Note: This page contains sample records for the topic observational studies methods from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Observational Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on observational studies discusses the nature of such studies, the relationships between various data sets, and regression. Graphs illustrate the relationships, and exercises at the end test the user's comprehension and understanding. It is taken from the online textbook for Western Michigan University online introductory stats course.

Abebe, Asheber; Daniels, John E.; Kapenga, J. A.; Mckean, Joe W.

2008-12-25

2

Validity and reliability of observational methods for studying medication administration errors.  

PubMed

The validity and reliability of observational methods for studying medication administration errors (MAEs) were studied. Between January and June 1998, two pharmacists observed consecutive drug administration rounds by nurses on two wards in a U.K. hospital and recorded all MAEs identified. The observers intervened in cases of potentially harmful errors. MAE records were audited to determine the percentage of omitted doses for which a corresponding reason was documented for the observation periods and for nonobservation periods. Error rates for each drug administration round were analyzed according to whether they were for the nurse's first, second, third (and so on) observed round. Error rates were calculated before and after the first intervention with nurses for whom an intervention was made. Observer reliability was calculated by comparing the rates of errors identified by the two observers. There was no difference between the observation and nonobservation periods in the percentage of omitted doses for which a reason was documented, and there was no change in the error rate with repeated observations. There was no difference in error rates before and after the first intervention for each nurse. There was also no difference in error detection between the two observers and no change with increasing duration of observation. Observation of nurses during drug administration at a U.K. hospital did not significantly affect the MAE rate; nor did tactful interventions by the observers. Observer reliability was high. Concerns about the validity and reliability of observational methods for identifying MAEs may be unfounded. PMID:11194136

Dean, B; Barber, N

2001-01-01

3

Comparison of methods for the simplification of mesh models using quality indices and an observer study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of a polygonal mesh model is usually reduced by applying a simplification method, resulting in a similar mesh having less vertices and faces. Although several such methods have been developed, only a few observer studies are reported comparing them regarding the perceived quality of the obtained simplified meshes, and it is not yet clear how the choice of

Samuel Silva; Joaquim Madeira; Carlos Ferreira; Beatriz Sousa Santos

2007-01-01

4

Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies are collectively referred to as observational studies. Often these studies are the only practicable method of studying various problems, for example, studies of aetiology, instances where a randomised controlled trial might be unethical, or if the condition to be studied is rare. Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. Because they measure events in chronological order they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect. Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes. They are often used to generate hypotheses that can then be studied via prospective cohort or other studies.

Mann, C

2003-01-01

5

Reporting quality of statistical methods in surgical observational studies: protocol for systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Observational studies dominate the surgical literature. Statistical adjustment is an important strategy to account for confounders in observational studies. Research has shown that published articles are often poor in statistical quality, which may jeopardize their conclusions. The Statistical Analyses and Methods in the Published Literature (SAMPL) guidelines have been published to help establish standards for statistical reporting. This study will seek to determine whether the quality of statistical adjustment and the reporting of these methods are adequate in surgical observational studies. We hypothesize that incomplete reporting will be found in all surgical observational studies, and that the quality and reporting of these methods will be of lower quality in surgical journals when compared with medical journals. Finally, this work will seek to identify predictors of high-quality reporting. Methods/Design This work will examine the top five general surgical and medical journals, based on a 5-year impact factor (2007–2012). All observational studies investigating an intervention related to an essential component area of general surgery (defined by the American Board of Surgery), with an exposure, outcome, and comparator, will be included in this systematic review. Essential elements related to statistical reporting and quality were extracted from the SAMPL guidelines and include domains such as intent of analysis, primary analysis, multiple comparisons, numbers and descriptive statistics, association and correlation analyses, linear regression, logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard analysis, analysis of variance, survival analysis, propensity analysis, and independent and correlated analyses. Each article will be scored as a proportion based on fulfilling criteria in relevant analyses used in the study. A logistic regression model will be built to identify variables associated with high-quality reporting. A comparison will be made between the scores of surgical observational studies published in medical versus surgical journals. Secondary outcomes will pertain to individual domains of analysis. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study will explore the reporting and quality of statistical analyses in surgical observational studies published in the most referenced surgical and medical journals in 2013 and examine whether variables (including the type of journal) can predict high-quality reporting.

2014-01-01

6

Do observational studies using propensity score methods agree with randomized trials? A systematic comparison of studies on acute coronary syndromes  

PubMed Central

Aims Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions because randomization protects from biases inherent in observational studies. Propensity score (PS) methods, proposed as a potential solution to confounding of the treatment–outcome association, are widely used in observational studies of therapeutic interventions for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to systematically assess agreement between observational studies using PS methods and RCTs on therapeutic interventions for ACS. Methods and results We searched for observational studies of interventions for ACS that used PS methods to estimate treatment effects on short- or long-term mortality. Using a standardized algorithm, we matched observational studies to RCTs based on patients’ characteristics, interventions, and outcomes (‘topics’), and we compared estimates of treatment effect between the two designs. When multiple observational studies or RCTs were identified for the same topic, we performed a meta-analysis and used the summary relative risk for comparisons. We matched 21 observational studies investigating 17 distinct clinical topics to 63 RCTs (median = 3 RCTs per observational study) for short-term (7 topics) and long-term (10 topics) mortality. Estimates from PS analyses differed statistically significantly from randomized evidence in two instances; however, observational studies reported more extreme beneficial treatment effects compared with RCTs in 13 of 17 instances (P = 0.049). Sensitivity analyses limited to large RCTs, and using alternative meta-analysis models yielded similar results. Conclusion For the treatment of ACS, observational studies using PS methods produce treatment effect estimates that are of more extreme magnitude compared with those from RCTs, although the differences are rarely statistically significant.

Dahabreh, Issa J.; Sheldrick, Radley C.; Paulus, Jessica K.; Chung, Mei; Varvarigou, Vasileia; Jafri, Haseeb; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Trikalinos, Thomas A.; Kitsios, Georgios D.

2012-01-01

7

International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

Edberg, S. J.

1983-01-01

8

Are Private Schools Better Than Public Schools? Appraisal for Ireland by Methods for Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

In observational studies the assignment of units to treatments is not under control. Consequently, the estimation and comparison of treatment effects based on the empirical distribution of the responses can be biased since the units exposed to the various treatments could differ in important unknown pretreatment characteristics, which are related to the response. An important example studied in this article is the question of whether private schools offer better quality of education than public schools. In order to address this question we use data collected in the year 2000 by OECD for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Focusing for illustration on scores in mathematics of 15-years old pupils in Ireland, we find that the raw average score of pupils in private schools is higher than of pupils in public schools. However, application of a newly proposed method for observational studies suggests that the less able pupils tend to enroll in public schools, such that their lower scores is not necessarily an indication of bad quality of the public schools. Indeed, when comparing the average score in the two types of schools after adjusting for the enrollment effects, we find quite surprisingly that public schools perform better on average. This outcome is supported by the methods of instrumental variables and latent variables, commonly used by econometricians for analyzing and evaluating social programs.

Pfeffermann, Danny; Landsman, Victoria

2011-01-01

9

A mixed-methods observational study of human milk sharing communities on facebook.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: The Food and Drug Administration discourages the casual sharing of human milk because of the risk of pathogen transmission. No information is currently available on the prevalence of this practice. The purpose of this mixed-methods observational study is to describe the size and activity of online milk sharing communities. Materials and Methods: Data for 3 months were extracted from nine public Facebook pages that facilitate the exchange of human milk. The numbers of participants, interactions, and comments were analyzed. Results: We observed 954 individuals participating in milk sharing. The number of interactions per individual ranged from none to 16 (mean, 1.74±1.65). Top reasons that participants requested milk included "lactation problems" (69.4%) and "child health problems" (48.5%). Nearly half of donors were offering 100 ounces or more, which is the minimum to be eligible to donate to nonprofit milk banks. Conclusions: Milk sharing networks in the United States are active, with thousands of individuals participating in the direct exchange of raw human milk. Public health issues include increasing the supply of pasteurized donor milk for fragile infants, increasing breastfeeding support, and helping milk sharing families appropriately manage risks. PMID:24490980

Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Allen, Jonathan C; Fogleman, April

2014-04-01

10

An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity score is the probability of treatment assignment conditional on observed baseline characteristics. The propensity score allows one to design and analyze an observational (nonrandomized) study so that it mimics some of the particular characteristics of a randomized controlled trial. In particular, the propensity score is a balancing score: conditional on the propensity score, the distribution of observed baseline

Peter C. Austin

2011-01-01

11

Adaptive list sequential sampling method for population-based observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired composition. Inviting too many individuals or too few individuals from a particular subgroup could lead to unnecessary costs or decreased precision. Another problem is that there is frequently no or only partial information available about the willingness to participate. In this situation, we cannot adjust the recruitment procedure for non-participation before the recruitment period starts. Methods We have developed an adaptive list sequential sampling method that can deal with unknown participation probabilities and delayed responses to the invitation to participate in the study. In a sequential way, we evaluate whether we should invite a person from the population or not. During this evaluation, we correct for the fact that this person could decline to participate using an estimated participation probability. We use the information from all previously invited persons to estimate the participation probabilities for the non-evaluated individuals. Results The simulations showed that the adaptive list sequential sampling method can be used to estimate the participation probability during the recruitment period, and that it can successfully recruit a sample with a specific composition. Conclusions The adaptive list sequential sampling method can successfully recruit a sample with a specific desired composition when we have partial or no information about the willingness to participate before we start the recruitment period and when individuals may have a delayed response to the invitation.

