; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bergmann, Jean François; Mouly, Stéphane; Peoc'h, Katell

    2011-08-01

    Morbidly obese patients are at significantly elevated risk of postsurgery complications and merit closer monitoring by health care professionals after bariatric surgery. It is now recognized that genetic factors influence individual patient's response to drug used in anesthesia and analgesia. Among the many drug administered by anesthetists, we focused in this pilot study on morphine, since morphine patient-controlled anesthesia in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery is frequently prescribed. We examined the allelic frequency of three polymorphisms involved in morphine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in patients with body mass index (BMI) >40. One hundred and nine morbidly obese patients (BMI?=?49.1?±?7.7 kg/m²) were genotyped for three polymorphisms c.A118G of mu opioid receptor (OPRM1), c.C3435T of the P-glycoprotein gene (ABCB1), and p.Val158Met of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT). Allelic frequencies were 118G-0.22, C3435-0.55, and 158Met-0.5 in our whole population and 0.23, 0.5, and 0.47 in Caucasian population. Allelic frequencies did not differ according to gender. Mean BMI did no differ according to the allelic variant. OPRM1118G allele was more frequent in our population than in most previously described European populations. Since the concept of "personalized medicine" promises to individualize therapeutics and optimize medical treatment in term of efficacy and safety, especially when prescribing drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as morphine, further clinical studies examining the clinical consequences of the OPRM1 c.A118G polymorphism in patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery are needed. PMID:20411349

  9. Effect of methyldopa on brain cholinergic neurons involved in cardiovascular regulation. A study in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Buccafusco, J J

    1984-01-01

    Chemical stimulation of brain cholinergic neurons in many species can produce hypertension. Recent studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that clonidine inhibits this central cholinergic pressor response by inhibiting the biosynthesis of brain acetylcholine. This study was designed to determine whether methyldopa, like clonidine, could inhibit brain cholinergic neurons involved in cardiovascular regulation in freely-moving spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous (i.v.) injection of methyldopa (50-200 mg/kg) produced a dose-related fall in blood pressure (29/15-54/33 mm Hg) in SHR. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) in SHR evoked a fall in arterial pressure through inhibition of acetylcholine synthesis. Doses of HC-3 (10 micrograms, or 15 micrograms, i.c.v.) and methyldopa (50 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered to produce small reductions in arterial pressure in SHR (7-14 mm Hg diastolic, respectively). When the two agents were injected simultaneously, however, a greater than additive response was obtained (p less than 0.05). Central injection of echothiophate (a long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor) to potentiate brain cholinergic activity resulted in a sustained hypertensive response (greater than 40 mm Hg) in SHR for at least 150 minutes. Simultaneous injection of or pretreatment with methyldopa (100 mg/kg, i.v.) inhibited the pressor response to echothiophate over a time course similar to its antihypertensive response in untreated SHR. Methyldopa, however, was completely ineffective in altering the hypertensive response to central injection of carbachol (1 microgram, i.c.v.). This difference in methyldopa susceptibility between the indirect-acting (echothiophate) and direct-acting (carbachol) cholinergic agonists may be related to an inhibiting effect of methyldopa on brain acetylcholine release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6500669

  10. Gorham's disease: a report of a case with mandibular involvement in a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, SJ; Jatti, DS

    2012-01-01

    Gorham's disease, or vanishing bone disease, is a rare condition of unknown aetiology. Any bone of the body can be affected, although there is a predilection for the pelvis, humerus, axial skeleton and the mandible. The mandible is the most commonly involved bone in the maxillofacial region. 41 cases have been reported so far in the literature showing involvement of the mandible in Gorham's disease. This paper presents a rare case of Gorham's disease involving the mandible in a 38-year-old male with a 10-year follow-up. PMID:22241873

  11. Study of Vertical Movements of the European Crust Using Tide Gauge and Gnss Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Dosyn, Solomiya

    2015-02-01

    This research is devoted to the study of vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of two independent methods, namely tide gauge and GNSS observations results. The description and classification of factors affecting sea level change has been made. The precision with which the movement of the earth's crust according to the results of tide gauge observations can be explored has been calculated . A methodology to identify the duration of tide gauge observations required for studies of vertical movements of the earth 's crust has been presented. Approximation of tide gauge time series with the help of Fourier series has been implemented, the need for long-term observations in certain areas has been explained. The diagram of the velocities of the vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of the tide gauge data and GNSS observations has been built and the anomalous areas where the observations do not coincide have been identified.

