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1

Preschool Children's Social Interactions Involving Moral and Prudential Transgressions: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observed preschool children's social interactions with teachers and peers in the context of moral and prudential events. Four types of moral transgressions were observed--physical harm, psychological harm, property loss, and property damage--with the majority of transgressions pertaining to physical harm and property loss. Found gender differences…

Tisak, Marie S.; And Others

1996-01-01

2

Patients' and Observers' Perceptions of Involvement Differ. Validation Study on Inter-Relating Measures for Shared Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Objective Patient involvement into medical decisions as conceived in the shared decision making method (SDM) is essential in evidence based medicine. However, it is not conclusively evident how best to define, realize and evaluate involvement to enable patients making informed choices. We aimed at investigating the ability of four measures to indicate patient involvement. While use and reporting of these instruments might imply wide overlap regarding the addressed constructs this assumption seems questionable with respect to the diversity of the perspectives from which the assessments are administered. Methods The study investigated a nested cohort (N?=?79) of a randomized trial evaluating a patient decision aid on immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Convergent validities were calculated between observer ratings of videotaped physician-patient consultations (OPTION) and patients' perceptions of the communication (Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, Control Preference Scale & Decisional Conflict Scale). Results OPTION reliability was high to excellent. Communication performance was low according to OPTION and high according to the three patient administered measures. No correlations were found between observer and patient judges, neither for means nor for single items. Patient report measures showed some moderate correlations. Conclusion Existing SDM measures do not refer to a single construct. A gold standard is missing to decide whether any of these measures has the potential to indicate patient involvement. Practice Implications Pronounced heterogeneity of the underpinning constructs implies difficulties regarding the interpretation of existing evidence on the efficacy of SDM. Consideration of communication theory and basic definitions of SDM would recommend an inter-subjective focus of measurement. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN25267500.

Kasper, Jurgen; Heesen, Christoph; Kopke, Sascha; Fulcher, Gary; Geiger, Friedemann

2011-01-01

3

Involvement in emergency situations by primary care doctors on-call in Norway - a prospective population-based observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care doctors on-call in the emergency primary health care services in Norway are, together with the ambulances, the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals. There is a lack of reliable data for Norway on how often the primary care doctors are alerted and on their responses in the most urgent emergency cases. The aim of this study was to investigate how doctors on-call are involved in red responses (highest priority), using three different emergency medical communication centres (EMCC) as catchment area for a prospective population-based study. Methods In the period from October to December 2007 three dispatch centres covering approximately 816 000 inhabitants prospectively recorded all acute emergency cases. Ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from the doctors on-call were collected. NACA score was used to define the severity of the emergencies. Results 5 105 cases were classified as red responses during the period. We have complete basic recordings (AMIS forms) from all and resaved ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from doctors on-call in 89% of the cases. Ambulances were alerted in 96% and doctors on-call in 47% of the cases, but there were large differences between the three EMCCs. Doctors on-call responded with call-out in 42% of the alerted cases. 28% of all patients were taken to a casualty clinic, 46% were admitted to hospital by a doctor and 24% were taken directly to hospital by ambulances. In total, primary care doctors on-call took active part in 42% of all red response cases, and together with GPs' daytime activity the primary health care services were involved in 50% of the cases. 29% of the cases were classified as life-threatening. Call-out by doctors on-call were found to be more frequent in life-threatening situations compared with not life-threatening situations. Conclusion Doctors on-call and GPs on daytime were involved in half of all red responses. There were large differences between the EMCCs in the frequency of doctors alerted. The inhabitants in the three EMMCs were thus offered different levels of professional competency in emergency situations outside hospitals.

2010-01-01

4

Clinical studies involving probiotics  

PubMed Central

Researchers from a diverse array of scientific disciplines have focused and continue to focus on opportunities and areas for responsible clinical research involving the possible beneficial health effects of “probiotics.” Investigators and researchers should be aware that not all clinical research involving probiotics reasonably falls within the requirements of the “investigational new drug” (IND) rubric administered and enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In determining whether an IND application is required before a clinical study may lawfully commence, investigators and researchers as well as institutional review boards should consider the regulatory classification, e.g., “drug,” “new drug,” “food,” “food additive,” “dietary supplement,” etc. that applies to the substance under investigation. A potential probiotic product can fall along a continuum of regulatory classifications, each having implications on the nature and degree of regulatory requirements for clinical research and, ultimately, for claim substantiation and market access.

Degnan, Fred H.

2012-01-01

5

Aberrant Drug-Related Behavior Observed During Clinical Studies Involving Patients Taking Chronic Opioid Therapy for Persistent Pain and Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for Breakthrough Pain.  

PubMed

CONTEXT: Information on aberrant drug-related behaviors in the clinical study setting is limited. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective analysis was designed to identify the types and frequency of aberrant drug-related behaviors (including misuse and abuse) and associated patient characteristics in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain. METHODS: Data from opioid-tolerant patients participating in clinical studies of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) for breakthrough pain (up to 18 months of clinical study case-report forms) were retrospectively reviewed and coded for abuse, overdose, and aberrant behavior. Aberrant behaviors were categorized as those involving FBT (overuse, lost or stolen study drug) and those not involving FBT (patients seeking prescriptions from other sources, not returning for follow-up). RESULTS: Of the 1,160 patients evaluated, 10 (<1%) patients had an abuse-related event, 18 (<2%) had a positive urine drug screening (nonprescribed drug or illicit substance), and 12 (1%) had an event consistent with opioid overdose; 124 (11%) had aberrant behaviors related to FBT, and 68 (6%) had aberrant behaviors that were not. Aberrant behaviors were more frequent in men (odds ratio [OR]: 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 2.1; P<0.01), in patients 42 years or younger (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.0; P<0.01), and in patients 43 years to 49 years (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The incidence of drug abuse events and aberrant drug-related behaviors was relatively low, probably because of the implementation of universal precautions and the controlled clinical study setting. Even in this setting, events occurred, highlighting the limits of screening and the need for ongoing monitoring of aberrant behavior. PMID:20580202

Passik, Steven D; Messina, John; Golsorkhi, Anthony; Xie, Fang

2010-06-24

6

Predicting and memorizing observed action: differential premotor cortex involvement.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown the involvement of the premotor cortex in action observation, recognizing this region as the neural marker of action simulation (i.e., internal modeling on the basis of the observer's own motor repertoire). So far, however, we have remained unaware of how action simulation differs from more general action representation in terms of premotor activation. The present fMRI experiment is the first to demonstrate how premotor structures contribute to action simulation as opposed to other action-related cognitive tasks, such as maintaining action representations. Using similar stimuli, a prediction condition requiring internal simulation of transiently occluded actions was compared to three different action-related control tasks differing solely in task instructions. Results showed right pre-SMA activation as a correlate of maintaining action representations in general. Moreover, the prediction condition was most efficient in activating the left pre-SMA and left PMd. These results suggest that the conjoint activation of the pre-SMA and PMd reflects a core neural driver of action simulation. PMID:20225220

Stadler, Waltraud; Schubotz, Ricarda I; von Cramon, D Yves; Springer, Anne; Graf, Markus; Prinz, Wolfgang

2011-05-01

7

Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2011-01-01

8

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2013-07-01

9

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2009-07-01

10

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2010-07-01

11

Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

12

Observational Studies and Experiments Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn the difference between observational studies and experiments, with emphasis on the importance of cause-and-effect relationships. The activity will also familiarize students with key terms such as factors, treatments, retrospective and prospective studies, etc. This is an easy to follow lesson plan for those teaching a course in statistics.

2009-07-21

13

Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.  

PubMed

The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and imitation sessions and outline a framework explaining the discrepant findings in the literature. PMID:21983182

Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

2011-09-22

14

Observational studies of stellar rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This course reviews the rotational properties of non- degenerate stars as observed from the protostellar stage to the end of the main sequence. It includes an introduction to the various observational techniques used to measure stellar rotation. Angular momentum evolution models developed over the mass range from the substellar domain to high-mass stars are briefly discussed.

Bouvier, J.

2013-09-01

15

Science Studies from Archived Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and available history where versioning has occurred. While these are challenging criteria to meet-especially in succinct form-the use of archival data for valid science publication requires that these criteria are achieved. The full presentation will illustrate and expand on these criteria.

Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

2008-12-01

16

Study of Accidents Involving Industrial Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are provided of a Japan-wide survey of 190 industrial plants which use robots in the production process. The primary purpose is to give, for the first time, a true picture of the incidence and nature of injurious accidents involving robots. A cons...

1983-01-01

17

Efficient estimation of ideal-observer performance in classification tasks involving high-dimensional complex backgrounds  

PubMed Central

The Bayesian ideal observer is optimal among all observers and sets an absolute upper bound for the performance of any observer in classification tasks [Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Academic, 1968).]. Therefore, the ideal observer should be used for objective image quality assessment whenever possible. However, computation of ideal-observer performance is difficult in practice because this observer requires the full description of unknown, statistical properties of high-dimensional, complex data arising in real life problems. Previously, Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were developed by Kupinski et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430(2003) ] and by Park et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B136 (2007) and IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 657 (2009) ] to estimate the performance of the ideal observer and the channelized ideal observer (CIO), respectively, in classification tasks involving non-Gaussian random backgrounds. However, both algorithms had the disadvantage of long computation times. We propose a fast MCMC for real-time estimation of the likelihood ratio for the CIO. Our simulation results show that our method has the potential to speed up ideal-observer performance in tasks involving complex data when efficient channels are used for the CIO.

Park, Subok; Clarkson, Eric

2010-01-01

18

Efficient estimation of ideal-observer performance in classification tasks involving high-dimensional complex backgrounds.  

PubMed

The Bayesian ideal observer is optimal among all observers and sets an absolute upper bound for the performance of any observer in classification tasks [Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Academic, 1968).]. Therefore, the ideal observer should be used for objective image quality assessment whenever possible. However, computation of ideal-observer performance is difficult in practice because this observer requires the full description of unknown, statistical properties of high-dimensional, complex data arising in real life problems. Previously, Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were developed by Kupinski et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430(2003) ] and by Park et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B136 (2007) and IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 657 (2009) ] to estimate the performance of the ideal observer and the channelized ideal observer (CIO), respectively, in classification tasks involving non-Gaussian random backgrounds. However, both algorithms had the disadvantage of long computation times. We propose a fast MCMC for real-time estimation of the likelihood ratio for the CIO. Our simulation results show that our method has the potential to speed up ideal-observer performance in tasks involving complex data when efficient channels are used for the CIO. PMID:19884916

Park, Subok; Clarkson, Eric

2009-11-01

19

Primer: challenges in randomized and observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered superior to observational studies, and both clinicians and researchers believe that conclusions that stem from observational research are flawed. RCTs, however, have important methodological and interpretational limitations, and particular clinical questions can only be addressed by observational research. This Review compares RCTs and observational studies with regard to particular limitations, and explains how the

Désirée van der Heijde; Robert Landewé

2007-01-01

20

Infantile Digital Fibromatosis (Inclusion Body Fibromatosis) Observed in a Baby Without Finger Involvement  

PubMed Central

A 9-day-old male baby was hospitalized after his birth due to some swells under the skin. The hard consistency nodules observed under the skin all over the body of the patient were of different size, and presented lesions, among which the biggest was 1 × 1 cm. No lesions were observed on the fingers. By superficial ultrasonography, multiple isoechoic hypoechoic lesions were observed among the muscle plan. In thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging, multiple massif lesions retaining peripheral contrast (the biggest was 1.7 × 1.4 cm large) had been observed under the skin muscle plans, between the muscles of the extremities. The biopsy was positive for smooth muscle actin, but negative for desmin, S100, and CD34. These findings were diagnosed as infantile digital fibromatosis (IDF) (inclusion body fibromatosis). The case was presented with an objective to illustrate and remind that IDF can be observed in babies without finger involvement.

Kaya, Avni; Yuca, Sevil Ari; Karaman, Kamuran; Erten, Remzi; Dogan, Murat; Bektas, Mehmet Selcuk; Ustyol, Lokman

2013-01-01

21

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR...

2013-07-01

22

Assessing observational studies of medical treatments  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment.

Hartz, Arthur; Bentler, Suzanne; Charlton, Mary; Lanska, Douglas; Butani, Yogita; Soomro, G Mustafa; Benson, Kjell

2005-01-01

23

Classroom Observation: A Case Study in Obtrusiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case study is presented concerning an observation methodology that advocates an anthropological approach to such data collection, and, in particular, demonstrates the effectiveness of a highly interactive role for the classroom observer. Part I traces t...

T. H. Bikson

1977-01-01

24

What Observational Studies Can Offer Decision Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies, for example cohort and case-control studies in which patients are allocated treatment on a non-random basis, are thought by some investigators to be flawed. This view results from the fact that, unlike experimental methods (randomized controlled trials; RCTs), the results of such observational studies are vulnerable to confounding. However, this view assumes that satisfactory adjustment of differences in

Nick Black

1999-01-01

25

Systematic studies of global observables by PHENIX  

SciTech Connect

Systematic studies of global observables in different collision systems are indispensable for mapping the QCD phase diagram. Fluctuations in these quantities can provide fundamental information relevant for the phase transitions. The following global observables relevant to critical behavior are studied: the longitudinal density correlation, K to {pi} and p to {pi} fluctuations, and the constituent quark number scaling for elliptic flows.

Homma, Kensuke [Hiroshima University, Japan; Awes, Terry C [ORNL; Cianciolo, Vince [ORNL; Efremenko, Yuri V [ORNL; Enokizono, Akitomo [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hornback, Donald [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Read Jr, Kenneth F [ORNL; Silvermyr, David O [ORNL; Sorensen, Soren P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stankus, Paul W [ORNL; Young, Glenn R [ORNL; PHENIX, Collaboration [The

2008-01-01

26

Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

Shaffer, T. L.; Johnson, D. H.

2008-01-01

27

Importance of Observational Studies in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In this era of evidence-based medicine, clinicians require a comprehensive range of well-designed studies to support prescribing decisions and patient management. In recent years, data from observational studies have become an increasingly important source of evidence because of improvements in observational-study methods and advances in statistical analysis.Objective: This article reviews the current literature and reports some of the key

Robert J. Ligthelm; Vito Borzì; Janusz Gumprecht; Ryuzo Kawamori; Yang Wenying; Paul Valensi

2007-01-01

28

Observation of bubble-involving spontaneous gas dissolution in superheated Al alloy melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a direct visualization of spontaneous gas dissolution in Al-7.7 mass% Ca eutectic alloy melt during superheating using high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray imaging. A bubble-involving gas dissolution process was observed, which can be understood within the framework of adsorption-diffusion-dissolution mechanism. The heterogenous nucleation and combined effect of hydrogen diffusivity and solubility results in the growth of individual bubbles in a stochastic way with Gaussian distribution. This also applies to the behavior of group bubbles in early stage, while which in final stage can be treated as reverse Ostwald ripening dominated by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner diffusion mechanism when pure diffusive condition is satisfied.

Zhang, S. G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, W. Q.; Zhang, W.; Yu, J. D.; Fu, Y. N.; Li, J. G.

2013-10-01

29

A case study of parent involvement and school outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was concerned with the role parents play in improving the education of their child. This research was designed to investigate whether parent involvement in the decision-making process can affect student achievement, school climate, and school leadership. The research questions investigated were: (1) How does each of Epstein's five types of parent involvement relate to academic performance? (2) Does

Roy Brad Gibson

1991-01-01

30

Systematic observer variation in trachoma studies  

PubMed Central

There has been increasing awareness in recent years among trachomatologists, as well as among workers in other fields of medical research, of the frequency and importance of observer variation in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. In trachoma, the lack of simple definitive laboratory diagnostic procedures suitable for wide application has placed the onus largely, and usually exclusively, on clinical observation. The study reported is based on the recorded observations of two skilled ophthalmologists in an epidemiological survey covering more than 35 000 persons in Taiwan. Observer differences were found to lie not only in deciding whether a case is trachomatous or not but also in assigning cases diagnosed as trachoma to the appropriate evolutive stage of the WHO trachoma classification. The conclusions reached are that: (a) inter- and intra-observer variations of some degree are inevitable if dependence is placed on clinical examination alone; (b) it is possible by preliminary testing of observers' interpretation of clinical signs to determine the nature of these differences, to assess their importance, and to reduce them; also to set base-lines for the detection of subsequent divergences over time; and (c) it is better to have two observers than one in any trachoma survey or clinical trial.

Assaad, F. A.; Maxwell-Lyons, F.

1967-01-01

31

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of

Erik von Elm; Douglas G Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J Pocock; Peter C Gøtzsche; Jan P Vandenbroucke

2007-01-01

32

Asymmetric profiles observed in the recombination of Bi{sup 79+}: A benchmark for relativistic theories involving interference  

SciTech Connect

Asymmetric profiles have been observed in the recombination cross section of Be-like Bi obtained by measuring the electron energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in an electron-beam ion trap. In contrast to the previous x-ray measurements, the present measurement gives the integrated recombination cross section with higher statistical quality, which provides a benchmark to test the relativistic theory involving the interference between the resonant and continuum states. The comparison with our theoretical study shows that the Breit interaction plays an important role in this case.

Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Kavanagh, Anthony P.; Currell, Fred J. [Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Hirofumi [Chubu University, Kasugai-shi, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Li Yueming [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Tong Xiaomin [Doctoral Program in Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2009-07-15

33

Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

34

Workplace Education Initiative: Case Studies and Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general observations and specific information in case studies of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on…

Astrein, Bruce; And Others

35

Freezing Rain: An Observational and Theoretical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a Doppler radar, an instrumented aircraft, and several rawinsonde observations during freezing rain and ice pellet events have been analyzed for this study. From these data, 34 soundings were obtained that characterized the vertical structure of the atmosphere at the time of the freezing precipitation. These soundings were analyzed to determine the general nature of the vertical structure

Ryan J. Zerr

1997-01-01

36

Observational Equivalence? Regional Studies and Regional Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann P. (2007) Observational equivalence? Regional studies and regional science, Regional Studies41, 1209–1221. This paper considers the methodological and empirical issues raised by the adoption of stylized constructs in the development of regional policy. Public policies invariably require funding, and the greater levels of public data availability and press scrutiny nowadays have led to increasing requirements for policy transparency driven

Philip Mccann

2007-01-01

37

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of

William D. Dupont; Walton D. Plummer

1998-01-01

38

Analytic Bounds on Causal Risk Differences in Directed Acyclic Graphs Involving Three Observed Binary Variables  

PubMed Central

We apply a linear programming approach which uses the causal risk difference (RDC) as the objective function and provides minimum and maximum values that RDC can achieve under any set of linear constraints on the potential response type distribution. We consider two scenarios involving binary exposure X, covariate Z and outcome Y. In the first, Z is not affected by X, and is a potential confounder of the causal effect of X on Y. In the second, Z is affected by X and intermediate in the causal pathway between X and Y. For each scenario we consider various linear constraints corresponding to the presence or absence of arcs in the associated directed acyclic graph (DAG), monotonicity assumptions, and presence or absence of additive-scale interactions. We also estimate Z-stratum-specific bounds when Z is a potential effect measure modifier and bounds for both controlled and natural direct effects when Z is affected by X. In the absence of any additional constraints deriving from background knowledge, the well-known bounds on RDc are duplicated: ?Pr(Y?X) ? RDC ? Pr(Y=X). These bounds have unit width, but can be narrowed by background knowledge-based assumptions. We provide and compare bounds and bound widths for various combinations of assumptions in the two scenarios and apply these bounds to real data from two studies.

Kaufman, Sol; Kaufman, Jay S.; MacLehose, Richard F.

2009-01-01

39

40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01...404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects...than minimal risk to children is presented,...

2013-07-01

40

Direct observation of driving, self reports of driver behaviour, and accident involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight drivers answered a set of written questions about their driving style and drove a pre-defined, mixed urban and motorway route under observation. For 20 drivers there was a second observer in the car to check on inter-observer reliability. Relationships were examined between self-reports of driver behaviour and observers' reports, and between both of these and the number of accidents

ROBERT WEST; DAVINA FRENCH; RICHARD KEMP; JAMES ELANDER

1993-01-01

41

Cortical Areas Involved in Numerical Processing: An Intraoperative Electrostimulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Numerical processing is important in our everyday lives. However, very few attempts have been made to map the numerical processing function areas during lesion surgery. Objective: To identify and protect the cortical areas involved in numerical processing, the authors used the intraoperative brain mapping approach to study numerical processing areas in patients with parietal lobe tumors. Methods: During resection

Song Pu; Yong-nian Li; Chen-xing Wu; Yong-zhi Wang; Xin-lin Zhou; Tao Jiang

2011-01-01

42

An Observational Study of Cataclysmic Variable Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I present an observational study of the evolution of Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). Disrupted magnetic braking has been the standard paradigm of CV evolution for the past twenty years. Unfortunately, some of its predictions are in strong disagreement with the observations. In recent years, a number of additions/alternatives to the standard model have been proposed. Yet, none have been able to explain all of the features observed in the currently known CV population. The work presented in this thesis is based mainly on a large-scale search for CVs. The primary aim of this project is to resolve the disagreement between theory and observations by eliminating the observational biases of the present CV sample. Here, I use two complementary approaches to search for CVs: (1) from the spectroscopic appearance in the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), and (2) by using a combination of ROSAT and 2MASS archival data. So far, we have discovered 52 new CVs in the HQS and 11 new CVs (the majority of them magnetic) and 1 pre-CV in the ROSAT/2MASS. Follow-up observations of two newly discovered HQS CVs, 1RXS J062518.2+733433 and HS 2331+3905, resulted in the classification of the first as an Intermediate Polar, with P_orb = 283.0 min and P_spin = 19.8 min, and the second as a short orbital period system, P_orb = 81.0 min, harbouring a white dwarf pulsator. In addition, we found that the dominant ~3.5 h radial velocity variation of HS 2331+3905 does not correspond to the orbital period of the system, contrary to all other CVs. Despite its novel selection criterion, the HQS does not provide many short-period CVs -- even though tests with the known CVs included in the survey have shown that it is very sensitive to those objects. The biggest surprise in the new HQS sample is the discovery of many new SW Sex stars. The clustering of SW Sex stars in the 3-4 h period range is probably an important feature in the evolution of CVs that we currently do not understand at all. To improve our chances of understanding what is going on in that period range, we need accurate system parameters for these stars, which is difficult mainly because of their defining characteristics. I have used HST data of one of the sporadic low states of the SW Sex star DW UMa to derive its system parameters. The success of this study is the first step towards the otherwise impossible task of compiling reliable system parameters for the SW Sex stars.

Araujo-Betancor, Sofia

2004-03-01

43

Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

Knapp, K. R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C. L.; Bourassa, M. A.; Dickinson, M. J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C. N.; Hennon, C. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Huffman, G. J.; Kossin, J. P.; Lee, H. -T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

2011-01-01

44

Overview of the Ocean Observer Satellite Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-year study of ocean satellite remote sensing requirements and instrument/satellite options is nearing completion. This Ocean Observer Study was sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce/Dept. of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Program Office, whose mission is to develop the future U.S. National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). A comprehensive Ocean Observer User Requirements Document has been drafted by a team of over 150 government, academic, and private sector scientists, engineers, and administrators. Included are requirements for open and coastal ocean surface, cryospheric, hydrologic, and some land/hazard and atmospheric boundary layer parameters. This document was then used as input to the instrument and satellite study (conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) which produced five different instrument/satellite configuration options designed to address the maximum number of requirements which will not be met with the already-approved NPOESS instruments. Instruments studied include a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), an altimeter, and a hyper-spectral coastal infrared/visible imager. After analyzing the alternatives, it appears that one of the best options is a two-satellite system consisting of (1) an altimeter mission in the Topex/Poseidon orbit carrying both wide-swath and delayed doppler altimeters, and (2) a multi-polarization, multi-frequency, multi-mode interferometric SAR mission including a coastal imager in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. This paper summarizes the user requirements process, briefly describes the notional satellite configuration, and presents some of the capabilities of the instruments.

Cunningham, J. D.; McGuire, J. P.; Pichel, W. G.; Gerber, A. J.

2002-12-01

45

Intimal histolysis as an early stage of atherosclerotic involvement. Observations on the human coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Investigation of the coronary arteries in 330 subjects aged 11 to 50 years showed that the "missing link" between age-dependent changes and atherosclerotic lesions appeared as a process of intimal histolysis. This term refers to focal disintegrations of the intimal connective tissue involving successively ground substance, reticular networks, collagen fibers, elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells. The resulting gelatinous plaques and detritus cavities represent the starting point for the development of fibrous plaques with or without necrotic centers (atheroma). PMID:989177

Velican, C; Velican, D

46

InSAR observations and modeling of plate behavior involved in the eastern Anatolia deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Mediterranean area is a zone of complex tectonics associated with interactions between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia, as well as the smaller Anatolian plate. The collision of Arabia into Eurasia in eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and the Zagros and a westward movement of the Anatolian plate dominate the deformation in this region. Major right-lateral transform motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and a left-lateral transform motion along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) result from this setting. In this study, we focus on the deformation of the eastern part of Anatolia, around the triple junction where the EAF and the NAF meet. We use InSAR data to obtain higher spatial resolution of the deformation than is currently available by GPS. In particular, we are interested in mapping in details of how the Anatolian plate behaves at the triple junction where it is clamped between Arabia and Eurasia. For this purpose, we used SAR data from three adjacent descending tracks and two ascending tracks of the Envisat archive, which at this location includes about 30 acquisitions for each descending track, but only about 10 images for the ascending tracks. The main limitation of using InSAR in this region is phase decorrelation due to temporal changes of the ground scattering, in particular due to winter snow cover. To reduce the phase coherence loss, we adopt a small baseline approach in limiting both the spatial and temporal baseline of the interferograms, and we also exclude images acquired in winter. Moreover, we correct produced interferograms for the stratified part of the atmospheric delay using the global atmospheric model, ECMWF. Corrected interferograms are then combined together to infer the time series of the ground surface displacement via a least square method. In order to model the Anatolian plate movement, we assume a constant velocity during the observation period. We use an interseismic back-slip model in a homogeneous, elastic half space to describe the kinematics of the Arabian, Anatolian and Eurasian system. With a non-linear optimization approach we fit the LOS InSAR measurements computed in this study and the available GPS data to estimate the plates velocities of Anatolia and Arabia (with Eurasia held fixed) and the locking depth along the NAF and EAF.

Cavalié, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

2013-04-01

47

Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established.The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length depen- dent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy.To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primar- ily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and

A. Krarup-Hansen; S. Helweg-Larsen; H. Schmalbruch; M. Rrth; C. Krarup

2007-01-01

48

Assessing the promise of user involvement in health service development: ethnographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To understand how the policy of user involvement is interpreted in health service organisations and to identify factors that influence how user involvement is put into practice.Design Ethnographic study using participant observation, interviews, and collection of documentary evidence.Setting A multiagency modernisation programme to improve stroke services in two London boroughs.Participants Service users, National Health Service managers, and clinicians.Results User

Nina Fudge; Charles D A Wolfe; Christopher McKevitt

2008-01-01

49

Involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic (mdx) mouse skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

uchenne muscular dystrophy results from the lack of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the inner surface membrane, in skeletal muscle. The absence of dystrophin induces an abnormal increase of sarcolemmal calcium influx through cationic channels in adult skeletal muscle fibers from dystrophic ( mdx ) mice. We observed that the activity of these channels was increased after depletion of

Clarisse Vandebrouck; Dominique Martin; Monique Colson-Van Schoor; Huguette Debaix; Philippe Gailly

2002-01-01

50

Why Rudolph's nose is red: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus’s sleigh, is due to the presence of a highly dense and rich nasal microcirculation. Design Observational study. Setting Tromsø, Norway (near the North Pole), and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Five healthy human volunteers, two adult reindeer, and a patient with grade 3 nasal polyposis. Main outcome measures Architecture of the microvasculature of the nasal septal mucosa and head of the inferior turbinates, kinetics of red blood cells, and real time reactivity of the microcirculation to topical medicines. Results Similarities between human and reindeer nasal microcirculation were uncovered. Hairpin-like capillaries in the reindeers’ nasal septal mucosa were rich in red blood cells, with a perfused vessel density of 20 (SD 0.7) mm/mm2. Scattered crypt or gland-like structures surrounded by capillaries containing flowing red blood cells were found in human and reindeer noses. In a healthy volunteer, nasal microvascular reactivity was demonstrated by the application of a local anaesthetic with vasoconstrictor activity, which resulted in direct cessation of capillary blood flow. Abnormal microvasculature was observed in the patient with nasal polyposis. Conclusions The nasal microcirculation of reindeer is richly vascularised, with a vascular density 25% higher than that in humans. These results highlight the intrinsic physiological properties of Rudolph’s legendary luminous red nose, which help to protect it from freezing during sleigh rides and to regulate the temperature of the reindeer’s brain, factors essential for flying reindeer pulling Santa Claus’s sleigh under extreme temperatures.

2012-01-01

51

Religious Congregations' Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach  

PubMed Central

Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction.

Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Dominguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

2011-01-01

52

[The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].  

PubMed

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:18711640

von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

53

[The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].  

PubMed

Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a che-cklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. PMID:18420014

von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

54

Assessing the promise of user involvement in health service development: ethnographic study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand how the policy of user involvement is interpreted in health service organisations and to identify factors that influence how user involvement is put into practice. Design Ethnographic study using participant observation, interviews, and collection of documentary evidence. Setting A multiagency modernisation programme to improve stroke services in two London boroughs. Participants Service users, National Health Service managers, and clinicians. Results User involvement in the programme was initiated and led by professionals. Professionals determined the areas of service improvement service users could participate in. A wide range of activities were considered “user involvement,” from patient satisfaction surveys to service users delivering peer support. Involvement tended to be most active in the least technical areas and areas with least input from clinicians. Factors that might explain this included organisational structure, the vagueness of the concept of user involvement, the value attributed to service users’ experiential knowledge, and variations in professional and service user understandings of and commitment to involvement. The gains of involvement were harder to identify in terms of impact on services. More evident were the personal gains for those involved: satisfaction of feeling listened to by professionals, social opportunities of meeting others in a similar situation, and increased knowledge about stroke and services available. Conclusions User involvement may not automatically lead to improved service quality. Healthcare professionals and service users understand and practise user involvement in different ways according to individual ideologies, circumstances, and needs. Given the resource implications of undertaking user involvement in service development there is a need for critical debate on the purpose of such involvement as well as better evidence of the benefits claimed for it.