2014-01-01

12

Studies of Trace Gas Chemical Cycles Using Observations, Inverse Methods and Global Chemical Transport Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For interpreting observational data, and in particular for use in inverse methods, accurate and realistic chemical transport models are essential. Toward this end we have, in recent years, helped develop and utilize a number of three-dimensional models including the Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH).

Prinn, Ronald G.

2001-01-01

13

An observational study of the nightside ionospheres of Mars and Venus with radio occultation methods  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of Mars and Venus nightside electron density profiles obtained with radio occultation methods shows how the nightside ionospheres of both planets vary with solar zenith angle. From previous studies it is known that the dayside peak electron densities at Mars and Venus show a basic similarity in that they both exhibit Chapman layer-like behavior. In contrast, the peak altitudes at mars behave like an ideal Chapman layer on the dayside, whereas the altitude of the peak at Venus is fairly constant up to the terminator. The effect of major dust storms can also be seen in the peak altitudes at Mars. All Venus nightside electron density profiles show a distinct main peak for both solar minimum and maximum, whereas many profiles from the nightside of Mars do not show any peak at all. This suggests that the electron density in the Mars nightside ionosphere is frequently too low to be detected by radio occultation. On the Pioneer Venus orbiter, disappearing ionospheres were observed near solar maximum in the in-situ data when the solar wind dynamic pressure was exceptionally high. This condition occurs because the high solar wind dynamic pressure decreases the altitude of the ionopause near the terminator below {approximately}250 km, thus reducing the normal nightward transport of dayside ionospheric plasma. On the basis of the Venus observations, one might predict that if a positive correlation of nightside peak density with dynamic pressure was found, it could mean that transport from the dayside is the only significant source for the nightside ionosphere of Mars. The lack of a correlation would imply that the precipitation source at Mars is quite variable.

Zhang, M.H.G. (Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)); Luhmann, J.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Kliore, A.J. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States))

1990-10-01

14

Are private schools better than public schools? Appraisal for Ireland by methods for observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In observational studies the assignment of units to treatments is not under control. Consequently, the estimation and comparison of treatment effects based on the empirical distribution of the responses can be biased since the units exposed to the various treatments could differ in important unknown pretreatment characteristics, which are related to the response. An important example studied in this article

Danny Pfeffermann; Victoria Landsman

2011-01-01

15

A most stubborn bias: No adjustment method fully resolves confounding by indication in observational studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of methods that control for confounding by indication, we compared breast cancer recurrence rates among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy versus those who did not. Study Design and Setting In a medical record review-based study of breast cancer treatment in older women (n=1798) diagnosed 1990-1994, our crude analysis suggested adjuvant chemotherapy was positively associated with recurrence [hazard ratio (HR)=2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.9, 3.5)]. We expected a protective effect, so postulated that the crude association was confounded by indications for chemotherapy. We attempted to adjust for this confounding by restriction, multivariable regression, propensity scores [PS], and instrumental variable [IV] methods. Results After restricting to women at high-risk for recurrence (n=946), chemotherapy was not associated with recurrence [HR=1.1 (95% CI=0.7, 1.6)] using multivariable regression. PS adjustment yielded similar results [HR=1.3 (95% CI=0.8, 2.0)]. The IV-like method yielded a protective estimate [HR=0.9; (95% CI=0.2, 4.3)]; however imbalances of measured factors across levels of the IV suggested residual confounding. Conclusion Conventional methods do not control for unmeasured factors, which often remain important when addressing confounding by indication. PS and IV analysis methods can be useful under specific situations, but neither method adequately controlled confounding by indication in this study.

Bosco, Jaclyn Lee Fong; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Geiger, Ann M.; Buist, Diana S. M.; Prout, Marianne N.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Haque, Reina; Wei, Feifei; Lash, Timothy L.

2009-01-01

16

Are There Better Methods of Monitoring MRSA Control than Bacteraemia Surveillance? An Observational Database Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a substantial burden of non-bacteraemic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disease, most MRSA surveillance schemes are based on bacteraemias. Using bacteraemia as an outcome, trends at hospital level are difficult to discern, due to random variation. We investigated rates of nosocomial bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic MRSA infection as surveillance outcomes. Methods and Findings We used microbiology and patient administration system data from an Oxford hospital to estimate monthly rates of first nosocomial MRSA bacteraemia, and nosocomial MRSA isolation from blood/respiratory/sterile site specimens (“sterile sites”) or all clinical samples (screens excluded) in all patients admitted from the community for at least 2 days between April 1998 and June 2006. During this period there were 441 nosocomial MRSA bacteraemias, 1464 MRSA isolations from sterile sites, and 3450 isolations from clinical specimens (8% blood, 15% sterile site, 10% respiratory, 59% surface swabs, 8% urine) in over 2.6 million patient-days. The ratio of bacteraemias to sterile site and all clinical isolations was similar over this period (around 3 and 8-fold lower respectively), during which rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteraemia increased by 27% per year to July 2003 before decreasing by 18% per year thereafter (heterogeneity p<0.001). Trends in sterile site and all clinical isolations were similar. Notably, a change in rate of all clinical MRSA isolations in December 2002 could first be detected with conventional statistical significance by August 2003 (p?=?0.03). In contrast, when monitoring MRSA bacteraemia, identification of probable changes in trend took longer, first achieving p<0.05 in July 2004. Conclusions MRSA isolation from all sites of suspected infection, including bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic isolation, is a potential new surveillance method for MRSA control. It occurs about 8 times more frequently than bacteraemia, allowing robust statistical determination of changing rates over substantially shorter times or smaller areas than using bacteraemia as an outcome.