  12. MicroPure Imaging for the Evaluation of Microcalcifications in Gouty Arthritis Involving the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Zhu, Jiaan; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Hu, Zhenlong; Huang, Yunxia; Liu, Fang; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of MicroPure, a new ultrasound image processing technique, in identifying microcalcifications (formed by monosodium urate crystals) in the first metatarsophalangeal joints attacked by gout compared to gray-scale ultrasound images. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria underwent gray-scale ultrasound and MicroPure examinations of the first metatarsophalangeal joints attacked by gout. Static images of the target areas were acquired using gray-scale ultrasound and MicroPure. Two independent and blinded investigators analyzed the images to determine the number of microcalcifications and to score for image quality and artifacts. Results The two investigators observed significantly more microcalcifications with MicroPure compared to gray-scale ultrasound (?<0.001). The level of agreement between the investigators consistently increased from gray-scale ultrasound to MicroPure imaging (gray-scale interclass correlation coefficient of 0.69 vs. MicroPure interclass correlation coefficient of 0.81). One investigator preferred the MicroPure image quality over gray-scale ultrasound (?<0.001), but the other investigator disagreed (?<0.001). Both investigators observed fewer artifacts with MicroPure than with gray-scale ultrasound (?<0.009). Conclusion MicroPure imaging identified significantly more microcalcifications than gray-scale ultrasound. PMID:24788200

  13. Scanning model observers to predict human performance in LROC studies of SPECT reconstruction using anatomical priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehovich, Andre; Gifford, Howard C.; King, Michael A.

    2009-02-01

    We use scanning model observers to predict human performance in lesion search/detection study. The observer's task is to locate gallium-avid tumors in simulated SPECT images of a digital phantom. The goal of our model is to predict the optimal prior strength ? for human observers of smoothing priors incorporated into the reconstruction algorithm. These priors use varying amounts of anatomical knowledge. We present results from a scanning channelized non-prewhitening matched filter, and compare them with results from a human-observer study. Including a step to mimic the greyscale perceptual-linearization used during the human-observer study improves the accuracy of the model. However we find that for lesions close to an organ boundary even the improved model does not accurately predict human performance.

  14. Inter-Observer Reliability Assessments in Time Motion Studies: The Foundation for Meaningful Clinical Workflow Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Bai, Shasha; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert; Embi, Peter; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding clinical workflow is critical for researchers and healthcare decision makers. Current workflow studies tend to oversimplify and underrepresent the complexity of clinical workflow. Continuous observation time motion studies (TMS) could enhance clinical workflow studies by providing rich quantitative data required for in-depth workflow analyses. However, methodological inconsistencies have been reported in continuous observation TMS, potentially reducing the validity of TMS’ data and limiting their contribution to the general state of knowledge. We believe that a cornerstone in standardizing TMS is to ensure the reliability of the human observers. In this manuscript we review the approaches for inter-observer reliability assessment (IORA) in a representative sample of TMS focusing on clinical workflow. We found that IORA is an uncommon practice, inconsistently reported, and often uses methods that provide partial and overestimated measures of agreement. Since a comprehensive approach to IORA is yet to be proposed and validated, we provide initial recommendations for IORA reporting in continuous observation TMS. PMID:24551381

  15. Observed Changes in the Alertness and Communicative Involvement of Students with Multiple and Severe Disability Following In-Class Mentor Modelling for Staff in Segregated and General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, P.; Arthur-Kelly, M.; Bennett, D.; Neilands, J.; Colyvas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The improvement of engagement and involvement in communicative and socially centred exchanges for individuals with multiple and severe disability (MSD) presents complex and urgent challenges to educators. This paper reports the findings of an intervention study designed to enhance the interactive skills of students with MSD using an…

  16. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions. PMID:23801355

  17. Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, Julia, E-mail: Julia_Koeck@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Abo-Madyan, Yasser [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Lohr, Frank; Stieler, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kriz, Jan; Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

  18. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n?=?266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n?=?285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  19. Monitoring of earthquake processes by passive and active EM methods. An observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zhao; Z. Yan; W. Lifeng; J. Wang; J. Tang; Q. Xiao; X. Chen; J. Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments are carried out from the Institute of Geology, CEA research group to study earthquake process by using different electromagnetic (EM) methods in recent years. Several earthquakes did occur during the observational period and EM anomalies were recorded before the main shocks. Our observation at 20 km away from the epicenter of Zhangbei MS6.2 earthquake of January 10, 1998

  20. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…