2008-01-01

55

Study of decays involving kaons, spectral functions and determination of the strange quark mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   All ALEPH measurements of branching ratios of decays involving kaons are summarized including a combination of results obtained with and detection. The decay dynamics are studied, leading to the determination of contributions from vector and , and axial-vector and resonances. Agreement with isospin symmetry is observed among the different final states. Under the hypothesis of the conserved\\u000a vector current,

D. Decamp; P. Ghez; C. Goy; J P Lees; E Merle; M N Minard; B Pietrzyk; R Alemany; M P Casado; M Chmeissani; J M Crespo; E Fernández; M Fernández-Bosman; L Garrido; E Graugès-Pous; A Juste; M Martínez; G Merino; R Miquel; L M Mir; A Pacheco; I C Park; I Riu; A Colaleo; D Creanza; M De Palma; G Gelao; Giuseppe Iaselli; G Maggi; M Maggi; S Nuzzo; A Ranieri; G Raso; F Ruggieri; G Selvaggi; L Silvestris; P Tempesta; A Tricomi; G Zito; X Huang; J Lin; Q Ouyang; T Wang; Y Xie; R Xu; S Xue; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; D Abbaneo; U Becker; G Boix; M Cattaneo; V Ciulli; G Dissertori; H Drevermann; Roger W Forty; M Frank; A W Halley; J B Hansen; J Harvey; P Janot; B Jost; Ivan Lehraus; O Leroy; P Mato; Adolf G Minten; A Moutoussi; F Ranjard; Luigi Rolandi; D Rousseau; W D Schlatter; M Schmitt; O Schneider; W Tejessy; F Teubert; I R Tomalin; E Tournefier; Ziad J Ajaltouni; F Badaud; G Chazelle; O Deschamps; A Falvard; C Ferdi; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; S Monteil; J C Montret; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J D Hansen; P H Hansen; B S Nilsson; B Rensch; A Wäänänen; G Daskalakis; A Kyriakis; C Markou; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J C Brient; A Rougé; M Rumpf; M Swynghedauw; M Verderi; H L Videau; E Focardi; G Parrini; K Zachariadou; R J Cavanaugh; M Corden; C H Georgiopoulos; A Antonelli; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; F Cerutti; V Chiarella; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G P Murtas; L Passalacqua; M Pepé-Altarelli; L Curtis; J G Lynch; P Negus; V O'Shea; C Raine; P Teixeira-Dias; A S Thompson; O L Buchmüller; S Dhamotharan; C Geweniger; P Hanke; G Hansper; V Hepp; E E Kluge; A Putzer; J Sommer; K Tittel; S Werner; M Wunsch; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; Peter J Dornan; M Girone; S M Goodsir; E B Martin; N Marinelli; J K Sedgbeer; P Spagnolo; E Thomson; M D Williams; V M Ghete; P Girtler; E Kneringer; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; A P Betteridge; C K Bowdery; P G Buck; P Colrain; G Crawford; A J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; R W L Jones; N A Robertson; I Giehl; C Hoffmann; K Jakobs; K Kleinknecht; G Quast; B Renk; E Rohne; H G Sander; P Van Gemmeren; H W Wachsmuth; C Zeitnitz; Jean-Jacques Aubert; C Benchouk; A Bonissent; J Carr; P Coyle; F Etienne; A Ealet; F Motsch; P Payre; M Talby; M Thulasidas; M Aleppo; M Antonelli; F Ragusa; R Berlich; V Büscher; H Dietl; G Ganis; K Hüttmann; G Lütjens; C Mannert; W Männer; H G Moser; S Schael; Ronald Settles; H C J Seywerd; H Stenzel; W Wiedenmann; G Wolf; J Boucrot; O Callot; S Chen; A Cordier; M Davier; L Duflot; J F Grivaz; P Heusse; A Höcker; A Jacholkowska; D W Kim; F R Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A M Lutz; M H Schune; J J Veillet; I Videau; D Zerwas; P Azzurri; G Bagliesi; S Bettarini; T Boccali; C Bozzi; G Calderini; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; L Foà; A Giassi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; A Lusiani; P S Marrocchesi; A Messineo; Fabrizio Palla; G Rizzo; G Sanguinetti; A Sciabà; G Sguazzoni; Roberto Tenchini; C Vannini; A Venturi; P G Verdini; G A Blair; J T Chambers; G D Cowan; M G Green; T Medcalf; J A Strong; J H Von Wimmersperg-Töller; David R Botterill; R W Clifft; T R Edgecock; P R Norton; J C Thompson; A E Wright; B Bloch-Devaux; P Colas; S Emery; Witold Kozanecki; E Lançon; M C Lemaire; E Locci; P Pérez; J Rander; J F Renardy; A Roussarie; J P Schuller; J Schwindling; A Trabelsi; B Vallage; S N Black; J H Dann; R P Johnson; H Y Kim; N P Konstantinidis; A M Litke; M A McNeil; G Taylor; C N Booth; S L Cartwright; F Combley; M S Kelly; M H Lehto; L F Thompson; K Affholderbach; A Böhrer; S Brandt; J Foss; Claus Grupen; G Prange; L Smolik; F Stephan; G Giannini; B Gobbo; J E Rothberg; S R Wasserbaech; S R Armstrong; E Charles; P Elmer; D P S Ferguson; Y Gao; S González; T C Greening; O J Hayes; H Hu; S Jin; G Mamier; P A McNamara; J M Nachtman; J Nielsen; W Orejudos; Y B Pan; Y Saadi; I J Scott; M Vogt; J Walsh; Wu Sau Lan; X Wu; G Zobernig

1999-01-01

56

Political Involvement. Community Involvement/Career Education: An Experience-based Social Studies Program, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of materials and ideas is designed for the high school student who wants to try to influence society. The guide provides background information and descriptions of experience-based learning activities for use by students as they explore political involvement opportunities in their communities. The purposes of the materials are to…

Kyle, James; And Others

57

What Gets Dad Involved? A Longitudinal Study of Change in Parental Child Caregiving Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors of change in fathers' and mothers' perceptions of child caregiving involvement were examined. Middle-class 2-parent families (131 mothers and 98 fathers) with a target school-age child participated. Fathers and mothers completed annual questionnaires for 3 consecutive years. Latent growth curve modeling suggested that fathers were likely to increase their relative contribution to child caregiving over the course of 3

Jeffrey J. Wood; Rena L. Repetti

2004-01-01

58

Observations on the complex interactions involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fractionation studies performed on the cellulases of the fungiPencillium funiculosum, Trichoderma koningii, andFusarium solani have shown that the solubilization of high ordered crystalline cellulose can be effected by mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase,\\u000a cellobiohydrolase, and ?-glucosidase, factors that affect the interaction of these enzymes are not well understood. Sequential\\u000a action between endo-1,4-?-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase is almost certainly a feature of these

T. M. Wood; S. I. McCrae; C. A. Wilson

1984-01-01

59

Involvement of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia: human studies.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are heterogeneously distributed throughout the digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems and serve as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones. Neuropeptides are phylogenetically conserved and have been demonstrated to regulate numerous behaviors. They have been hypothesized to be pathologically involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. On the basis of preclinical data, numerous studies have sought to examine the role of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia. This chapter reviews the clinical data, linking alterations in neuropeptide systems to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia. Data for the following neuropeptide systems are included: arginine-vasopressin, cholecystokinin (CCK), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), interleukins, neuregulin 1 (NRG1), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioids, secretin, somatostatin, tachykinins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Data from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), postmortem and genetic studies, as well as clinical trials are described. Despite the inherent difficulties associated with human studies (including small sample size, variable duration of illness, medication status, the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and diagnostic heterogeneity), several findings are noteworthy. Postmortem studies support disease-related alterations in several neuropeptide systems in the frontal and temporal cortices. The strongest genetic evidence supporting a role for neuropeptides in schizophrenia are those studies linking polymorphisms in NRG1 and the CCKA receptor with schizophrenia. Finally, the only compounds that act directly on neuropeptide systems that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in schizophrenia are neurokinin receptor antagonists. Clearly, additional investigation into the role of neuropeptide systems in the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia is warranted. PMID:17349866

Cáceda, Ricardo; Kinkead, Becky; Nemeroff, Charles B

2007-01-01

60

Experimental Land Observing Data System Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Prog...

J. L. Buckley H. Kraiman

1982-01-01

61

Anesthesia Alarms in Context: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across four types of surgical procedure (laparoscopic, arthroscopic, cardiac, and intracranial) and across three phases of a procedure (induction, maintenance, and

F. Jacob Seagull; Penelope M. Sanderson

2001-01-01

62

Factors involved in sudden coagulation observed in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Coronary artery diseases (CAD) evolving into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with coagulation and thrombotic occlusion of coronary vessels in the presence of unstable atheroma. The atheromatous plaque becomes unstable when it is infiltrated by monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils capable of secreting proteases that induce plaque erosion, rupture and initialize the coagulation process. The aim of this study was (a) to analyse the plasma of patients with AMI for the presence of proteases that may activate rapid coagulation, (b) to evaluate coagulation markers as prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and antithrombin III and (c) to find an interrelation between proteases and coagulation markers. The examined plasma showed high values of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and low levels of antithrombin III. These markers showed a highly significant negative-correlation. The plasma also exhibited increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) which were positively-correlated with the prothrombin fragment (F1+2). MMP-9 seems to cause the coagulation activity by increasing the level of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and the consumption of antithrombin III. The examined plasma also exhibited high levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which is known to modulate MMP-9 activity. The high plasma levels of MMP-9 and NGAL can be attributed to plaque instability and appear to activate sudden coagulation. MMP-9 and NGAL, in the presence of altered values of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and antithrombin III in AMI patients, seem to be suitable markers to be studied in unstable plaque patients, for the prediction and prevention of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:23160687

Pinelli, Arnaldo; Trivulzio, Silvio; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Redaelli, Rosaria; Brenna, Sergio

63

Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in cadherins. Simulations also revealed how calcium ions control cadherin's shape and the availability of key residues involved in cell-cell adhesion, suggesting a conceptual framework for interpreting mutations in cadherin calcium binding motifs causing hereditary deafness. Overall, simulations provided a unique nanoscopic view of the dynamics and function of some of the proteins involved in mechanotransduction.

Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

64

Father Involvement in Early Head Start Programs: A Practitioners Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all Early Head Start programs funded from 1995-1998 was conducted during the winter of 1999-2000 to determine involvement of fathers in the programs and program outreach to involve fathers. Program representatives from 261 programs completed the survey on the World Wide Web or by mail, for a 62.5 percent response rate. Findings…

Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; vanKammen, Welmoet; Summers, JeanAnn; Raikes, Abbie; Laible, Debbie; Wilcox, Brian; Ontai, Lenna; Christensen, Lanette

65

Father Involvement in Early Head Start Programs: A Practitioners' Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes that most Early Head Start children have either a father who lives with them or an involved nonresident father. However, there is considerable variation across programs, with some programs serving a higher percentage of resident fathers, depending on the program setting or population served. Furthermore, programs vary in how they perceive their experience with father involvement, with most (72

Helen Raikes; Kimberly Boller; Welmoet van Kammen; JeanAnn Summers; Abbie Raikes; Debbie Laible; Brian Wilcox; Lenna Ontai; Lanette Christensen

2002-01-01

66

Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home OPEN: What is the OPEN Study? Why assess measurement error? How did OPEN assess measurement error? What is the current status of

67

Air quality: from observation to applied studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air qualities studies in urban areas embrace several directions that are strongly associated with urban complexity. In the last centuries cities evolution implied changes in urbanization trends: urban sprawl has modified the relationship between cities and surroundings settlements. The existence and protection of urban green and open areas is promoted as a mean to improve the quality of life of

Christiane H. Weber; Annett Wania; Jacky Hirsch; Michael Bruse

2004-01-01

68

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: An observation on its microscopic involvement in breast carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastases  

PubMed Central

The spaces of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) are postulated to be important in the intramammary spread of breast carcinoma. The present study aimed to note the prevalence of inconspicuous, microscopic foci of PASH (identified as CD34+ve, CD31?ve and D2-40-ve spaces containing tumour emboli) involved in breast carcinoma and to establish the significance of its relationship to lymph node metastases. A total of 80 cases of breast carcinoma were examined for microscopic foci of PASH permeated by carcinoma and, of the four cases found to demonstrate such involvement, three had lymph node metastases.

COYNE, JOHN D.

2010-01-01

69

Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix C. Public Involvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this public involvement program was to achieve three goals: To solicit opinions and perceptions of problems, issues, concerns, and needs from the public; their preferences regarding water resource use and plan development; and any o...

1983-01-01

70

Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium  

SciTech Connect

High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs: i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a reactor fleet made of a mixture of LWRs and HTRs. It is reasonable to assume that if HTRs are to be deployed on an industrial scale, they will co-exist during a long period of time with already existing LWRs. The present paper investigates the symbiotic behaviour of LWRs producing plutonium, and of HTRs burning it. (authors)

Bonin, B.; Greneche, D. [COGEMA, Direction de la Recherche et du Developpement (France); Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y. [CEA Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire (France)

2002-07-01

71

Evaluation of autoimmune safety signal in observational vaccine safety studies  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune safety evaluation is an important component of post-licensure vaccine safety evaluation. Recently, we published the findings from a large observational safety study of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in females. From this study, based on two large managed care organizations, we have obtained some empirical data that may prove useful for the design of future vaccine safety studies within a managed care environment. For autoimmune conditions, a major challenge in vaccine safety study is to determine true incident cases in relation to the timing of vaccination. We found expert case review of medical records an indispensable component for autoimmune safety studies based on electronic health records. Case identification should also be expanded to include the use of laboratory test results or other relevant measures in addition to the disease specific ICD-9 diagnosis codes, when applicable. Furthermore, we recommend the parallel use of both safety signal evaluation that involves pattern evaluation for conditions that are more common, and statistical comparisons for conditions that are rather rare. Finally, we recommend an accompanying vaccine uptake study to understand the potential selection bias and confounding in a given study population that should be addressed with data collection and analytical techniques.

Chao, Chun; Jacobsen, Steven

2012-01-01

72

Air quality: from observation to applied studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air qualities studies in urban areas embrace several directions that are strongly associated with urban complexity. In the last centuries cities evolution implied changes in urbanization trends: urban sprawl has modified the relationship between cities and surroundings settlements. The existence and protection of urban green and open areas is promoted as a mean to improve the quality of life of their citizens and increase the satisfactory level of the inhabitants against pollution and noise adverse effects. This paper outlines the methods and approaches used in the EU research project Benefits of Urban Green Space (BUGS). The main target of BUGS is to assess the role of urban green spaces in alleviating the adverse effects of urbanization trends by developing an integrative methodology, ranging from participatory planning tools to numerical simulation models. The influence of urban structures on atmospheric pollutants distribution is investigated as a multi-scale problem ranging from micro to macro/regional scale. Traditionally, air quality models are applied on a single scale, seldom considering the joint effects of traffic network and urban development together. In BUGS, several numerical models are applied to cope with urban complexity and to provide quantitative and qualitative results. The differing input data requirements for the various models demanded a methodology which ensures a coherent data extraction and application procedure. In this paper, the stepwise procedure used for BUGS is presented after a general presentation of the research project and the models implied. A discussion part will highlight the statements induced by the choices made and a conclusive part bring to the stage some insights for future investigations.

Weber, Christiane H.; Wania, Annett; Hirsch, Jacky; Bruse, Michael

2004-10-01

73

Metabolism of succinonitrile in liver: studies on the systems involved in cyanide release.  

PubMed

The liberation of cyanide from succinonitrile has been studied to obtain information on the cellular systems responsible for the release of this metabolite. 1) Using isolated endoplasmic reticulum preparations a complex between succinonitrile and cyt. P 450 has been detected. This finding together with the inhibition of cyanide liberation by SKF-525A in liver slices indicates that the endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the early stages of succinonitrile metabolism. 2) The decreased metabolism of succinonitrile which was observed after addition of inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation indicates that an energy-dependent mitochondrial step might be involved in the subsequent steps. 3) It is concluded that cyanide liberation from succinonitrile is a multistep process in which the mitochondrial membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum are involved. The requirement for cellular integrity in order to accomplish the process of succinonitrile metabolism suggests other components or equilibria that are difficult to reproduce in in vitro experiments. PMID:7274308

Floreani, M; Carpenedo, F; Santi, R; Contessa, A R

1981-01-01

74

Detection of simulated incipient furcation involvement by CBCT: an in vitro study using pig mandibles.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting incipient furcation involvement. Fifteen macerated pig mandibles, with intact second molar teeth and preserved adjacent cortical areas, were used. Simulated lesions were created in the furcation region of these teeth by applying 70% perchloric acid in up to four possible buccal/lingual sites in the right/left sides of each mandible. The mandibles were then submitted to a CBCT scan. Two blinded and calibrated experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologists interpreted the exams. Furcation involvement was also assessed in the regions without simulated lesions. CBCT showed high levels of accuracy, ranging from 78% to 88%. The variations in Kappa values for intra- and inter-observer agreement (0.41-0.59) were considered moderate. CBCT can be considered a reliable and accurate method for detecting incipient furcation involvement. PMID:22790499

Umetsubo, Otavio Shoiti; Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Costa, Felipe Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso

75

Not Just Cupcakes Anymore: A Study of Community Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent involvement can have unforeseen consequences. Article recounts complicated process of choosing a high school biology textbook in Colorado Springs district populated mainly by evangelical Christians. Although controversy arose over creationism's treatment in one text, book discussing evolution as unifying concept of biology was eventually…

Yaffe, Elaine

1994-01-01

76

Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study

Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

2013-01-01

77

Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Syndrome with Retro-Orbital Involvement: A Retrospective Study of Eight Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this retrospective study was to document the clinical findings and radiological features of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome with retro-orbital involvement. Methods We searched for ophthalmological patients who received orbital imaging at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between October 2003 and April 2010. Seventy-three patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome based on clinicoradiological features, with pathological confirmation of nonspecific inflammatory conditions in 47 patients. Eight patients (11%) had MRI or CT evidence of retro-orbital involvement. All 8 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome after biopsy of the orbital lesion. MR images were obtained for all 8 patients; 3 patients also had a contrast-enhanced CT scan. Results Seven out of 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement also had orbital apex lesions. Of the 65 patients without retro-orbital involvement, 19 had orbital apex lesions. The difference in the number of patients with orbital apex lesions between the two populations was significant (Fisher exact test P?=?.002). In all 8 patients with retro-orbital involvement, the inflammation spread through the superior orbital fissure. The retro-orbital lesions were isointense to grey matter on T1-weighted images, hypointense on T2-weighted images, and displayed uniform contrast enhancement; on contrast-enhanced CT scans, they were hyperdense relative to the contralateral mirror area and had radiological contours that were similar to those seen on MR images. The diffuse inflammation with marked sclerosis and hyalinization that we observed in the patients with retro-orbital involvement is consistent with the diagnosis of the sclerosing subtype of idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome. All 8 patients also complained of mild to moderate periorbital pain (headache). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome, it is important to perform MRI and CT scans to identify possible retro-orbital involvement. Retro-orbital involvement is more frequent when the lesion is present in the orbital apex.

Li, Yumei; Lip, Gerald; Chong, Vincent; Yuan, Jianhua; Ding, Zhongxiang

2013-01-01

78

Are Observational Studies ‘Just as Effective’ as Randomized Clinical Trials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether observational studies are ‘just as effective’ as randomized clinical trials appears to presume a competition between the two. However, from a methodological perspective, the two types of studies are complementary. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials can be viewed as expressions in the setting of modern clinical research of the steps of observation and experimentation that

Tom Greene

2000-01-01

79

Observational studies in police custody areas: Some methodological and ethical issues considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1960s, social researchers have conducted a number of studies of police behavior and operational practice, and some of these have included an observational component. This paper reviews some of the methodological and ethical difficulties involved in conducting observational research in police stations. It then considers the advantages of using this type of research technique, and ends with suggestions

Coretta Phillips; David Brown

1997-01-01

80

Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Ensuring that evidence based medicine reaches patients with diabetes in the US and internationally is challenging. The chronic care model includes evidence based management practices which support evidence based care. However, despite numerous studies, it is unclear which practices are most effective. Few studies assess the effect of simultaneous practices implemented to varying degrees. The present study evaluates the effect of fifteen practices applied concurrently and takes variation in implementation levels into account while assessing the impact of diabetes care management practices on glycemic and lipid monitoring. Methods Fifteen management practices were identified. Implementation levels of the practices in 41 medical centres caring for 553,556 adults with diabetes were assessed from structured interviews with key informants. Stepwise logistic regression models with management practices as explanatory variables and glycemic and lipid monitoring as outcome variables were used to identify the diabetes care practices most associated with high performance. Results Of the 15 practices studied, only provider alerts were significantly associated with higher glycemic and lipid monitoring rates. The odds ratio for glycemic monitoring was 4.07 (p < 0.00001); the odds ratio for lipid monitoring was 1.63 (p < 0.006). Weaker associations were found between action plans and glycemic monitoring (odds ratio = 1.44; p < 0.03) and between guideline distribution and training and lipid monitoring (odds ratio = 1.46; p < 0.03). The covariates of gender, age, cardiac disease and depression significantly affected monitoring rates. Conclusions Of fifteen diabetes care management practices, our data indicate that high performance is most associated with provider alerts and more weakly associated with action plans and with guideline distribution and training. Lack of convergence in the literature on effective care management practices suggests that factors contributing to high performance may be highly context-dependent or that the factors involved may be too numerous or their implementation too nuanced to be reliably identified in observational studies.

2010-01-01

81

Force requirements of observed object lifting are encoded by the observer's motor system: a TMS study.  

PubMed

Several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have reported facilitation of the primary motor cortex (M1) during the mere observation of actions. This facilitation was shown to be highly congruent, in terms of somatotopy, with the observed action, even at the level of single muscles. With the present study, we investigated whether this muscle-specific facilitation of the observer's motor system reflects the degree of muscular force that is exerted in an observed action. Two separate TMS experiments are reported in which corticospinal excitability was measured in the hand area of M1 while subjects observed the lifting of objects of different weights. The type of action 'grasping-and-lifting-the-object' was always identical, but the grip force varied according to the object's weight. In accordance to previous findings, excitability of M1 was shown to modulate in a muscle-specific way, such that only the cortical representation areas in M1 that control the specific muscles used in the observed lifting action became increasingly facilitated. Moreover, muscle-specific M1 facilitation was shown to modulate to the force requirements of the observed actions, such that M1 excitability was considerably higher when observing heavy object lifting compared with light object lifting. Overall, these results indicate that different levels of observed grip force are mirrored onto the observer's motor system in a highly muscle-specific manner. The measured force-dependent modulations of corticospinal excitability in M1 are hypothesized to be functionally relevant for scaling the observed grip force in the observer's own motor system. In turn, this mechanism may contribute, at least partly, to the observer's ability to infer the weight of the lifted object. PMID:20377627

Alaerts, Kaat; Senot, Patrice; Swinnen, Stephan P; Craighero, Laila; Wenderoth, Nicole; Fadiga, Luciano

2010-03-01

82

Interdisciplinary rehabilitation in morbidly obese subjects: an observational pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary rehabilitation in morbidly obese subjects: an observational pilot study. E. Clini, F. Prato, M. Nobile, M. Bondi, B. Serri, C. Cilione, D. Lugli. Background and aim. To assess the clinical effective- ness of a interdisciplinary rehabillitation programme (CR), in a population of morbidly obese subjects we have undertaken a observational study. Methods. The study included fifty-nine adult subjects (18

E. Clini; F. Prato; M. Nobile; M. Bondi; B. Serri; C. Cilione; D. Lugli

83

Statistical analysis strategies for association studies involving rare variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled studies of rare variants but these methods will not be sufficient for their success as appropriate analytical methods are also

Vikas Bansal; Ondrej Libiger; Ali Torkamani; Nicholas J. Schork

2010-01-01

84

Action observation and speech production: study on children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to determine whether observation of upper limb actions selectively influences speech production. We compared the effects on children with those on adults, hypothesizing that action observation is used by children for speech learning. Children and adults observed an actor either grasping a cherry or an apple, or bringing the same fruits to his mouth. They pronounced

Maurizio Gentilucci; Silvia Stefanini; Alice C Roy; Paola Santunione

2004-01-01

85

WHAT OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING ENTAILS: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational learning has proved to be effective with learners of various ages and in various school subjects, including writing. However, little is known about the actual behavior of learners while carrying out observation tasks. In this case study, students' learning activities when processing observa- tion tasks are closely analyzed: six students thought aloud while observing sets of writers as peer

MARTINE A. H. BRAAKSMA; GERT RIJLAARSDAM

86

Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the prevalence of gastric electrical activity dysfunction with cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), disturbances of gastric emptying function using radiopaque pellets, and gastric endoscopic abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We also investigate for an association between EGG and gastric-emptying data with clinical manifestations and esophageal motor disturbances.METHODS:Fasting and postprandial gastric electrical activity was studied in

Isabelle Marie; Hervé Levesque; Philippe Ducrotté; Philippe Denis; Marie-France Hellot; Jacques Benichou; Nicole Cailleux; Hubert Courtois

2001-01-01

87

Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.  

PubMed

For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

Ramello, Stefano

2013-01-14

88

Parent and Community Involvement in Education. Volume II: Case Studies. Studies of Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genuine educational reform depends on developing relationships with the home, community groups, politicians, and the business community (Seeley, 1981). This volume is the second of three reports that are products of a 3.5 year study of education reform, with a focus on the role of parent, family, and community involvement in the middle grades. The…

Rutherford, Barry; And Others

89

Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

Storm, Karin Jennifer

2010-01-01

90

Autonomic involvement in multiple sclerosis: a pupillometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study pupillary autonomic function in multiple sclerosis (MS), we examined 36 subjects with low disability, preserved visual acuity and no recent history (2 years) of optic neuritis or actual visual complaints. Compared to controls, MS patients showed a greater dilatator reaction with darkness and, for the light reflex, a lower amplitude and contraction rate and a greater recovery of

G. Pozzessere; P. Rossi; E. Valle; C. P. Froio; A. F. G. Petrucci; C. Morocutti

1997-01-01

91

Psychological factors involved in prurigo nodularis: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Emotional stresses and psychological disorders seem to be concurrent factors in some cases of prurigo nodularis (PN), a chronic skin condition with a difficult therapeutic approach. In order to improve the therapeutic strategies, we performed a psychometric study on 20 patients affected by generalized and histological proven PN. Specific questionnaires were employed to examine the hypotheses (General Health Questionnaire, State Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). The results show that symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with PN are more severe than in the control group and that some specific traits of personality are more frequently represented in such subjects. The results of our study represent a first attempt to analyze the psychological problems and the personality dimensions which seem to characterize PN patients. Such evidence supports the importance of a psychological approach in the clinical management of PN, which should always include psychological assessment and treatment together with the other therapeutic options. PMID:20666670

Dazzi, Carla; Erma, Daniela; Piccinno, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano; Caccialanza, Massimo

2010-07-28

92

Pathology Case Study: Mass Involving Kidney and Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a right-sided mass in her kidney, with normal CEA levels. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Aronica, Patricia; Bastacky, Sheldon

2008-10-27

93

Giant cell arteritis: a multicenter observational study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic features, disease manifestations and therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis from referral centers in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 45 giant cell arteritis patients from three university hospitals in Brazil. Diagnoses were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for giant cell arteritis or temporal artery biopsy findings. RESULTS: Most patients were Caucasian, and females were slightly more predominant. The frequencies of disease manifestations were as follows: temporal headache in 82.2%, neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations in 68.9%, jaw claudication in 48.9%, systemic symptoms in 44.4%, polymyalgia rheumatica in 35.6% and extra-cranial vessel involvement in 17.8% of cases. Aortic aneurysms were observed in 6.6% of patients. A comparison between patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis and those without temporal artery biopsies did not yield significant differences in disease manifestations. All patients were treated with oral prednisone, and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered to nearly half of the patients. Methotrexate was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent, and low-dose aspirin was prescribed to the majority of patients. Relapses occurred in 28.9% of patients, and aspirin had a protective effect against relapses. Females had higher prevalences of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic manifestations and jaw claudication, while permanent visual loss was more prevalent in men. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the clinical features of Brazilian giant cell arteritis patients were similar to those found in other studies, except for the high prevalence of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and permanent blindness in the Brazilian patients. Aspirin had a protective effect on relapses.

de Souza, Alexandre Wagner Silva; Okamoto, Karine Yoshiye Kajiyama; Abrantes, Fabiano; Schau, Bruno; Bacchiega, Ana Beatriz Santos; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

2013-01-01

94

Autonomic involvement in multiple sclerosis: a pupillometric study.  

PubMed

To study pupillary autonomic function in multiple sclerosis (MS), we examined 36 subjects with low disability, preserved visual acuity and no recent history (2 years) of optic neuritis or actual visual complaints. Compared to controls, MS patients showed a greater dilatator reaction with darkness and, for the light reflex, a lower amplitude and contraction rate and a greater recovery of pupillary diameter 5 s after the stimulus. Within the MS group, no difference was found comparing patients with or without the following characteristics: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging evidence of midbrain lesions; increased visual evoked potential P100 latency; and a previous history of optic neuritis. No correlation was found between P100 latency, duration of disease and pupillometric parameters. Our results indicate that in MS patients there is autonomic dysfunction with a reduction of parasympathetic tone and a relative increase in sympathetic dilatator tone to the pupils. We suggest that pupillary abnormalities could be due to non-specific impairment of the central pathways subserving pupil functions. PMID:9430804

Pozzessere, G; Rossi, P; Valle, E; Froio, C P; Petrucci, A F; Morocutti, C

1997-12-01

95

In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

2010-01-01

96

An experimental study on the relationship between consumer involvement and advertising effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

States that the level of consumer involvement in a product category is a major variable relevant to advertising strategy. Suggests product category is often segmented by the level of consumer involvement; however, consumers are rarely segmented. Points out that different involvement clusters have different responses to advertising effectiveness for the same product. Presents a case study segmenting a market using

Shwu-Ing Wu

2001-01-01

97

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles; and contact with content experts. We included randomized trials and observational studies that evaluated the impact of primary prevention interventions including sex education classes, school-based clinics, free-standing clinics, physician/nurse practitioner practice-based service, improved access, and community-based programs on four outcomes: sexual intercourse, birth control use, responsible sexual behavior, or pregnancy in adolescents. One investigator abstracted the data and a second conducted a detailed review of the abstraction. We identified 13 randomized trials and 17 observational studies. We generated estimates of the impact of the interventions separately for males and females for all four outcomes for both observational studies and randomized trials. For six of the eight outcomes the summary odds ratios for the observational studies showed a significant intervention benefit (P<0.05) while the randomized trials did not show a benefit for any outcome in either females or males. The difference between the results of the observational studies and randomized trials was statistically significant in two of the eight outcomes (P<0.05 for initiation of intercourse and pregnancy in females). Observational studies yield systematically greater estimates of treatment effects than randomized trials of adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. Public policy or individual patient treatment decisions should be based on observational studies only when randomized trials are unavailable and only with careful consideration of possible biases. PMID:10729689

Guyatt, G H; DiCenso, A; Farewell, V; Willan, A; Griffith, L

2000-02-01

98

40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01...405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects...than minimal risk to children, EPA will not...

2013-07-01

99

The activity involvement of women and men in young and middle adulthood: A panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a secondary analyses of a 36?year panel study of 267 Euro?American women and men, this research examined gender differences in (a) the frequency of individuals’ involvement in discretionary or free?time activity in young and middle adulthood, (b) change in activity involvement between young and middle adulthood, and (c) predictors of activity involvement in young and middle adulthood. Activity involvement

Valeria J. Freysinger; Robert O. Ray

1994-01-01

100

Lymph node involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases.  

PubMed

Twenty cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving lymph nodes with no other sites of disease are presented. The patients were 12 men and 8 women between 3 months and 68 years of age. Seven patients were younger than 11 years; the other 13 patients were older than 16 years. Clinically, all patients presented with lymphadenopathy and underwent excisional biopsy; clinical and imaging studies did not reveal abnormalities in other organs. Cervical lymph nodes were most commonly involved; other lymph nodes involved included axillary, inguinal, and supraclavicular. Histologically, LCH in lymph nodes had 3 main architectural patterns: (1) preserved nodal architecture with subtle involvement, (2) subtotal effacement of nodal architecture, and (3) total effacement of nodal architecture. There was a gradient of involvement by LCH from focal sinus involvement to diffuse sinus involvement and from focal paracortical involvement to diffuse paracortical involvement. In some cases, focal involvement was initially unrecognized because of the subtle nature of the changes in the lymph node, posing difficulties for diagnosis. Langerhans cells in the involved areas showed strong positivity by immunohistochemical studies for S100 protein and CD1a in all 11 cases assessed. In conclusion, LCH can initially manifest clinically with involvement limited to lymph nodes. Recognition of the different patterns of LCH, particularly cases with subtle involvement, is important for recognizing this disease and separating LCH from other more common causes of lymphadenopathy. PMID:17669469

Edelweiss, Marcia; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Suster, Saul; Moran, Cesar A

2007-07-31

101

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives o...

B. Weeks C. Rosenzweig C. Sakakibara C. C. Alexander C. V. Shadrin J. Waterhouse L. Johnson M. Vicarelli N. Bynum N. Oettle P. Neofotis T. Mustonen U. King

2010-01-01

102

Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has indicated a potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by control and rejection. However, few studies have utilised observational methods to support these findings. In the current study, mother–child interactions were observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children (n=20) and non-clinical

Jennifer L Hudson; Ronald M Rapee

2001-01-01

103

Inclusion of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Challenges in Child Care Settings: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through direct observations of activities, conversations, and social interactions involving children with emotional or behavioral challenges, this study investigated practices child care staff used to include these children in their program, as well as child to child interactions, and supports put in place for times of transition between…

Brennan, Eileen M.; Ama, Shane M.; Gordon, Lynwood J.

104

The contribution of advisory committees and public involvement to large studies: case study  

PubMed Central

Background Many large studies have complex advisory committee structures, yet there is no empirical evidence regarding their optimal composition, scope and contribution. The aim of this study was to inform the committee and advice infrastructure for future research studies. Methods In the context of a five-year study funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research, three advisory committees were formed. In addition, advice was obtained from individual experts. All recommendations received in the start-up phase (first seven months) of the study were recorded, along with the decision about implementation of the recommendation. A particular focus was on the impact of public involvement. Results A total of 172 recommendations were made, including 70 from 20 individual experts. The recommendations were grouped into five emergent themes: Scientific, Pragmatic, Resources, Committee and Collaboration. Most recommendations related to strengthening existing components or adding new components to the study protocol. Very few recommendations either proposed removing study components or contradicted other recommendations. Three 'implementation criteria' were identified: scientific value, pragmatic feasibility, and paradigmatic consistency. 103 (60%) of recommendations were implemented and 25 (15%) were not implemented. The benefits identified by the research team were improved quality and confidence, and the costs were increased cognitive demands, protocol revision time, and slower progress. Conclusions The findings are discussed in the context of the wider literature on public involvement in research. Six recommendations are identified. First, have a clear rationale for each advisory committee expressed as terms of reference, and consider the best balance between committees and individual consultation with experts. Second, an early concern of committees is inter-committee communication, so consider cross-representation and copying minutes between committees. Third, match the scope of advisory committees to the study, with a less complex advisory structure for studies with more finalised designs. Fourth, public involvement has a mixed impact, and relies on relationships of trust, which take time to develop. Fifth, carefully consider the match between the scientific paradigm applied in the study and the contribution of different types of knowledge and expertise, and how this will impact on possibilities for taking on advice. Finally, responding to recommendations uses up research team resources, and the costs can be reduced by using the three implementation criteria.

2010-01-01

105

A helicopter observation platform for atmospheric boundary layer studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability of the Earth's surface has a considerable impact on the atmosphere at all scales and understanding the mechanisms involved in land-atmosphere interactions is hindered by the scarcity of appropriate observations. A measurement gap exists between traditional point sensors and large aircraft and satellite-based sensors in collecting measurements of atmospheric quantities. Point sensors are capable of making long time series of measurements, but cannot make measurements of spatial variability. Large aircraft and satellites make measurements over large spatial areas, but with poor spatial and temporal resolution. A helicopter-based platform can make measurements on scales relevant for towers, especially close to the Earth's surface, and can extend these measurements to account for spatial variability. Thus, the Duke University Helicopter Observation Platform (HOP) is designed to fill the existing measurement gap. Because measurements must be made in such a way that they are as uncontaminated by the platform itself as much as is possible, it is necessary to quantify the aerodynamic envelope of the HOP. The results of an analytical analysis of the location of the main rotor wake at various airspeeds are shown. Similarly, the results of a numerical analysis using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics software Fluent are shown. The optimal flight speed for the sampling of turbulent fluxes is found to be around 30 m/s. At this airspeed, the sensors located in front of the nose of the HOP are in advance of the wake generated by the main rotor. This airspeed is also low enough that the region of high pressure due to the stagnation point on the nose of the HOP does not protrude far enough forward to affect the sensors. Measurements of differential pressures, variables and turbulent fluxes made while flying the HOP at different airspeeds support these results. No systematic effects of the platform are seen at airspeeds above about 10 m/s. Processing of HOP data collected using the current set of sensors is discussed, including the novel use of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to detrend and filter the data. The EMD separates the data into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), each of which is unique and orthogonal. The basis is determined by the data itself, so that it need not be known a priori, and it is adaptive. The EMD is shown to be an ideal tool for the filtering and detrending of the HOP data gathered during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC). The ability of the HOP to accurately measure atmospheric profiles of atmospheric variables is demonstrated. During experiments conducted in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the convective boundary layer (CBL), HOP profiles of potential temperature are evaluated using an elastic backscatter lidar. The HOP and the lidar agree on the height of the boundary layer in both cases, and the HOP effectively locates other atmospheric structures. Atmospheric sensible and latent heat fluxes, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and horizontal momentum fluxes are also measured, and the resulting information is used to provide context to tower-based data collected concurrently. A brief comparison made over homogeneous ocean conditions yields good results. A more exhaustive evaluation is made using short HOP flights performed above an orchard during the Canopy Horizontal Turbulence Study (CHATS). Randomly selected one-minute sections of tower data are used to calculate fluxes to which the HOP fluxes can be more directly compared, with good results. Profiles of atmospheric fluxes are used to provide context to tower-based measurements. In conclusion, the research conducted here demonstrates unambiguously that the HOP is a unique platform that fills an important gap in observation facilities for the atmospheric boundary layer. It is now available to the scientific community for performing research, which is likely to help bridging existing knowledge gaps in various aspects of Earth surface (continental and maritime) -- atmosphere interactio

Holder, Heidi Eichinger

106

Observational study of potential risk factors of medication administration errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Medication administration errors (MAEs) are the second most frequent type of medication errors, as has been shown in different studies in the literature. The aims of this observational study were to assess the rate and the potential clinical significance of MAEs and to determine the associated risk factors. Design: In two departments, Geriatric Unit (GU) and Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surgery Unit

Edgar Tissot; Christian Cornette; Samuel Limat; Jean-Louis Mourand; Michèle Becker; Joseph-Philippe Etievent; Jean-Louis Dupond; Micheline Jacquet; Marie-Christine Woronoff-Lemsi

2003-01-01

107

Randomized trials versus observational studies in adolescent pregnancy prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the results of randomized trials and observational studies of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;

Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith

2000-01-01

108

Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThrough spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance.