Walker, Sarah; Peto, Tim E. A.; O'Connor, Lily; Crook, Derrick W.; Wyllie, David

2008-01-01

17

Combining HVSR microtremor observations with the SPAC method for site resonance study of the Tamar Valley in Launceston (Tasmania, Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SUMMARYThe presence of the deep and narrow Tamar Valley in the City of Launceston (Tasmania, Australia), in-filled with soft sediments above hard dolerite bedrock, induces a complex pattern of resonance across the city. Horizontal to vertical spectrum ratio (HVSR) microtremor <span class="hlt">observations</span> are combined with 1-D shear wave velocity (SWV) profiles evaluated from spatially averaged coherency spectra (SPAC) <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the vertical component of the microtremor wavefield to complete a site resonance <span class="hlt">study</span> in a valley environment such as the Tamar Valley. Using the methodology developed in a previous paper, 1-D SWV profiles are interpreted from <span class="hlt">observed</span> coherency spectra (axial-COH) above the deepest point of the Tamar Valley, using pairs of sensors spatially separated parallel to the valley axis. The 1-D SWV profiles interpreted at five sites suggest the depth to bedrock interface varies from approximately z= 25 m north of the city, to z= 250 m above the deepest point of the valley. Numerical simulations of the propagation of surface waves in a 2-D model representation of the Tamar Valley compare well with HVSR <span class="hlt">observations</span> recorded on two profiles transverse to the valley axis. HVSR <span class="hlt">observations</span> can identify the in-plane shear (SV) frequency of resonance above the deepest part of the valley on two separate profiles transverse to the valley axis. By computing the ellipticity curves from the preferred SWV profiles interpreted by the SPAC <span class="hlt">method</span>, the antiplane shear (SH) modes of resonance expected to develop in the Tamar Valley are identified; modes which HVSR <span class="hlt">observations</span> alone fail to locate with precision. HVSR <span class="hlt">observations</span> suggest a complex mix of 1-D and 2-D patterns of resonance develops across the valley. The results from this paper suggest that HVSR microtremor <span class="hlt">observations</span> can be combined with SPAC microtremor <span class="hlt">method</span> to characterize the geology and the pattern of resonance in a 2-D narrow structure such as the Tamar Valley.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claprood, M.; Asten, M. W.; Kristek, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6073698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of different matching <span class="hlt">methods</span> in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> and sensitivity analysis: The relation between depression and STAI-2 scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In researches where two or more groups are desired to be compared, <span class="hlt">observational</span> and randomized experiments are very frequently used. As the subjects are randomly assigned to the groups in randomized experiments, balance is provided in <span class="hlt">observed</span>\\/unobserved covariates of subjects in different groups. As the subjects cannot be randomly distributed into groups in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>, balance of <span class="hlt">observed</span>\\/unobserved covariates between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Handan Camdeviren Ankarali; Vildan Sumbuloglu; Ayse Canan Yazici; Irem Yalug; Macit Selekler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22commonality+analysis%22&pg=4&id=ED160660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explanatory <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The state of the art in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> is discussed, with emphasis on explanatory research--<span class="hlt">studies</span> of program effectiveness in which an attempt is made to explain the reasons for the results as well as describing the results. In addition to the collection of data and presentation of statistical facts, the explanatory <span class="hlt">study</span> involves the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooley, William W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4468097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">methods</span> for the simplification of mesh models of the lungs using quality indices and an <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a comparison among mesh simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span> performed through quality indices and a controlled experiment involving 32 <span class="hlt">observers</span>. The simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span>: OpenMesh, OpenMesh with a normal flipping criterion and QSlim, were compared at two simplification levels: 50% and 20% of the original number of faces. Results obtained using the quality indices and the controlled experiment were compared and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beatriz Sousa Santos; Samuel Silva; Carlos Ferreira; Joaquim Madeira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_1 div --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22BSO%22&id=EJ957805"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Measure of Children's Behavioural Style: Evidence Supporting a Multi-<span class="hlt">Method</span> Approach to <span class="hlt">Studying</span> Temperament</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">study</span> demonstrates the potential utility of the Behavioural Style <span class="hlt">Observational</span> System (BSOS) as a new <span class="hlt">observational</span> measure of children's behavioural style. The BSOS is an objective, short and easy to use measure that can be readily adapted to a variety of home and laboratory situations. In the present <span class="hlt">study</span>, 160 mother-child dyads from the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karp, Jennifer; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1742-7622-2-8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of medical treatments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Previous <span class="hlt">studies</span> have assessed the validity of the <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> design by comparing results of <span class="hlt">studies</span> using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present <span class="hlt">study</span> examined design features of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> that could have influenced these comparisons. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: To find at least 4 <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arthur Hartz; Suzanne Bentler; Mary Charlton; Douglas Lanska; Yogita Butani; G Mustafa Soomro; Kjell Benson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inclusive+AND+classrooms+AND+planning&pg=4&id=ED513013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">Observation</span> as a Decision <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Evaluating Inclusionary Classroom Participation of Children with Mild Hearing Impairment: A Pilot <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">observation</span> code was utilized to <span class="hlt">study</span> how children with mild to moderate hearing loss participate within inclusive classroom settings. Participation was considered as active engagement as well as following routines and directions. Prevalence of behavior, responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borders, Christina Marie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24033245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asian couples in negotiation: a mixed-<span class="hlt">method</span> <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of cultural variations across five Asian regions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to explore variations in how contemporary couples from five different Asian regions negotiate disagreements. Video recordings of 50 couples (10 each from Japan, Korea, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) discussing unresolved disagreements provided raw data for quantitative and qualitative analyses. First, teams of coders from each region used a common protocol to make quantitative ratings of content themes and interaction patterns for couples from their own region. An interregional panel of investigators then performed in-depth qualitative reviews for half of these cases, noting cultural differences not only in <span class="hlt">observed</span> patterns of couple behavior but also in their own perceptions of these patterns. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed clear regional differences on dimensions such as overt negativity, demand-withdraw interaction, and collaboration. The qualitative results also provided a richer, more nuanced view of other (e.g., gender-linked) conflict management patterns that the quantitative analyses did not capture. Inconsistencies between qualitative and quantitative data and between the qualitative <span class="hlt">observations</span> of investigators from different regions were most pronounced for couples from Korea and Japan, whose conflict styles were subtler and less direct than those of couples from the other regions. PMID:24033245</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Wai-Yung; Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Chung, Moon Ja; Chun, Young Ju; Fu, Meng; Liang, Shu-Chuan; Liu, Cui-Lian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3198877"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review of <span class="hlt">methods</span> used in assessing non-serious adverse drug events in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical drug trials are often conducted in selective patient populations, with relatively small numbers of patients, and a short duration of follow-up. <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> are therefore important for collecting additional information on adverse drug events (ADEs). Currently, there is no guidance regarding the methodology for measuring ADEs in such <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Our aim was to evaluate whether the methodology used to assess non-serious ADEs in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> is adequate for detecting these ADEs, and for addressing limitations from clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> reporting non-serious ADEs (1999-2008). <span class="hlt">Methods</span> to assess ADEs were classified as: 1) medical record review; 2) surveillance by health care professionals (HCP); 3) patient survey; 4) administrative data; 5) laboratory/clinical values; 6) not specified. We compared the range of ADEs identified, number and selection of patients included, and duration of follow-up. Out of 10,125 publications, 68 <span class="hlt">studies</span> met our inclusion criteria. The most common <span class="hlt">methods</span> were based on laboratory/clinical values (n = 25) and medical record review (n = 18). Solicited surveillance by HCP (n = 17) revealed the largest diversity of ADEs. Patient surveys (n = 15) focused mostly on hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal ADEs, laboratory values based <span class="hlt">studies</span> on hepatic and metabolic ADEs, and administrative database <span class="hlt">studies</span> (n = 5) on cardiovascular ADEs. Four <span class="hlt">studies</span> presented ADEs that were identified with the use of more than one <span class="hlt">method</span>. The patient population was restricted to a lower risk population in 19% of the <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Less than one third of the <span class="hlt">studies</span> exceeded pre-approval regulatory requirements for sample size and duration of follow-up. We conclude that the current assessment of ADEs is hampered by the choice of <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Many <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> rely on <span class="hlt">methods</span> that are inadequate for identifying all possible ADEs. Patient-reported outcomes and combinations of <span class="hlt">methods</span> are underutilized. Furthermore, while <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> often include unselective patient populations, many do not adequately address other limitations of pre-approval trials. This implies that these <span class="hlt">studies</span> will not provide sufficient information about ADEs to clinicians and patients. Better protocols are needed on how to assess adverse drug events not only in clinical trials but also in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19921097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Solid Solutions. I. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> of <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and Preliminary Results on the Precipitation of Iron from Copper</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper represents the first step in an extended program whose aim is the investigation of solid solutions with special reference to the structures that may be formed by heat treatment and plastic deformation. It is hoped to include eventually <span class="hlt">observations</span> in high fields (100,000 gauss) and at low temperatures. The present work deals with <span class="hlt">observations</span> up to 40,000 gauss</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Bitter; A. R. Kaufmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1939-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020264&hterms=elastic+constants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Delastic%2Bconstants"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> on some acoustic <span class="hlt">methods</span> used in <span class="hlt">studying</span> the elastic properties of metals. [resonant frequency measurements on metal beams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental setup is reported that permits very accurate measurements of the resonance frequencies of long cylindrical beams fixed in the middle and whose size can vary within wide limits. It also permits measurement of the width of the resonance curve. It is shown that the Poisson effect can be brought to light for relatively long beams and for relatively short beams. Poisson ratio, values obtained with this <span class="hlt">method</span> argue in favor of using the low frequency region for determining elastic constants of solids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velceanu, C. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......171M"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of excellence in science teaching based on a sample of outstanding science teachers: <span class="hlt">Methods</span> of teaching excellence in science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to document the teaching and learning strategies utilized by a group of science teachers, who were recipients of the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science and Math Teaching (PAESMT). Six science teachers were <span class="hlt">observed</span> in their classrooms while they were teaching. Thirty-six lessons were analyzed using a framework of categories of analysis to determine the special traits and common exceptional <span class="hlt">methods</span> that these teachers had. The findings confirmed the ones predicted by theoretical frameworks of cognitive science and current models of constructivism in teaching. The results of the <span class="hlt">study</span> supported the importance of the role of the teacher as an active agent in construction of knowledge while also providing sufficient student freedom of exploration and self-realization as needed to grow intellectually and develop skills in metacognition (e.g., reflective critical thought, and learning how to learn). Further, the analyses revealed the complementarity between the teacher's methodology and the processes of student cognition. Some misconceptions that commonly appeared among the <span class="hlt">observed</span> science students were also documented. The <span class="hlt">study</span> also explored possible <span class="hlt">methods</span> to rectify these misconceptions, based in part on prior publications and also on <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the PAESMT teachers' strategies. The results of this <span class="hlt">study</span> showed the unique <span class="hlt">methods</span> of teaching employed by PAESMT recipients to an extent that reached beyond the results of previous research, which published traits and characteristics of such teachers. This <span class="hlt">study</span> determined the common traits among these teachers and identified their common <span class="hlt">methods</span> of teaching science. The teacher's role as a facilitator was documented repeatedly among these award-winning teachers and was determined to be an integral tool for the students' successful knowledge construction and development of accurate scientific ways of thinking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazmanian, Victor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38433793"> <span id="translatedtitle">What <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> Can Offer Decision Makers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>, for example cohort and case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> in which patients are allocated treatment on a non-random basis, are thought by some investigators to be flawed. This view results from the fact that, unlike experimental <span class="hlt">methods</span> (randomized controlled trials; RCTs), the results of such <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> are vulnerable to confounding. However, this view assumes that satisfactory adjustment of differences in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nick Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.causeweb.org/repository/ACT/Experiments_Activity.doc"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> and Experiments Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity will allow students to learn the difference between <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> and experiments, with emphasis on the importance of cause-and-effect relationships. The activity will also familiarize students with key terms such as factors, treatments, retrospective and prospective <span class="hlt">studies</span>, etc. This is an easy to follow lesson plan for those teaching a course in statistics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24328711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calibrating sensitivity analyses to <span class="hlt">observed</span> covariates in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In medical sciences, statistical analyses based on <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> are common phenomena. One peril of drawing inferences about the effect of a treatment on subjects using <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> is the lack of randomized assignment of subjects to the treatment. After adjusting for measured pretreatment covariates, perhaps by matching, a sensitivity analysis examines the impact of an unobserved covariate, u, in an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. One type of sensitivity analysis uses two sensitivity parameters to measure the degree of departure of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> from randomized assignment. One sensitivity parameter relates u to treatment and the other relates u to response. For subject matter experts, it may be difficult to specify plausible ranges of values for the sensitivity parameters on their absolute scales. We propose an approach that calibrates the values of the sensitivity parameters to the <span class="hlt">observed</span> covariates and is more interpretable to subject matter experts. We will illustrate our <span class="hlt">method</span> using data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and blood lead levels. PMID:24328711</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsu, Jesse Y; Small, Dylan S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IAUS..294..503L"> <span id="translatedtitle">An intelligent <span class="hlt">method</span> for solar flare <span class="hlt">observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To capture the fine structure of the flare kernel during it's explosive phase, we design a real time flare onset detecting algorithm named Near Saturation Area Threshold(NSAT), And an automatic CCD parameters control algorithm for the <span class="hlt">observing</span> software. All the data from CCD, 48f/s, could be saved to the hard disk, and the GPS time of the flare onset also be saved in the log. These <span class="hlt">methods</span> could avoid the data overflow and grab the fine structure data of the flare kernel. The simulation experiment works well and the software will be put into use in Huairou Solar Observatory soon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Jia Ben; Guo, Juan; Deng, Yuan Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9815353"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Travelers' Diarrhea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of various medical complaints made by European travelers about their stay in areas outside Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia) was conducted. Air travelers returning from these areas between July 15 and August 16, 1992, were interviewed upon arrival at Brussels airport by means of a standardized questionnaire written up in lay language. As shown in Table 1, the total number of complaints in the adult group (>= 15 years of age, n = 5373) was 4919 and 446 in the pediatric group (n = 818). With fever as an exception, there were fewer complaints in children. Only approximately 50% of the travelers did not suffer PMID:9815353</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meuris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161318"> <span id="translatedtitle">PM(2.5) Characterization for Time Series <span class="hlt">Studies</span>: Organic Molecular Marker Speciation <span class="hlt">Methods</span> and <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from Daily Measurements in Denver.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5)) has been shown to have a wide range of adverse health effects and consequently is regulated in accordance with the US-EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. PM(2.5) originates from multiple primary sources and is also formed through secondary processes in the atmosphere. It is plausible that some sources form PM(2.5) that is more toxic than PM(2.5) from other sources. Identifying the responsible sources could provide insight into the biological mechanisms causing the <span class="hlt">observed</span> health effects and provide a more efficient approach to regulation. This is the goal of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) <span class="hlt">study</span>, a multi-year PM(2.5) source apportionment and health <span class="hlt">study</span>.The first step in apportioning the PM(2.5) to different sources is to determine the chemical make-up of the PM(2.5). This paper presents the methodology used during the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> for organic speciation of PM(2.5). Specifically, <span class="hlt">methods</span> are covered for solvent extraction of non-polar and semi-polar organic molecular markers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vast reductions in detection limits were obtained through the use of a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet along with other <span class="hlt">method</span> improvements. Results are presented for the first 1.5 years of the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> revealing seasonal and source-related patterns in the molecular markers and their long-term correlation structure. Preliminary analysis suggests that point sources are not a significant contributor to the organic molecular markers measured at our receptor site. Several motor vehicle emission markers help identify a gasoline/diesel split in the ambient data. Findings show both similarities and differences when compared with other cities where similar measurements and assessments have been made. PMID:20161318</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dutton, Steven J; Williams, Daniel E; Garcia, Jessica K; Vedal, Sverre; Hannigan, Michael P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2678721"> <span id="translatedtitle">PM2.5 Characterization for Time Series <span class="hlt">Studies</span>: Organic Molecular Marker Speciation <span class="hlt">Methods</span> and <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from Daily Measurements in Denver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) has been shown to have a wide range of adverse health effects and consequently is regulated in accordance with the US-EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards. PM2.5 originates from multiple primary sources and is also formed through secondary processes in the atmosphere. It is plausible that some sources form PM2.5 that is more toxic than PM2.5 from other sources. Identifying the responsible sources could provide insight into the biological mechanisms causing the <span class="hlt">observed</span> health effects and provide a more efficient approach to regulation. This is the goal of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) <span class="hlt">study</span>, a multi-year PM2.5 source apportionment and health <span class="hlt">study</span>. The first step in apportioning the PM2.5 to different sources is to determine the chemical make-up of the PM2.5. This paper presents the methodology used during the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> for organic speciation of PM2.5. Specifically, <span class="hlt">methods</span> are covered for solvent extraction of non-polar and semi-polar organic molecular markers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vast reductions in detection limits were obtained through the use of a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet along with other <span class="hlt">method</span> improvements. Results are presented for the first 1.5 years of the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> revealing seasonal and source-related patterns in the molecular markers and their long-term correlation structure. Preliminary analysis suggests that point sources are not a significant contributor to the organic molecular markers measured at our receptor site. Several motor vehicle emission markers help identify a gasoline/diesel split in the ambient data. Findings show both similarities and differences when compared with other cities where similar measurements and assessments have been made.