Tova Rosenbloom

2006-01-01

109

Language Interaction in a Bilingual Classroom: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed by the Ilinois Bilingual Evaluation Center as a pilot project, the purpose of this study was to explore the process or nature of events in a bilingual classroom and to investigate the feasibility of using observational techniques to examine this process in an evaluation context. The subjects for the study were three children of Spanish…

Rodriguez-Brown, Flora V.; And Others

110

An observational study on information flow during nurses' shift change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an observational study that was conducted to guide the design and development of technologies to support information flow during nurses' shift change in a hospital ward. Our goal is to find out how the complex information sharing processes during nurses' brief shift change unfold in a hospital setting. Our study shows the multitude of information media that nurses

Charlotte Tang; M. Sheelagh T. Carpendale

2007-01-01

111

Memantine (Ebixa®) in Clinical Practice – Results of an Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The patients were treated with 20 mg\\/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD)

Pasquale Calabrese; Ute Essner; Hans Förstl

2007-01-01

112

Inclusive Design in Practice: A Study of Customer and User Involvement in Agile Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of user involvement in agile development in practice are very scarce. This paper contributes to this body of knowledge. We provide a detailed case study of how user involvement took place in practice in a large agile project, which utilized the agile method eXtreme Programming. Planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the

Karlheinz Kautz

113

Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review studies of patterns of food intake, as assessed by diet index, factor analysis or cluster analysis, and their associations with body mass index or obesity (BMI\\/Ob).DESIGN: Systematic literature review MEDLINE search with crosscheck of references.STUDIES: Thirty observational studies relating food intake patterns to anthropometric information were identified and reviewed. Food intake patterns were defined using a diet

P Togo; M Osler; TIA Sørensen; BL Heitmann

2001-01-01

114

Statistical study of the Earth's distant magnetotail: Wind observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical study of the distant Earth's magnetotail observations between November 2003 and January 2004. During this time, the Wind spacecraft voyaged behind -200 RE to the L2 point and recorded magnetotail dynamics as a response of solar wind activities. The main goal of this study is to compare the magnetotail dynamics with the solar wind monitor data near the L1 point (ACE spacecraft), identifying some distant magnetotail regions (magnetosheath, tail lobes, plasmasheet, etc) and evaluating a probability of their observations along the Wind spacecraft orbit. We also correlate the plasma parameters in these regions with the parameters of the solar wind in front of the Earth.

Grygorov, K.; Prech, L.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.

2012-04-01

115

Involvement of primary motor cortex in motor imagery: a neuromagnetic study.  

PubMed

Functional brain imaging studies have indicated that several cortical and subcortical areas active during actual motor performance are also active during imagination or mental rehearsal of movements. Recent evidence shows that the primary motor cortex may also be involved in motor imagery. Using whole-scalp magnetoencephalography, we monitored spontaneous and evoked activity of the somatomotor cortex after right median nerve stimuli in seven healthy right-handed subjects while they kinesthetically imagined or actually executed continuous finger movements. Manipulatory finger movements abolished the poststimulus 20-Hz activity of the motor cortex and markedly affected the somatosensory evoked response. Imagination of manipulatory finger movements attenuated the 20-Hz activity by 27% with respect to the rest level but had no effect on the somatosensory response. Slight constant stretching of the fingers suppressed the 20-Hz activity less than motor imagery. The smallest possible, kinesthetically just perceivable finger movements resulted in slightly stronger attenuation of 20-Hz activity than motor imagery did. The effects were observed in both hemispheres but predominantly contralateral to the performing hand. The attempt to execute manipulatory finger movements under experimentally induced ischemia causing paralysis of the hand also strongly suppressed 20-Hz activity but did not affect the somatosensory evoked response. The results indicate that the primary motor cortex is involved in motor imagery. Both imaginative and executive motor tasks appear to utilize the cortical circuitry generating the somatomotor 20-Hz signal. PMID:9344824

Schnitzler, A; Salenius, S; Salmelin, R; Jousmäki, V; Hari, R

1997-10-01

116

Quality protein maize: a biochemical study of enzymes involved in lysine metabolism.  

PubMed

Quality protein maize (QPM) varieties have been produced by the introduction of opaque-2 modifier genes. Two QPM varieties, BR451 and BR473, a wild type and an opaque-2 variety, have been used to study key enzymes controlling lysine metabolism in the endosperm during development. Aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase enzymes, which are involved in lysine and threonine biosynthesis, respectively, exhibited identical activity patterns during endosperm development, with a maximum specific activity at 16 days after pollination. The QPM varieties exhibited higher levels of aspartate kinase activity in the endosperm, suggesting an increased rate of lysine biosynthesis when compared to the opaque-2 and wild-type genotypes. Similar results were observed for the lysine ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase enzymes, which form a single bifunctional polypetide involved in endosperm lysine degradation. Both enzyme activities were strongly reduced in the opaque-2 maize variety when compared to the wild-type maize, whereas the QPM varieties exhibited even lower levels of lysine ketoglutarate reductase-saccharopine dehydrogenase activities when compared to the opaque-2 variety. The developmental pattern of enzyme activity showed a different profile when compared to the enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis, with activity being detected only 12-16 days after pollination (DAP) and maximum activities approximately 24 DAP. These results also suggest that the modifier genes have intensified the effect of the opaque-2 mutation on lysine ketoglutarate reductase-saccharopine dehydrogenase. These alterations lead to an increase in soluble lysine in the endosperm of the QPM varieties when compared to the opaque-2 and wild type. PMID:10552448

Gaziola, S A; Alessi, E S; Guimaraes, P E; Damerval, C; Azevedo, R A

1999-03-01

117

SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood (Imperial College, London), J. C. Samson (University of Alberta, Edmonton), L. J. Lanzerotti (AT&T Bell Laboratories), A. Wolfe (New York City Technical College) and to Dr. M. Vellante (University of LÁquila) for helpful discussions. They also thank Dr. A. Meloni (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma) who made available geomagnetic field observations from LÁquila Geomagnetic Observatory. This research activity at LÁquila is supported by MURST (40% and 60% contracts) and by GIFCO/CNR. Topical Editor K.-H. Glaßmeier thanks C. Waters and S. Fujita for their help in evaluating this paper.-> Correspondence to :P. Francia->

Bradshaw, E. G.; Lester, M.

1997-01-01

118

An observational study of seatbelt use among vehicle occupants in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe use of seatbelts reduces the likelihood of death and severe injuries to crash-involved vehicle occupants by 45–60%. Several countries, including Nigeria, have laws mandating the use of seatbelts but compliance is not universal. This study was conducted to determine rates of use of seatbelts among vehicle occupants in Ibadan municipality.DesignAn observational study was conducted. A selected petrol station in

Adesola O Sangowawa; Ben T Alagh; Simeon E U Ekanem; Idang P Ebong; Babalola Faseru; Babatunde J Adekunle; Obioma C Uchendu

2010-01-01

119

Observer performance using monitors with different phosphors: an ROC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to compare observer performance using a P104 vs P45 CRT monitor for display of radiographic images. Different types of phosphor in a CRT monitor can affect the SNR, which in turn could affect the visibility of certain structures of lesions in an image. A series of portable CR chest images with subtle pulmonary nodules

Elizabeth A. Krupinski; Hans Roehrig

2001-01-01

120

Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

121

Bayesian sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounding in observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We consider Bayesian sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounding in observational studies where the association between a binary exposure, binary response, measured confounders and a single binary unmeasured confounder can be formulated using logistic regression models. A model for unmeasured confounding is presented along with a family of prior distributions that model beliefs about a possible unknown unmeasured confounder. Simulation

Lawrence C. McCandless; Paul Gustafson; Adrian Levy

2007-01-01

122

A statistical study of ion frictional heating observed by EISCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a statistical survey of F-region ion frictional heating are presented, a survey which is based on over 4000 h of common programme observations taken by the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar facility. The criterion adopted in this study for the identification of ion frictional heating was that defined by McCrea et al., requiring an enhancement in the

J. A. Davies; M. Lester; I. W. McCrea

1997-01-01

123

Observational Analysis of the Hand and Wrist: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist was developed and tested in a pilot study. To use the system, analysts observed the worker and counted the total number of hand exertions per work cycle and the number of exertions associated with specific risk factors such as high force or

Diana S. Stetson; William M. Keyserling; Barbara A. Silverstein; Juli A. Leonard

1991-01-01

124

An Observational Study of a Thermal Belt on Hillsides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal belt or a warm zone on a hillside, developing under calm weather conditions during the night, is one of the well-known local climatic phenomena. Although many models describing its fundamental concept have been constructed, very little observational data exists to support the models directly. The difficulty in studying local climatic phenomena lies mainly in collecting data. In the

Tetsuo Kobayashi; Makito MORI; Kenji Wakimizu; Kazuhiro Takeshita

1994-01-01

125

The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based

Webster Cash; Stephen Kendrick; Charley Noecker; John Bally; Julia Demarines; James Green; Phillip Oakley; Ann Shipley; Scott Benson; Steve Oleson; Dave Folta; Sharon Garrison; Keith Gendreau; Kate Hartman; Joseph Howard; Tupper Hyde; Darryl Lakins; Jesse Leitner; Douglas Leviton; Rich Luquette; Bill Oegerley; Karen Richon; Aki Roberge; Steve Tompkins; June Tveekrem; Bruce Woodgate; Margaret Turnbull; Dean Dailey; Kent Decker; Reza Dehmohseni; Brian Gaugh; Tiffany Glassman; Mickey Haney; Reem Hejal; Charles Lillie; Amy Lo; David O'Conner; Gina Oleas; Ronald Polidan; Rocco Samuele; Stephen Shields; James Shirvanian; David Soohoo; Giovanna Tinetti; Bryan Dorland; Rachel Dudik; Ralph Gaume; Brian Mason

2009-01-01

126

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2012-01-01

127

An Urban School District's Parent Involvement: A Study of Teachers' and Administrators' Beliefs and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quantitative study examines the practices and beliefs of administra - tors and teachers regarding parent involvement in an urban school district following the first year of the implementation of an action plan based on six national standards for parent involvement (National PTA, 1997). The theoreti - cal framework is based upon Bandura's social cognitive theory of self-efficacy. Administrators and

Natalie Conrad Barnyak; Tracy A. McNelly

2009-01-01

128

School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.|

Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2009-01-01

129

Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

2011-01-01

130

Measuring global production involvement: an exploratory study of Hong Kong clothing manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A country's competitiveness and, in turn, its people's standard of living are linked to the involvement of its commercial sector in international business. The Hong Kong clothing-manufacturing industry is one of the key players in the world's fashion trade. The major objectives of this paper are to study how the manufacturers there are involved in global production and to develop

K. L. Moon; E. W. T. Ngai; J. M. T. Chang; K. C. Ho

2009-01-01

131

Identifying the What, Why, and How of an Observed Action: An fMRI Study of Mentalizing and Mechanizing during Action Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans commonly understand the unobservable mental states of others by observing their actions. Embodied simula- tion theories suggest that this ability may be based in areas of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system, yet neuroimaging studies that explicitly investigate the human ability to draw mental state inferences point to the involvement of a \\

Robert P. Spunt; Ajay B. Satpute; Matthew D. Lieberman

2011-01-01

132

Identifying the What, Why, and How of an Observed Action: An fMRI Study of Mentalizing and Mechanizing during Action Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans commonly understand the unobservable mental states of others by observing their actions. Embodied simulation theories suggest that this ability may be based in areas of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system, yet neuroimaging studies that explicitly investigate the human ability to draw mental state inferences point to the involvement of a \\

Robert P. Spunt; Ajay B. Satpute; Matthew D. Lieberman

2010-01-01

133

Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although interest in the links between religion and mental health has increased sharply in recent years, researchers remain far from a consensus regarding which aspects of religious involvement are germane to mental health, which mental health outcomes may be influenced by religious factors, and which mechanisms and\\/or models may account for these observed relationships. This article extends the literature in

Christopher G. Ellison; Jason D. Boardman; David R. Williams

2001-01-01

134

The differential involvement of inferior parietal lobule in number comparison: a rTMS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number processing is known to involve several sites within the posterior regions of parietal cortex. Here, we investigated whether neural activity in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is essential for number processing, by observing the effects of interfering with its activity during the execution of a standard number comparison task. Subjects performance on the task was significantly slowed down when

Marco Sandrini; Paolo M. Rossini; Carlo Miniussi

2004-01-01

135

The transducin cascade is involved in the light-induced structural changes observed by neutron diffraction on retinal rod outer segments.  

PubMed Central

Time-resolved neutron diffraction on retinal rod outer segments are performed to reinvestigate the origin of the light-induced structural change observed by Saibil et al. (Saibil, H., M. Chabre, and D. L. Worcester, 1976, Nature (Lond.), 262:266-270). Photoactivating rhodopsin triggers in rods a cascade of GTP-dependent and transducin-mediated reactions controlling cyclic-GMP hydrolysis. Infrared light-scattering studies (Kühn, H., N. Bennett, M. Michel-Villaz, and M. Chabre, 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78:6873-6877; Vuong, T. M., M. Chabre, and L. Stryer, 1984, Nature (Lond.), 311:659-661) demonstrated the existence of structural changes that correspond to this cascade rather than to rhodopsin photoactivation. We thus look for neutron diffraction changes of similar origins. With 1-min time resolution, intensity changes are observed mainly for orders 2 and 4. The illumination and GTP dependence of these changes indicates an involvement of transducin. Without GTP, they are linear with the amount of photoexcited rhodopsin, saturate at 10% photolysis, and thus correlate well with the light-scattering "binding signal." With GTP, light sensitivity is higher and saturation occurs below 0.5% photolysis, as for the "dissociation signal" of light scattering. In both cases, lattice compressions of 0.2-0.3% are observed. With 4-s time resolution the intensity change with GTP present precedes the lattice compression. The fast intensity change is probably due to the displacement of transducin alpha-subunits away from the disc membrane and the slower lattice shrinkage to an osmotic readjustment of the rod.

Vuong, T M; Pfister, C; Worcester, D L; Chabre, M

1987-01-01

136

Effect of weight-related labels on corticospinal excitability during observation of grasping: a TMS study.  

PubMed

Recent studies of corticospinal excitability during observation of grasping and lifting of objects of different weight have highlighted the role of agent's kinematics in modulating observer's motor excitability. Here, we investigate whether explicit weight-related information, provided by written labels on the objects, modulate the excitability of the observer's motor system and how this modulation is affected when there is a conflict between label and object's weight. We measured TMS-evoked motor potentials (MEPs) from right hand intrinsic muscles, while subjects were observing an actor lifting objects of different weights, in some trials labeled (heavy/light) in congruent or incongruent way. Results confirmed a weight-related modulation of MEPs based on kinematic cues. Interestingly, any conflict between the labels and the actual weight (i.e., explicit versus implicit information), although never consciously noticed by the observer, deeply affected the mirroring of others' actions. Our findings stress the automatic involvement of the mirror-neuron system. PMID:21533701

Senot, Patrice; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Franca, Michele; Caselli, Luana; Craighero, Laila; Fadiga, Luciano

2011-03-29

137

COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES OF COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES OBSERVED IN SNS  

SciTech Connect

During the commissioning and early operation of the Spallation Neutron Source, some physics shifts were set aside for high intensity stability studies. Under certain, especially contrived conditions, a number of beam instabilities were induced. These included both electron cloud and ring impedance driven phenomena. We are now applying both simple analytic models and the ORBIT Code to the description and simulation of these observed instabilities.

Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL; Danilov, Viatcheslav V [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Jain, Lalit K [University of Waterloo, Canada

2008-01-01

138

An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Observational studies have recently contributed useful information to the debate about the utility of homeopathic treatment in everyday practice.Aim. To gather data about routine homeopathic general practice.Setting. Eighty general medical practices in Belgium where physicians were members of the Unio Homoeopathica Belgica.Methods. All patients and their physicians visiting the practices on a specified day completed a questionnaire.Results. A total

M Van Wassenhoven; G Ives

2004-01-01

139

Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care: prospective observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To validate use of the Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care.Design Prospective observational study.Setting Emergency departments of a university hospital and a teaching hospital in the Netherlands, 2006-7.Participants 17 600 children (aged <16) visiting an emergency department over 13 months (university hospital) and seven months (teaching hospital).Intervention Nurses triaged 16 735\\/17 600 patients (95%) using a computerised Manchester

M van Veen; Ewout W Steyerberg; Madelon Ruige; Alfred H J van Meurs; Jolt Roukema; Johan van der Lei; Henriette A Moll

2008-01-01

140

The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

Cash, W.; New Worlds Study Team

2010-10-01

141

Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental involvement in children’s schooling is an important component of children’s early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents’ home and school involvement activities and their children’s literacy skills, and the role of social capital

Tina M. Durand

2011-01-01

142

Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.  

PubMed

In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. PMID:23357079

Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

2013-01-26

143

Recovery of visual field defects: A large clinical observational study using vision restoration therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Purpose: In small experimental trials, vision restoration therapy (VRT), a home-based rehabilitation method, has shown,to enlarge the visual field and improve,reaction times in patients with lesion involving the CNS. We now,evaluated the outcome,of VRT in a large sample,of clinical patients and studied factors contributing to subjective and objective measures,of visual field alterations. Methods: Clinical observational analysis of visual fields

Iris Mueller; Henning Mast; Bernhard A. Sabel

144

Involvement of adiponectin and leptin in breast cancer: clinical and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development. A recent hypothesis suggests that the adipokines, adiponectin and leptin, are involved in breast cancer development. This prompted us to investigate the role of adiponectin and leptin in mammary carcinogenesis. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) and leptin receptor (Ob-Rt, representing all the isoforms of Ob-R) proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in in situ ductal carcinoma, invasive ductal malignancy, and healthy adjacent tissue. In addition, mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, Ob-Rt, and Ob-Rl (the long isoform of Ob-R) was observed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, leptin mRNA expression was 34.7-fold higher than adiponectin mRNA expression in the MCF-7 cell line. Moreover, adiponectin (10 microg/ml) tended to decrease the mRNA expression of leptin (-36%) and Ob-Rl (-28%) and significantly decreased Ob-Rt mRNA level (-26%). In contrast, leptin treatment (1 microg/ml) significantly decreased AdipoR1 mRNA (-23%). Adiponectin treatment (10 microg/ml) inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, whereas leptin (1 microg/ml) stimulated the growth of cancer cells. In addition, adiponectin inhibited leptin-induced cell proliferation (both 1 microg/ml). Using microarray analysis, we found that adiponectin reduced the mRNA levels of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and ATM), apoptosis (BAG1, BAG3, and TP53), and potential diagnosis/prognosis markers (ACADS, CYP19A1, DEGS1, and EVL), whereas leptin induced progesterone receptor mRNA expression. In conclusion, the current study indicates an interaction of leptin- and adiponectin-signaling pathways in MCF-7 cancer cells whose proliferation is stimulated by leptin and suppressed by adiponectin. PMID:19661131

Jardé, T; Caldefie-Chézet, F; Goncalves-Mendes, N; Mishellany, F; Buechler, C; Penault-Llorca, F; Vasson, M P

2009-08-06

145

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

146

Guidelines to Evaluate Human Observational Studies for Quantitative Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these guidelines to case–control and cohort studies on the relation between exposure to benzene and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods We developed a three-tiered framework specific for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and used it to evaluate HOS on the relation between exposure to benzene and AML. Results The developed framework consists of 20 evaluation criteria. A specific focus of the framework was on the quality of exposure assessment applied in HOS. Seven HOS on the relation of benzene and AML were eligible for evaluation. Of these studies, five were suitable for QRA and were ranked based on the quality of the study design, conduct, and reporting on the study. Conclusion The developed guidelines facilitate a structured evaluation that is transparent in its application and harmonizes the evaluation of HOS for QRA. With the application of the guidelines, it was possible to identify studies suitable for QRA of benzene and AML and rank these studies based on their quality. Application of the guidelines in QRA will be a valuable addition to the assessment of the weight of evidence of HOS for QRA.

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

2008-01-01

147

Multinational, observational study of procalcitonin in ICU patients with pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation: a multicenter observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The intent of this study was to determine whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels are associated with prognosis, measured\\u000a as organ dysfunctions and 28-day mortality, in patients with severe pneumonia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a multicenter, observational study of critically ill adult patients with pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation\\u000a conducted in 10 academic hospitals in Canada, the United States, and Central Europe. PCT was

Frank Bloos; John C Marshall; Richard P Dellinger; Jean-Louis Vincent; Guillermo Gutierrez; Emanuel Rivers; Robert A Balk; Pierre-Francois Laterre; Derek C Angus; Konrad Reinhart; Frank M Brunkhorst

2011-01-01

148

Major vascular involvement in Behçet's disease: a retrospective study of 796 patients.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder which can affect all types and sizes of blood vessels. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of vascular involvement in BD. Among 796 patients diagnosed with BD, 102 patients (81 male, 21 female) with vascular involvement were included, whose detailed clinical characteristics were recorded. The diagnosis of vascular lesions was made on clinical signs, by Doppler ultrasonography, and/or angiography using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance techniques. Vascular involvement occurred in 12.8 % of BD patients. Male to female ratio was 3.86:1. Mean age at onset of vascular involvement was 29.5?±?11.3 years. Vascular lesion was the initial sign of BD in 28 patients, accounting for 27.5 %. Of 102 BD patients with vascular involvement, 72 had venous lesions (70.6 %) and 56 had arterial lesions (54.9 %), among which 26 (25.5 %) patients had both venous and arterial involvements. Female BD patients were more often involved with arterial lesions, whereas male BD patients developed venous lesions more often than females, P?=?0.000. The most common type of vascular involvement was deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities (n?=?49), other affected venous sites including inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, and cerebral venous. The prominent type of arterial lesions was dilatation (n?=?25, including 24 cases of aneurysms); other types included eight cases of occlusion and 23 cases of stenosis. The main locations of arterial lesions were the aorta (n?=?19), lower extremity arteries (n?=?15), pulmonary arteries (n?=?13), coronary arteries (n?=?5), and subclavian arteries (n?=?5). Compared with those without vascular lesions, ocular involvement, genital ulcers, and arthritis were significantly less frequent among patients with vasculo-BD (23.5 vs 35.2 %, P?=?0.024; 54.9 vs 76.5 %, P?=?0.000; 19.6 vs 30.5 %, P?=?0.026), whereas a higher frequency of cardiac involvement was found in vasculo-BD patients (20.6 vs 3.6 %, P?=?0.000). Vascular involvement is a complication in BD patients. This study illustrated that venous lesions are more frequently involved than arterial lesions. Vascular lesions correlated with a high frequency of cardiac involvement and a low incidence of ocular lesions, genital ulcers, and arthritis. PMID:23443336

Fei, Yunyun; Li, Xuemei; Lin, Sen; Song, Xiaojun; Wu, Qingjun; Zhu, Yanlin; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Wen; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

2013-02-27

149

First observation of a dihydrogen bond involving the Si-H group in phenol-diethylmethylsilane clusters by infrared-ultraviolet double-resonance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have experimentally identified a dihydrogen bond involving the Si-H group in phenol-diethylmethylsilane (DEMS) clusters for the first time by IR-UV double-resonance spectroscopy. Vibrational shifts to lower frequency of 21-29 cm-1 were found for the OH stretching vibration of three isomers of the phenol-DEMS clusters. Spectral simulations based on the MP2 calculations also support our observation. In addition to these clusters, dihydrogen bonds were also observed in the phenol-H2O-DEMS and (phenol)2-DEMS clusters, which exhibited much stronger interactions than the phenol-DEMS clusters.

Ishikawa, Haruki; Saito, Akira; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Mikami, Naohiko

2005-12-01

150

Retrospective study of prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma secondarily involving the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective single-center study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of non-Hodgkin lymphoma\\u000a (NHL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and to identify prognostic factors for survival. We searched\\u000a our hospital records for NHL patients diagnosed with CNS involvement from 1982 to 2004, and 43 patients were identified. The\\u000a median age was 63 years

Kristoph Jahnke; Eckhard Thiel; Peter Martus; Stefan Schwartz; Agnieszka Korfel

2006-01-01

151

Foot involvement in systemic sclerosis: A longitudinal study of 100 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the clinical and radiologic features of foot involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patients: One hundred patients (91 women, 9 men; mean age, 51.9 ± 11 years) with SSc (mean disease duration, 17.4 ± 10.5 years) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four subjects had limited scleroderma and 26 diffuse scleroderma. Methods: Radiologic changes of foot involvement were assessed at presentation

Giovanni La Montagna; Antonietta Baruffo; Rosella Tirri; Giovanni Buono; Gabriele Valentini

2002-01-01

152

Hollywood wives revisited: a study of customer involvement in the XC90 project at Volvo Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of customer involvement in the XC90 project at Volvo Cars. A group of female customers in Southern California influenced the development of the XC90 by continuous involvement in the project. In a cost-effective way, the project management team acquired a common understanding of the target customer, giving context to new product development decision-making and

Fredrik Dahlsten

2004-01-01

153

The Effects of Employee Involvement on Firm Performance: Evidence from an Econometric Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We provide some of the most reliable evidence to date on the direct impact of employee involvement,through participatory arrangements,such as teams on business performance. The data we use are extraordinary --daily data for rejection, production and downtime rates for all operators in a single plant during a 35 month period, almost 53,000 observations. Our key findings are that: (i)

Derek C. Jones; Takao Kato

2003-01-01

154

Observer performance using monitors with different phosphors: an ROC study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the study was to compare observer performance using a P104 vs P45 CRT monitor for display of radiographic images. Different types of phosphor in a CRT monitor can affect the SNR, which in turn could affect the visibility of certain structures of lesions in an image. A series of portable CR chest images with subtle pulmonary nodules were presented to radiologists. They were instructed to search the images while their eye position was recorded. They reported on the presence or absence of a nodule, rate their confidence and reported on image quality. Physical measurements were also taken for both monitors (e.g., dynamic range, MTF, veiling glare). Observer performance was slightly better with the P45 than with the P104 monitor, although the difference was not statistically significant. Physical characterization of the two monitors also revealed advantages for the P45 monitor. P104 monitors are typically used in Asia while P45 monitors are typically used in the US. This study shows that choice of monitor phosphor may influence diagnostic and/or visual search performance and thus should be taken into account when selecting a monitor for clinical use.

Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Roehrig, Hans

2001-06-01

155

Studying trilinear gauge couplings at LEP2 using optimal observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the sensitivity of the processes e+e- ->L?L qq' at LEP2 energies on the non-standard trilinear gauge couplings (TGC), using the optimal observables method. All relevant leading logarithmic corrections to the three-order cross section, as well as experimental resolution effects have been studied. Taking into account correlations among the different TGC parameters we show that the limits on the TGC can reach the level of 0.15 (ld) at 161 GeV with 100 pb-1, a challenge for the first LEP2 phase. At higher energies this can be improved drastically, reaching for the level of 0.02 (1sd).

Papadopoulos, Costas G.

1996-02-01

156

Media Coverage of Homicide Involving Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Matched Comparison Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research highlights the distorted nature of print media reporting of both mental illness and homicide. However there are few studies that focus exclusively on the media depiction of homicide perpetrated by mentally ill offenders. The aim of this study was to compare the print media coverage of homicides involving mentally disordered offenders found ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’(NGRI) with

Brian McKenna; Katey Thom; Alexander I. F. Simpson

2007-01-01

157

Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

Durand, Tina M.

2011-01-01

158

Mediating Effect Of User Involvement on Perceived Control and Focus Attention: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a pilot study that investigates how user involvement could mediate the relationship between Web design factors and flow experience, i.e. perceived control and focus intention. This study borrowed two-factor theory that categorizes Web design factors into motivators and hygiene factors. A laboratory experiment was conducted with the help of undergraduate students as experiment's subjects. As hypothesized, user

Paulus Insap Santosa

159

A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

2011-01-01

160

Informed consent, participation in, and withdrawal from a population based cohort study involving genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Population based cohort studies involving genetic research have been initiated in several countries. However, research published to date provides little information on the willingness of the general population to participate in such studies. Furthermore, there is a need to discover the optimal methods for acquiring fully informed consent from the general population. We therefore examined the results of a

K Matsui; Y Kita; H Ueshima

2005-01-01

161

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

162

School nurses' perceptions of parental involvement in school health. Results of a statewide study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine how school nurses attempt to involve parents of seventh graders in school health programs, identify nurses' perceptions of barriers to parental involvement, and identify related staff development needs. A questionnaire was sent to the school nurse in each school in Indiana that had a seventh grade (n = 447); 279 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 63%. Most respondents worked in situations without written policies for parental involvement. A minority of school nurses reported receiving input from parents through advisory committees or parent surveys. The most common involvement activities were related to providing parents with information about the school health program. Less than half of the respondents reported offering health education through activities such as parent health education classes, health fairs, health education resource centers, or health newsletters. Lack of time was identified as the major barrier faced by school nurses. Several staff development needs were identified. PMID:9883143

Birch, D A; Hallock, B A

1998-08-01

163

Communication behaviours in a hospital setting: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective: An exploratory study to identify patterns of communication behaviour among hospital based healthcare workers. Design: Non-participatory, qualitative observational study. Setting: British district general hospital. Subjects: Eight doctors and two nurses. Results: Communication behaviours resulted in an interruptive workplace, which seemed to contribute to inefficiency in work practice. Medical staff generated twice as many interruptions via telephone and paging systems as they received. Hypothesised causes for this level of interruption include a bias by staff to interruptive communication methods, a tendency to seek information from colleagues in preference to printed materials, and poor provision of information in support of contacting individuals in specific roles. Staff were observed to infer the intention of messages based on insufficient information, and clinical teams demonstrated complex communication patterns, which could lead to inefficiency. Conclusion: The results suggest a number of improvements to processes or technologies. Staff may need instruction in appropriate use of communication facilities. Further, excessive emphasis on information technology may be misguided since much may be gained by supporting information exchange through communication technology. Voicemail and email with acknowledgment, mobile communication, improved support for role based contact, and message screening may be beneficial in the hospital environment. Key messages We observed communication behaviour among 10 hospital based healthcare workers Communication behaviours resulted in an interruptive work place, which seemed to contribute to inefficiency in work practice Medical staff generated twice as many interruptions via telephone and paging systems as they received, and possible causes for this included a bias by staff to interruptive communication methods, a tendency to seek information from colleagues in preference to printed materials, and poor provision of information in support of contacting individuals in specific roles Staff were observed to infer the intention of messages based on insufficient information, and clinical teams showed complex communication patterns, which could lead to inefficiency We conclude that hospital staff may need instruction in appropriate use of communication facilities and that some communication technology—voicemail and email with acknowledgment, cellular telephones for mobile communication, improved support for role based contact, and message screening—may be beneficial

Coiera, Enrico; Tombs, Vanessa

1998-01-01

164

The neural correlates of Fitts's law in action observation: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Previous neuroimaging studies support the assumption of a strong link between perception and action, demonstrating that the motor system is involved when others' actions are observed. One question that is still open to debate is which aspects of observed actions engage the motor system. The present study tested whether motor activation corresponds to the difficulty of the observed action, using Fitts's law. This law postulates that the difficulty of any movement (ID) is a function of the distance to the target (A) and the target width (W). In an observation task, the ID of the observed action was manipulated orthogonally to W (by using five different As). The results revealed activity in the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the basal ganglia in response to increasing ID levels, but not in response to different levels of A or W. Thus, activation in the motor system during action observation is not driven by perceptual parameters but by the motor difficulty of the observed action. PMID:21827294

Eskenazi, Terry; Rotshtein, Pia; Grosjean, Marc; Knoblich, Guenther

2011-08-09

165

Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.  

PubMed

Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

2012-09-01

166

Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis.

Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

2012-01-01

167

CNODES: the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3)?for each question, a study team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are “blind” to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6)?analyses using multivariable methods are lodged centrally with a methods team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects studying acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in study populations totalling over 40 million.

Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; LeLorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary

2012-01-01

168

Study of pulsar evolution through timing and single pulse observations  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the phenomena associated with the evolution of pulsars, two observing programs were undertaken. Beginning in 1978 October, pulse arrival time measurements were made at roughly two month intervals with the 92 meter telescope for a sample of ninety-eight pulsars. Sixty-three of these pulsars had been discovered in surveys at the NRAO and the Molonglo Observatory in 1978. A second program using the 305 meter telescope of the Arecibo Observatory, studied the single pulse behavior of twenty of the recently discovered pulsars. The results of these programs are discussed. The timing program has resulted in the measurement of accurate periods, period derivatives, and positions for fifty-one of the recently discovered pulsars, and improved periods and/or positions for seven others. Data for the other thirty-five pulsars in the program were combined with data from previous timing programs. Improved parameters were obtained for nine of these pulsars. One pulsar, PSR2224 + 65, was found to have undergone a large glitch comparable in magnitude to those exhibited by the Vela pulsar. It is only the third middle aged pulsar observed to have undergone an unambiguous glitch. The results of this timing program are combined with measurements of period derivatives from other observers. The resulting P-P diagram for 295 pulsars is examined in terms of current models of pulsar evolution. The basic wedge-shaped distribution of points is unchanged. However, a few pulsars are found outside of the wedge. Two of these pulsars may have evolved in binary systems which were subsequently disrupted.