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dutton, Steven J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Garcia, Jessica K.; Vedal, Sverre; Hannigan, Michael P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43.2018D"> <span id="translatedtitle">PM 2.5 characterization for time series <span class="hlt">studies</span>: Organic molecular marker speciation <span class="hlt">methods</span> and <span class="hlt">observations</span> from daily measurements in Denver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM 2.5) has been shown to have a wide range of adverse health effects and consequently is regulated in accordance with the US-EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. PM 2.5 originates from multiple primary sources and is also formed through secondary processes in the atmosphere. It is plausible that some sources form PM 2.5 that is more toxic than PM 2.5 from other sources. Identifying the responsible sources could provide insight into the biological mechanisms causing the <span class="hlt">observed</span> health effects and provide a more efficient approach to regulation. This is the goal of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) <span class="hlt">study</span>, a multi-year PM 2.5 source apportionment and health <span class="hlt">study</span>. The first step in apportioning the PM 2.5 to different sources is to determine the chemical make-up of the PM 2.5. This paper presents the methodology used during the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> for organic speciation of PM 2.5. Specifically, <span class="hlt">methods</span> are covered for solvent extraction of non-polar and semi-polar organic molecular markers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Vast reductions in detection limits were obtained through the use of a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet along with other <span class="hlt">method</span> improvements. Results are presented for the first 1.5 years of the DASH <span class="hlt">study</span> revealing seasonal and source-related patterns in the molecular markers and their long-term correlation structure. Preliminary analysis suggests that point sources are not a significant contributor to the organic molecular markers measured at our receptor site. Several motor vehicle emission markers help identify a gasoline/diesel split in the ambient data. Findings show both similarities and differences when compared with other cities where similar measurements and assessments have been made.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dutton, Steven J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Garcia, Jessica K.; Vedal, Sverre; Hannigan, Michael P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.2193/2007-293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ways of learning: <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> versus experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the <span class="hlt">observed</span> response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the <span class="hlt">observed</span> results is increased. We reviewed <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each <span class="hlt">method</span> of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Findings from <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">study</span> conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaffer, T. L.; Johnson, D. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3729713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional evaluation of postoperative swelling in treatment of zygomatic bone fractures using two different cooling therapy <span class="hlt">methods</span>: a randomized, <span class="hlt">observer</span>-blind, prospective <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Surgical treatment and complications in patients with zygomatic bone fractures can lead to a significant degree of tissue trauma resulting in common postoperative symptoms and types of pain, facial swelling and functional impairment. Beneficial effects of local cold treatment on postoperative swelling, edema, pain, inflammation, and hemorrhage, as well as the reduction of metabolism, bleeding and hematomas, have been described. The aim of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to compare postoperative cooling therapy applied through the use of cooling compresses with the water-circulating cooling face mask manufactured by Hilotherm in terms of beneficial impact on postoperative facial swelling, pain, eye motility, diplopia, neurological complaints and patient satisfaction. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Forty-two patients were selected for treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures and were divided randomly to one of two treatments: either a Hilotherm cooling face mask or conventional cooling compresses. Cooling was initiated as soon as possible after surgery until postoperative day 3 and was applied continuously for 12 hours daily. Facial swelling was quantified through a three-dimensional optical scanning technique. Furthermore, pain, neurological complaints, eye motility, diplopia and patient satisfaction were <span class="hlt">observed</span> for each patient. Results Patients receiving a cooling therapy by Hilotherm demonstrated significantly less facial swelling, less pain, reduced limitation of eye motility and diplopia, fewer neurological complaints and were more satisfied compared to patients receiving conventional cooling therapy. Conclusions Hilotherapy is more efficient in managing postoperative swelling and pain after treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures than conventional cooling. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register ID: DRKS00004846</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PEPI...28...27H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of terrestrial eigenvibrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive analysis has been made of analog and digital recordings of eigenvibration ground motion obtained following four great earthquakes; August 1976 (Philippines), August 1977 (Indonesia), September 1979 (West Irian), and December 1979 (Colombia). The time series (ranging in length from ˜28 to ˜140 h) are assumed to be linear combinations of damped harmonics in the presence of noise. Tables are calculated from values of the four parameters: ?, used in describing eigenvibrations, period of oscillation, amplitude, damping factor Q, and phase together with their statistical uncertainties (53 spheroidal modes, 0S 4to0S 48, and 13 torsional modes, 0T 8to0T 45). The estimation procedures are by the <span class="hlt">methods</span> of complex demodulation and non-linear regression that specifically incorporate into the basic model the decaying aspect of the oscillations. These <span class="hlt">methods</span>, extended to simultaneous estimations of groups of modes, help to eliminate measurement error and measurement bias from estimations of ?. The result is that overtone modes very near in frequency to fundamental modes can, under certain conditions, be resolved through a non-linear regression technique, although parameter uncertainties are underestimated in general. Of the time series analyzed, 17 were from a northern California regional network of ultra-long period seismographs at Berkeley (three components), Jamestown (vertical component), and Whiskeytown (vertical component) following the four listed earthquakes. The other 7 time series were recorded digitally by the worldwide IDA network following the 1977 Indonesian earthquake. Weighted regional and worldwide averages were made for period and Q of each eigenvibration mode. From the theoretical viewpoint, comparisons of measured period, Q, amplitude, and phase for all modes analyzed led to five conclusions. First, there are no detectable systematic shifts in period, Q, or phase of eigenvibrations within a region whose dimensions are less than a wavelength. Second, though not conclusive, there may be slight systematic shifts in period (<0.65 s) and relative amplitudes within the California regional network due to different source positions and mechanisms. Differences in Q values are not statistically significant. Third, even though differences in period obtained worldwide were as great as 1.33 s (?0.33%), differences between Q values (as great as 20%) for the same mode were not significant. The conclusion is that the damping characteristics of singlet eigenfunctions are not <span class="hlt">observed</span> to be significantly different. Fourth, the assumption that a multiplet nS l behaves as a single oscillation is valid from at least 0S 7 through 0S 30. Fifth, no systematic pattern emerged for the shift of eigenperiod as a function of order / or posit on the Earth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hansen, Roger A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basic Caenorhabditis elegans <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: Synchronization and <span class="hlt">Observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research into the molecular and developmental biology of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was begun in the early seventies by Sydney Brenner and it has since been used extensively as a model organism 1. C. elegans possesses key attributes such as simplicity, transparency and short life cycle that have made it a suitable experimental system for fundamental biological <span class="hlt">studies</span> for many years 2. Discoveries in this nematode have broad implications because many cellular and molecular processes that control animal development are evolutionary conserved 3. C. elegans life cycle goes through an embryonic stage and four larval stages before animals reach adulthood. Development can take 2 to 4 days depending on the temperature. In each of the stages several characteristic traits can be <span class="hlt">observed</span>. The knowledge of its complete cell lineage 4,5 together with the deep annotation of its genome turn this nematode into a great model in fields as diverse as the neurobiology 6, aging 7,8, stem cell biology 9 and germ line biology 10. An additional feature that makes C. elegans an attractive model to work with is the possibility of obtaining populations of worms synchronized at a specific stage through a relatively easy protocol. The ease of maintaining and propagating this nematode added to the possibility of synchronization provide a powerful tool to obtain large amounts of worms, which can be used for a wide variety of small or high-throughput experiments such as RNAi screens, microarrays, massive sequencing, immunoblot or in situ hybridization, among others. Because of its transparency, C. elegans structures can be distinguished under the microscope using Differential Interference Contrast microscopy, also known as Nomarski microscopy. The use of a fluorescent DNA binder, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), for instance, can lead to the specific identification and localization of individual cells, as well as subcellular structures/defects associated to them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Fontrodona, Laura; Villanueva, Alberto; Ceron, Julian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_2 div --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of internal noise <span class="hlt">methods</span> for Hotelling <span class="hlt">observer</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inclusion of internal noise in model <span class="hlt">observers</span> is a common <span class="hlt">method</span> to allow for quantitative comparisons between human and model <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance in visual detection tasks. In this article, we <span class="hlt">studied</span> two different strategies for inserting internal noise into Hotelling model <span class="hlt">observers</span>. In the first strategy, internal noise was added to the output of individual channels: (a) Independent nonuniform channel noise, (b) independent uniform channel noise. In the second strategy, internal noise was added to the decision variable arising from the combination of channel responses. The standard deviation of the zero mean internal noise was either constant or proportional to: (a) the decision variable's standard deviation due to the external noise, (b) the decision variable's variance caused by the external noise, (c) the decision variable magnitude on a trial to trial basis. We tested three model <span class="hlt">observers</span>: square window Hotelling <span class="hlt">observer</span> (HO), channelized Hotelling <span class="hlt">observer</span> (CHO), and Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling <span class="hlt">observer</span> (LGHO) using a four alternative forced choice (4AFC) signal known exactly but variable task with a simulated signal embedded in real x-ray coronary angiogram backgrounds. The results showed that the