Backus, P.R.

1981-01-01

169

Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate how often children seen in paediatric accident & emergency (A&E) departments were suspected of abuse or neglect, and to explore some of the correlates of suspected child maltreatment. Methods: Multicentre, cross-sectional study of 15 randomised census days during a six month period. Trained research assistants working with local paediatric staff completed a purpose made anonymised checklist covering sociodemographic and medical information. A six point suspicion index was used to rate compatibility with child maltreatment based on the occurrence of observable harm. Statistical analysis was carried out on the basis that a score of 4 or more was suspicious of child maltreatment. Nineteen hospitals provided standardised paediatric A&E consultation data on 0–14 year olds presenting between 10 am and 10 pm. Results: Of 10 175 assessed children, 204 aroused suspicion of child maltreatment (95% CI 163 to 214 per 10 000). In a logistic regression model of suspected maltreatment statistically significant associations were found with socioeconomic disadvantage, children living in single parent families, and developmental delay. There was no correlation with pre-school age, male gender, foreign origin, or living in urban areas. Conclusions: Child maltreatment based on immediate scoring of suspicion, focused on observable harm, occurred in 2% of a representative sample of paediatric emergency consultations in Italy. This was more common if there were associated social and developmental vulnerabilities. True prevalence of child maltreatment in emergency departments remains elusive because of changing definitions and forensic validation problems.

Palazzi, S; de Girolamo, G; Liverani, T; on, b

2005-01-01

170

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes.

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2011-01-01

171

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED study.  

PubMed

AIM This paper focuses on stakeholders' active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. BACKGROUND In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. METHODS Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13-17 lay stakeholders and 10-11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. RESULTS? Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. CONCLUSION Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. PMID:20860779

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2010-09-23

172

Identifying the what, why, and how of an observed action: an fMRI study of mentalizing and mechanizing during action observation.  

PubMed

Humans commonly understand the unobservable mental states of others by observing their actions. Embodied simulation theories suggest that this ability may be based in areas of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system, yet neuroimaging studies that explicitly investigate the human ability to draw mental state inferences point to the involvement of a “mentalizing" system consisting of regions that do not overlap with the mirror neuron system. For the present study, we developed a novel action identification paradigm that allowed us to explicitly investigate the neural bases of mentalizing observed actions. Across repeated viewings of a set of ecologically valid video clips of ordinary human actions, we manipulated the extent to which participants identified the unobservable mental states of the actor (mentalizing) or the observable mechanics of their behavior (mechanizing). Although areas of the mirror neuron system did show an enhanced response during action identification, its activity was not significantly modulated by the extent to which the observers identified mental states. Instead, several regions of the mentalizing system, including dorsal and ventral aspects of medial pFC, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporal poles, were associated with mentalizing actions, whereas a single region in left lateral occipito-temporal cortex was associated with mechanizing actions. These data suggest that embodied simulation is insufficient to account for the sophisticated mentalizing that human beings are capable of while observing another and that a different system along the cortical midline and in anterior temporal cortex is involved in mentalizing an observed action. PMID:20146607

Spunt, Robert P; Satpute, Ajay B; Lieberman, Matthew D

2011-01-01

173

Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

Hutchinson, M. G.

1988-12-01

174

Ocular involvement in children with localised scleroderma: a multi-centre study  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the available documentation in the literature on ocular involvement in localised scleroderma (LS) are descriptions of single cases in adult patients. This article reports the frequency and specific features of ocular involvement in a large cohort of children with juvenile LS (JLS). Methods Data from a large, multi?centre, multinational study of children with LS were used to collect and analyse specific information on ocular involvement. Results 24 out of 750 patients (3.2%) revealed a significant ocular involvement. 16 were female and 8 male. 16 patients (66.7%) had scleroderma “en coup de sabre” (ECDS) of the face, 5 (20.8%) had the linear subtype, 2 (8.3%) had generalised morphea (GM) and one (4.2%) had plaque morphea (PM). Of the 24 patients with eye involvement, 10 patients (41.7%) reported adnexa (eyelids and eyelashes) abnormalities, 7 (29.2%) anterior segment inflammation (5 anterior uveitis, 2 episcleritis) and 3 central nervous system?related abnormalities. 4 patients presented single findings such as paralytic strabismus (1), pseudopapilloedema (1) and refractive errors (2). Other extracutaneous manifestations were detected in a significantly higher number of patients with ocular involvement and were mostly neurological. Conclusion Ocular abnormalities are not unusual in patients with JLS, especially in the ECDS subtype. They are frequently associated with other internal organ involvement, particularly the central nervous system (CNS). Careful ophthalmic monitoring is recommended for every patient with JLS, but is mandatory in those with skin lesions on the face and/or concomitant CNS involvement.

Zannin, Maria Elisabetta; Martini, Giorgia; Athreya, Balu H; Russo, Ricardo; Higgins, Gloria C; Vittadello, Fabio; Alpigiani, Maria Giannina; Alessio, Mariolina; Paradisi, Mauro; Woo, Patricia; Zulian, Francesco

2007-01-01

175

Aiming for inclusion: a case study of motivations for involvement in mental health-care governance by ethnic minority users.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To examine the motivations for involvement in mental health-care governance by socially disadvantaged ethnic minority users. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative case study approach was employed to investigate the involvement of minority north-eastern users in mental health-care governance at CAPS Pedro Pellegrino in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews with minority Northeasterners (n = 12) and institutional stakeholders (n = 26) were complemented by participant observation of user assembly and user movement meetings. FINDINGS: Minority Northeasterners express both individual and collective motivations for involvement in mental health-care governance. Individual motivations include the desire to increase social interaction, acquire meaningful social roles and overcome the stigma attached to mental illness. Collective motivations include the intent to improve the responsiveness of mental health care and achieve social justice for people with mental problems. Taken together, these motivations demonstrate a strong aspiration by users to promote their social inclusion and the inclusion of others who also experience marginalization. Results also reveal that the involvement of long-term participants is driven mostly by collective goals while early-stage participants focus predominantly in dealing with individual concerns. This is at odds with the mutual incentives theory, which postulates that collective motivations prevail over individual motivations in explaining user involvement. CONCLUSION: Groups historically excluded from decision-making processes may identify social inclusion as the core goal of their involvement. Initiatives aiming to increase user participation in health-care governance must address the range of motivations driving the involvement of users, instead of focusing solely on issues related to health-care management and provision. PMID:23710941

de Freitas, Cláudia

2013-05-27

176

Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goal supported by this project is the development and sustained support of coastal ocean observing systems for the waters of the United States. The authors will first produce regional 'inventories' of ocean observation user sectors, includin...

A. Pulsipher C. S. Colgan H. L. Kite-Powell K. Wieand M. Luger

2003-01-01

177

Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. Aim To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. Methods We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C), cold(18°C) and interleaved(41°C+18°C?=?TGI) temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational (“unpleasantness”) and sensory-disciminatory (“pain-intensity”) dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected ?-level <0.05. Results The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral) thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness(rho?=?0.31). Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity has previously been observed during evoked cold-allodynia in patients with central neuropathic pain. Our results further the understanding of the supraspinal correlates of the TGI-phenomenon and pave the way for future inquiries into if and how it may relate to neuropathic pain.

Lindstedt, Fredrik; Johansson, Bo; Martinsen, Sofia; Kosek, Eva; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

2011-01-01

178

Nurse involvement in end-of-life decision making: the ETHICUS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose was to investigate physicians perceptions of the role of European intensive care nurses in end-of-life decision making.Design  This study was part of a larger study sponsored by the Ethics Section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the ETHICUS Study. Physicians described whether they thought nurses were involved in such decisions, whether nurses initiated such a discussion and

Julie Benbenishty; Freda DeKeyser Ganz; Anne Lippert; Hans-Henrik Bulow; Elisabeth Wennberg; Beverly Henderson; Mia Svantesson; Mario Baras; Dermot Phelan; Paulo Maia; Charles L. Sprung

2006-01-01

179

Gravity Wave Observations using the GRIPS Spectrometers: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity waves play a prominent role in our understanding of atmospheric dynamics through carrying energy and momentum. There are numerous sources in the upper and lower atmosphere generating gravity waves. The waves often propagate vertically through the atmosphere and can affect the OH* emission layer in the mesopause region (around 87 km). Measurements of the OH*-airglow are therefore well suited to study gravity waves. Two case studies illustrating the potential of the GRIPS (Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) system to quantify gravity wave parameters are presented. Observations of the GRIPS 1 instrument located at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (48°N/11°E) and the GRIPS 3 instrument at the German Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, Zugspitze (47.4°N/11°E) are used to study gravity waves in the alpine region. A case study estimating the gravity wave parameters is presented. The mobile spectrometer GRIPS 4 recorded a gravity wave event in the Bay of Biscay during the night of 15/16 October 2005 on its trip with the German research vessel ‘Polarstern' during the expedition ANTXXIII/1 from Bremerhaven (54°N/9°E) to Cape Town (34°S/19°E). At the same time period AVHRR composites indicate gravity wave structures in the water vapour in the troposphere. Additionally, vertical profiles of temperature, wind and ozone derived by radio- and ozonesondes during the ‘Polarstern' cruise show similar wave signals. A convective cloud cluster centred south-western of Iceland could be identified as the most likely source of these waves.

Höppner, K.; Bittner, M.; Koppmann, R.; Steinbrecht, W.

2009-04-01

180

Smoking Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors: An Observational Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for several cancers including cancers of the lung, bladder, and head and neck. Studies have shown that smoking can adversely affect the outcomes of different modalities of cancer treatment. This study examines smoking behaviors among cancer survivors to collect information necessary to create successful smoking cessation interventions. Methods: For this observational clinical study, questionnaires were sent to 1,000 randomly selected patients diagnosed with cancer between 2003 and 2007 in one cancer center. Data were statistically analyzed to determine the likelihood of a patient quitting smoking after being diagnosed with cancer. Results: We received 187 responses from the 1,000 surveys sent (18.7%). Of these, 166 were usable for analysis. The mean age of respondents was 64 (± 13) years. Men were more likely than women to be past smokers (55% of men and 32% of women respectively, P = .003). Fifty-two percent of respondents reported having a history of smoking. However, only 20% of patients reported having been active smokers at the time they were diagnosed with cancer. Furthermore, only 44% of these reported having quit smoking after their diagnosis with cancer. Only 62% of all respondents reported that they had been informed of the dangers of smoking by their health care provider during cancer treatment. Conclusion: In our study sample, less than one half (44%) of smoking cancer patients quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis, and only 62% of smoking cancer patients received smoking cessation counseling from their physicians. Intervention programs are needed to help cancer survivors to quit smoking. Prospective clinical trials may help identify the ideal intervention for smoking cessation.

Burke, Lola; Miller, Lesley-Ann; Saad, Ayman; Abraham, Jame

2009-01-01

181

2D vs. 3D mammography observer study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

2011-03-01

182

Food worker hand washing practices: an observation study.  

PubMed

Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n = 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which hand washing is recommended (e.g., food preparation, handling dirty equipment). Data were also recorded on hand washing behaviors that occurred in conjunction with these work activities. Results indicated that workers engaged in approximately 8.6 work activities per hour for which hand washing is recommended. However, workers made hand washing attempts (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, and placed hands in running water) in only 32% of these activities and washed their hands appropriately (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, placed hands in running water, used soap, and dried hands) in only 27% of these work activities. Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates varied by work activity--they were significantly higher in conjunction with food preparation than other work activities (46 versus < or = 37% for attempted hand washing; 41 versus < or = 30% for appropriate hand washing) and were significantly lower in conjunction with touching the body than other work activities (13 versus > or = 27% for attempted hand washing; 10 versus > or = 23% for appropriate hand washing). Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates were significantly lower when gloves were worn (18 and 16%) than when gloves were not worn (37 and 30%). These findings suggest that the hand washing practices of food workers need to be improved, glove use may reduce hand washing, and restaurants should consider reorganizing their food preparation activities to reduce the frequency with which hand washing is needed. PMID:17066921

Green, Laura R; Selman, Carol A; Radke, Vincent; Ripley, Danny; Mack, James C; Reimann, David W; Stigger, Tammi; Motsinger, Michelle; Bushnell, Lisa

2006-10-01

183

Clinicians' gut feeling about serious infections in children: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the basis and added value of clinicians’ “gut feeling” that infections in children are more serious than suggested by clinical assessment. Design Observational study. Setting Primary care setting, Flanders, Belgium. Participants Consecutive series of 3890 children and young people aged 0-16 years presenting in primary care. Main outcome measures Presenting features, clinical assessment, doctors’ intuitive response at first contact with children in primary care, and any subsequent diagnosis of serious infection determined from hospital records. Results Of the 3369 children and young people assessed clinically as having a non-severe illness, six (0.2%) were subsequently admitted to hospital with a serious infection. Intuition that something was wrong despite the clinical assessment of non-severe illness substantially increased the risk of serious illness (likelihood ratio 25.5, 95% confidence interval 7.9 to 82.0) and acting on this gut feeling had the potential to prevent two of the six cases being missed (33%, 95% confidence interval 4.0% to 100%) at a cost of 44 false alarms (1.3%, 95% confidence interval 0.95% to 1.75%). The clinical features most strongly associated with gut feeling were the children’s overall response (drowsiness, no laughing), abnormal breathing, weight loss, and convulsions. The strongest contextual factor was the parents’ concern that the illness was different from their previous experience (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 12.3 to 107). Conclusions A gut feeling about the seriousness of illness in children is an instinctive response by clinicians to the concerns of the parents and the appearance of the children. It should trigger action such as seeking a second opinion or further investigations. The observed association between intuition and clinical markers of serious infection means that by reflecting on the genesis of their gut feeling, clinicians should be able to hone their clinical skills.

2012-01-01

184

Molecular study of human herpesvirus 6 and 8 involvement in coronary atherosclerosis and coronary instability.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest the involvement of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a correlation between infection-driven inflammatory burden and acute manifestation of coronary artery disease has been hypothesized. The aim of this work was to assess whether human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-8, two DNA viruses with a distinct tropism for endothelium and lymphocytes, may be associated with coronary instability. An age- and gender-matched cross-sectional study was undertaken in 70 patients with testing of plasma HHV-6 and HHV-8 DNA load in different cardiovascular clinical settings: 29 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 21 patients with stable coronary artery disease, and 20 patients without coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis subjected to cardiac valve replacement. In all patients, HHV-6 and HHV-8 plasma DNA was tested by using highly sensitive, calibrated quantitative real-time PCR assays which employ a synthetic DNA calibrator to adjust for DNA extraction and amplification efficiency. HHV-8 viremia was undetectable in all three groups. HHV-6 viremia was detected in a substantial fraction of the samples examined (18.6%) without significant differences among the three groups (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: 17.2%; stable coronary artery disease: 14.3%; patients without coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis: 25%). Furthermore, no significant differences in plasma HHV-6 load were observed amongst the three groups of patients. These findings indicate that coronary instability is not associated specifically with active HHV-6 or HHV-8 infection. However, an unusually high rate of active HHV-6 infection was documented among patients without atherosclerosis admitted to hospital with cardiac disease. PMID:23080503

Magnoni, Marco; Malnati, Mauro; Cristell, Nicole; Coli, Stefano; Russo, Domenico; Ruotolo, Giacomo; Cianflone, Domenico; Alfieri, Ottavio; Lusso, Paolo; Maseri, Attilio

2012-12-01

185

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

KATHLEEN KIERNAN

2006-01-01

186

METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...

187

Study of a Quality of Work Life Program: Organizational Control, Experience Influence, and Objective Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the implications of being involved in either the design of changes or the application of a Quality of Work Life (QWL) change for four aspects of experienced influence. Results indicated the people who experienced the most increase in influence were those who helped design the change. (Author/RC)|

Peterson, Mark F.; And Others

1982-01-01

188

The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

2012-01-01

189

The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

2012-01-01

190

Parent and Community Involvement in Education. Volume I: Findings and Conclusions. Studies of Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genuine educational reform depends on developing relationships with the home, community groups, politicians, and the business community (Seeley, 1981). This volume is the first of three volumes that are products of a 3.5 year study of education reform, with a focus on the role of parent, family, and community involvement in the middle grades. The…

Rutherford, Barry; And Others

191

A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

2008-01-01

192

Interhemispheric Communication Involving Multiple Tasks: A Study of Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated whether inefficient interhemispheric communication is involved in developmental dyslexia using multiple tasks. A finger localization task, rhyming judgment task, primed lexical decision task, and a visual half-field presentation paradigm were used. Nineteen dyslexic children (mean age = 13.1 years) were compared with 26…

Sotozaki, Hiroko; Parlow, Shelley

2006-01-01

193

A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

2010-01-01

194

Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

2009-01-01

195

American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

196

A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

2008-01-01

197

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

198

Estimating effectiveness in an observational study: A case study of dornase alfa in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) receiving dornase-alfa had improved pulmonary function relative to a control group in a large randomized phase III controlled study. We reviewed data from a large observational phase IV study to estimate the observed drug effect in patients receiving dornase alfa as part of their routine care. Patients 6 years or older and with a baseline

Charles A. Johnson; Steven M. Butler; Michael W. Konstan; Timothy J. Breen; Wayne J. Morgan

1999-01-01

199

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the world. Elvidge et al. (1998) first demonstrated that under certain conditions a detection of power outages is possible using OLS data. A standard procedure for visual detection of power outages has been developed. The procedure is based on identifying locations where consistently observed lighting is missing or reduced following a disaster event. Visible and thermal spectral bands of the event-related OLS data are compared to a recent cloud-free composite of nighttime lights by producing a color (RGB) composite image. For the cloud-free nighttime lights composite serving as reference information both monthly and annual composites can be used, depending on the respective availability and suitability of OLS data. The RGB color composite uses the reference lights as red (R), the current visible band as green (G) and the current thermal band as blue (B). The thermal band is typically inverted to make clouds appear bright. As clouds are typically colder than the surface of the Earth, in the thermal band higher values are observed on cloud-free areas, which thus appear brighter in standard visualization modes. The resulting color composite is visually interpreted to identify power outages, which show up as red lights on a dark (cloud-free) background. Red color stands for high values in the reference data (red band of the RGB composite) compared to low values in the event data (green and blue bands of the RGB composite), thus showing the disaster-related absence or reduction of lighting. Heavy cloud cover also obscures lights, resulting in red lights on a blue background. Yellow color in the RGB composite indicates areas where the lights are on, i.e. both red and green band (reference composite and visible band of the event image) feature high values with no cloud cover present (low values in the blue band). Under ideal conditions the presented procedure detects individual cities and towns where power has been lost or has been reduced. Conditions reducing or eliminating the capability of detecting power blackouts in OLS data have been identified (e.g. sunlight, heavy

Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

2009-04-01

200

Energy intakes of ultraendurance cyclists during competition, an observational study.  

PubMed

Endurance events>10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous studies in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. This observational study included 18 cyclists in a 384-km cycle race. At race registration each cyclist's support crew was provided with a food diary for their cyclist. On completion of the race, cyclists were asked to recall their race food and drink intakes. All food and fluids were analyzed using a computer software package. Mean (SD) time to complete the race was 16 hr 21 min (2 hr 2 min). Mean (SD) energy intake was 18.7 (8.6) MJ, compared with an estimated energy requirement for the race of 25.5 (7.4) MJ. There was a significant negative relationship between energy intake and time taken to complete the race (p=.023, r²=-.283). Mean (SD) carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes were 52 (27), 15.84 (56.43), and 2.94 (7.25) g/hr, respectively. Only carbohydrate (p=.015, r²=-.563) and fat intake (p=.037, r²=-.494) were associated with time taken to complete the race. This study demonstrates the difficulties in meeting the high energy demands of ultraendurance cycling. The relationship between energy intake and performance suggests that reducing the energy deficit may be advantageous. Given the high carbohydrate intakes of these athletes, increasing energy intake from fat should be investigated as a means of decreasing energy deficits. PMID:22248496

Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L; Brown, Rachel C

2012-02-01

201

Observational and numerical study of Atlantic tropical instability waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses high resolution satellite measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to investigate the variability of sea surface temperature (SST), surface wind velocity, water vapor, cloud liquid water and precipitation associated with westward moving tropical instability waves (TIWs) in the Atlantic Ocean from 1998 to 2005. On interannual scales, TIWs in the Pacific Ocean are strongest during the cold phase of El Ni¨no Southern Oscillation (ENSO), when the cold tongue is most pronounced. The waves are weak during the warm phase of ENSO. A low-frequency Atlantic air-sea coupled mode influences the TIW activity in the Atlantic Ocean as ENSO does in the Pacific Ocean. The characteristics of TIWs are largely associated with the background oceano-graphic states. Coherent ocean-atmosphere patterns are shown in the Atlantic Ocean during eight years. Southeasterly trades strengthen and water vapor increases over warm SST anomalies associated with TIWs. The opposite is true over cold TIW SST anomalies. The cloud liquid water and rain response to the SST follows a very similar pattern, appearing to be roughly in phase with wind convergence and divergence in the central tropical Atlantic. The atmospheric response to the TIW SST anomalies extends north of the TIW active region, suggesting a remote response to the TIWs. The atmospheric response to the Atlantic TIWs shows interannual variability. In 1999, the rainfall response to the TIW SST anomalies is much larger than in other years, which is due to the southward movement of Atlantic ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). When the Atlantic ITCZ moves south, it is more susceptible to TIW influence. One regional climate model and one global climate model are applied to study the mechanism of atmospheric response to the Atlantic TIWs with daily TMI satellite SST forcing. Both models successfully simulated the wind velocity, wind convergence and precipitation as observed. While the satellite observations support the vertical mixing mechanism for the surface wind response to TIWs, both models show the pressure gradient mechanism is dominant in the Atlantic.

Wu, Qiaoyan

202

Vascular Surgery, ICU and HDU: A 14-Year Observational Study  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Over the course of the past decade, numerous changes have occurred in the management of patients undergoing vascular surgical operations. The introduction of high dependency units (HDUs) has meant that many patients previously requiring observation in intensive care units (ICUs) are now managed in this new environment. In addition, many vascular patients may now be suitable for management on a vascular ward immediately following their surgery. This study reports the chronological changes in resource utilisation of patients undergoing major vascular surgery in a district general hospital over a 14-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS Details of all patients admitted to either the ICU or HDU under the care of a single vascular surgeon during the period 1991–2004 were extracted from a prospectively maintained anaesthetic department database. Details of the age and gender of the patients were obtained together with source of admission, place of discharge and need for re-admission. Operative details for each patient were extracted from a prospectively maintained vascular surgery database including type of procedure undertaken and degree of urgency. RESULTS During the 14-year period under study, there was a dramatic decrease in the use of ICU facilities for the management of vascular patients from 100% in 1991 to 36% in 2004. There was a corresponding increase in the use of HDU for major vascular cases during the same period from 0% to 66%. However, despite a significant increase in the total number of major vascular operations performed, from 67 in 1991 to 185 in 2004 as a result of sub-specialisation, overall use of all high-care facilities fell as the number of patients returned directly to the vascular ward increased from 34% in 1991 to 64% in 2004. The efficacy of the choice of management venue was confirmed by the observation that only 7.7% of those managed on ICU had been initially managed at a lower level of care. In addition, only 1.8% of patients managed on HDU had been admitted after initially being managed on the vascular ward. CONCLUSIONS Sub-specialisation over the past decade has meant a significantly increased major vascular work-load. Since the introduction of the HDU, there has been a significant fall in the use of ICU facilities for routine cases. These changes in resource utilisation have significant implications in terms of budget allocation. It would appear that finances, in relation to vascular surgery, should be concentrated on expanding HDU facilities and ensuring vascular surgery expertise amongst ward nursing staff.

Teli, Mary; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Rees, John R; Woodsford, Paul V; Lewis, Michael H

2008-01-01

203

Compliance with antithrombotic guidelines in surgery patients in German hospitals: a multicenter study involving pharmacy interns.  

PubMed

Despite the existence of antithrombotic guidelines, there is low compliance with these guidelines in clinical practice. Until now pharmacy interns (PIs) have not been involved in this process. The objectives were to involve PIs to evaluate compliance with antithrombotic guidelines for VTE prophylaxis in surgery patients, and in cases of noncompliance to carry out pharmaceutical interventions. The study was conducted in 7 hospitals in Germany involving 27 PIs within the project "Pharmacy interns on the ward" (P-STAT 2). Pharmacy interns determined the thromboembolic risk, documented antithrombotic medication, and checked the compliance with current antithrombotic guidelines. A total of 6491 patients were enrolled; 5695 patients received antithrombotic prophylaxis. Antithrombotic guideline was followed in 77.5% patients. Many patients are not receiving appropriate VTE prophylaxis or heparin bridging regimen despite the fact that evidence-based antithrombotic guidelines are available. Pharmacy interns may play an important role in antithrombotic management. PMID:21733934

Hohmann, Carina; Eickhoff, Christiane; Kaemmerer, Wolfgang; Schulz, Martin

2011-07-06

204

Pattern of segmental motor involvement in syringomyelia: a single fibre EMG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single fibre EMG has been used to study the pattern of upper limb motor involvement in syringomyelia. Biceps brachii, extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and first dorsal interosseous muscles (1stDI) representing C5\\/6, C7\\/8 and C8\\/T1 segments, were studied. In the biceps the fibre density was slightly increased in most patients, in EDC it was about twice the normal and in the

M S Schwartz; E Stålberg; M Swash

1980-01-01

205

Studies on high temperature corrosion reactions involving metal oxides and sodium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of studies on the reaction of metal oxides such as Cr2O3 and Al2O3 with Na2SO4 in flowing SO2 (g) at 1,100 and 1,200 K. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The oxides chosen for the studies were initial scaling products during the oxidation of industrial alloys and invariably are involved in hot-corrosion

M. Mobin; S. K. Hasan

2008-01-01

206

The value of site-based observations complementary to naturalistic driving observations: a pilot study on the right turn manoeuvre.  

PubMed

Naturalistic driving studies are increasingly applied in different shapes and sizes. The European project PROLOGUE has investigated the value and feasibility of a large-scale naturalistic driving study in Europe. Within PROLOGUE several pilot studies have been conducted in different countries. The Dutch field trial investigated the value and feasibility of adding site-based observations to in-vehicle observations. In this trial, one intersection was equipped with cameras for site-based observation. Additionally eight cars were equipped of drivers crossing this intersection regularly. On this small scale, combining the two observation methods turned out to be technically feasible. It was possible to recognise the instrumented vehicles in the site-based video data, to match cases from the different observations and the speed measures from the separate studies appeared to be similar. The value of combining these two observation methods lies in the possibility to enrich the data from one study with complementary data from the other study. The study illustrated that each type of observation has its unique values. From in-vehicle data it is possible to look in detail at the driving behaviour of the participants over time and in different situations. The site-based study offers information about the position and speed of other road users surrounding the participant's vehicle, including vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians. Two values of adding site-based observations to in-vehicle observations were identified: to obtain more in depth understanding and to relate the behaviour of participants of the naturalistic driving study to behaviour of the full population of drivers (non-participants). For a future (large-scale) naturalistic driving study two research topics are identified that could benefit from these complementary observations: driving behaviour in relation to specific infrastructure and the interaction between drivers and vulnerable road users. PMID:23915473

van Nes, Nicole; Christoph, Michiel; Hoedemaeker, Marika; van der Horst, Richard A

2013-07-13

207

Dental injury after conventional direct laryngoscopy: a prospective observational study.  

PubMed

This observational study assessed the frequency and risk factors of dental damage after classic direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in 536 adult patients. The patients' sex, age, height, weight, dental condition, dental mobility, Mallampati class, interincisor gap, thyromental distance, neck circumference, and head and neck extension were recorded. From anaesthesia records, the difficulty of intubation, the number of attempts, type of neuromuscular blocking agent used and duration of anaesthesia were recorded. After anaesthesia, examination revealed that 134 patients (25.0%) had dental damage affecting 162 teeth (147 maxillary; 15 mandibular). Enamel fracture was the commonest injury. In tooth number 21, the interincisor gap (OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-5.9)) and in tooth number 22, the number of intubation attempts (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.3-22.0)) were considered a risk factor for dental injury. Conventional direct laryngoscopy is associated with a strikingly high incidence of dental damage, although specific risk factors remain unclear. PMID:24047290

Mourão, J; Neto, J; Luís, C; Moreno, C; Barbosa, J; Carvalho, J; Tavares, J

2013-10-01

208

Observational study of prehospital delays in patients with chest pain  

PubMed Central

Method: A prospective observational study of prehospital times and events was undertaken on a target population of patients presenting with acute chest pain attributable to an acute coronary syndrome over a three month period. Results: Patients who decided to call the ambulance service were compared with patients who contacted any other service. Most patients who contact non-ambulance services are seen by general practitioners. The prehospital system time for 121 patients who chose to call the ambulance service first was significantly shorter than for 96 patients who chose to call another service (median 57 min v 107 min; p<0.001). Of the 42 patients thrombolysed in the emergency department, those who chose to call the ambulance service had significantly shorter prehospital system times (number 21 v 21; median 44 v 69 min; p<0.001). Overall time from pain onset to initiation of thrombolysis was significantly longer in the group of patients who called a non-ambulance service first (median 130 min v 248 min; p=0.005). Conclusions: Patient with acute ischaemic chest pain who call their general practice instead of the ambulance service are likely to have delayed thrombolysis. This is likely to result in increased mortality. The most beneficial current approach is for general practices to divert all patients with possible ischaemic chest pain onset within 12 hours direct to the ambulance service.

Hitchcock, T; Rossouw, F; McCoubrie, D; Meek, S

2003-01-01

209

Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the burden of malaria on health services, describe the clinical presentation of severe malaria in children, and identify factors associated with mortality by means of a prospective observational study. Setting Two public hospitals in Taiz (mountain hinterland) and Hodeidah (coastal plain), Yemen. Participants Children aged 6 months to 10 years. Results Of 12 301 paediatric admissions, 2071 (17%) were for suspected severe malaria. The proportion of such admissions varied according to the season (from 1% to 40%). Falciparum malaria was confirmed in 1332 children; 808 had severe disease as defined by the World Health Organization. Main presentations were respiratory distress (322/808, 40%), severe anaemia (291/800, 37%), and cerebral malaria (60/808, 8%). Twenty two of 26 children who died had a neurological presentation. No deaths occurred in children with severe anaemia but no other signs of severity. In multivariate analysis, a Blantyre coma score ? 2, history of fits, female sex, and hyperlactataemia predicted mortality; severe anaemia, respiratory distress, and hyperparasitaemia were not significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions Severe malaria puts a high burden on health services in Yemen. Although presentation is similar to African series, some important differences exist. Case fatality is higher in girls.

Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Jaffar, Shabbar; Assabri, Ali; Al-Habori, Molham; Azazy, Ahmed; Al-Mahdi, Nagiba; Ameen, Khaled; Greenwood, Brian M; Whitty, Christopher J M

2006-01-01

210

[Prevalence of biological exposure among nursing students: an observational study].  

PubMed

Blood-transmitted infections such as viral hepatitis B, or human immunodeficiency virus , are a real danger to health workers. Student nurses are also exposed to biological risks during their clinical training. This study was carried out to assess the incidence and nature of such risks in student nurses in Italy, evaluating all the cases of biological exposure in the G. D'Annunzio University Hospital of Chieti from 2002 to 2006. Student nurses were monitored for 6 months after exposure. A total number of 2047 students was observed; 665 first -year (32.49%), 691 second-year (33.76%) and 691 third-year (33.76%). During training a total of 135 (6.6%) instances of biological exposure occurred, average age 24.94 (R.19-45; SD 5.52), 99 females (73.3%). Although there was a lower incidence in third-year students (-27%), most of them occurred in the Medical Department (86 =63.7%). Needle pricks were the primary cause of exposure while the tabs used for measuring blood-sugar levels also represented a high risk. Although risks were lower in last-year students, it is clear that more attention should be paid to prevention , increasing awareness of infection control and monitoring biological exposure throughout the entire training period. PMID:19250618

Cicolini, Giancarlo; Di Labio, Luisa; Lancia, Loreto

211

Observed wave characteristics during growth and decay: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed 1-h time series data on sea surface waves in the shelf waters off Goa, west coast of India (depth 80 m), during 17 24 March 1986, are analyzed with reference to the prevailing synoptic winds to understand wave growth and decay aspects. Wind speeds (U10) ranged from 0 to 11.5 m s-1, whereas significant wave height (Hs) varied between 0.6 and 2.3 m. Cross-correlation analysis betweenU10 andHs revealed a time-lag of 4 h. A relationship is obtained between wave steepness (Hs/L) and wave age (C/U10) viz. Log10(Hs/L= -0.53 Log10(C/U10) - 1.385. Phillips' hypothesis off-5 formula for equilibrium range of wave spectrum and relationship between non-dimensional energy (E* = Eg2/U*4) and non-dimensional peak frequency (v* = U*fm/g) are studied. Correlation of non-dimensional wave parameters (E* andv*) using the present data showed a better aereement with Hasselmannet al. (1976) when comnared to Toba (1978).

Prasada Rao, C. V. K.; Baba, M.

1996-10-01

212

Primary care funding, contract status, and outcomes: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) provides a quantitative way of assessing quality of care in general practice. We explore the achievements of general practice in the first year of the QOF, with specific reference to practice funding and contract status. Aim To determine the extent to which differences in funding and contract status affect quality in primary care. Design of study Cross-sectional observational study using practice data obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. Setting One hundred and sixty-four practices from six primary care trusts (PCTs) in England. Method Practice data for all 164 practices were collated for income and contract status. The outcome measure was QOF score for the year 2004–2005. All data were analysed statistically. Results Contract status has an impact on practice funding, with Employed Medical Services (EMS) and Personal Medical Services (PMS) practices receiving higher levels of funding than General Medical Services (GMS) practices (P<0.001). QOF scores also vary according to contract status. Higher funding levels in EMS practices are associated with lower QOF scores (P=0.04); while GMS practices exhibited the opposite trend, with higher-funded practices achieving better quality scores (P<0.001). Conclusion GMS practices are the most efficient contract status, achieving high quality scores for an average of £62.51 per patient per year. By contrast, EMS practices are underperforming, achieving low quality scores for an average of £105.37 per patient per year. Funding and contract status are therefore important factors in determining achievement in the QOF.

Morgan, Claire L; Beerstecher, Hendrik J

2006-01-01

213

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ?16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ?16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids.

2010-01-01

214

Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the

C. Aubrecht; C. D. Elvidge; D. Ziskin; K. E. Baugh; B. Tuttle; E. Erwin; N. Kerle

2009-01-01

215

Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

1. We stimulated the motor cortex of normal subjects (transcranial magnetic stimulation) while they 1) observed an experimenter grasping 3D-objects, 2) looked at the same 3D-objects, 3) observed an experimenter tracing geometrical figures in the air with his arm, and 4) detected the dimming of a light. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from hand muscles. 2. We found that MEPs significantly increased during the conditions in which subjects observed movements. The MEP pattern reflected the pattern of muscle activity recorded when the subjects executed the observed actions. 3. We conclude that in humans there is a system matching action observation and execution. This system resembles the one recently described in the monkey. PMID:7666169

Fadiga, L; Fogassi, L; Pavesi, G; Rizzolatti, G

1995-06-01

216

Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

2012-09-29

217

Patient involvement in primary care mental health: a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient involvement in health care is a strong political driver in the NHS. However in spite of policy prominence, there has been only limited previous work exploring patient involvement for people with serious mental illness. Aim To describe the views on, potential for, and types of patient involvement in primary care from the perspectives of primary care health professionals and patients with serious mental illness. Design of study Qualitative study consisting of six patient, six health professional and six combined focus groups between May 2002 and January 2003. Setting Six primary care trusts in the West Midlands, England. Method Forty-five patients with serious mental illness, 39 GPs, and eight practice nurses participated in a series of 18 focus groups. All focus groups were audiotaped and fully transcribed. Nvivo was used to manage data more effectively. Results Most patients felt that only other people with lived experience of mental illness could understand what they were going through. This experience could be used to help others navigate the health- and social-care systems, give advice about medication, and offer support at times of crisis. Many patients also saw paid employment within primary care as a way of addressing issues of poverty and social exclusion. Health professionals were, however, more reluctant to see patients as partners, be it in the consultation or in service delivery. Conclusions Meaningful change in patient involvement requires commitment and belief from primary care practitioners that the views and experiences of people with serious mental illness are valid and valuable.

Lester, Helen; Tait, Lynda; England, Elizabeth; Tritter, Jonathan

2006-01-01

218

Comprehension of implicit meanings in social situations involving irony: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

To understand implicit social meanings, the interaction of literal meanings and relevant information in a situational context is important. However, previous studies have not investigated such contextual interactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated cortical mechanisms underlying the processing of implicit meanings, particularly irony, in realistic social situations, focusing on contextual interactions. Healthy subjects were shown pictures depicting daily communicative situations during judgment tasks involving situational appropriateness and literal correctness. The left medial prefrontal cortex showed significantly greater activation during tasks involving situational judgments than during literal judgments. The right temporal pole was activated task-independently during irony-specific processing. The medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated task-dependently during irony processing in situational judgment tasks. These regions have been reported to be involved in theory of mind, and have not been implicated in previous studies on the linguistic processing of implicit meanings. This suggests that the intentional assessment of situational appropriateness for task execution is carried out in the left medial prefrontal cortex, whereas irony is processed in the right temporal pole by assessing situational context automatically, and is judged based on the situational context in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our results show that the processing of implicit meanings and irony in contextually rich situations depends on brain mechanisms involved in the "theory of mind," based on processing relevant information in a situational context, and suggest different functions in each region. PMID:17689103

Wakusawa, Keisuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Inuma, Kazuie; Kawashima, Ryuta

2007-06-27

219

Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol)  

PubMed Central

Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers) will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use) and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers). In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27 participants (11 public representatives and 16 clinicians and managers) and our study instruments with an additional 21 participants, which demonstrated the feasibility of the intervention and generated important insights and adaptations to engage public representatives more effectively. To our knowledge, this study is the first trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation, and its results could foster more effective upstream engagement of patients and the public in clinical practice improvement. Trial registration NTR2496 (Netherlands National Trial Register, http://www.trialregister.nl).

2011-01-01

220

Chronic pain in children and adolescents: observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults, chronic pain is by most people involved considered to be a serious disorder. Although\\u000achronic pain in adults is in general not life-threatening, a considerable amount of\\u000aliterature elucidates the large number of sufferers, the high cost to the person in question\\u000aand to the society as a whole, and the often crushing effects it has on personal

C. W. Perquin

2002-01-01

221

The Work Activity of School Principals: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The content and characteristics of the work of three Australian principals who were observed for three weeks are described with the findings expressed in a set of propositions about the principalship. (Author/IRT)

Willis, Quentin

1980-01-01

222

Adverse drug events in surgical patients: an observational multicentre study.  

PubMed

Background Errors occurring during different steps of the medication process can lead to adverse drug events (ADEs). Surgical patients are expected to have an increased risk for ADEs during hospitalization. However, detailed information about ADEs in the surgical patient is lacking. Objective In this study, we aim to measure the incidence and nature of (preventable) ADEs, potential risk factors for and outcome parameters of (preventable) ADEs in surgical patients. Setting Observational multicentre cohort study in which eight surgical wards participated from three Dutch hospitals, all using computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems with clinical decision support. Methods Electively admitted surgical patients of the participating wards were included from March until June 2009. ADEs were measured using a standardized method with expert judgment. Incidence, severity, preventability and accountable medication were assessed. Poisson regression analysis was applied to determine the associations between possible risk factors and the occurrence of ADEs, expressed as incidence rate ratio (IRR). Also outcomes of ADEs in surgical patients were measured. Main outcome measure The incidence and nature of (preventable) ADEs in surgical patients. Results A total of 567 surgical patients were included. We found an incidence of 27.5 ADEs and 4.2 preventable ADEs (pADEs) per 100 admissions (15.4 %). A quarter of the pADEs were severe or life-threatening. Opioids and anti-coagulation medication play a major role in the occurrence of ADEs and pADEs respectively. Univariate analysis revealed an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of III or more as a risk factor for ADEs. Patients older than 65 years [IRR 2.77 (1.14-6.72)], with cardiovascular comorbidity [IRR 2.87 (1.13-7.28)], or undergoing vascular surgery [IRR 2.32 (1.01-5.32)] were at risk for pADEs. Patients experiencing an ADE had a significant longer duration of admission than patients without an ADE. Conclusions Surgical patients are at considerable risk of experiencing one or more ADEs during their admission, also in CPOE-hospitals. Risk factors for pADEs are age older than 65 years, cardiovascular comorbidity, and vascular surgery. Intensified monitoring may be needed in patients with a higher than average risk for pADEs. PMID:23722455

de Boer, Monica; Boeker, Eveline B; Ramrattan, Maya A; Kiewiet, Jordy J S; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Boermeester, Marja A; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine

2013-05-31

223

An observational study of cometary globules near the Rosette nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular line observations are reported of two regions containing small cometary globules at the edge of the Rosette Nebula. Observations of the CO, 3CO and C^18^O J=21,-and CO J=43-molecular lines towards Globule 1, the most prominent of the group, show it has a well-developed head-tail structure, with a head diameter ~0.4pc, and a tail extending ~1.3pc behind it. The major

G. J. White; B. Lefloch; C. V. M. Fridlund; C. A. Aspin; G. Dahmen; N. R. Minchin; M. Huldtgren

1997-01-01

224

Lateralization in motor facilitation during action observation: a TMS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action observation facilitates corticospinal excitability. This is presumably due to a premotor neural system that is active\\u000a when we perform actions and when we observe actions performed by others. It has been speculated that this neural system is\\u000a a precursor of neural systems subserving language. If this theory is true, we may expect hemispheric differences in the motor\\u000a facilitation produced

Lisa Aziz-Zadeh; Fumiko Maeda; Eran Zaidel; John Mazziotta; Marco Iacoboni

2002-01-01

225

Surgery for endometrial cancers with suspected cervical involvement: is radical hysterectomy needed (a GOTIC study)?  

PubMed

Background:Radical hysterectomy is recommended for endometrial adenocarcinoma patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. However, the efficacy of operative procedure has not been confirmed.Methods:The patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma who had suspected gross cervical involvement and underwent hysterectomy between 1995 and 2009 at seven institutions were retrospectively analysed (Gynecologic Oncology Trial and Investigation Consortium of North Kanto: GOTIC-005). Primary endpoint was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and adverse effects.Results:A total of 300 patients who underwent primary surgery were identified: 74 cases with radical hysterectomy (RH), 112 patients with modified radical hysterectomy (mRH), and 114 cases with simple hysterectomy (SH). Median age was 47 years, and median duration of follow-up was 47 months. There were no significant differences of age, performance status, body mass index, stage distribution, and adjuvant therapy among three groups. Multi-regression analysis revealed that age, grade, peritoneal cytology status, and lymph node involvement were identified as prognostic factors for OS; however, type of hysterectomy was not selected as independent prognostic factor for local recurrence-free survival, PFS, and OS. Additionally, patients treated with RH had longer operative time, higher rates of blood transfusion and severe urinary tract dysfunction.Conclusion:Type of hysterectomy was not identified as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. Perioperative and late adverse events were more frequent in patients treated with RH. The present study could not find any survival benefit from RH for endometrial cancer patients with suspected gross cervical involvement. Surgical treatment in these patients should be further evaluated in prospective clinical studies. PMID:24002604

Takano, M; Ochi, H; Takei, Y; Miyamoto, M; Hasumi, Y; Kaneta, Y; Nakamura, K; Kurosaki, A; Satoh, T; Fujiwara, H; Nagao, S; Furuya, K; Yokota, H; Ito, K; Minegishi, T; Yoshikawa, H; Fujiwara, K; Suzuki, M

2013-09-03

226

Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: ?-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species.

Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

227

Prevalence and patterns of neurological involvement in Behcet's disease: a prospective study from Iraq  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of neurological involvement in Behcet's disease in a prospective study, and to describe the clinical patterns of neurological presentation in this disease in patients attending a multidisciplinary clinic in Baghdad. Methods: All patients attending the clinic who fulfilled the international study group criteria for the diagnosis of Behcet's disease were studied during a two year period starting in April 1999. Patients were assessed neurologically by a neuro-Behcetologist. All those with clinical neurological manifestations were sent for CSF examination, cranial magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance venography and were followed up to explore the patterns of neurological relapse. Results: 140 patients with Behcet's disease were studied. Their mean age was 34.2 years (range 16 to 66); 105 (75%) were men and 35 (25%) were women. The mean duration of the disease was 4.2 years (range 0.4 to 26). Twenty patients (14%) had neurological involvement (neuro-Behcet's disease); 14 of these (70%) were men and six (30%) women. The mean age at the first neurological presentation was 34.1 years. The mean duration of follow up of patients with neuro-Behcet's disease was 20.7 months. Ten patients with neuro-Behcet's disease (50%) presented with parenchymal CNS involvement, six (30%) with intracranial hypertension, and four (20%) with a mixed pattern of both parenchymal CNS involvement and intracranial hypertension. Conclusions: Careful neurological assessment of patients with Behcet's disease may show a relatively high prevalence of neuro-Behcet features, and though the clinical patterns of presentation are characteristic a mixed pattern may occur.

Al-Araji, A; Sharquie, K; Al-Rawi, Z

2003-01-01

228

A Study on the Relationship between Risk Dimensions of Apparel Involvement and Online Impulse Buying Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers nowadays spend more time using computers and are getting used to buying products through the Internet(Park, 2002), and therefore, understanding consumers' impulse buying behavior in an online shopping context is also important for retailers. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between online apparel impulse buying behavior and the two risk dimensions of apparel involvement(i.e., risk

Young-Ju Rhee

229

Adaptive pacing of visual stimulation for fMRI studies involving overt speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of an interactive approach to single-word language production studies in fMRI. The approach, adaptive pacing, involves real-time adjustment of stimulus presentation times based on individual subject performance timing and content. At the same time, it maintains a stochastic distribution of interstimulus intervals to avoid confounding task covariates with speech-related signal variance. Adaptive pacing of overt speech

Thomas J. Grabowski; Matthew D. Bauer; Derek Foreman; Sonya Mehta; Brent L. Eaton; William W. Graves; Dori L. Defoe; Lizann Bolinger

2006-01-01

230

Performance study of a bridge involving sliding decks and pounded abutment during a violent earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on the sliding of bridge decks and pounding at abutment-backfill. It involves a multi-span concrete bridge supported on simple rubber bearings, subjected to longitudinal as well as vertical ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. To account for soil–structure interaction, the stiffness and strength constants of backfill soils are determined by relating the tilting

Ching-Jong Wang; Ming-Hsiang Shih

2007-01-01

231

Participation of Adolescent Girls in a Study of Sexual Behaviors: Balancing Autonomy and Parental Involvement  

PubMed Central

Study Objective The process of research with adolescents should balance parental involvement and adolescent autonomy. The attendance of parents and peers at research study visits of girls participating in a 6-month study of topical microbicide acceptability is described, as well as the participants’ conversations with their parents. Methods Girls, 14 through 21 years, were recruited from previous studies (3%), advertisements (14%), clinics (17%), and recommendations by friends (66%) to participate. Girls under 18 years were required to have parental consent, but parents could provide verbal phone consent as long as a signed consent form was returned before participation. Results The 208 participants were 41% African-American, 30% Hispanic, and 29% Caucasian. Girls averaged 18 years of age, and 95 (46%) were under 18. Seventeen percent of parents attended the first visit; all but one was with a daughter of less than 18 years. The mothers of older adolescents were less likely to attend the appointment with them. More Caucasian than African-American girls came with a mother. Parental attendance decreased at follow-up visits. Thirty-seven percent of girls brought a peer to the first visit; there were no age or race/ethnic differences. There was no relationship between attending with a parent or peer and talking to a parent about the study. Some adolescents obtained parental consent to participate in the study while keeping their sexual behaviors private. Conclusions Parental attendance at study visits may not be marker of parental involvement with the study. Creative ways for balancing concerns about confidentiality, promotion of autonomy, and adult involvement should be considered.

Short, Mary B.; Wiemann, Constance; Rosenthal, Susan L.

2009-01-01

232

Enhancement of force after action observation: behavioural and neurophysiological studies.  

PubMed

We tested here the hypothesis that observing others' actions can facilitate basic aspects of motor performance, such as force production, even if subjects are not required to immediately reproduce the observed actions and if they are not aware that observation can form the basis for procedural training. To this end, we compared in healthy volunteers the effects of repeated actual execution (MOV) or observation (OBS) of a simple intransitive movement (abduction of the right index and middle fingers). In a first experiment, we found that both actual and observational training significantly increased the finger abduction force of both hands. In the MOV group, force increases over pre-training values were significantly higher in the trained than in the untrained hand (50% versus 33%), whereas they were similar for the two hands in the OBS group (32% versus 30%). No force change was found in the control, untrained group. In a second experiment, we found that both training conditions significantly increased the isometric force exerted during right index finger abduction, whereas no post-training change in isometric force was found during abduction of the right little finger. Actual performance, imagination and, to a lower extent, observation of fingers movement enhanced the excitability of the corticospinal system targeting the first dorsal interosseus muscle, as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation; pre- and post-training effects were of similar magnitude. These results show a powerful, specific role of action observation in motor training, likely exerted through premotor areas, which may prove useful in physiological and rehabilitative conditions. PMID:17681358

Porro, Carlo A; Facchin, Patrizia; Fusi, Simonetta; Dri, Guanita; Fadiga, Luciano

2007-06-30

233

Association of Endodontic Involvement with Tooth Loss in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The effect of endodontic involvement on tooth loss has not been quantified, so the present study aimed to assess this relationship after controlling for other relevant risk factors for tooth loss. Methods We analyzed data from 791 participants (18,798 teeth) in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study. Potential tooth- and person-level covariates were fitted into marginal proportional hazards models, including both apical radiolucencies (AR) and root canal therapy (RCT) status as time-dependent variables. Survival curves were plotted for teeth according to their AR and RCT status. Results Both current AR and RCT status were associated with increased risk of tooth loss (p< 0.01), after controlling for baseline levels of periodontal disease, caries, tooth type, number of proximal contacts, number of teeth, age, education, and smoking history. Root canal filled (RCF) teeth seemed to have better survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth with AR, but worse survival than non-RCF teeth among teeth without AR. Conclusions Endodontic involvement was associated with tooth loss, controlling for other potential risk factors. Additional prospective studies are needed to provide better evidence as to the impact of endodontic involvement on tooth loss.

Zhong, Yan; Garcia, Raul; Kaye, Elizabeth K; Cai, Jianwen; Kaufman, Jay S; Trope, Martin; Wilcosky, Tim; Caplan, Daniel J

2010-01-01

234

Functional Segregation within Pars Opercularis of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus: Evidence from fMRI Studies of Imitation and Action Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is important for action observation and imitation. In order to further explore the role of IFG in action observation and imitation, we pooled data from seven functional magnetic reson- ance imaging studies involving observation and imitation of simple finger movements performed in our laboratory. For imitation we found two

Istvan Molnar-Szakacs; Marco Iacoboni; Lisa Koski; John C. Mazziotta

2004-01-01

235

Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the opportunities and preceded Plan in just 21.8%. Certain communication elements were occasionally absent. For example, SBAR's Recommendation and admission note information about the patient's Past Medical History were absent from 22 (55.0%) and 20 (50.0%), respectively, of patient handovers. Conclusions Clinical handover practice of faculty-level critical care physicians did not conform to any of the three predefined structuring schemes. Further research is needed to examine whether alternative approaches to handover communication can be identified and to identify features of high-quality handover communication.

2012-01-01

236

Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.  

PubMed

Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-09-20

237

Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production--Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses  

PubMed Central

Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil.

Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-01-01

238

Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries  

PubMed Central

Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.

2010-01-01

239

Economic thought and numerical observations : studies in 'political arithmetic'  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the epistemologieal status of 'raw' numerical observations, and to a lesser extent, more formal statistical constructs in economic thought. The definition of 'economic thought' used throughout this work follows Joseph Schumpeter's broad conception in that it includes two interrelated aspects: formal economic analysis and more everyday, commonsense thought. A central question is the issue of justifying numerical

Anthony M Endres

1982-01-01

240

Study on Bridge of Violin by Photoelastic Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress of the bridge of a violin was observed by means of the photoelastic method, and a frequency analysis of the tones of two violins was performed. It was found that the stress of the bridge and the tone of the violin depended on the shape and the tilt of the bridge, the direction of force applied by bowing

Akihiro Matsutani

2002-01-01

241

Peri- and paracardial involvement in lymphoma: a radiographic study of 11 cases  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with pericardiac and paracardiac lymphomatous involvement were studied. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest was compared to plain chest films for its ability to define the sites and extent of involvement in the paracardiac area. Nine of the 11 patients had abnormalities on chest radiography, which included abnormal contours in the fat pad areas and along the heart border, or an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Two patients had normal cardiac silhouettes; however, CT showed definite abnormalities. CT differentiated adenopathy from fat pads in two patients and pericardial effusion from cardiomegaly or paracardiac adenopathy in two patients. The exact location and extent of the paracardiac adenopathy initially seen on chest film was defined by CT. Careful analysis of the peri- and paracardiac areas by plain films and CT is essential to the diagnosis and the proper management of patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Jochelson, M.S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Balikian, J.P.; Mauch, P.; Liebman, H.

1983-03-01

242

Using the combined resources of amateur radio observations and ionosonde data in the study of temperate zone sporadic-E  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how key characteristics of temperate zone sporadic-E can be determined by making use of the combined experiences of amateur radio observations and ionosonde data. There are advantages to using this unified approach in the study of the phenomenon, and to understand and draw conclusions from the data. A brief history of amateur radio involvement in the phenomenon

K. E Neubeck

1996-01-01

243

The Saturn Ring Observer: In situ studies of planetary rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey recently undertaken by the NRC's Space Studies Board for the National Academy of Sciences, studies were commissioned for a number of potential missions to outer planet targets. One of these studies examined the technological feasibility of a mission to carry out in situ studies of Saturn's rings, from a spacecraft placed in

P. D. Nicholson; M. S. Tiscareno; L. J. Spilker

2010-01-01

244

A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health.

Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

245

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

PubMed Central

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

2010-01-01

246

Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst  

SciTech Connect

A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

1998-04-01

247

LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

Omodei, Nicola [INFN of Pisa, Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127 (Italy); Norris, Jay [University of Denver, Denver CO 80208 (United States)

2007-07-12

248

LAT Observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity Studies  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

Omodei, Nicola; /INFN, Pisa; Norris, Jay; /Denver U.

2007-10-22

249

Global scale observation of the earth for climate studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developed since 1983 at LMD, the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) physical retrieval algorithm has been recently extended to the processing of NOAA (TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder) observations at global scale. Starting from the version implemented at ECMWF in Reading, this global scheme has been recently improved and installed on a CRAY-2. One month of observations (Feb. 1989) of NOAA-10 and 11 has recently been processed, at a spatial resolution of 100 × 100 km2. A two years period should now be processed, in conjunction with the PathFinder and GEWEX-GVaP programmes. Results expected are: weekly to monthly averages of quantities like temperature structure, cloud parameters or the vertical distribution and total content of water vapor analysed in relationship to pertinent meteorological or other parameters, especially with respect to quantifying the fundamental characteristics and origines of water vapor variability.

Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Claud, C.; Bonnet, B.; Escobar, J.; Dardaillon, S.; Cheruy, F.; Husson, N.

1994-01-01

250

Observing social gestures: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of social content of gestures on brain activation patterns. We used a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial design\\u000a in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with participants observing gestures varied by type (fascist\\u000a salute, wave, or arm lift), number of images shown at a time, and face frequency. We sought to determine whether increasing\\u000a the social content of

Kristine M. Knutson; Erin M. McClellan; Jordan Grafman

2008-01-01

251

Observed wave characteristics during growth and decay: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed 1-h time series data on sea surface waves in the shelf waters off Goa, west coast of India (depth 80 m), during 17–24 March 1986, are analyzed with reference to the prevailing synoptic winds to understand wave growth and decay aspects. Wind speeds (U10) ranged from 0 to 11.5 m s?1, whereas significant wave height (Hs) varied between 0.6

C. V. K. Prasada Rao; M. Baba

1996-01-01

252

The Impact of Observational Learning and Electronic Word of Mouth on Consumer Purchase Decisions: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expertise and Consumer Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social media revolution has created a dynamic shift in the digital marketing landscape. The voice of influence is moving from traditional marketers towards consumers through online social interactions. In this study, we focus on two types of online social interactions, namely, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and observational learning (OL), and explore how they influence consumer purchase decisions. We

Christy M. K. Cheung; Bo Xiao; Ivy L. B. Liu

2012-01-01

253

Studying Rain Rate from Space and Ground Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of rain rates (R) is of great interest in many fields. For example, hydrological applications such as flood forecasting depend on an accurate representation of the excess rainfall-driven by R-that does not infiltrate the soil. It is also of great concern to radio wave propagation-the theme of this symposium. Probability distribution functions (pdf) of R can now be obtained from spaceborne radar observations. Effort to evaluate these pdfs using ground observations is presented. The evaluation of instantaneous rainfall products and rain rate estimates from space is quite a challenge. Scatter plots of pixel-by-pixel comparisons of space-based R estimates with ground-based radar R estimates are extremely noisy because of sample volume discrepancies, timing and navigation mismatches, and uncertainties in the observed-radar reflectivity rain-rate Ze-R relations. Furthermore, comparisons of rainfall over daily, weekly or even monthly time scales suffer from the temporal sampling errors of the satellite where the revisit time is on the order of hours or days (e.g., the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission [TRMM] satellite, the future Global Precipitation Measurement [GPM] mission satellite). Consequently, an alternative approach of comparing space-based radar pdfs with pdfs derived from co-located ground-based radar observations is attractive for evaluating satellite-based precipitation products, such as those from TRMM precipitation radar (PR). We will present comparisons of R estimates from the TRMM PR and co-located data from gauge-adjusted ground-based radar (WSR-88D) estimates obtained during nine years of observations. These results provide an overview of how well the satellite retrieved estimates-based on the new NASA TRMM radar rainfall products-compare to the ground-based estimates. These comparisons are part of a new framework for global verification of space-borne radar estimates of precipitation based on comparing pdfs of R. The framework demonstrates how a hydrologic approach that uses statistical properties of precipitation to estimate the uncertainties can be combined with a meteorological approach that uses physical properties of rainfall. The presentation provides insights into the uncertainties in space-based and ground-based radar estimates of rain rate distributions, and a discussion of opportunities and challenges to determine and reduce these uncertainties. This presentation combines results which are summarized in [1], [2], and [3]. Examples of comparison are provided in the following figures.

Amitai, Eyal

2007-07-01

254

Arctic stratospheric dehydration - Unprecedented observations and microphysical modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) may form in the lower stratosphere above the winter poles at sufficiently low temperatures. Ice PSCs require the coldest conditions, with temperatures some degrees below the frost point to nucleate ice particles. When the particles grow to sizes large enough to sediment, they may result in dehydration, i.e. irreversible redistribution of water vapor, as it frequently occurs above the Antarctic. Conversely, there are no observations above the Arctic that would have provided clear evidence for vertical redistribution of water vapor. Here we report on unequivocal in situ observations in January 2010 above Sodankylä, Finland, which mesh with vortex-wide satellite measurements. Within the LABPIAT-II field campaign, a series of balloon-borne aerosol backscatter and water vapor measurements has been performed. The balloon payload comprised the backscatter sonde COBALD in combination with the cryogenic frost point hygrometer CFH and the fluorescent Lyman-Alpha stratospheric hygrometer FLASH-B. Together with satellite measurements from the Aura microwave limb sounder MLS and the cloud-aerosol lidar CALIOP, a unique and coherent picture of de- and rehydration in the Arctic vortex will be presented within this paper. An extensive coverage of synoptic scale ice PSCs has been observed by CALIOP and COBALD by mid-January due to exceptionally low temperatures in the Arctic vortex. This observation goes along with a simultaneously measured strong reduction in water vapor by 1.6 ppmv relative to background conditions. Subsequent sedimentation and sublimation of ice particles led to a vertical redistribution of water inside the vortex, which was tracked remotely and could be quantified again by in situ measurements some five days later. By means of a microphysical column model, we are able to connect the individual balloon soundings by trajectories and simulate the formation, evolution and sedimentation of the ice particles. Simulated water vapor profiles are verified by CFH, FLASH-B and MLS measurements. Optical T-Matrix calculations enable us to additionally compare the simulations with COBALD and CALIOP backscatter measurements. We examine the effect of different PSC formation pathways - in particular homogeneous vs. heterogeneous ice formation - and changing temperatures and finally show that synoptic scale ice PSCs and concurrent reduction in water vapor are tightly linked with the observed de- and rehydration signatures.

Engel, Ines; Luo, Beiping P.; Khaykin, Sergey; Wienhold, Frank G.; Vömel, Holger; Kivi, Rigel; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Santee, Michelle L.; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Peter, Thomas

2013-04-01

255

Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts.

Small, Will; Fast, Danya; Krusi, Andrea; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2009-01-01

256

Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ensuring that evidence based medicine reaches patients with diabetes in the US and internationally is challenging. The chronic care model includes evidence based management practices which support evidence based care. However, despite numerous studies, it is unclear which practices are most effective. Few studies assess the effect of simultaneous practices implemented to varying degrees. The present study evaluates the

Anne Frølich; Jim Bellows; Bo Friis Nielsen; Per Bruun Brockhoff; Martin Hefford

2010-01-01

257

Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors in autism: association study of 37 genes suggests involvement of DDC.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors can be considered strong candidates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in neurotransmission, brain maturation and cortical organization, while neurotrophic factors (NTFs) participate in neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and synapses formation. We aimed to test the contribution of these candidate pathways to autism through a case-control association study of genes selected both for their role in central nervous system functions and for pathophysiological evidences. Methods. The study sample consisted of 326 unrelated autistic patients and 350 gender-matched controls from Spain. We genotyped 369 tagSNPs to perform a case-control association study of 37 candidate genes. Results. A significant association was obtained between the DDC gene and autism in the single-marker analysis (rs6592961, P = 0.00047). Haplotype-based analysis pinpointed a four-marker combination in this gene associated with the disorder (rs2329340C-rs2044859T-rs6592961A-rs11761683T, P = 4.988e-05). No significant results were obtained for the remaining genes after applying multiple testing corrections. However, the rs167771 marker in DRD3, associated with ASD in a previous study, displayed a nominal association in our analysis (P = 0.023). Conclusions. Our data suggest that common allelic variants in the DDC gene may be involved in autism susceptibility. PMID:22397633

Toma, Claudio; Hervás, Amaia; Balmaña, Noemí; Salgado, Marta; Maristany, Marta; Vilella, Elisabet; Aguilera, Francisco; Orejuela, Carmen; Cuscó, Ivon; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Diego-Otero, Yolanda de; Guzmán-Alvarez, Guadalupe; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru

2012-03-08

258

Brain areas involved in acupuncture treatment on functional dyspepsia patients: a PET-CT study.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies on brain responses to acupuncture stimulations have received considerable attention recently. The majority of these studies are centered on healthy controls (HC) and neuropathy, while little work has addressed other disorders. This study aimed to investigate the influence of acupuncture stimulations on brain activities in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Eight FD patients and eight healthy controls (HC) were involved in this study. Each HC received an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan at baseline, while each patient received scans at baseline and after acupuncture stimulations. Manual acupuncture stimulations were performed at ST34 (Liangqiu), ST36 (Zusanli), ST40 (Fenglong) and ST42 (Chongyang) in FD patients. The images were analyzed with the Statistical Parametric Mapping software 2.0. Compared to HC, the FD patients showed a lower glycometabolism in the right orbital gyrus, the left caudate tail and the cingulate gyrus, and a higher glycometabolism in the left inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.005). After acupuncture stimulations, the FD patients showed a glycometabolism decrease in the postcentral gyrus and the cerebella, and an increase in the visual-related cortices(p<0.005). The results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortices and the caudate tail involve in processing gastric perceptions in FD patients and that the deactivation of the primary somatosensory area and the cerebella is contributable to acupuncture stimulation, while activation of the visual-related cortex is a response to pain or acupoint actions. PMID:19429123

Zeng, Fang; Song, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Xu-Guang; Xie, Hong-Jun; Tang, Yong; Shan, Bao-Ci; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Shu-Guang; Liang, Fan-Rong

2009-03-28

259

Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter) was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3%) eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%); screening for hypertension (81.8%), diabetes (76.0%) and dyslipidemia (56.9%); and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%); however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively). The main barriers to the provision of these services in current practice were lack of: time (86.1%), coordination with other health care professionals (61.1%), staff or resources (57.2%), financial compensation (50.8%), and clinical tools (45.5%). Conclusions Although community pharmacists think they should play a significant role in health promotion and prevention, they recognize a wide gap between their ideal and actual levels of involvement. The efficient integration of primary-care pharmacists and pharmacies into public health cannot be envisioned without addressing important organizational barriers.

2012-01-01

260

Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb) and non-biological (abstract object) movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes). Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain’s ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions, activations were elicited in cerebral areas involved in visual perception, sensory integration, recognition of movement, re-mapping on the somatosensory and motor cortex, storage in memory, and response control. Results from the congruent vs. incongruent trials revealed greater activity for the former condition than the latter in a network including cingulate cortex, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus that are involved in the go-signal and in decision control. Results on healthy subjects would suggest the appropriateness of an abstract visual feedback provided during motor training. The task contributes to highlight the potential of fMRI in improving the understanding of visual motor processes and may also be useful in detecting brain reorganisation during training.

2012-01-01

261

A model study of factors involved in adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to meat.  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to investigate the factors involved in the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model meat surfaces (tendon slices). Adhesion was fast (less than 2.5 min) and was not suppressed by killing the cells with UV, gamma rays, or heat, indicating that physiological activity was not required. In various salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2), adhesion increased with increasing ionic strength up to 10 to 100 mM, suggesting that, at low ionic strengths, electrostatic interactions were involved in the adhesion process. At higher ionic strengths (greater than 10 to 100 mM) or in the presence of Al3+ ions, adhesion was sharply reduced. Selectively blocking of carboxyl or amino groups at the cell surface by chemical means did not affect adhesion. These groups are therefore not directly involved in an adhesive bond with tendon. Given a sufficient cell concentration (10(10) CFU.ml-1) in the adhesion medium, the surface of tendon was almost entirely covered with adherent bacteria. This suggests that if the adhesion is specific, the attachment sites on the tendon surface must be located within collagen or proteoglycan molecules. Images

Piette, J P; Idziak, E S

1992-01-01

262

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond,

B. G. B. Solheim; M. Pettersson

2002-01-01

263

A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. DATA ANALYSIS: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. RESULTS: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protege initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protege having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. CONCLUSIONS: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protege. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and the mentor. A mentoring relationship is complex and involves the coalescence of both interpersonal and educational aspects of an affiliation. As a professional-socialization tactic, mentoring offers students a way to anticipate the future professional role in a very personal and meaningful way. PMID:15592607

Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

2004-12-01

264

A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students  

PubMed Central

Objective: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. Design and Setting: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Participants: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. Data Analysis: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protégé initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protégé having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. Conclusions: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protégé. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and the mentor. A mentoring relationship is complex and involves the coalescence of both interpersonal and educational aspects of an affiliation. As a professional-socialization tactic, mentoring offers students a way to anticipate the future professional role in a very personal and meaningful way.

Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

2004-01-01

265

Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities  

SciTech Connect

Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

1991-01-01

266

Study on Bridge of Violin by Photoelastic Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress of the bridge of a violin was observed by means of the photoelastic method, and a frequency analysis of the tones of two violins was performed. It was found that the stress of the bridge and the tone of the violin depended on the shape and the tilt of the bridge, the direction of force applied by bowing and so on. In addition, it was demonstrated scientifically that adjustment of the instrument is very important and that players should maintain the instrument properly. The proposed visualization method may be helpful for violin teaching and for practice of bowing skills of amateur violinists.

Matsutani, Akihiro

2002-10-01

267

GPS TEC observation of substorm particle injection: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the signatures of magnetospheric substorms is the dispersionless injection of high en-ergy particles into the ionosphere. Low spatial coverage of ground and satellite instruments has limited observations of how this substorm injection region evolves. Using GPS TEC measure-ments from several GPS receivers, we examined electron injection signatures associated with an October 4, 2008 substorm event and monitored the expansion of the injection region with a higher temporal and spatial resolution than previously available. Along with corresponding dispersionless injection signatures observed in Cluster satellite and ground-based riometer data, we have found TEC signatures associated with the particle injection along 30 separate GPS ray paths from 6 GPS receivers located in the Canadian Arctic. Signature timing on different ray paths from different stations indicates a mainly northward (tailward) expansion of the injection region with a smaller westward (azimuthal) component. By applying a triangulation method, we also calculated propagation velocity of the injection boundary in regions covered by our GPS receivers. Velocities ranged from 0.5 -3 km/s northward and 0.5 -1 km/s westward and tend to decrease in magnitude at higher latitudes. Implications of the results will be discussed.

Watson, Chris; Jayachandran, Thayyil; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Danskin, Donald

268

Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

2012-09-01

269

A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

2011-10-01

270

A further study on the influence exerted by vascular geometry on coronary atherosclerotic involvement.  

PubMed

A further study was carried out on the relationship between coronary artery geometry and atherosclerotic involvement. The results show that: a) the coronary artery geometry may expose an individual at an early age to an increased risk for developing atherosclerotic lesions; b) the presence, in the coronary arterial bed of vessels with large diameters (greater than 2 mm) and the succession of numerous branching points also appeared as atherogenic conditions; c) the type of atherosclerotic lesion (proliferative, insudative, necrotic, lipid-rich) was, in our material strongly influenced by the geometry of branch sites. PMID:3187360

Velican, D; Petrescu, C; Velican, C

271

Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment.

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2012-01-01

272

A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions.

Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

2012-01-01

273

A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

2012-08-29

274

“Minnesota slots”: An observational study of pull tab gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of pull tab gambling in Minnesota was undertaken to describe the state's most popular form of gambling. The study also focused on the detection of any abuses or addictive problems that might be associated with it. Pull tab gambling is similar to slot machine gambling. The game, fundamentals of play, and some of the behaviors of pull tab

Mikal J. Aasved; James M. Schaefer

1995-01-01

275

Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male involvement during childbirth in rural Bangladesh. These findings have important implications for program planners, who should pursue culturally sensitive ways to involve husbands in maternal health interventions and assess the effectiveness of education strategies targeted at husbands.

2012-01-01

276

An ERD mapping study of the neurocognitive processes involved in the perceptual and semantic analysis of environmental sounds and words.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to investigate and compare the EEG mechanisms underlying the perceptual and semantic processes involved in environmental and language sounds perception by manipulating the degree of identification of sounds and using the ERD (event-related desynchronization) method in healthy subjects. Four types of stimuli were analyzed: meaningful environmental sounds, meaningless sounds, words and non-words. We report many similarities in the ERDs and ERSs (event-related synchronizations) patterns among all stimuli, with: (i) similar time-course of ERDs and ERSs between meaningful environmental sounds and words, and between meaningless sounds and non-words; (ii) similar topography of the maximal ERDs for meaningful environmental sounds, words and non-words; and (iii) same right posterior ERSs for all four stimuli. However, differences were also observed: (i) in time-course, with earlier ERSs for meaningless than meaningful stimuli, whether environmental or verbal; and (ii) in topography, with ERDs predominating in left and right hemisphere channels for meaningful and meaningless environmental sounds, respectively; (iii) ERSs predominating in the left temporal channel for non-words and in the left posterior and right frontal channels for meaningless sounds. The results of this study suggest that meaningful stimuli involve greater and longer-lasting semantic processes than meaningless stimuli, while the occurrence of ERSs for the latter points to the possible involvement of an inhibitory processing of semantic representations. Finally, the findings concerning the comparison between verbal and non verbal stimuli suggest the involvement of left-lateralized phonological and semantic processes for the former, and more distributed neurocognitive processes in both hemispheres for the latter although with predominant left laterality for their semantic processing. PMID:11275485

Lebrun, N; Clochon, P; Etévenon, P; Lambert, J; Baron, J C; Eustache, F

2001-04-01

277

Positive facial affect - an FMRI study on the involvement of insula and amygdala.  

PubMed

Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala. PMID:23990890

Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

2013-08-21

278

Positive Facial Affect - An fMRI Study on the Involvement of Insula and Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Imitation of facial expressions engages the putative human mirror neuron system as well as the insula and the amygdala as part of the limbic system. The specific function of the latter two regions during emotional actions is still under debate. The current study investigated brain responses during imitation of positive in comparison to non-emotional facial expressions. Differences in brain activation of the amygdala and insula were additionally examined during observation and execution of facial expressions. Participants imitated, executed and observed happy and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as neutral faces. During imitation, higher right hemispheric activation emerged in the happy compared to the non-emotional condition in the right anterior insula and the right amygdala, in addition to the pre-supplementary motor area, middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that the right insula was more strongly recruited by (i) imitation and execution than by observation of facial expressions, that (ii) the insula was significantly stronger activated by happy than by non-emotional facial expressions during observation and imitation and that (iii) the activation differences in the right amygdala between happy and non-emotional facial expressions were increased during imitation and execution, in comparison to sole observation. We suggest that the insula and the amygdala contribute specifically to the happy emotional connotation of the facial expressions depending on the task. The pattern of the insula activity might reflect increased bodily awareness during active execution compared to passive observation and during visual processing of the happy compared to non-emotional facial expressions. The activation specific for the happy facial expression of the amygdala during motor tasks, but not in the observation condition, might reflect increased autonomic activity or feedback from facial muscles to the amygdala.

Pohl, Anna; Anders, Silke; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

279

An observational study of the formation and evolution of sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the problem of molecules and the horizontal balance of forces in sunspots. Sunspots are quasi-static features on the solar surface and can be considered to be in a state of equilibrium. The weaker gas pressure of the cool sunspot interior is horizontally supported against the higher pressure of the hotter quiet-Sun by a strong vertical magnetic field. However, some sunspots show a rapid increase in magnetic pressure relative to the temperature of the gas in the coolest regions of the sunspot, implying that an isothermal decrease in the gas pressure must have occurred. The current model of sunspots is unable to describe this deviation from the assumed equilibrium state of the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure observed in these sunspots. Another method of altering the pressure of the gas must be occurring. The formation of molecules in sunspots may be the key to solving this puzzle. The sunspot interior provides a cool environment where molecules can form in abundance. As atoms become bound into molecules the total particle number of the gas is decreased. A sufficiently large molecular fraction could significantly alter the properties of the sunspot plasma, and specifically provide a mechanism for concentrating the magnetic field by non-thermally lowering the gas pressure. I have investigated the equilibrium condition of sunspots of different sizes and in a variety of evolutionary phases through a Milne-Eddington inversion of spectropolarimetric observations of the Zeeman-split Fe I lines at 6302 and 15650 A to obtain their thermal and magnetic topology. I carried out a calculation of the detailed radiative transfer and chemical equilibrium of model sunspot atmospheres to determine the molecular gas fraction. Several sunspots show unambiguous cases of isothermal magnetic field intensification, which can only be explained by the formation or destruction of a large molecular population. All sunspots with magnetic fields stronger than 2500 G and temperatures cooler than 5800 K consistently show a signature of magnetic field over-concentration, consistent with molecular hydrogen formation of a few percent of the total gas fraction. The formation of this large molecular population has widespread implications for sunspot physics.

Jaeggli, Sarah A.

280

'Forced-Gamma Emission' Studies Involving Nuclear Isomers Using Fast Neutrons and Bremsstrahlung X Rays  

SciTech Connect

We propose to perform a series of experiments involving nuclear isomers which will investigate the probabilities and mechanisms for de-exciting the isomeric level down to the ground state upon exposure to external radiation in the form of fast neutrons and bremsstrhalung x rays. The isomers have half-lives on the order of 1 hr to 10 days which is a convenient time scale to measure statistically meaningful changes in the specific activities of the isomeric state. Furthermore, the selected isomers are relatively easy to produce in our laboratory in sufficient quantities so that they can be made in a reasonable time frame and without recourse to any exotic means of production, handling or preparation and without the need for high-purity separated isotopes as the feedstock. We believe that studies undertaken in this fashion will produce fundamentally valuable information on the factors which govern and influence 'forced-gamma emission' in nuclear isomers. This type of information will potentially be very useful in similar studies involving longer-lived isomers such as:178m2Hf, 242mAm and 108mAg which have the potential to be used in various emerging new technologies in the later part of the 21st Century.

Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Barkyoumb, J.H.; Abbundi, R.J. [NSWC/Carderock Division, 9500 MacArthur Blvd, W. Bethesda, MD 20817-5700 (United States); Merkel, G. [Army Reserch Lab/Adelphi, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi MD (United States); Carroll, J.J. [Dept. Of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State Univ., Youngstow, Ohio (United States)

2003-08-26

281

Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients  

SciTech Connect

The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

1984-11-01

282

IVF conversion to IUI in poor responders: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of converting an IVF stimulation cycle with poor ovarian response\\u000a to an IUI cycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between January and December 2007, 47 cycles of IVF conversion to IUI were retrospectively studied in 44 infertile women who\\u000a had a low response to ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. Patients’ characteristics, ovarian stimulation, and ovarian response

Thomas Freour; Sophie Dubourdieu; Sophie Mirallie; Marie Laure Langlois; Miguel Jean; Paul Barrière

2010-01-01

283

Constant involvement of the Betz cells and pyramidal tract in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia: a clinicopathological study of eight autopsy cases.  

PubMed

We investigated clinicopathologically pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, Babinski sign, and spasticity, and the involvement of the primary motor cortex and pyramidal tract, in eight Japanese autopsy cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with dementia. Pyramidal signs were observed in seven (88%) of the eight autopsy cases. Hyperreflexia and Babinski sign were evident in seven (88%) and three (38%) patients, respectively, but spasticity was not observed in any of the eight patients. Loss of Betz cells in the primary motor cortex was evident in the seven cases in which this structure was examined. Astrocytosis in the fifth layer of the primary motor cortex was noticed in three cases. In all eight cases, involvement of the pyramidal tract was obvious in the medulla oblongata, but no involvement of the pyramidal tract was found in the midbrain. Involvement of the pyramidal tract in the spinal cord, particularly of large myelinated fibers, was observed in all six cases in which the spinal cord was examined. In ALS with dementia, pyramidal signs were shown to be present more frequently than previously believed, and the clinicopathological correlation between pyramidal signs and involvement of the pyramidal tract was obvious. Constant involvement of Betz cells and the pyramidal tract in ALS with dementia has not been reported. Our clinicopathological findings may make a contribution to the understanding of the clinicopathological hallmarks of this disorder. Furthermore, we believe that this study will also contribute to the elucidation of the nosological status of ALS with dementia. PMID:12172910

Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, K; Mimura, M; Takahashi, M; Miyazaki, H; Anno, M; Shiotsu, H; Akabane, H; Niizato, K; Uchihara, T; Tominaga, I; Nakano, I

2002-07-04

284

Experimental and Observational Data in the Study of Interlanguage Pragmatics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared (1) data on rejections of advice by native and non-native speakers collected from natural conversation with (2) data collected from a discourse completion task (DCT). Subjects were students in an academic advising session (13 native speakers, 11 non-native speakers of English) who responded to a DCT and students (18 native…

Hartford, Beverly S.; Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

1992-01-01

285

Motorcycle Helmet Use in Southern China: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. In China, despite national motorcycle helmet legislation and the known safety benefits of helmets, helmet use remains low. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of motorcycle helmet use and attitudes towards helmet use among drivers and passengers in two cities in Southern China to provide baseline data and scientific evidence for the formulation of an

Gong-li Li; Li-ping Li; Qi-en Cai

2008-01-01

286

Managing Alaska's Information Systems: A Participant-Observer Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes Alaska's state-managed telecommunications system, and details state efforts to increase the value of the state's information system to users within state government and in the private sector. The results of two studies conducted in 1986 at the request of the State Legislature are discussed, i.e., a statewide survey of Alaskan…

Pearson, Larry

287

Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

2008-01-01

288

On the Treatment of Grouped Observations in Life Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cox (Regression models and life tables, J. Roy. Statist. Soc. 34B, 1972) presents a systematic study of the use of covariates in the analysis of life time. Cox's basic model is that of proportional failure rates. A particularly thorny point in theory and ...

W. A. Thompson

1976-01-01

289

Placental Pathology in Patients Using Cocaine: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although retroplacental hemorrhage is a major cause of fetal death, its etiology often remains obscure. In some reports, cocaine use by pregnant women has been associated with retroplacental hemorrhage and clinical abruptio placentae. This study was designed to assess the occurrence of chorionic villus hemorrhage, an entity shown recently to be associated with retroplacental hemorrhage, in the placentas of

Eoghan E. Mooney; Kim A. Boggess; William N. P. Herbert; Lester J. Layfield

1998-01-01

290

Cautionary tales in the interpretation of clinical studies involving older persons.  

PubMed

The care of patients 65 years or older presents a challenge for evidence-based medicine. Such patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, are more vulnerable to treatment-induced harm, and often are unable to fully participate in treatment decisions. We outline several cautionary themes in the interpretation of clinical studies of therapeutic interventions involving older persons as they apply to processes of everyday clinical decision making. In particular, we focus on issues of study design and quality of evidence, choice of outcome measures, missing outcome data, assessment of potential harm, quantifying treatment effects in individual patients (and adjusting these for effect modifiers and reduced life expectancy), eliciting patient values and preferences, prioritizing therapeutic goals and selection of treatments, and assisting patients in adhering to agreed therapeutic regimens. PMID:20386001

Scott, Ian A; Guyatt, Gordon H

2010-04-12

291

A vignette study to examine health care professionals' attitudes towards patient involvement in error prevention.  

PubMed

Background? Various authorities recommend the participation of patients in promoting patient safety, but little is known about health care professionals' (HCPs') attitudes towards patients' involvement in safety-related behaviours. Objective? To investigate how HCPs evaluate patients' behaviours and HCP responses to patient involvement in the behaviour, relative to different aspects of the patient, the involved HCP and the potential error. Design? Cross-sectional fractional factorial survey with seven factors embedded in two error scenarios (missed hand hygiene, medication error). Each survey included two randomized vignettes that described the potential error, a patient's reaction to that error and the HCP response to the patient. Setting? Twelve hospitals in Switzerland. Participants? A total of 1141 HCPs (response rate 45%). Measurements? Approval of patients' behaviour, HCP response to the patient, anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship, HCPs' support for being asked the question, affective response to the vignettes. Outcomes were measured on 7-point scales. Results? Approval of patients' safety-related interventions was generally high and largely affected by patients' behaviour and correct identification of error. Anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship were much less positive, little correlated with approval of patients' behaviour and were mainly determined by the HCP response to intervening patients. HCPs expressed more favourable attitudes towards patients intervening about a medication error than about hand sanitation. Conclusions? This study provides the first insights into predictors of HCPs' attitudes towards patient engagement in safety. Future research is however required to assess the generalizability of the findings into practice before training can be designed to address critical issues. PMID:22639922

Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Davis, Rachel E

2012-05-29

292

Study of parity violating observables in few-nucleon systems  

SciTech Connect

Parity violation in few-nucleon systems is studied using a nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential derived within an effective field theory framework at next-to-next-to-leading order. The potential includes one- and two-pion exchanges, contact interactions and relativistic corrections and depends on six low-energy constants: the pion-nucleon coupling constant h{sup 1}{sub {pi}} and five parameters multiplying the independent contact interaction terms (with one four-gradient). This potential is used to study the {vec p}-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in {vec n}-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the {sup 3}He({vec n},p){sup 3}H reaction.

M. Viviani, A. Baroni, R. Schiavilla, L. Girlanda, A. Kievsky, L. E. Marcucci

2011-12-01

293

Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies.  

PubMed

Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes. PMID:23527905

Brüssow, Harald

2013-03-26

294

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen

2010-01-01

295

Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was 7.60 ± 1.23, which reduced to 0.70 ± 0.92 at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids.

Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti

2013-01-01

296

The impact of consent on observational research: a comparison of outcomes from consenters and non consenters to an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Public health benefits from research often rely on the use of data from personal medical records. When neither patient consent nor anonymisation is possible, the case for accessing such records for research purposes depends on an assessment of the probabilities of public benefit and individual harm. METHODS: In the late 1990s, we carried out an observational study which compared

Una Macleod; Graham CM Watt

2008-01-01

297

Observation of transitions involving core-excited states in Ar III and Ar IV and high-lying singly excited states in Ar I-Ar IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of beam-foil and beam-gas excited spectrum of argon observed in small wavelength region, 2965-3090 Å, using Ar+/2+ ions in the energy range 200-650 keV. The comparison of beam-foil spectrum (BFS) at different incident beam energy and with that of beam-gas spectrum (BGS), one can find solution for blending problem in beam-foil spectroscopy. Many new transitions were identified on the basis of calculated wavelength from the accurately known energy levels of Ar I, Ar II, Ar III and Ar V. The transitions of Ar I originate from highly excited states (10p to 17p and 10f to 17f). Based on TOPbase estimates using close-coupling approximation five transitions involving core-excited states and nine transitions originating from highly excited states in the spectrum of Ar III and Ar IV were also identified. Radiative life time of two core excited quintet states (3s3p4(4P)6d 5D and 3s3p4(4P)8f5Fo) of Ar III were measured and found to be in ‘good’ agreement with that of the calculated value using close-coupling approximation.

Nandi, T.; Mishra, Adya P.; Jagatap, B. N.

2011-12-01

298

Can headache impair intellectual abilities in children? An observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache. Methods The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years) with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls) and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls). The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender. Results No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor analysis data showed that the children with migraine seemed to have lower perceptual organization than the children affected by tension-type headache. Conclusion To our knowledge, studies on cognitive functioning in children affected by headache in the interictal phase are scarce, and our results suggest a new perspective in understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of young patients affected by headaches.

Esposito, Maria; Pascotto, Antonio; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Gritti, Antonella; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

2012-01-01

299

Experimental human influenza: observations from studies of influenza antivirals.  

PubMed

Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted for nearly five decades in experimentally induced human influenza infections to assess the effectiveness, tolerability and pharmacological properties of influenza antivirals. The results of such studies have not only provided key proof-of-concept data to facilitate drug development but also contributed to our understanding of influenza pathogenesis and transmission. The lack of availability of contemporary, safety-tested virus inoculation pools in recent years needs to be resolved in order to avoid hindering the development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:22311616

Hayden, Frederick G

2012-02-03

300

Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

2001-06-01

301

Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them.

Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

2013-01-01

302

Gravity wave propagation studies using the Indian MST radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian MST radar facility at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) has been utilised to study the propagation of gravity waves from the troposphere/lower stratosphere to the mesosphere and their interaction with the radar backscattered signal variations. The main objective is to correlate vertically propagating gravity waves derived from the tropospheric velocity fields with the dynamics of mesospheric scattering centres. The tropospheric wind velocities and signal strengths over the entire height range have been subjected to power spectral and wavelet analysis to determine the predominant wave periods/amplitudes and the coupling between the lower atmosphere and mesosphere. Results show that (a) the gravity waves are clearly detectable near tropopause heights, (b) while relatively higher period gravity waves (20-50 min) interact with mesospheric scattering centres, the lower period waves (<20 min) are absorbed in the troposphere itself, (c) the mesospheric scattering layers are affected by gravity waves of complementary periods.

Chakravarty, S. C.

2012-02-01

303

Weight versus volume in breast surgery: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study hypothesis is to assess correlation of breast specimen weight versus volume. Design Consecutive patients undergoing breast surgery at a single tertiary referral centre during a 6-month period were included. Specimen weight was measured in grams. Direct volume measurements were performed using water displacement. Data including side of the breast, age and menstrual status of the patient were noted. Setting Knowledge of breast volume provides an objective guide in facilitating the achievements of balance in reconstructive operations. Surgeons use intraoperative weight measurements from individual breasts to calculate the breast volume assuming that weight is equal to the volume of the specimen. However, it is unclear whether weight accurately reveals the true volume of resection. Participants Forty-one patients were included in the study with 28 having bilateral surgeries, 13 having unilateral procedures giving a total of 69 breast specimens. Main outcome measures Breast specimen weight correlation to breast specimen volume. Results The mean age of the group was 42.4 years. Fifty-two specimens were from premenopausal patients and 17 were of postmenopausal. Thirty-five were left-sided. Twenty-six patients had bilateral breast reduction, two had bilateral mastectomy, nine had a unilateral mastectomy and four patients had a unilateral breast reduction. The difference between weight and volume of these breasts was 36.4 units (6.6% difference). The difference in measurement of weight and volume in premenopausal was 37.6 units compared to 32.6 units in postmenopausal women. The density was 1.07 and 1.06, respectively. This was statistically not significant. Conclusions No significant difference between volume and weight was seen in this series. Furthermore, we are unable to support the notion that premenopausal patients have a significant difference in the proportion of fatty and glandular tissue as there was little difference between the weight and the volume. An easy, clinically proper formula for the quantification of actual breast volume has yet to be derived.

Parmar, Chetan; West, Malcolm; Pathak, Samir; Nelson, J; Martin, Lee

2011-01-01

304

Study of the effector mechanism involved in the production of haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine in rat passive anaphylaxis.  

PubMed Central

1. The effector mechanism of intestinal necrosis in rat anaphylaxis was studied following several complementary approaches: (i) the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) belonging to different classes (IgG1, IgG2b and IgE anti-DNP), (ii) the assay of mediators, and (iii) the use of pharmacological tools. 2. Lethality and haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine were observed in IgE-sensitized rats, whereas IgG mAb produced milder physiological disturbances. 3. Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis reduced the drop of systemic blood pressure (BP) and the extent of protein-rich plasma exudation but it did not influence the haemorrhagic component of intestinal necrosis. 4. The antihistamine, pyrilamine, partially diminished the haemorrhagic component of the intestinal necrosis. 5. The involvement of mediators related to platelet-activating factor (PAF) was studied by examining the pharmacological effects of these autacoids and of PAF-receptor antagonists (PCA4248, UR12460 and BB823). PAF induced intestinal lesions similar to those observed in IgE-sensitized rats and PAF-receptor antagonists markedly decreased haemorrhage in IgE-sensitized rats. 6. PAF levels were transiently increased after dinitrophenol (DNP)- bovine serum albumin (BSA) challenge in the small intestine of IgE-sensitized rats. 7. These data stress differences in the outcome of anaphylaxis related to the type of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins that are involved. IgE is the antibody class that elicits the most severe response due to the activation of mast cells via Fc epsilon RI (surface receptors that bind IgE antibodies with high affinity), and the only one able to produce intestinal haemorrhagic necrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pellon, M. I.; Steil, A. A.; Furio, V.; Sanchez Crespo, M.

1994-01-01

305

Observational and modeling studies of aerosol indirect effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of aerosols on climate have drawn a great deal of research attention. Aerosols scatter and absorb both solar radiation and terrestrial thermal emission (i.e., aerosol direct effect). Additionally, aerosols indirectly influence climate by affecting cloud properties and precipitation. This study investigates the potential connections between aerosols and cloud properties through statistical analysis of satellite remote sensing data and numerical modeling. Empirical orthogonal function analysis and regression analysis are used to identify the leading modes of variability and to identify relationships between different variables. The datasets used include MODIS Aqua aerosol and cloud products, TOMS OMI aerosol index, and TRMM precipitation rate data. Moreover, numerical simulations are carried out with the latest version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5), which includes parameterizations for aerosol-cloud indirect effects. The results of the present analysis show that signals corresponding to the first and second aerosol indirect effects found in the statistical analysis and the model output are similar in several regions. Several other areas, however, show no or even contradictory correlations between aerosol and cloud properties (precipitation). Errors in satellite data and uncertainties in the model (such as the use of simple physical parameterizations instead of an actual aerosol indirect mechanism) could be among the reasons for the differences in the results.

Yi, B.; Yang, P.; Bowman, K. P.

2010-12-01

306

Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future research conducted within the MRC Clinical Trials Unit and beyond.

2012-01-01

307

DFT study of quercetin activated forms involved in antiradical, antioxidant, and prooxidant biological processes.  

PubMed

Quercetin, one of the most representative flavonoid compounds, is involved in antiradical, antioxidant, and prooxidant biological processes. Despite a constant increase of knowledge on both positive and negative activities of quercetin, it is unclear which activated form (quinone, semiquinone, or deprotonated) actually plays a role in each of these processes. Structural, electronic, and energetic characteristics of quercetin, as well as the influence of a copper ion on all of these parameters, are studied by means of quantum chemical electronic structure calculations. Introduction of thermodynamic cycles together with the role of coreactive compounds, such as reactive oxygen species, gives a glimpse of the most probable reaction schemes. Such a theoretical approach provides another hint to clarify which reaction is likely to occur within the broad range of quercetin biological activities. PMID:17263492

Fiorucci, Sébastien; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Cabrol-Bass, Daniel; Antonczak, Serge

2007-02-01

308

A comparison study of adults with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder with and without forensic involvement.  

PubMed

The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline to mild IQ and psychotic disorder was more common. Forensic patients were also more likely to have previously used drugs or alcohol. Forensic inpatients had significantly longer lengths of stay, and were more likely to change residence from admission to discharge than the non-forensic inpatients but the GAF scores did not differ between the two groups at admission or discharge. Although there are many similarities between the two groups, there are also some important differences that exist which should be considered in the design of inpatient and outpatient mental health and intellectual disability services. PMID:19854026

Raina, P; Lunsky, Y

2009-10-23

309

Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4

Puigbo, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. Garcia; Suarez, J. A.; Yepez, C. Gil

1966-01-01

310

Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure.

Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

2013-01-01

311

Studies on Cu(II) ternary complexes involving an aminopenicillin drug and imidazole containing ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibrium studies on the ternary complex systems involving ampicillin (amp) as ligand (A) and imidazole containing ligands viz., imidazole (Him), benzimidazole (Hbim), histamine (Hist) and histidine (His) as ligands (B) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4) show the presence of CuABH, CuAB and CuAB 2. The proton in the CuABH species is attached to ligand A. In the ternary complexes the ligand, amp(A) binds the metal ion via amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atom. The CuAB (B = Hist/His)/CuAB 2 (B = Him/Hbim) species have also been isolated and the analytical data confirmed its formation. Non-electrolytic behavior and monomeric type of chelates have been assessed from their low conductance and magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and vibrational spectral results were interpreted to find the mode of binding of ligands to metal and geometry of the complexes. This is also supported by the g tensor values calculated from ESR spectra. The thermal behaviour of complexes were studied by TGA/DTA. The redox behavior of the complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage study of the complexes show higher activity for ternary complexes.

Regupathy, Sthanumoorthy; Nair, Madhavan Sivasankaran

2010-02-01

312

The involvement of amino Acid side chains in shielding the nickel coordination site: an NMR study.  

PubMed

Coordination of proteins and peptides to metal ions is known to affect their properties, often by a change in their structural organization. Side chains of the residues directly involved in metal binding or very close to the coordination centre may arrange themselves around it, in such a way that they can, for instance, disrupt the protein functions or stabilize a metal complex by shielding it from the attack of water or other small molecules. The conformation of these side chains may be crucial to different biological or toxic processes. In our research we have encountered such behaviour in several cases, leading to interesting results for our purposes. Here we give an overview on the structural changes involving peptide side chains induced by Ni(II) coordination. In this paper we deal with a number of peptides, deriving from proteins containing one or more metal coordinating sites, which have been studied through a series of NMR experiments in their structural changes caused by Ni(II) complexation. Several peptides have been included in the study: short sequences from serum albumin (HSA), Des-Angiotensinogen, the 30-amino acid tail of histone H4, some fragments from histone H2A and H2B, the initial fragment of human protamine HP2 and selected fragments from prion and Cap43 proteins. NMR was the election technique for gathering structural information. Experiments performed for this purpose included 1D 1H and 13C, and 2D HSQC, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY and ROESY acquisitions, which allowed the calculation of the Ni(II) complexes structural models. PMID:24108401

Medici, Serenella; Peana, Massimiliano; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta

2013-10-08

313

Functional study on TRPV1-mediated signalling in the mouse small intestine: involvement of tachykinin receptors.  

PubMed

Afferent nerves in the gut not only signal to the central nervous system but also provide a local efferent-like effect. This effect can modulate intestinal motility and secretion and is postulated to involve the transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). By using selective TRPV1 agonist and antagonists, we studied the efferent-like effect of afferent nerves in the isolated mouse jejunum. Mouse jejunal muscle strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. Jejunal strips contracted to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Contractions to capsaicin showed rapid tachyphylaxis and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, atropine or L-nitroarginine. Capsaicin did not affect contractions to electrical stimulation of enteric motor nerves and carbachol. Tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor blockade by RP67580, nepadutant plus SR-142801 reduced contractions to capsaicin to a similar degree as contractions to substance P. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, SB-366791, iodo-resiniferatoxin (iodo-RTX) and N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC) was studied. Capsazepine inhibited contractions not only to capsaicin but also those to carbachol. SB-366791 reduced contractions both to capsaicin and carbachol. Iodo-RTX partially inhibited the contractions to capsaicin without affecting contractions to carbachol. BCTC concentration-dependently inhibited and at the highest concentration used, abolished the contractions to capsaicin without affecting those to carbachol. From these results, we conclude that activation of TRPV1 in the mouse intestine induces a contraction that is mediated by tachykinins most likely released from afferent nerves. The TRPV1-mediated contraction does not involve activation of intrinsic enteric motor nerves. Of the TRPV1 antagonists tested, BCTC combined strong TRPV1 antagonism with TRPV1 selectivity. PMID:18194153

de Man, J G; Boeckx, S; Anguille, S; de Winter, B Y; de Schepper, H U; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

2008-01-13

314

Statin use and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that statins' may decrease the risk of cancers. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. We, therefore, examined the association between statin use and risk of breast cancer by conducting a detailed meta-analysis of all observational studies published regarding this subject. PubMed database and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to January 2012, investigating the relationship between statin use and breast cancer. Before meta-analysis, the studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Combined relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed. A total of 24 (13 cohort and 11 case-control) studies involving more than 2.4 million participants, including 76,759 breast cancer cases contributed to this analysis. We found no evidence of publication bias and evidence of heterogeneity among the studies. Statin use and long-term statin use did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (RR = 0.99, 95 % CI = 0.94, 1.04 and RR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 0.96, 1.11, respectively). When the analysis was stratified into subgroups, there was no evidence that study design substantially influenced the effect estimate. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of our results. Cumulative meta-analysis showed a change in trend of reporting risk of breast cancer from positive to negative in statin users between 1993 and 2011. Our meta-analysis findings do not support the hypothesis that statins' have a protective effect against breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future. PMID:22806241

Undela, Krishna; Srikanth, Vallakatla; Bansal, Dipika

2012-07-18

315

A Generalized Model to Estimate the Statistical Power in Mitochondrial Disease Studies Involving 2xk Tables  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation (i.e. haplogroups) has been analyzed in regards to a number of multifactorial diseases. The statistical power of a case-control study determines the a priori probability to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity between cases and controls. Methods/Principal Findings We critically review previous approaches to the estimation of the statistical power based on the restricted scenario where the number of cases equals the number of controls, and propose a methodology that broadens procedures to more general situations. We developed statistical procedures that consider different disease scenarios, variable sample sizes in cases and controls, and variable number of haplogroups and effect sizes. The results indicate that the statistical power of a particular study can improve substantially by increasing the number of controls with respect to cases. In the opposite direction, the power decreases substantially when testing a growing number of haplogroups. We developed mitPower (http://bioinformatics.cesga.es/mitpower/), a web-based interface that implements the new statistical procedures and allows for the computation of the a priori statistical power in variable scenarios of case-control study designs, or e.g. the number of controls needed to reach fixed effect sizes. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides with statistical procedures for the computation of statistical power in common as well as complex case-control study designs involving 2×k tables, with special application (but not exclusive) to mtDNA studies. In order to reach a wide range of researchers, we also provide a friendly web-based tool – mitPower – that can be used in both retrospective and prospective case-control disease studies.

Amigo, Jorge; Gonzalez-Manteiga, Wenceslao

2013-01-01

316

Sharing decisions in consultations involving anti-psychotic medication: a qualitative study of psychiatrists' experiences.  