internal noise <span class="hlt">method</span> that led to the best prediction of human performance differed across the <span class="hlt">studied</span> model <span class="hlt">observers</span>. The CHO model best predicted human <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance with the channel internal noise. The HO and LGHO best predicted human <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance with the decision variable internal noise. The present results might guide researchers with the choice of <span class="hlt">methods</span> to include internal noise into Hotelling model <span class="hlt">observers</span> when evaluating and optimizing medical image quality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang Yani; Pham, Binh T.; Eckstein, Miguel P. [Vision and Image Understanding Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara California, 93106 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27068857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive & Adaptive MPPT Perturb and <span class="hlt">Observe</span> <span class="hlt">Method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The perturb and <span class="hlt">observe</span> (P&O) best operation conditions are investigated in order to identify the edge efficiency performances of this most popular maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique for photovoltaic (PV) applications. It is shown that P&O may guarantee top-level efficiency, provided that a proper predictive (by means of a parabolic interpolation of the last three operating points) and adaptive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Fermia; D. Granozio; G. Petrone; M. Vitelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6917E..10C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">methods</span> for analyzing location specific <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the statistical powers of three <span class="hlt">methods</span> for analyzing FROC mark-rating data, namely ROC, JAFROC and IDCA. Two classes of <span class="hlt">observers</span> were simulated: a designer-level CAD algorithm and a human <span class="hlt">observer</span>. A search-model based simulator was used with the average numbers of false positives per image ranging from 0.21 for the human <span class="hlt">observer</span> to 10 for CAD. Model parameters were chosen to yield 80% and 85% areas under the predicted ROC curves for both classes of <span class="hlt">observers</span> and inter-image and inter-modality correlations of 0.1, 0.5 and 0.9 were investigated. The area under the FROC curve up to abscissa ? (ranging from 0.18 to 6.7) was used as the IDCA figure-of-merit; the other <span class="hlt">methods</span> used their well-known figures of merit. For IDCA power increased with ? so it should be chosen as large as possible consistent with the need for overlap of the two FROC curves in the x-direction. For CAD the IDCA <span class="hlt">method</span> yielded the highest statistical power. Surprisingly, JAFROC yielded the highest statistical power for human <span class="hlt">observers</span>, even greater than IDCA which, unlike JAFROC, uses all the marks. The largest difference occurred for conservative reporting styles and high data correlation: e.g., 0.3453 for JAFROC vs. 0.2672 for IDCA. One reason is that unlike IDCA, the JAFROC figure of merit is sensitive to unmarked normal images and unmarked lesions. In all cases the ROC <span class="hlt">method</span> yielded the least statistical power and entailed a substantial statistical power penalty (e.g., 24% for ROC vs. 41% for JAFROC). For human <span class="hlt">observers</span> JAFROC should be used and for designer-level CAD data IDCA should be used and use of the ROC <span class="hlt">method</span> for localization <span class="hlt">studies</span> is discouraged.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chakraborty, D. P.; Yoon, Hong-Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32160058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retinal vessel measurement: comparison between <span class="hlt">observer</span> and computer driven <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">method</span> of semi-automated image analysis for the measurement of retinal vessel diameters is described. This was compared with an <span class="hlt">observer</span>-driven <span class="hlt">method</span> for reproducibility and accuracy. The coefficient of variation for the data from the semi-automated <span class="hlt">method</span> was 1.5–7.5% (depending on the vessel diameter) compared to 6–34% with the <span class="hlt">observer</span>-driven <span class="hlt">method</span>. The mean vessel diameters using the <span class="hlt">observer</span>-driven <span class="hlt">method</span> tended</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard S. B. Newsom; Paul M. Sullivan; Sal M. B. Rassam; Roger Jagoe; Eva M. Kohner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computerised lung sound analysis to improve the specificity of paediatric pneumonia diagnosis in resource-poor settings: protocol and <span class="hlt">methods</span> for an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction WHO case management algorithm for paediatric pneumonia relies solely on symptoms of shortness of breath or cough and tachypnoea for treatment and has poor diagnostic specificity, tends to increase antibiotic resistance. Alternatives, including oxygen saturation measurement, chest ultrasound and chest auscultation, exist but with potential disadvantages. Electronic auscultation has potential for improved detection of paediatric pneumonia but has yet to be standardised. The authors aim to investigate the use of electronic auscultation to improve the specificity of the current WHO algorithm in developing countries. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> This <span class="hlt">study</span> is designed to test the hypothesis that pulmonary pathology can be differentiated from normal using computerised lung sound analysis (CLSA). The authors will record lung sounds from 600 children aged ?5?years, 100 each with consolidative pneumonia, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, asthma, bronchiolitis, upper respiratory infections and normal lungs at a children's hospital in Lima, Peru. The authors will compare CLSA with the WHO algorithm and other detection approaches, including physical exam findings, chest ultrasound and microbiologic testing to construct an improved algorithm for pneumonia diagnosis. Discussion This <span class="hlt">study</span> will develop standardised <span class="hlt">methods</span> for electronic auscultation and chest ultrasound and compare their utility for detection of pneumonia to standard approaches. Utilising signal processing techniques, the authors aim to characterise lung sounds and through machine learning, develop a classification system to distinguish pathologic sounds. Data will allow a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of novel diagnostic techniques in paediatric pneumonia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Steinhoff, Mark; Figueroa, Dante; Rodriguez, Shalim; Caffo, Brian; Tracey, Brian; Elhilali, Mounya; West, James; Checkley, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507084.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Alternative IRT <span class="hlt">Observed</span> Score Equating <span class="hlt">Method</span>. CRESST Report 751</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this report, an alternative item response theory (IRT) <span class="hlt">observed</span> score equating <span class="hlt">method</span> was newly developed. The proposed equating <span class="hlt">method</span> was illustrated with two real data sets and the equating results were compared to those of traditional IRT true score and IRT <span class="hlt">observed</span> score equating <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Using three loss indices, the new <span class="hlt">method</span> appeared…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Taehoon; Chen, Troy T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-<span class="hlt">methods</span> <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large <span class="hlt">studies</span> examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This <span class="hlt">study</span> will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive <span class="hlt">study</span> information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1?month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this <span class="hlt">study</span> will make a significant contribution to discussions about the wider introduction of population carrier screening for FXS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=questionnaire&pg=6&id=EJ1003586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parent-Collected Behavioral <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: An Empirical Comparison of <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatments for disruptive behaviors are often guided by parent reports on questionnaires, rather than by multiple <span class="hlt">methods</span> of assessment. Professional <span class="hlt">observations</span> and clinic analogs exist to complement questionnaires, but parents can also collect useful behavioral <span class="hlt">observations</span> to inform and guide treatment. Two parent <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> of child…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nadler, Cy B.; Roberts, Mark W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/25074897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guideline development from an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – It is unknown whether data from <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> can assist guideline developers in areas where scientific evidence is lacking. The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> is to develop a local clinical guideline for prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism based on <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> results. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors performed a classification tree analysis on original data from a cross-sectional <span class="hlt">study</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Labarere; J. L. Bosson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48124255"> <span id="translatedtitle">The application of generalizability analysis to <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research in the social and behavioral sciences is relying more on records of behavior made by human <span class="hlt">observers</span> in naturalistic settings. Guidelines for these types of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> have emphasized the need to provide information on reliability. In this article, we present generalizability theory as a <span class="hlt">method</span> for designing, assessing, and improving the reliability of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George A. Marcoulides</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022198&hterms=radon+lines&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradon%2Blines"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D reconstruction <span class="hlt">methods</span> of coronal structures by radio <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability to carry out the three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of structures in the solar corona would represent a major advance in the <span class="hlt">study</span> of the physical properties in active regions and in flares. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> which allow a geometric reconstruction of quasistationary coronal structures (for example active region loops) or dynamic structures (for example flaring loops) are described: stereoscopy of multi-day imaging <span class="hlt">observations</span> by the VLA (Very Large Array); tomography of optically thin emission (in radio or soft x-rays); multifrequency band imaging by the VLA; and tracing of magnetic field lines by propagating electron beams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aschwanden, Markus J.; Bastian, T. S.; White, Stephen M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial four-alternative forced-choice <span class="hlt">method</span> is the preferred psychophysical <span class="hlt">method</span> for naïve <span class="hlt">observers</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">H. R. Blackwell (1952) investigated the influence of different psychophysical <span class="hlt">methods</span> and procedures on detection thresholds. He found that the temporal two-interval forced-choice <span class="hlt">method</span> (2-IFC) combined with feedback, blocked constant stimulus presentation with few different stimulus intensities, and highly trained <span class="hlt">observers</span> resulted in the "best" threshold estimates. This recommendation is in current practice in many psychophysical laboratories and has entered the psychophysicists' "folk wisdom" of how to run proper psychophysical experiments. However, Blackwell's recommendations explicitly require experienced <span class="hlt">observers</span>, whereas many psychophysical <span class="hlt">studies</span>, particularly with children or within a clinical setting, are performed with naïve <span class="hlt">observers</span>. In a series of psychophysical experiments, we find a striking and consistent discrepancy between naïve <span class="hlt">observers</span>' behavior and that reported for experienced <span class="hlt">observers</span> by Blackwell: Naïve <span class="hlt">observers</span> show the "best" threshold estimates for the spatial four-alternative forced-choice <span class="hlt">method</span> (4-AFC) and the worst for the commonly employed temporal 2-IFC. We repeated our <span class="hlt">study</span> with a highly experienced psychophysical <span class="hlt">observer</span>, and he replicated Blackwell's findings exactly, thus suggesting that it is indeed the difference in psychophysical experience that causes the discrepancy between our findings and those of Blackwell. In addition, we explore the efficiency of different <span class="hlt">methods</span> and show 4-AFC to be more than 3.5 times more efficient than 2-IFC under realistic conditions. While we have found that 4-AFC consistently gives lower thresholds than 2-IFC in detection tasks, we have found the opposite for discrimination tasks. This discrepancy suggests that there are large extrasensory influences on thresholds--sensory memory for IFC <span class="hlt">methods</span> and spatial attention for spatial forced-choice <span class="hlt">methods</span>--that are critical but, alas, not part of theoretical approaches to psychophysics such as signal detection theory. PMID:17209737</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jäkel, Frank; Wichmann, Felix A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..735Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">method</span> of ARGO buoys system <span class="hlt">observation</span> data interpolation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Study</span> and solution of geophysical hydrodynamics problems are based on experimental and <span class="hlt">observation</span> data from different sources. Despite large amount of <span class="hlt">observation</span> data, availability of them often remains insufficient because data are provided on sets of irregular points and during the asynchronous moments of time. In this work a new <span class="hlt">method</span> of temperature fields creation on regular grids according to <span class="hlt">observation</span> data is offered taking into account a transfer by their currents. By means of this <span class="hlt">method</span> it is possible to receive "pseudo-<span class="hlt">observations</span>" for the required moment of time and, thereby, to solve a problem of an asynchronism of geophysical information. The results of numerical experiments on the World Ocean area within ARGO buoys system data are given. This <span class="hlt">study</span> was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-01-12046, 12-05-00469) and by the Russian Federal target Program "Research and educational human resources for innovative Russia" (project 8219) for 2009-2013 and the Federal target program "Researches and development in priority fields of scientific and technological complex of Russia for 2007-2013" (project 11.519.11.1005) and the Ministry of education and science of Russia, project 14.A18.21.1901. References 1. Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new <span class="hlt">method</span> of ARGO buoys system <span class="hlt">observation</span> data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 2. Agoshkov V.I., Zakharova N.B., The creation of piecewise - harmonic interpolation on spherical surfaces. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 27, Issue 6, 2012. 3. Zakharova N.B., Lebedev S.A., Interpolation of on-line data of the ARGO buoys system for data assimilation in the World ocean circulation model. Actual problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space: Principal physics, physical <span class="hlt">methods</span> and technologies for monitoring of environment, of potentially dangerous occurrences and objects. The proceedings. Vol. 7. No. 4. 2010. (In russian)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3441253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do the <span class="hlt">methods</span> used to analyse missing data really matter? An examination of data from an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of Intermediate Care patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Missing data is a common statistical problem in healthcare datasets from populations of older people. Some argue that arbitrarily assuming the mechanism responsible for the missingness and therefore the <span class="hlt">method</span> for dealing with this missingness is not the best option—but is this always true? This paper explores what happens when extra information that suggests that a particular mechanism is responsible for missing data is disregarded and <span class="hlt">methods</span> for dealing with the missing data are chosen arbitrarily. Regression models based on 2,533 intermediate care (IC) patients from the largest evaluation of IC done and published in the UK to date were used to explain variation in costs, EQ-5D and Barthel index. Three <span class="hlt">methods</span> for dealing with missingness were utilised, each assuming a different mechanism as being responsible for the missing data: complete case analysis (assuming missing completely at random—MCAR), multiple imputation (assuming missing at random—MAR) and Heckman selection model (assuming missing not at random—MNAR). Differences in results were gauged by examining the signs of coefficients as well as the sizes of both coefficients and associated standard errors. Results Extra information strongly suggested that missing cost data were MCAR. The results show that MCAR and MAR-based <span class="hlt">methods</span> yielded similar results with sizes of most coefficients and standard errors differing by less than 3.4% while those based on MNAR-<span class="hlt">methods</span> were statistically different (up to 730% bigger). Significant variables in all regression models also had the same direction of influence on costs. All three mechanisms of missingness were shown to be potential causes of the missing EQ-5D and Barthel data. The <span class="hlt">method</span> chosen to deal with missing data did not seem to have any significant effect on the results for these data as they led to broadly similar conclusions with sizes of coefficients and standard errors differing by less than 54% and 322%, respectively. Conclusions Arbitrary selection of <span class="hlt">methods</span> to deal with missing data should be avoided. Using extra information gathered during the data collection exercise about the cause of missingness to guide this selection would be more appropriate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mechanics.citg.tudelft.nl/heron/50-3/2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geotechnical applications and conditions of the <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information <span class="hlt">observed</span> during construction can be used to optimise the remaining parts of the construction or structure. In this article general conditions are indicated for the implementation of the <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Method</span> in geotechnical engineering. The most important condition is that the uncertain field condition (the <span class="hlt">observational</span> data) must be clear to measure. For example in case of a brittle soil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Van Baars; J. K. Vrijling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58723357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring agreement between rating interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation <span class="hlt">study</span> of <span class="hlt">methods</span> for quantifying the clinical relevance of an <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance paradigm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) <span class="hlt">studies</span>, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC <span class="hlt">study</span>. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dev P Chakraborty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880969"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Evaluation of the DIABOBHU <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: The authors present and analyze the outcome of DIABOBHU <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. The work was carried out in Hungarian type 2 diabetic patients whose treatment was insufficient with oral antidiabetic agents. Aim: The safety and efficacy of glargine insulin added to oral antidiabetic therapy treatment was evaluated. <span class="hlt">Method</span>: Between 2008 and 2011 3955 patients were enrolled. After proper education, patients titrated the insulin dosage under self-monitoring with the help of their attending physicians. During the 26-week <span class="hlt">study</span> period 3 visits were included. The primary endpoint was the change of HbA1c. The secondary endpoints were fasting glucose levels, dose of insulin, body weight and body mass index, satisfaction of the patients with the treatment and the incidence of hypoglycemic events. Results: During the <span class="hlt">study</span> mean HbA1c decreased from 8.94% to 7.31%. Most patients achieved the glycemic goals with very low frequency of hypoglycemia. The patients did not gain weight and were satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: The authors emphasize that this treatment based on an analogue basal insulin should be considered as an effective and safe therapy. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(23), 903-910. PMID:24880969</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaál, Zsolt; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Bakó, Barnabás</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2550229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Qualitative research: <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> in health care settings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinicians used to <span class="hlt">observing</span> individual patients, and epidemiologists trained to <span class="hlt">observe</span> the course of disease, may be forgiven for misunderstanding the term <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> as used in qualitative research. In contrast to the clinician or epidemiologist, the qualitative researcher systematically watches people and events to find out about behaviours and interactions in natural settings. <span class="hlt">Observation</span>, in this sense, epitomises the idea of the researcher as the research instrument. It involves "going into the field"--describing and analysing what has been seen. In health care settings this <span class="hlt">method</span> has been insightful and illuminating, but it is not without pitfalls for the unprepared researcher. Images p183-a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mays, N.; Pope, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1994R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compositing radar reflectivity <span class="hlt">observations</span> with an inverse <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) has been one of the main applications of weather radars since its early stages. Nowadays, many advances have improved such estimates and radar networks have been deployed in many countries. In parallel, uncertainty in radar QPE has become a subject of interest by itself because of its significant role in the quality of estimates. When several radars cover the same area, some sources of uncertainty (e.g. path attenuation by intense precipitation, beam blockage or beam broadening), can be dealt using information from the least-affected radars instead of only reproducing a single radar approach in each one. So far, composites of radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> are carried out through simple criteria (by picking the closest <span class="hlt">observation</span>, the maximum value…) or quality indices -that need a priori definition of quality descriptors. This <span class="hlt">study</span> proposes an alternative methodology to retrieve the 3-dimensional reflectivity field most compatible with the measurements from the different radars of the network. With this aim, the methodology uses a model that simulates the radar sampling of the atmosphere. The model settings consider the specific features of each radar such as the location, hardware parameters (frequency, beam width, pulse length…) and scanning strategy. The methodology follows the concept of an inverse <span class="hlt">method</span> based on the minimization of a cost function that penalizes discrepancies between the simulated and actual <span class="hlt">observations</span> for each radar of the network. It is worth noting that for radar at attenuating wavelengths, the proposed methodology implicitly corrects the effect of attenuation due to intense rainfall. The methodology has been applied on the network of C-band radars in the vicinity of Barcelona, Spain. The retrievals have been obtained for a 12 hours of rainfall with reflectivity <span class="hlt">observations</span> of two radars; <span