PubMed

In psychiatry, and in treating people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in particular, there are obstacles to achieving concordant, shared decision making and in building a co-operative therapeutic alliance where mutual honesty is the norm. Studies of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have revealed critical views of medical authority, particularly over the issue of enforced compliance with antipsychotic medication. Psychiatrists are known to place particular value on such medication. This qualitative study reports the views of 21 general adult psychiatrists working in UK about their experiences of consultations involving discussion of antipsychotic medication. Interviewees reported a general commitment to achieving concordant relationships with patients and described a number of strategies they used to promote this. In this respect, their self-perception differs from the picture of authoritarian practice painted by critics of psychiatry, and by some studies reporting patients' views. Interviewees also described obstacles to achieving concordance, including adverse judgements of patients' competence and honesty about their medication use. Explaining the adverse effects of medication was perceived to discourage some patients from accepting this treatment. Moments of strategic dishonesty were reported. Psychiatrists perceived that trust could be damaged by episodes of coercion, or by patients' perception of coercive powers. We conclude that a self-perception of patient-centredness may not preclude psychiatrists from fulfilling a social control function. PMID:16343722

Seale, Clive; Chaplin, Robert; Lelliott, Paul; Quirk, Alan

2005-12-15

317

Serotonergic involvement in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity: a detailed pharmacological study.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) increases locomotor activity may be attributable to indirect activation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In the present study, the ability of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists WAY100635, GR127935, M100907 and SB242084, and the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists WAY163909 and Ro 60-0175 or the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to alter METH-induced hyperactivity was analysed. Further, for comparative purposes, the involvement of the DA D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists SCH23390 and haloperidol, D(2) partial agonists terguride, (-)3PPP and aripiprazole and finally clozapine were assessed. Doses of pCPA that attenuated 5-HT levels reduced METH activity. The 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR127935 had no effect on METH-induced locomotor activity but blocked that induced by MDMA. The 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY100635 reduced activity but this did not reach significance. In contrast, M100907 (minimal effective dose; MED=0.125 mg/kg), WAY163909 (MED=3mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (MED=3mg/kg), haloperidol (MED=0.1mg/kg), clozapine (MED=5mg/kg), aripiprazole (MED=1mg/kg), (-)3PPP (MED=3mg/kg), terguride (MED=0.2mg/kg) and SCH23390 (MED=0.001325 mg/kg) attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity. Administration of 20mg/kg fluvoxamine attenuated, while SB242084 (MED=0.25mg/kg) potentiated METH-induced activity. These results contribute significantly to the understanding of the mechanism of action of this psychostimulant and suggest for the first time, that METH-induced locomotor stimulation is modulated by 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, but demonstrate that 5-HT(1B) receptors are not directly involved. The involvement of the dopaminergic system was also demonstrated. PMID:21262272

Steed, Emily; Jones, Caitlin A; McCreary, Andrew C

2011-01-22

318

Adverse drug reactions in older patients: an Italian observational prospective hospital study  

PubMed Central

Background In adults over 65 years of age, the frequency of adverse drug reaction (ADRs) related hospital admissions is higher than in younger adults, and the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay highly ranges. The review was designed to evaluate the frequency of ADRs, both resulting in hospital admission and occurring during the hospital stay of older patients, while identifying the types of reactions and the associated drugs. Methods Age, sex, date, and diagnosis of admission of all patients aged 65 and over admitted in three geriatric wards of University Hospital of Verona, Italy, from February to July 2009 were registered by nurses on a special form. In the specific cases of admissions caused by an ADR as well as in the cases of an ADR occurring during the hospital stay, the type of reactions and the suspected drugs were also registered by nurses and physicians involved in the study. Results During the six months of the study, 1023 patients matched the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. One hundred fourteen hospital admissions (11.1%) were caused by ADRs, while 256 patients (25.0%) had an ADR during their hospital stay. The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients who developed an ADR during their time in hospital, 18.7 (95% CI: 17.2–20.1) days versus 12.6 (95% CI: 11.9–13.3) days. Electrolyte disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, anemia, and International Normalized Ratio increase were the more frequent observed ADRs, with diuretics, antithrombotic agents, and antibacterials as the main involved drugs. Our study confirms that ADRs are an important cause of hospitalization in older patients. In addition, the frequency of ADRs occurring during hospital stay is high and causes prolonged hospitalization.

Conforti, Anita; Costantini, Davide; Zanetti, Francesca; Moretti, Ugo; Grezzana, Matteo; Leone, Roberto

2012-01-01

319

Birth weight of offspring and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To investigate the association between birth weight of offspring and mortality among fathers and mothers in the west of Scotland.Design: Prospective observational study.Participants: 794 married couples in Renfrew district of the west of Scotland.Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease over 15 year follow up.Results: Women who had heavier babies were taller, had higher body

George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; Catherine Ferrell; Mark Upton; David Hole; Victor Hawthorne; Graham Watt

1997-01-01

320

Selecting Observational Studies for Comparing Medical Interventions. Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While systematic reviewers disagree about the role of observational studies in answering questions about the benefits or intended effects of interventions, there is widespread agreement that observational studies, particularly those derived from large cli...

D. Atkins E. Johnson G. Randhawa M. Oremus M. Ospina R. Kane S. Fox S. Norris S. C. Morton W. Bruening

2010-01-01

321

Being involved in an everlasting fight--a life with postnatal faecal incontinence. A qualitative study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of women suffering from faecal incontinence as a complication to childbirth has been estimated to 0.6-6%. The aim of this study was to elucidate the life situation and the psychosocial processes of women suffering from this injury and to find out how they cope with being in that situation. Nine women were strategically and consecutively selected from a surgery outpatient department at a hospital, to be the participants of this study. Data collection and analysis were made according to the grounded theory approach. In the analysis a core category Being involved in an everlasting fight was identified. Three main categories Fighting to be like others, Fighting against attitudes and Striving for confirmation with six sub categories depict the constant struggle to not only keep up an appearance of a normal, healthy person, but also to feel like one. The women described feelings of shame and marginalization and expressed a strong need of support and confirmation from husbands and private network in order to cope better with their lives. Conclusions and clinical implications: Health care professionals must inform women at risk about the effects of the injury and inform them about treatment in case of future problems in order to prevent physical, psychological and social suffering. They should also, as a routine, question the patients with regard to problems with incontinence of urine, faeces and flatulence. PMID:19824947

Rasmussen, Johanne Lind; Ringsberg, Karin C

2009-10-11

322

In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation  

PubMed Central

Manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria play an integral role in the cycling of Mn as well as other metals and organics. Prior work with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria suggested that Mn(II) oxidation involves a multicopper oxidase, but whether this enzyme directly catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation is unknown. For a clearer understanding of Mn(II) oxidation, we have undertaken biochemical studies in the model marine ?-proteobacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain SD21. The optimum pH for Mn(II)-oxidizing activity was 8.0 with a specific activity of 2.5 nmol × min?1 × mg?1 and a Km = 204 µM. The activity was soluble suggesting a cytoplasmic or periplasmic protein. Mn(III) was an intermediate in the oxidation of Mn(II) and likely the primary product of enzymatic oxidation. The activity was stimulated by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), NAD+, and calcium but not by copper. In addition, PQQ rescued Pseudomonas putida MnB1 non Mn(II)-oxidizing mutants with insertions in the anthranilate synthase gene. The substrate and product of anthranilate synthase are intermediates in various quinone biosyntheses. Partially purified Mn(II) oxidase was enriched in quinones and had a UV/VIS absorption spectrum similar to a known quinone requiring enzyme but not to multicopper oxidases. These studies suggest that quinones may play an integral role in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation.

Johnson, Hope A.; Tebo, Bradley M.

2009-01-01

323

Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study  

PubMed Central

Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use) study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ?3?months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes.

2012-01-01

324

An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

2010-01-01

325

A survey study: how does involvement differ across products in an e-commerce site?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although involvement may affect consumer behavior differently depending on the nature of products, it has been examined mostly for a limited number of products and its enduring effect for any specific product has been overlooked. Given this, we have investigated the impact of product line-ups on involvement in an electronic commerce setting. A total of 205 participants were asked to

Hyunsook Lee; Joasang Limb

326

"You Have the Right to Remain Silent." Two Case Studies in Forensic Linguistics Involving Spanish Speaking Suspects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two case studies involving possible violations of the rights of Spanish speaking criminal suspects are presented. In cases where suspects do not understand English, the Miranda warnings regarding the right to remain silent must be delivered in their native language and in a way that is understandable to the suspects. In the two cases involving

Perissinotto, Giorgio

327

A comprehensive study of the crystallization mechanism involved in the nonaqueous formation of tungstite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed study on the nonaqueous synthesis of tungstite nanostructures with the focus on crystallization processes and the evolution of particle morphology. Time-dependent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a complex, particle-based crystallization mechanism involving first the formation of spherical and single-crystalline primary particles of 2-8 nm, which are cross-linked to large and unordered agglomerates, followed by their organization into rod-like structures of 40 × 200-400 nm. These rods undergo an internal ordering process, during which crystallographically oriented stacks of platelets develop. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments confirm this pathway of particle formation. The scattering intensity is dominated by the fast formation of rod-like particles, which cause an inter-platelet peak in the SAXS pattern with ongoing internal ordering. With continuous reaction time, the platelet stacks start to fall apart forming shorter assemblies of just a few platelets or even single platelets.We present a detailed study on the nonaqueous synthesis of tungstite nanostructures with the focus on crystallization processes and the evolution of particle morphology. Time-dependent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a complex, particle-based crystallization mechanism involving first the formation of spherical and single-crystalline primary particles of 2-8 nm, which are cross-linked to large and unordered agglomerates, followed by their organization into rod-like structures of 40 × 200-400 nm. These rods undergo an internal ordering process, during which crystallographically oriented stacks of platelets develop. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments confirm this pathway of particle formation. The scattering intensity is dominated by the fast formation of rod-like particles, which cause an inter-platelet peak in the SAXS pattern with ongoing internal ordering. With continuous reaction time, the platelet stacks start to fall apart forming shorter assemblies of just a few platelets or even single platelets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02020g

Olliges-Stadler, Inga; Rossell, Marta D.; Süess, Martin J.; Ludi, Bettina; Bunk, Oliver; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Birkedal, Henrik; Niederberger, Markus

2013-08-01

328

Genes Involved in Systemic and Arterial Bed Dependent Atherosclerosis - Tampere Vascular Study  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with hundreds of genes influencing its progression. In addition, the phenotype of the disease varies significantly depending on the arterial bed. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the genes generally involved in human advanced atherosclerotic (AHA type V–VI) plaques in carotid and femoral arteries as well as aortas from 24 subjects of Tampere Vascular study and compared the results to non-atherosclerotic internal thoracic arteries (n=6) using genome-wide expression array and QRT-PCR. In addition we determined genes that were typical for each arterial plaque studied. To gain a comprehensive insight into the pathologic processes in the plaques we also analyzed pathways and gene sets dysregulated in this disease using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). According to the selection criteria used (>3.0 fold change and p-value <0.05), 235 genes were up-regulated and 68 genes down-regulated in the carotid plaques, 242 genes up-regulated and 116 down-regulated in the femoral plaques and 256 genes up-regulated and 49 genes down-regulated in the aortic plaques. Nine genes were found to be specifically induced predominantly in aortic plaques, e.g., lactoferrin, and three genes in femoral plaques, e.g., chondroadherin, whereas no gene was found to be specific for carotid plaques. In pathway analysis, a total of 28 pathways or gene sets were found to be significantly dysregulated in atherosclerotic plaques (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.25). Conclusions This study describes comprehensively the gene expression changes that generally prevail in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, site specific genes induced only in femoral or aortic plaques were found, reflecting that atherosclerotic process has unique features in different vascular beds.

Airla, Nina; Zeitlin, Rainer; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Jarvinen, Otso; Venermo, Maarit; Partio, Teemu; Saarinen, Jukka; Somppi, Taija; Suominen, VeliPekka; Virkkunen, Jyrki; Hautalahti, Juha; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kahonen, Mika; Mennander, Ari; Kytomaki, Leena; Soini, Juhani T.; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Pelto-Huikko, Markku; Lehtimaki, Terho

2012-01-01

329

Provision of preventive health care in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from a large observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cancer and infections are leading causes of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after diseases of the circulatory system, and therefore preventing these complications is important. In this study, we examined two categories of preventive services in SLE: cancer surveillance (cervical, breast, and colon) and immunizations (influenza and pneumococcal). We compared the receipt of these services in SLE to the general population, and identified subgroups of patients who were less likely to receive these services. Methods We compared preventive services reported by insured women with SLE enrolled in the University of California, San Francisco Lupus Outcomes Study (n = 685) to two representative samples derived from a statewide health interview survey, a general population sample (n = 18,013) and a sample with non-rheumatic chronic conditions (n = 4,515). In addition, using data from the cohort in both men and women (n = 742), we applied multivariate regression analyses to determine whether characteristics of individuals (for example, sociodemographic and disease factors), health systems (for example, number of visits, involvement of generalists or rheumatologists in care, type of health insurance) or neighborhoods (neighborhood poverty) influenced the receipt of services. Results The receipt of preventive care in SLE was similar to both comparison samples. For cancer surveillance, 70% of eligible respondents reported receipt of cervical cancer screening and mammography, and 62% reported colon cancer screening. For immunizations, 59% of eligible respondents reported influenza immunization, and 60% reported pneumococcal immunization. In multivariate regression analyses, several factors were associated with a lower likelihood of receiving preventive services, including younger age and lower educational attainment. We did not observe any effects by neighborhood poverty. A higher number of physician visits and involvement of generalist providers in care was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving most services. Conclusions Although receipt of cancer screening procedures and immunizations in our cohort was comparable to the general population, we observed significant variability by sociodemographic factors such as age and educational attainment. Further research is needed to identify the physician, patient or health system factors contributing to this observed variation in order to develop effective quality improvement interventions.

2010-01-01

330

Secondary initiation of multiple bands of cumulonimbus over southern Britain. I: An observational case-study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special observing facilities have been assembled in southern England as part of the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) to study the mesoscale and convective-scale processes that determine precisely where warm-season convective showers will break out. This paper reports the results of a case-study during the pilot field campaign of CSIP in July 2004. One purpose of the pilot project was to demonstrate the value of various observational facilities and to evaluate the usefulness of a variety of analysis and synthesis techniques. Amongst other things, the case-study demonstrates the utility of high-resolution imagery from the Meteosat Second Generation satellite for tracking the early stages of the convective clouds, and of a new clear-air scanning radar at Chilbolton for mapping both the top of the boundary layer and the initial growth of the convective cells that penetrate it. The particular event studied involved the triggering of convection that developed into three parallel arcs of showers and thunderstorms. The first arc was triggered along the leading edge of the outflow (density current) from an earlier cluster of showers, but the convection in the second and third arcs was triggered by a different mechanism. The paper describes in detail the way in which this convection broke through the stable layer, or lid, at the top of a boundary layer of variable depth. The strength of the lid decreased and the depth of the boundary layer increased with time as a result of diurnal heating, but the precise locations where convection finally broke through were determined by the spatial variability in boundary-layer depth. The analysis suggests that a wave-like modulation of the boundary-layer depth of amplitude 150 m, perhaps due to a gravity-wave disturbance from the earlier cluster of showers, had a greater influence on where the convection was triggered than the modest hills (typically 200 m high) in southern England.

Morcrette, C. J.; Browning, K. A.; Blyth, A. M.; Bozier, K. E.; Clark, P. A.; Ladd, D.; Norton, E. G.; Pavelin, E.

2006-04-01

331

Genetic and environmental influences on human dental variation: A critical evaluation of studies involving twins?  

PubMed Central

Utilising data derived from twins and their families, different approaches can be applied to study genetic and environmental influences on human dental variation. The different methods have advantages and limitations and special features of the twinning process are important to consider. Model-fitting approaches have shown that different combinations of additive genetic variance (A), non-additive genetic variance (D), common environmental variance (C), and unique environmental variance (E) contribute to phenotypic variation within the dentition, reflecting different ontogenetic and phylogenetic influences. Epigenetic factors are also proposed as important in explaining differences in the dentitions of monozygotic co-twins. Heritability estimates are high for most tooth size variables, for Carabelli trait and for dental arch dimensions, moderate for intercuspal distances, and low for some occlusal traits. In addition to estimating the contributions of unmeasured genetic and environmental influences to phenotypic variation, structural equation models can also be used to test the effects of measured genetic and environmental factors. Whole-genome linkage analysis, association analysis of putative candidate genes, and whole genome association approaches, now offer exciting opportunities to locate key genes involved in human dental development.

Townsend, Grant; Hughes, Toby; Luciano, Michelle; Bockmann, Michelle; Brook, Alan

2009-01-01

332

Transcriptomic study for screening genes involved in the oxidative bioconversions of Streptomyces avermitilis.  

PubMed

Streptomyces avermitilis is a well known organism producing avermectin antibiotics, and has been utilized as an industrial host for oxidation bioconversion processes. Recently, gene screening strategies related to bioconversions have received much focus, as attempts are made to optimize oxidation and biodegradation pathways to maximize yield and productivity. Here, we have demonstrated the oxidative metabolisms of three molecules, daidzein, p-coumaric acid and mevastatin, where S. avermitilis converted each substrate to 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone, caffeic acid and hydroxyl-mevastatin to yield 9.3, 32.5 and 15.0 %, respectively. Microarray technology was exploited to investigate genome-wide analysis of gene expression changes, which were induced upon the addition of each substrate. Cytochrome P450 hydroxylases (pteC, cyp28 and olmB), diooxygenases (xylE, cdo1 and putatives) and LuxAB-like oxygenase were identified. One of them, cyp28, was indeed a gene encoding P450 hydroxylase responsible for the oxidative reaction of daidzein. Furthermore, possible electron transfer chain (fdrC ? pteE ? pteC) supporting cytochrome P450 dependent hydroxylation of daidzein has been suggested based on the interpretation of expression profiles. The result provided a potential application of transcriptomic study on uncovering enzymes involved in oxidative bioconversions of S. avermitilis. PMID:23474968

Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Kwon-Young; Jung, Da-Hye; Jung, Joon-Young; Jung, Eunok; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-03-09

333

Involvement of the medial pallidum in focal myoclonic dystonia: A clinical and neurophysiological case study.  

PubMed

We successfully treated a patient with familial myoclonic dystonia (FMD), which primarily affected his neck muscles, with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the medial pallidum, and investigated the role of the medial pallidum in FMD. A patient with FMD underwent bilateral implantation of DBS electrodes during which field potentials (FPs) in the medial pallidum and electromyograms (EMGs) from the affected neck muscles were recorded. The effects of high-frequency DBS to the medial pallidum on the FMD were also assessed by recording EMGs during and immediately after implantation, as well as 6 days and 8 weeks postoperatively. During spontaneous myoclonic episodes, increased FPs oscillating at 4 and 8 Hz were recorded from the medial pallidum; these correlated strongly with phasic EMG activity at the same frequencies in the contralateral affected muscles. The EMG activity was suppressed by stimulating the contralateral medial pallidum at 100 Hz during the operation and continuous bilateral DBS from an implanted stimulator abolished myoclonic activity even more effectively postoperatively. The phasic pallidal activity correlated with and led the myoclonic muscle activity, and the myoclonus was suppressed by bilateral pallidal DBS, suggesting that the medial pallidum was involved in the generation of the myoclonic activity. High-frequency DBS may suppress the myoclonus by desynchronising abnormal pallidal oscillations. This case study has significant clinical implications, because at present, there is no effective treatment for focal myoclonic dystonia. PMID:11921122

Liu, Xuguang; Griffin, Ivan C; Parkin, Simon G; Miall, R Christopher; Rowe, Jeremy G; Gregory, Ralph P; Scott, Richard B; Aziz, Tipu Z; Stein, John F

2002-03-01

334

[Heart involvement in anorexia nervosa: an electrocardiographic, functional and morphological study].  

PubMed

Mental anorexia (MA) is the most frequent condition of malnutrition in industrialized countries. Sudden death in MA is not infrequent. Furthermore, the role of nutritional state as an important determinant of myocardial function is known. Cardiovascular function was studied in 9 patients with MA. Blood electrolytes and thyroid function were assessed, basal and dynamic ECG, chest roentgenogram, M-mode echocardiography, ergometric test, cardiac output measurement and, in two cases, magnetic nuclear resonance (MNR) were performed. Our data confirm the ECG changes which were preeminent in the clinical context, as predictors of possible major, life-threatening arrhythmic events. The correct QT interval was normal in all patients. In 4 cases with heart rate less than 40 b/min, Holter ECG showed ventricular and atrial extrasystolic beats. In one case S-A blocks with idioventricular substitutive beats were recorded; the normal performance under maximal strain stands for a normal functional reserve. Blood electrolytes were in the normal range. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be considered as a cocausal factor by means of autonomic nervous system modulations. Echocardiography revealed only a mild reduction of ventricular wall thickness. Scattered degenerative myocardial involvement as shown by MNR imaging, could be the anatomical counterpart of a clinically emerging cardiomyopathy with potentially severe arrhythmias. PMID:1747325

Campanini, M; Cusinato, S; Airoldi, G; Dugnani, M; Bordin, G; Dellavesa, P; Monteverde, A

335

Does the antimigraine action of flunarizine involve the dopaminergic system? A clinical-neuroendocrinological study.  

PubMed

We have investigated the prolactin response to bromocriptine (BRC), a D2 dopamine receptor agonist in migrainous women before and after treatment with flunarizine. We evaluated whether this test was predictive of therapeutic efficacy of flunarizine treatment and whether the therapeutic response to flunarizine treatment was related to its effect on dopaminergic system at tuberoinfundibular level. Ten migrainous women underwent a BRC test in the late follicular phase before and after 1 and 3 months of treatment with flunarizine 10 mg at bedtime. Blood samples of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone were taken at basal condition. PRL was also evaluated 1 and 2 h after BRC (2.5 mg) administration. Each patient kept a daily headache diary for 1 month prior to the test and throughout the study. The level of PRL inhibition after BRC administration, observed before flunarizine treatment, was not predictive of the therapeutic response observed after 1 and 3 months of treatment. The effect of flunarizine on PRL level was not related to the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. These data suggest that flunarizine does not attenuate the activity of dopaminergic neurons in migrainous patients, and that the antimigraine effect of flunarizine does not seem related to its action on dopaminergic system at least at tuberoinfundibular level. PMID:10099857

Cupini, L M; Troisi, E; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Silvestrini, M; Argiro, G; Bernardi, G

1999-01-01

336

Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance.

Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, Joao Claudio Goncalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Monica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

2010-01-01

337

A prospective cohort study on minor accidents involving commuter cyclists in Belgium.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to gain insight into bicycle accidents. Bicycle accident data and weekly exposure data were prospectively collected for one year to calculate the incidence rate (IR) of bicycle accidents. An accident was included if it occurred during utilitarian cycling, resulting in an acute injury with corporal damage. If an accident occurred, a detailed questionnaire was filled out to collect detailed information about its circumstances and consequences. A sample of 1087 regular (?2 cycling trips to work a week) adult (40±10 years) cyclists was analyzed. Over the 1-year follow-up period, 20,107 weeks were covered, accumulating 1,474,978 cycled kilometers. Sixty-two participants were involved in 70 bicycle accidents, of which 68 were classified as 'minor'. The overall IR for the 70 accidents was 0.324 per 1000 trips (95% CI 0.248-0.400), 0.896 per 1000 h (95% CI 0.686-1.106) and 0.047 per 1000 km (95% CI 0.036-0.059) of exposure. Brussels-capital region is the region with the highest IR (0.086; 95% CI 0.054-0.118), with a significantly (P<0.05) higher IR compared to Flanders (0.037; 95% CI 0.025-0.050). Injuries were mainly caused by 'slipping' (35%) or 'collision with a car' (19%). The accidents caused abrasions (42%) and bruises (27%) to the lower (45%) and upper limbs (41%). Police, hospital emergency department or insurance companies were involved in only 7%, 10% and 30% of the cases, respectively. It is noteworthy that 37% of the participants indicated that they could have avoided the accident. In order to decrease the number of accidents, measures should be taken to keep cycling surfaces clean and decrease the number of obstacles on bicycle infrastructure. Roads and intersections need to be built so that the collisions between cars and bicycles are decreased to a minimum. Car drivers and cyclists should pay more attention towards each other. Underreporting of minor bicycle accidents in Belgium is confirmed, and is higher than expected. Reliable accident statistics, taking into account exposure, are needed to decide which road safety measures are the most effective. The 'safety in numbers' principle is also applicable for minor bicycle accidents. PMID:22269558

de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Int Panis, Luc; Thomas, Isabelle; Degraeuwe, Bart; Cumps, Elke; Aertsens, Joris; Torfs, Rudi; Meeusen, Romain

2011-11-04

338

Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture  

SciTech Connect

We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

1988-01-01

339

Studying the Impact of Parental Involvement on College Student Development: A Review and Agenda for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although parental involvement in higher education has received significant attention on college campuses and by the media,\\u000a this topic has received scarce consideration in the empirical literature on college student development. The chapter begins\\u000a with a review of theoretical concepts and methodologies used in research on parental involvement in higher education. Next,\\u000a the chapter reviews relevant findings from this body

Linda J. Sax; Katherine Lynk Wartman

340

A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.  

PubMed

Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. PMID:23354394

Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

2013-01-25

341

Arachidonic acid and cancer risk: a systematic review of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background An n-6 essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) is converted into prostaglandin E2, which is involved in tumour extension. However, it is unclear whether dietary ARA intake leads to cancer in humans. We thus systematically evaluated available observational studies on the relationship between ARA exposure and the risk of colorectal, skin, breast, prostate, lung, and stomach cancers. Methods We searched the PubMed database for articles published up to May 17, 2010. 126 potentially relevant articles from the initial search and 49,670 bibliographies were scrutinised to identify eligible publications by using predefined inclusion criteria. A comprehensive literature search yielded 52 eligible articles, and their reporting quality and methodological quality was assessed. Information on the strength of the association between ARA exposure and cancer risk, the dose-response relationship, and methodological limitations was collected and evaluated with respect to consistency and study design. Results For colorectal, skin, breast, and prostate cancer, 17, 3, 18, and 16 studies, respectively, were identified. We could not obtain eligible reports for lung and stomach cancer. Studies used cohort (n?=?4), nested case-control (n?=?12), case-control (n?=?26), and cross-sectional (n?=?12) designs. The number of subjects (n = 15 - 88,795), ARA exposure assessment method (dietary intake or biomarker), cancer diagnosis and patient recruitment procedure (histological diagnosis, cancer registries, or self-reported information) varied among studies. The relationship between ARA exposure and colorectal cancer was inconsistent based on ARA exposure assessment methodology (dietary intake or biomarker). Conversely, there was no strong positive association or dose-response relationship for breast or prostate cancer. There were limited numbers of studies on skin cancer to draw any conclusions from the results. Conclusions The available epidemiologic evidence is weak because of the limited number of studies and their methodological limitations, but nonetheless, the results suggest that ARA exposure is not associated with increased breast and prostate cancer risk. Further evidence from well-designed observational studies is required to confirm or refute the association between ARA exposure and risk of cancer.

2012-01-01

342

Functionally important movements in RecA molecules and filaments: studies involving mutation and environmental changes.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis RecA (MsRecA) involving changes of Gln196 from glutamine to alanine, asparagine and glutamic acid, wild-type MsRecA and several of their nucleotide complexes have been determined using mostly low-temperature and partly room-temperature X-ray data. At both temperatures, nucleotide binding results in a movement of Gln196 towards the bound nucleotide in the wild-type protein. This movement is abolished in the mutants, thus establishing the structural basis for the triggering action of the residue in terms of the size, shape and the chemical nature of the side chain. The 19 crystal structures reported here, together with 11 previously reported MsRecA structures, provide further elaboration of the relation between the pitch of the ;inactive' RecA filament, the orientation of the C-terminal domain with respect to the main domain and the location of the switch residue. The low-temperature structures define one extreme of the range of positions the C-terminal domain can occupy. The movement of the C-terminal domain is correlated with those of the LexA-binding loop and the loop that connects the main and the N-terminal domains. These elements of molecular plasticity are made use of in the transition to the ;active' filament, as evidenced by the recently reported structures of RecA-DNA complexes. The available structures of RecA resulting from X-ray and electron-microscopic studies appear to represent different stages in the trajectory of the allosteric transformations of the RecA filament. The work reported here contributes to the description of the early stages of this trajectory and provides insight into structures relevant to the later stages. PMID:19020353

Prabu, J Rajan; Manjunath, G P; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Muniyappa, K; Vijayan, M

2008-10-18

343

Histologic study of patterns of cervical involvement in FIGO stage II endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

The pathology of cervical involvement in endometrial carcinoma has not been fully defined previously. We reviewed the histopathology of 66 hysterectomies of women with stage II endometrial carcinoma. Cervical spread was categorized as macroscopic or microscopic; stage IIA or IIB; direct spread, surface or lymphvascular metastasis; and size, number, and location. The cervical tumor was macroscopically identified in 15 (23%) women and microscopically identified in 51 (77%). Twenty-one patients (32%) were stage IIA and 45 (68%) stage IIB. The method of spread was direct spread in 28 patients, surface metastases in 27, lymphovascular in 3, both direct spread and surface metastases in 7 and both direct spread and lymphovascular in 1. The cervical tumor had a mean horizontal dimension of 3 mm and a median of 2 mm. There were multiple sites of cervical tumor in 31 (47%) patients and single in 35 (53%). The sites of spread, including cases with multiple sites, were the endocervix in 60 women (90%), transformation zone in 24 (37%), and ectocervix in 3 (5%). Most patients had minimal microscopic cervical tumor. Small examples of direct spread may be an artifact of definition depending on the histology of the isthmian-endocervical junction and many surface metastases appear to follow dilatation and curettage. In 7 of 66, 11%, however, the cervical tumor was greater than 5 mm depth of invasion and/or the result of lymphvascular metastasis. Survival studies are required to compare minimal stage II endometrial carcinoma patients and those with larger and/or lymphvascular derived cervical tumor. Patients with minimal stage II and stage I patients should also be compared. PMID:11240720

Scurry, J.; Craighead, P.; Duggan, M.

2000-11-01

344

In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic.  

PubMed

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) [As(III)+As(V)] is a drinking water contaminant, and human exposure to these arsenic species has been linked with a wide range of health effects. The main path of exposure is the oral route, and the intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier that iAs must cross in order to be absorbed. However, there is a lack of information about intestinal iAs absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of certain transporters [glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), aquaporins (AQPs), and phosphate transporters (NaPi and PiT)] in intestinal absorption of As(V) and As(III), using the Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium. For this purpose, the effects of chemical inhibition and gene silencing of the transporters of interest on iAs uptake were evaluated, and also the differential expression of these transporters after treatment with iAs. The results show that chemical inhibition using rifamycin SV (OATP inhibitor), phloridzin (SGLT inhibitor), phloretin (GLUT and AQP inhibitor), and copper sulfate (AQP inhibitor) leads to a significant reduction in the apparent permeability and cellular retention of As(III). RT-qPCR indicates up-regulation of GLUT2, GLUT5, OATPB, AQP3, and AQP10 after exposure to As(III), while exposure to As(V) increases the expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, especially NaPiIIb. Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs. PMID:22214486

Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Julio A; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

2012-01-26

345

Genomics and structure/function studies of Rhabdoviridae proteins involved in replication and transcription.  

PubMed

Some mammalian rhabdoviruses may infect humans, and also infect invertebrates, dogs, and bats, which may act as vectors transmitting viruses among different host species. The VIZIER programme, an EU-funded FP6 program, has characterized viruses that belong to the Vesiculovirus, Ephemerovirus and Lyssavirus genera of the Rhabdoviridae family to perform ground-breaking research on the identification of potential new drug targets against these RNA viruses through comprehensive structural characterization of the replicative machinery. The contribution of VIZIER programme was of several orders. First, it contributed substantially to research aimed at understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of rhabdoviruses. This diversity was then used to obtain further structural information on the proteins involved in replication. Two strategies were used to produce recombinant proteins by expression of both full length or domain constructs in either E. coli or insect cells, using the baculovirus system. In both cases, parallel cloning and expression screening at small-scale of multiple constructs based on different viruses including the addition of fusion tags, was key to the rapid generation of expression data. As a result, some progress has been made in the VIZIER programme towards dissecting the multi-functional L protein into components suitable for structural and functional studies. However, the phosphoprotein polymerase co-factor and the structural matrix protein, which play a number of roles during viral replication and drives viral assembly, have both proved much more amenable to structural biology. Applying the multi-construct/multi-virus approach central to protein production processes in VIZIER has yielded new structural information which may ultimately be exploitable in the derivation of novel ways of intervening in viral replication. PMID:20188763

Assenberg, R; Delmas, O; Morin, B; Graham, S C; De Lamballerie, X; Laubert, C; Coutard, B; Grimes, J M; Neyts, J; Owens, R J; Brandt, B W; Gorbalenya, A; Tucker, P; Stuart, D I; Canard, B; Bourhy, H

2010-02-25

346

Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID): a dynamic birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. Methods and analysis The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2?years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914.

Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

2012-01-01

347

Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Regression Comparison of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background To compare response to antidepressants between randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational trials. Methods and Findings Published and unpublished studies (from 1989 to 2009) were searched for by 2 reviewers on Medline, the Cochrane library, Embase, clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trial, bibliographies and by mailing key organisations and researchers. RCTs and observational studies on fluoxetine or venlafaxine in first-line treatment for major depressive disorder reported in English, French or Spanish language were included in the main analysis. Studies including patients from a wider spectrum of depressive disorders (anxious depression, minor depressive episode, dysthymia) were added in a second analysis. The main outcome was the pre-/post-treatment difference on depression scales standardised to 100 (17-item or 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or Montgomery and Åsberg Rating Scale) in each study arm. A meta-regression was conducted to adjust the comparison between observational studies and RCTs on treatment type, study characteristics and average patient characteristics. 12 observational studies and 109 RCTs involving 6757 and 11035 patients in 12 and 149 arms were included in the main analysis. Meta-regression showed that the standardised treatment response in RCTs is greater by a magnitude of 4.59 (2.61 to 6.56). Study characteristics were related to standardised treatment response, positively (study duration, number of follow-up assessments, outpatients versus inpatients, per protocol analysis versus intention to treat analysis) or negatively (blinded design, placebo design). At patient level, response increased with baseline severity and decreased with age. Results of the second analysis were consistent with this. Conclusions Response to antidepressants is greater in RCTs than in observational studies. Observational studies should be considered as a necessary complement to RCTs.

Naudet, Florian; Maria, Anne Solene; Falissard, Bruno

2011-01-01

348

Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rationale, design, and methodology.  

PubMed

Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a "congenital malformation" implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, numerous studies failed to confirm its presence in MS patients. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methodology adopted in the CoSMo study, conducted with the aim of verifying whether or not CCSVI is linked to MS. The primary endpoint of the CoSMo study is to compare the prevalence of CCSVI in patients with MS versus patients affected by other neurodegenerative diseases (OND) and healthy volunteers. CoSMo is a multicenter, blinded, prevalence study recruiting 2,000 adult subjects, involving 43 MS centers across Italy. Assessment of the presence or absence of CCSVI is performed by color-coded duplex (CCD) sonography and two out of the five criteria according to Zamboni are necessary for the diagnosis of CCSVI. Local CCD examination carried out by a certified sonologist and the central image readings performed by experts in the field are blinded. An advanced protocol is also described in this paper. The application of a rigorous methodological design will definitively confirm whether an association exists between CCSVI and MS. Should an association be observed, this study also further examines the link between CCSVI and the severity of MS. The addition of subgroups without MS and OND also provides information on whether CCSVI is specific to MS only. Results from the CoSMo study will play a crucial role in the possible studies concerning the potential treatment of CCSVI in MS. PMID:23344741

Comi, Giancarlo; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bertolotto, Antonio; Del Sette, Massimo; Ghezzi, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Salvetti, Marco; Sormani, Maria Pia; Tesio, Luigi; Stolz, Erwin; Mancardi, Gianluigi

2013-01-24

349

Family members' involvement in elder care provision in nursing homes and their considerations about financial compensation: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish how family members are involved in elder care provision in nursing homes; this included research into their feelings about potentially extending their involvement to obtain financial benefits as compensation for high accommodation costs. Family members remain involved in the caring process after their relatives have been admitted to an institution. On average, accommodation costs in nursing homes in Slovenia have risen above the residents' retirement pension, and families must supplement the difference. Because of this, familial involvement should be linked to reduced accommodation costs. This research employed a non-experimental, descriptive study design through unstructured interviews. Participants included fifty family members (n=50) who visit their relatives in nursing homes. Data were collected in 2010 at five nursing homes in Slovenia and processed by means of conventional content analysis. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis, describing family involvement, were as follows: visiting and making oneself useful, delivery of items for personal use, hands-on care, physical therapy and organization of nursing home activities. Family members showed some interest in receiving financial compensation for their involvement. The proposed financial compensation may be a delicate and morally questionable matter but would involve fairness and transparency, while enabling easier organization of elder care provision. Eventually, nursing home residents' well-being could be improved. PMID:23375798

Habjani?, Ana; Pajnkihar, Majda

2013-02-01

350

Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Nikravesh, Mansoure

2004-01-01

351

Studies of elementary processes and coupling involved in the D2/F2 chemical laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a H2/D2 chemical laser is a function of the nascent energy disposal parameters for the F + H2 (D2) and H (D) + F2 chemical reactions and the vibrational relaxation of HF (DF). Chemiluminescence Mapping (CM) in which chemical components are observed by their spectral and time resolution is a technique which is capable of providing fundamental information on both nascent energy distributions for bimolecular exchange reactions and vibrational relaxation. Knowledge of the reactants (atoms or ions) and residence times must be known in order to interpret the data. Using a double floating probe the ion content flowing from a microwave discharge of hydrogen was found to be less than .0000018 of the total flow, thus ion molecule reactions are unimportant. The interpretation of CM experiments requires realistic modeling to deconvolute the experimental data. Both types of CM experiments provide nascent vibrational energy distributions. CM-LP experiments also provide total reaction rate constants and microscopic relaxation rate constants. In addition to the F + H2(D2) benchmark reactions, experimental results for H(D)+F2, F+ HBr, and F+CH2Cls are discussed and compared to other studies when available.

Tardy, D. C.

1986-12-01

352

A Longitudinal Study of Breadth and Intensity of Activity Involvement and the Transition to University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined prospective relations between activity involvement and successful transitioning to university. A sample of 656 students from 6 Canadian universities completed questionnaires before beginning university and at the end of their first year. Breadth (number of different activity domains) and intensity (mean frequency) of activity…

Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Adams, Gerald R.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Wintre, Maxine Gallander

2011-01-01

353

The Effects of Job Involvement on Private Correctional Staff: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on correctional officers over the past two decades has focused on job stress, job satisfaction, the job environment, and how demographic variables such as gender, race, health and family conflict influenced stress and job satisfaction. Because correctional staff is such an integral part of corrections, understanding job involvement and its impact on correctional employees is important,

Eric G. Lambert; Nancy L. Hogan; Kelly Cheeseman Dial

2011-01-01

354

Mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer using high- and low-voltage pulses — An in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene electrotransfer is an established method for gene delivery which uses high-voltage pulses to increase permeability of cell membrane and thus enables transfer of genes. Currently, majority of research is focused on improving in vivo transfection efficiency, while mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer are not completely understood.In this paper we analyze the mechanisms of gene electrotransfer by using combinations of

Maša Kandušer; Damijan Miklav?i?; Mojca Pavlin

2009-01-01

355

Distribution of steroidogenic enzymes involved in androgen synthesis in polycystic ovaries: an immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find an explanation for the possible working mechanism of laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery for the treatment of anovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), we evaluated the distribution of steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of ovarian androgens in surgical pathology specimens of entire polycystic ovaries. A total of 13 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the ovaries of patients with clinically

Eugenie M. Kaaijk; Hironobu Sasano; Takashi Suzuki; Johan F. Beek; Fulco van der Veen

2000-01-01

356

Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

2011-01-01

357

A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

2011-01-01

358

Family Involvement in Health Care Research: The Building on Family Strengths Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of children with chronic conditions require quality programs that address the child's needs in the context of daily family life. These programs need to be tested for effectiveness in randomized clinical trials. One such program, Building on Family Strengths, was developed from a family-centered approach with parents of children with special health care needs involved in many aspects of

Nancy Uding; Megan Sety; Gail M. Kieckhefer

2007-01-01

359

Study of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Education Programs. Report No. 7844.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents a broad preliminary examination of parent involvement in eight early childhood education programs in the School District of Philadelphia: Child Care, Follow Through, Follow Through Expansion, Get Set Day Care, Kindergarten, Parent Cooperative Nurseries, Prekindergarten Head Start, and Primary Skills. Data were collected from…

Bass, Aaron

360

Study of the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rat aorta  

PubMed Central

This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1??M–1?mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1??M), high extracellular KCl (60?mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1??M) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+-free solution, EGCG (1??M–1?mM) relaxed 1??M PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1??M–1?mM) did not affect the 1??M okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10??M), tetraethylammonium (2?mM) or charybdotoxin (100?nM) plus apamin (500?nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5?mM Ca2+-containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+-free high KCl 60?mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100??M) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100?nM) and KCl (60?mM) in 1.5?mM CaCl2-containing solution and by ANG II (100?nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100??M) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1??M) and high KCl (60?mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50?17) and on PDE1 (IC50?25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i.

Alvarez, Ezequiel; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Justiniano-Basaran, Helene; Lugnier, Claire; Orallo, Francisco

2005-01-01

361

Study of the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rat aorta.  

PubMed

This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1 microM), high extracellular KCl (60 mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 microM) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+ -free solution, EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) relaxed 1 microM PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1 microM-1 mM) did not affect the 1 microM okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 microM), tetraethylammonium (2 mM) or charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (500 nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5 mM Ca2+ -containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+ -free high KCl 60 mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100 microM) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100 nM) and KCl (60 mM) in 1.5 mM CaCl2 -containing solution and by ANG II (100 nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100 microM) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1 microM) and high KCl (60 mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50 approximately 17) and on PDE1 (IC50 approximately 25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:16299547

Alvarez, Ezequiel; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Justiniano-Basaran, Hélène; Lugnier, Claire; Orallo, Francisco

2006-02-01

362

Epidemiology and outcome of cardiac arrests reported in the lay-press: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which cardiac arrests are reported in newspapers, assess the level of detail reported and ascertain whether this coverage gives a realistic portrayal of cardiac arrest outcomes to the lay-reader. Design Observational study. Setting All UK newspaper articles published between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2010. Participants Articles containing the words ‘cardiac arrest’, ‘CPR’ or ‘resuscitation’ were screen for eligibility. Any articles not involving reference to a real cardiac arrest were excluded. Main outcome measures Data relating to patient demographics, arrest characteristics, treatment (CPR and defibrillation) and survival using the Utstein template were extracted. The results were then compared with cardiac arrest statistics from epidemiological studies. Results Six hundred and forty-eight articles were reviewed, 203 of which referred to individual cardiac arrest events; 22 events occurred in-hospital and 181 occurred out-of-hospital. In the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) group 32 (17.7%) were reported to survive to hospital discharge, almost all with good neurological outcome. The median age group was 31–45-year-olds, 52 (28.7%) were women and 40 were children. Seventy-five percent of victims received bystander CPR with 13 being attended to by lay-responders using AEDs, eight of which presented with a shockable rhythm of which six made a full recovery. Conclusion Survival to hospital discharge rate among newspaper reports was double that of complete epidemiological studies of OHCAs in urban environments. Newspapers may give readers an over-optimistic portrayal of cardiac arrest survival and neurological outcome following successful resuscitation.

Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P; Perkins, Gavin D

2011-01-01

363

Releasing Their Stories: A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Histories of Mental Health Issues and Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often the narratives of youth self-exploration and experience are lost in a drive to prevent, diagnose, or respond to youth-led crime. This exploratory qualitative study looks at and documents the life histories of youth concurrently involved in the juvenile justice system and in clinical treatment independent of the crimes they committed. A purposive sample of 9 male juvenile-justice-involved youth

Tina Maschi; Jennifer Perillo; Deborah Courtney

2011-01-01

364

Transcriptome Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in Human Whole Blood and Mutagenesis Studies Identify Virulence Factors Involved in Blood Survival  

PubMed Central

During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ?30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating disease cause by this microorganism.

Del Tordello, Elena; Seib, Kate L.; Francois, Patrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serruto, Davide

2011-01-01

365

Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30 90 km): A study involving MetO and MFR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MetO assimilated data and mesospheric winds provided by five medium frequency radars (MFR) from the Canada US Japan Opportunity (CUJO) network have been used to study coupling processes due to planetary waves (PWs) in the middle atmosphere. It is shown that there is strong vertical coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere especially during winter months. However, not all observed disturbances in mesospheric winds can be explained by the simple propagation of PWs from below. In addition to the vertical coupling there is also weaker horizontal “inter-hemispheric” coupling during equinoxes. The data used are from December 2000 to December 2002. The time interval was chosen to include austral winters and springs of 2 years: the dynamically unusual year 2002, during which a major stratospheric warming involving a split vortex and wind reversals occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, and a more typical year 2001. The character of PW activity during these 2 years is compared. In contrast to the usually weak PW activity dominated by eastward motions, both strong eastward and westward propagating waves existed during austral winter of 2002. Wavelet spectra of MetO winds show strong peaks near 14 days that match similar signals observed in mesospheric winds at Antarctic stations [Dowdy et al., 2004. The large-scale dynamics of the mesosphere lower thermosphere during the SH stratospheric warming of 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14102. doi:10.1029/2004GL020282] during the stratospheric warming. It is suggested that this oscillation was generated at low atmospheric heights and propagated upward. The longer duration of the stratospheric mesospheric winter vortex (7 months) compared to that of the summer jet in the Northern Hemisphere provide equinoctial months when eastward winds dominate globally. Results suggest that during equinoxes, with favourable conditions, the PWs with ˜10-, 16- and 25-day periods can penetrate to the opposite hemisphere.

Chshyolkova, T.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

2006-02-01

366

Studies on the involvement of histamine in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation induced by nerve growth factor.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Since NGF induces the release of histamine from mast cells and in consideration of the fact that histamine is an HPA axis activator, we investigated whether NGF adrenocortical stimulation is mediated by histamine. To accomplish with it, the H1 histamine antagonist promethazine and the H2 antagonists metiamide and zolantidine were used in freely-moving cannulated rats. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by histamine administration was prevented completely by promethazine pretreatment but was unaffected by the H2 antagonists. Neither H1 nor H2 antagonists affected the adrenocortical stimulation induced by NGF administration. Moreover, since mast cells are reportedly present in the rat adrenal gland and the locally released histamine mediates the release of adrenaline which, in turn, stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis and secretion, we studied the effect of NGF on basal and ACTH-stimulated corticosterone release from in vitro isolated quartered adrenal glands and collagenase-dispersed adrenal cells. The results from these in vitro experiments have indicated that NGF modified neither spontaneous nor stimulated corticosterone release. Altogether these observations suggest that endogenous histamine is unlikely to be involved in HPA axis stimulation by NGF and reinforce the previously proposed concept of an active participation of NGF in the control of adrenocortical activity. PMID:11191621

Scaccianoce, S; Lombardo, K; Nicolai, R; Affricano, D; Angelucci, L

2000-11-17

367

Prospective observational study of Klebsiella bacteremia in 230 patients: outcome for antibiotic combinations versus monotherapy.  

PubMed

Combination antimicrobial agent therapy has been advocated for treatment of gram-negative bacteremia, including that caused by Klebsiella spp. We performed a prospective, observational, 10-hospital collaborative study to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy versus that of monotherapy for 230 consecutive patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. The species involved were K. pneumoniae (82%), K. oxytoca (15%), and K. ozaenae (0.4%). Of the bacteremias, 26% were polymicrobial in nature. A total of 53% of cases were nosocomial infections. The most common portals were the urinary tract (28%), biliary tract (12%), lung (10%), and abdomen (9%). Some 49 and 51% of the patients had received monotherapy and antibiotic combination therapy (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside), respectively; 14-day mortalities in the two groups were 20 and 18%, respectively. However, for the subgroup of patients who experienced hypotension within 72 h prior to or on the day of the positive blood culture, those patients who received combination therapy experienced significantly lower mortality (24%) than did those who received monotherapy (50%). We conclude that monotherapy with an antibiotic that is active in vitro against Klebsiella (beta-lactam or aminoglycoside) is sufficient therapy for less severely ill patients (immunocompetent, urinary tract portal, mentally alert, normal vital signs). On the other hand, for severely ill patients who experience hypotension, antibiotic combination therapy with a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside agent is preferred. PMID:1482131

Korvick, J A; Bryan, C S; Farber, B; Beam, T R; Schenfeld, L; Muder, R R; Weinbaum, D; Lumish, R; Gerding, D N; Wagener, M M

1992-12-01

368

Measurement of stressful postures during daily activities: An observational study with older people.  

PubMed

This study measured the postures of older people during cooking and laundry. A sample of men and women aged 75+ years (n=27) was recruited and observed in a home-like environment. Postures were recorded with a measurement system in an objective and detailed manner. The participants were videotaped to be able to see where 'critical' postures occurred, as defined by a trunk inclination of ?60°. Analysis of data was facilitated by specially developed software. Critical postures accounted for 3% of cooking and 10% of laundry, occurring primarily during retrieving from and putting in lower cabinets, the refrigerator, laundry basket or washing machine as well as disposing into the waste bin. These tasks involve a great variation in postural changes and pose a particular risk to older people. The results suggest that the use of stressful postures may decrease efficiency and increase fatigue, eventually leading to difficulties with daily activities. The specific tasks identified during which critical postures occurred should be targeted by designers in order to improve the activities. A few examples are given of how better design can reduce or eliminate some of the postural constraints. PMID:21764584

Seidel, David; Hjalmarson, Jenny; Freitag, Sonja; Larsson, Tore J; Brayne, Carol; Clarkson, P John

2011-07-18

369

Motorcyclists violating hook-turn area at intersections in Taiwan: An observational study.  

PubMed

Research has suggested that the most typical and catastrophic automobile-motorcycle crash takes place when an automobile manoeuvres into the path of an oncoming motorcycle at intersection, which involves a motorist infringing upon the motorcycle's right of way (ROW). In Taiwan, motorcycles, on the other hand, are the one that has been observed to violate the ROW of approaching automobiles at intersections. Such a ROW-violation by left-turn motorcyclists in front of approaching traffic is a safety problem in terms of its frequency and accident consequence. Using high-definition video cameras to capture motorcycles' behaviours, the present study empirically analyses the determinants of motorcyclists violating the hook-turn area (HTA) that has been implemented in Taiwan to deter motorcyclists from violating the ROW of approaching vehicles. Mixed (random parameters) logit models are found to be superior in fitting the data to traditional binary logit models. Main findings include that there was an increased likelihood of HTA-violation at T/Y intersections, in rural areas, during non rush hours, when the riders were females, younger, when riders were travelling on mopeds or heavier motorcycles, when traffic volume was less, and when riders were with half-style helmets. Implications of the research findings, the concluding remarks, and recommendations for future research are finally provided. PMID:23743296

Pai, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Jiun-Jia; Chang, Jia-Lin; Kuo, Ming-Shin

2013-05-14

370

Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study  

PubMed Central

This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with treatment objectives. The Step'n Out study will randomize 450 drug-involved parolees to collaborative behavioral management or usual parole. Follow-up at 3-and 9-months will assess primary outcomes of rearrest, crime and drug use. If collaborative behavioral management is effective, its wider adoption could improve the outcomes of community reentry of drug-involved ex-offenders.

FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; KATZ, ELIZABETH C.; RHODES, ANNE G.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.; O'CONNELL, DANIEL J.; FRISMAN, LINDA K.; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; FLETCHER, BENNETT W.; LITT, MARK D.; CLARKE, JENNIFER; MARTIN, STEVEN S.

2009-01-01

371

SufA\\/IscA: reactivity studies of a class of scaffold proteins involved in [Fe-S] cluster assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

IscA\\/SufA proteins belong to complex protein machineries which are involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. They are defined as scaffold proteins from which preassembled clusters are transferred to target apoproteins. The experiments described here demonstrate that the transfer reaction proceeds in two observable steps: a first fast one leading to a protein–protein complex between the cluster donor (SufA\\/IscA) and the acceptor

S. Ollagnier-de-Choudens; Y. Sanakis; M. Fontecave

2004-01-01

372

Maintaining equilibrium: a grounded theory study of the processes involved when women make informed choices during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to map the processes involved when women make informed choices during pregnancy.Design: a grounded theory approach was used. Data were collected by means of focused interviews and observation.Setting: naturalistic, in antenatal clinics and participants' homes.Participants: pregnant women receiving care in a variety of maternity settings in England.Key findings: the core category was named Maintaining Equilibrium, whereby the woman attempted

Valerie Levy

1999-01-01

373

Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household’s health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women’s personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

2013-01-01

374

Equilibrium Studies of Binary and Ternary Complexes Involving Tricine and Some Selected a-Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The formation equilibria for the binary complexes of Co II, Ni II, Cu II, Zn II, Cd II, Mn II, Pb II, Th IV, UO 2 II, and Ce III with tricine and for the ternary complexes involving some a-amino acids (glycine, a-alanine, proline, serine, asparagine, and aspartic acid) were investigated using pH-metric technique. The formation of binary and

Mohamed M. Khalil; Mohamed Taha

2004-01-01

375

Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPerceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant\\/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures.AimTo develop an

Fredrik Lindstedt; Bo Johansson; Sofia Martinsen; Eva Kosek; Peter Fransson; Martin Ingvar

2011-01-01

376

Mechanisms involved in VPAC receptors activation and regulation: lessons from pharmacological and mutagenesis studies  

PubMed Central

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays diverse and important role in human physiology and physiopathology and their receptors constitute potential targets for the treatment of several diseases such as neurodegenerative disorder, asthma, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the two VIP receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, with respect to mechanisms involved in receptor activation, G protein coupling, signaling, regulation, and oligomerization.

Langer, Ingrid

2012-01-01

377

Observations from Space: mid- and far- infrared Spectra of Asteroids and parallel laboratory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed observations of sixteen asteroids with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Using three different instruments (PHT-P PHT-S and SWS) we obtained low resolution spectra up to 12 micron, high resolution spectra up to 45 micron and spectrophotometric data up to 60 micron. We are now widely involved in spectral analysis of Near-Earth Objects, Main Belt Asteroids, Jupiter Trojans and

E. Dotto; M. A. Barucci; J. R. Brucato

2004-01-01

378

Nurses' views on their involvement in euthanasia: a qualitative study in Flanders (Belgium)  

PubMed Central

Background Although nurses worldwide are confronted with euthanasia requests from patients, the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in euthanasia remain unclear. Objectives In depth exploration of the views of palliative care nurses on their involvement in the entire care process surrounding euthanasia. Design A qualitative Grounded Theory strategy was used. Setting and participants In anticipation of new Belgian legislation on euthanasia, we conducted semistructured interviews with 12 nurses working in a palliative care setting in the province of Vlaams?Brabant (Belgium). Results Palliative care nurses believed unanimously that they have an important role in the process of caring for a patient who requests euthanasia, a role that is not limited to assisting the physician when he is administering life terminating drugs. Nurses' involvement starts when the patient requests euthanasia and ends with supporting the patient's relatives and healthcare colleagues after the potential life terminating act. Nurses stressed the importance of having an open mind and of using palliative techniques, also offering a contextual understanding of the patient's request in the decision making process. Concerning the actual act of performing euthanasia, palliative care nurses saw their role primarily as assisting the patient, the patient's family, and the physician by being present, even if they could not reconcile themselves with actually performing euthanasia. Conclusions Based on their professional nursing expertise and unique relationship with the patient, nurses participating as full members of the interdisciplinary expert team are in a key position to provide valuable care to patients requesting euthanasia.

de Casterle, B Dierckx; Verpoort, C; De Bal, N; Gastmans, C

2006-01-01

379

Pharmacotherapy of elderly patients in everyday anthroposophic medical practice: a prospective, multicenter observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacotherapy in the older adult is a complex field involving several different medical professionals. The evidence base for pharmacotherapy in elderly patients in primary care relies on only a few clinical trials, thus documentation must be improved, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like phytotherapy, homoeopathy, and anthroposophic medicine. This study describes diagnoses and therapies observed in elderly patients treated with anthroposophic medicine in usual care. Methods Twenty-nine primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicenter observational study on prescribing patterns. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients were at least 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with anthroposophic prescriptions. Results In 2005, a total of 12 314 prescriptions for 3076 patients (68.1% female) were included. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (11.1%), breast cancer (3.5%), and heart failure (3.0%). In total, 30.5% of the prescriptions were classified as CAM remedies alone, 54.4% as conventional pharmaceuticals alone, and 15.1% as a combination of both. CAM remedies accounted for 41.7% of all medications prescribed (35.5% anthroposophic). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving an anthroposophic remedy was significantly higher for the first consultation (AOR = 1.65; CI: 1.52-1.79), treatment by an internist (AOR = 1.49; CI: 1.40-1.58), female patients (AOR = 1.35; CI: 1.27-1.43), cancer (AOR = 4.54; CI: 4.12-4.99), arthropathies (AOR = 1.36; CI: 1.19-1.55), or dorsopathies (AOR = 1.34; CI: 1.16-1.55) and it decreased with patient age (AOR = 0.97; CI: 0.97-0.98). The likelihood of being prescribed an anthroposophic remedy was especially low for patients with hypertensive diseases (AOR = 0.36; CI: 0.32-0.39), diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.14-0.22), or metabolic disorders (AOR = 0.17; CI: 0.13-0.22). Conclusion The present study is the first to provide a systematic overview of everyday anthroposophic medical practice in primary care for elderly patients. Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine prescribe both conventional and complementary treatments. Our study may facilitate further CAM-research on indications of, for example, dementia or adverse drug reactions in the elderly.

2010-01-01

380

EFFECTIVE FACTORS INVOLVED IN ADOPTION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION: A CASE STUDY IN WHEAT FARMERS IN NAHAVAND TOWNSHIP, IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine effective factors involved in adoption of sprinkler irrigation about wheat farmers in Nahavand Township from Iran. Wheat farmers (n=15365) in the Nahavand Township from Iran were the target population for this study. The population frame was obtained from Nahavand agricultural organization. The sample obtained through proportional stratified sampling (n=375). The methodological approach

Omid Noruzi; Mohammad Chizari

381

Cardiac involvement by malignant lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 25 autopsy cases based on the WHO classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cardiac involvement by malignant lymphoma (ML) is relatively uncommon and antemortem diagnosis is difficult, details of this condition remain to be elucidated. To clarify clinicopathologic features of cardiac lymphoma (CL), 25 autopsy cases were studied. Each was rediagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, and clinicopathologic characteristics were investigated by tumor phenotype. The study subjects were 13

Katsuya Chinen; Toshiyuki Izumo

2005-01-01

382

Application of micro-attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy in the forensic study of questioned documents involving red seal inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red seal inks from Korea (6), Japan (1) and China (6) were studied to investigate the feasibility of micro-attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy as a tool in the forensic study of questioned documents involving seal inks. The technique was able to differentiate red seal inks of similar colors and different manufacturers. Blind testing has shown that micro-ATR FTIR can

Warnadi Dirwono; Jin Sook Park; M. R. Agustin-Camacho; Jiyeon Kim; Hyun-Mee Park; Yeonhee Lee; Kang-Bong Lee

2010-01-01

383

Temporal dynamic of neural mechanisms involved in empathy for pain: An event-related brain potential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous neuroimaging studies have identified a neural circuit that is involved in empathy for pain. However, the temporal dynamics of neural activities underlying empathic processes remains poorly understood. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from healthy adults who were presented with pictures or cartoons of hands that were in painful or neutral situations.

Yan Fan; Shihui Han

2008-01-01

384

Healthy User and Related Biases in Observational Studies of Preventive Interventions: A Primer for Physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current emphasis on comparative effectiveness research will provide practicing physicians with increasing volumes of observational\\u000a evidence about preventive care. However, numerous highly publicized observational studies of the effect of prevention on health\\u000a outcomes have reported exaggerated relationships that were later contradicted by randomized controlled trials. A growing body\\u000a of research has identified sources of bias in observational studies that

William H. Shrank; Amanda R. Patrick; M. Alan Brookhart

2011-01-01

385

Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.  

PubMed

According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent relapses. The majority of cases could be controlled effectively via chemotherapy-based treatment, and prolonged survival was achieved in those patients. The GI, lung, WR, and ocular area were commonly presented with other MALT site MZLs, and an organ-specific relationship appears to be relevant to MM-MZLs. PMID:20838958

Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin

2010-09-14

386

Event-by-event study of photon observables in spontaneous and thermal fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The event-by-event fission model freya is employed to study photon observables in spontaneous fission and fission induced by thermal neutrons. Comparison with available data is made as far as possible, including some recent correlation studies.

Vogt, R.; Randrup, J.

2013-04-01

387

An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

2010-01-01

388

Lower leg muscle involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an MR imaging and spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To describe the involvement of lower leg muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using MR imaging (MRI)\\u000a and spectroscopy (MRS) correlated to indices of functional status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  Nine boys with DMD (mean age, 11 years) and eight healthy age- and BMI-matched boys (mean age, 13 years) prospectively underwent\\u000a lower leg MRI, 1H-MRS of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus

Martin Torriani; Elise Townsend; Bijoy J. Thomas; Miriam A. Bredella; Reza H. Ghomi; Brian S. Tseng

389

Studies on the enzymes involved in puparial cuticle sclerotization in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The properties of cuticular enzymes involved in sclerotization of Drosophila melanogaster puparium were examined. The cuticle-bound phenoloxidase from the white puparium exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 in phosphate buffer and oxidized a variety of catecholic substrates such as 4-methylcatechol, N-beta-alanyldopamine, dopa, dopamine, N-acetyldopamine, catechol, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phenoloxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide and sodium fluoride inhibited the enzyme activity drastically, but phenylthiourea showed marginal inhibition only. This result, coupled with the fact that syringaldazine served as the substrate for the insoluble enzyme, confirmed that cuticular phenoloxidase is of the "laccase" type. In addition, we also examined the mode of synthesis of the sclerotizing precursor, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine. Our results indicate that this catecholamine derivative is biosynthesized from N-acetyldopamine through the intermediate formation of N-acetyldopamine quinone and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide as established for Sarcophaga bullata [Saul, S. and Sugumaran, M., F.E.B.S. Letters 251, 69-73 (1989)]. Accordingly, successful solubilization and fractionation of cuticular enzymes involved in the introduction of a double bond in the side chain of N-acetyldopamine indicated that they included o-diphenoloxidase, 4-alkyl-o-quinone:p-quinone methide isomerase, and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide:dehydro N-acetyldopamine isomerase and not any side chain desaturase. PMID:1600191

Sugumaran, M; Giglio, L; Kundzicz, H; Saul, S; Semensi, V

1992-01-01

390

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration  

PubMed Central

Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research.

Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; G?tzsche, Peter C; Mulrow, Cynthia D; Pocock, Stuart J; Poole, Charles; Schlesselman, James J; Egger, Matthias

2007-01-01

391

The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study  

SciTech Connect

The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

1983-06-01

392

Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement

PETER D. FRIEDMANN; ELIZABETH C. KATZ; ANNE G. RHODES; FAYE S. TAXMAN; DANIEL J. OCONNELL; LINDA K. FRISMAN; WILLIAM M. BURDON; BENNETT W. FLETCHER; MARK D. LITT; JENNIFER CLARKE; STEVEN S. MARTIN

2008-01-01

393

Home-Based Head Start and Family Involvement: An Exploratory Study of the Associations among Home Visiting Frequency and Family Involvement Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1965, Head Start has stood as a model, two-generational program for promoting developmental competencies among children living in socioeconomic disadvantage for the US and international communities. The cornerstone of Head Start is the promotion of caregivers' involvement in their young children's development and early learning. In…

Manz, Patricia

2012-01-01

394

How to Improve the Implementation of Academic Clinical Pediatric Trials Involving Drug Therapy? A Qualitative Study of Multiple Stakeholders  

PubMed Central

Objective The need for encouraging pediatric drug research is widely recognized. However, hospital-based clinical trials of drug treatments are extremely time-consuming, and delays in trial implementation are common. The objective of this qualitative study was to collect information on the perceptions and experience of health professionals involved in hospital-based pediatric drug trials. Methods Two independent researchers conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with principal investigators (n?=?17), pharmacists (n?=?7), sponsor representatives (n?=?4), and drug regulatory agency representatives (n?=?3) who participated in institutionally sponsored clinical trials of experimental drugs in pediatric patients between 2002 and 2008. Results Dissatisfaction was reported by 67% (16/24) of principal investigators and pharmacists: all 7 pharmacists felt they were involved too late in the trial implementation process, whereas 11 (65%) principal investigators complained of an excessive regulatory burden and felt they were insufficiently involved in the basic research questions. Both groups perceived clinical trial implementation as burdensome and time-consuming. The sponsor and regulatory agency representatives reported a number of difficulties but were not dissatisfied. Conclusions The heavy burden related to regulatory requirements, and suboptimal communication across disciplines involved, seem to be the main reasons for the major delays in pediatric drug trial implementation. The pharmaceutical aspects are intrinsically tied to trial methodology and implementation and must therefore be examined, in particular by involving Clinical Research Pharmacists at early stages of study conception.

Girard, Delphine; Bourdon, Olivier; Abdoul, Hendy; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Brion, Francoise; Tibi, Annick; Alberti, Corinne

2013-01-01

395

Estimation of diffusive boundary layer thickness in studies involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT).  

PubMed

Recent laboratory experiments and field investigations involving diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have shown that the thickness (delta) of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), which can affect the accuracy of the technique, is generally not negligible. Accordingly, the determination of delta has become a matter of considerable practical importance. Though the problem has been addressed in the recent literature, there is room for some improvement. An expression for estimation of delta is presented here, and a practical procedure for determining delta and the concentration of DGT-labile species from sparse experimental data is proposed and illustrated by analyzing data from four experiments with DGT samplers of different diffusive gel thicknesses. PMID:17086387

Garmo, O A; Naqvi, K Razi; Røyset, O; Steinnes, E

2006-11-04

396

Expression and Study of Recombinant ExoM, a ?1-4 Glucosyltransferase Involved in Succinoglycan Biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Here we report on the overexpression and in vitro characterization of a recombinant form of ExoM, a putative ?1-4 glucosyltransferase involved in the assembly of the octasaccharide repeating subunit of succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti. The open reading frame exoM was isolated by PCR and subcloned into the expression vector pET29b, allowing inducible expression under the control of the T7 promoter. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pLysS containing exoM expressed a novel 38-kDa protein corresponding to ExoM in N-terminal fusion with the S-tag peptide. Cell fractionation studies showed that the protein is expressed in E. coli as a membrane-bound protein in agreement with the presence of a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region. E. coli membrane preparations containing ExoM were shown to be capable of transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to glycolipid extracts from an S. meliloti mutant strain which accumulates the ExoM substrate (Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Gal-pyrophosphate-polyprenol). Thin-layer chromatography of the glycosidic portion of the ExoM product showed that the oligosaccharide formed comigrates with an authentic standard. The oligosaccharide produced by the recombinant ExoM, but not the starting substrate, was sensitive to cleavage with a specific cellobiohydrolase, consistent with the formation of a ?1-4 glucosidic linkage. No evidence for the transfer of multiple glucose residues to the glycolipid substrate was observed. It was also found that ExoM does not transfer glucose to an acceptor substrate that has been hydrolyzed from the polyprenol anchor. Furthermore, neither glucose, cellobiose, nor the trisaccharide Glc?1-4Glc?1-3Glc inhibited the transferase activity, suggesting that some feature of the lipid anchor is necessary for activity.

Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Geremia, Roberto A.

1999-01-01

397

Client Involvement in Simulation Model Building: Hints and Insights from a Case Study in a London Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the collaborative process of building a simulation model in order to understand patient waiting times in an accident and emergency department. The purpose is to explore the issues that arise when involving clients, in this case health care professionals, in the process of model building. The study background and a detailed account of the modelling process are

Camilla Monefeldt; Elke Husemann

2003-01-01

398

A FISH study of chromosome fusion in the ICF syndrome: involvement of paracentric heterochromatin but not of the centromeres themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used double fluorescence in situ hybridisation to study the involvement of centromeres and paracentromeric heterochromatin in the chromosome abnormalities seen in the ICF syndrome. To detect centromeres, we used a probe which labelled alphoid satellite DNA, and for the paracentromeric heterochromatin a probe for classical satellite II. Our results show that it is always the paracentromeric heterochromatin of

A T Sumner; A R Mitchell; P M Ellis

1998-01-01

399

Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the…

Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

2011-01-01

400

The Utility of Involvement and Talent Development Theory in Assessing Charter School Success: Results from a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The usefulness of involvement and talent development theory in the assessment of charter schools and their students' success was studied as part of an effort to develop an assessment that would match the views of primary stakeholders (parents and teachers) more authentically. The research considered how parents and teachers define success in…

Opp, Ronald D.; Hamer, Lynne M.; Beltyukova, Svetlana