class="hlt">observations</span> from a third independent radar have been used for verification at different heights. Conventional techniques have been also applied to compare its results with the ones of the proposed <span class="hlt">method</span>. We analyzed some characteristics such as the vertical structure or the performance in attenuated regions. Different statistics have been computed to quantitatively assess the performance of the different <span class="hlt">methods</span>; also, the spatial structure of the retrieved fields has been analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roca-Sancho, Jordi; Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24440745"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> for <span class="hlt">studying</span> oogenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the <span class="hlt">study</span> of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key <span class="hlt">methods</span> for research in oogenesis. PMID:24440745</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_3 div --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=231188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community Engagement in <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Human Exposure <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although <span class="hlt">observational</span> human exposure <span class="hlt">studies</span> do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030091492&hterms=efficiency+index+stress+ratio+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Defficiency%2Bindex%2Bstress%2Bratio%2Bdesign"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Numerical Climate <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Network Design <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate <span class="hlt">observing</span> system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing <span class="hlt">observations</span> of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate <span class="hlt">observing</span> system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an <span class="hlt">observing</span> system is that of the sampling density required to <span class="hlt">observe</span> climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate <span class="hlt">observing</span> system. As part of this project we <span class="hlt">studied</span> the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model <span class="hlt">study</span> in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design <span class="hlt">study</span> is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal <span class="hlt">observations</span> for variational data assimilation".</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stammer, Detlef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32967800"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much of biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a <span class="hlt">study</span>'s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57414476"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a <span class="hlt">study</span>'s generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik von Elm; Douglas G Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J Pocock; Peter C Gøtzsche; Jan P Vandenbroucke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31015847"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a <span class="hlt">study</span>'s generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5276988"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a <span class="hlt">study</span>'s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemi- ology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart J Pocock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53891541"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globular Cluster Tidal Streams: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and of our Galaxy. Recent <span class="hlt">studies</span> have used photometric and statistical subtraction <span class="hlt">methods</span> to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead as our primary <span class="hlt">method</span> to use photometry to select blue</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William L. Powell; A. Lauchner; R. Wilhelm; A. McWilliam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PASJ...52..127U"> <span id="translatedtitle">A General <span class="hlt">Method</span> for the Analysis of <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A general <span class="hlt">method</span> for constructing the science of a complex system from <span class="hlt">observational</span> data has been developed from the view point of mathematical epistemology. A complete description of an <span class="hlt">observed</span> system is achieved by establishing a large number of addresses under which all of the data are systematically arranged and by adopting an embedding dimension (number of variables to describe the system) appropriately for the complexity of the system. The variables are then normalized, and descriptive principal-component analyses (DESPCA) are performed to describe the system. Then, the addition of time derivatives (or variables of describing law) to the set of PCA's of the previous DESPCA provides an extended data set to be applied to a dynamical principal-component analysis (DYNPCA) which follows. The advantage of DYNPCA lies, among others, in a systematic improvement of the system used for analysis and in a quantitative estimation of the uncertainty of the differential equation of the dynamical system (or of the law) determined from the minimum eigen-value of the DYNPCA. As a simple application of the DYNPCA, the distance determination of mass-losing super-giants considered in a previous <span class="hlt">study</span> is re-discussed from the point of view of methodology. The traditional use of classification in empirical sciences is found to be well adaptable in cooperation with the DYNPCA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Unno, Wasaburo; Yuasa, Manabu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5541117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract: Much biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses,and of a <span class="hlt">study’s</span> generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemi- ology (STROBE) Initiative developed,recommendations,on what should,be included,in an accurate and,complete,report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothwell; Bhatia; Erik von Elm; Matthias Egger; Douglas G. Altman; Stuart J. Pocock; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jan P. Vandenbroucke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marriott&pg=3&id=ED346757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Workplace Education Initiative: Case <span class="hlt">Studies</span> and <span class="hlt">Observations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general <span class="hlt">observations</span> and specific information in case <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Astrein, Bruce; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840667"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observer</span> ratings of neighborhoods: comparison of two <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Although neighborhood characteristics have important relationships with health outcomes, direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> involves imperfect measurement. The African American Health (AAH) <span class="hlt">study</span> included two <span class="hlt">observer</span> neighborhood rating systems (5-item Krause and 18-item AAH Neighborhood Assessment Scale [NAS]), initially fielded at two different waves. Good measurement characteristics were previously shown for both, but there was more rater variability than desired. In 2010 both measures were re-fielded together, with enhanced training and field <span class="hlt">methods</span> implemented to decrease rater variability while maintaining psychometric properties. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> AAH included a poor inner city and more heterogeneous suburban areas. Four interviewers rated 483 blocks, with 120 randomly-selected blocks rated by two interviewers. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis of scales and tested the Krause (5-20 points), AAH 18-item NAS (0-28 points), and a previous 7-item and new 5-item versions of the NAS (0-17 points, 0-11 points). Retest reliability for items (kappa) and scales (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC]) were calculated overall and among pre-specified subgroups. Linear regression assessed interviewer effects on total scale scores and assessed concurrent validity on lung and lower body functions. Mismeasurement effects on self-rated health were also assessed. Results Scale scores were better in the suburbs than in the inner city. ICC was poor for the Krause scale (ICC=0.19), but improved if the retests occurred within 10 days (ICC=0.49). The 7- and 5-item NAS scales had better ICCs (0.56 and 0.62, respectively), and were higher (0.71 and 0.73) within 10 days. Rater variability for the Kraus and 5- and 7-item NAS scales was 1-3 points (compared to the supervising rater). Concurrent validity was modest, with residents living in worse neighborhood conditions having worse function. Unadjusted estimates were biased towards the null compared with measurement-error corrected estimates. Conclusions Enhanced field protocols and rater training did not improve measurement quality. Specifically, retest reliability and interviewer variability remained problematic. Measurement error partially reduced, but did not eliminate concurrent validity, suggesting there are robust associations between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes. We conclude that the 5-item AAH NAS has sufficient reliability and validity for further use. Additional research on the measurement properties of environmental rating <span class="hlt">methods</span> is encouraged.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26631651"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> excavation control <span class="hlt">method</span> for adjacent mountain tunnels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> excavation control <span class="hlt">method</span> for a mountain tunnel excavated adjacent to an existing tunnel in active service is presented. The new and existing tunnels both having a width of 11.7 m was separated from each other by a distance of 20 m. Besides the small pillar width, a fracture zone with clayey material due to hydrothermal alteration, which would</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takeshi Asano; Mototsugu Ishihara; Yasuaki Kiyota; Hiroyuki Kurosawa; Seiji Ebisu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hr86874568r5002n.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Value of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Endocrinology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the pantheon of information sources about what works in medicine and what does not, the place of honor goes to randomized\\u000a controlled clinical trials (RCTs). A particularly important aspect is the ability to neutralize, by random assignment of the\\u000a intervention, any unmeasured and unknown determinants of the disease outcome in the treated and untreated groups. <span class="hlt">Observational</span>\\u000a <span class="hlt">studies</span> do not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Joseph Melton III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......276K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobile vehicle road and weather <span class="hlt">observation</span> quality check <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Today State Departments of Transportation rely more and more on road weather data to make maintenance decisions. Inaccurate data can result in wrong treatment applications or inadequate staffing levels to maintain the roadway at the desired level of service. Previous <span class="hlt">methods</span> of road condition data reporting have been limited to static in situ sensor stations. These road weather information systems (RWIS) provide varied data about precipitation, winds, temperature, and more, but their siting does not always provide an accurate representation of weather and road conditions along the roadway. The use of mobile data collection from vehicles travelling the highway corridors may assist in the locations where RWIS sitings are sparse or non-existent. The United States Department of Transporation's "Connected Vehicle" (formally IntelliDrive) research project is designed to create a fully connected transportation system providing road and weather data collection from an extensive array of vehicles. While the implementation of Connected Vehicle is in the future, some of the theories and technologies are already in place today. Several states, as a part of the Pooled Fund <span class="hlt">Study</span> Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS), have equipped their winter maintenance vehicles with Mobile Data Collection Automated / Vehicle Location (MDC/AVL) systems. In addition, since 1996, automobiles sold in the United States are required to be equipped with an Onboard Diagnostic Version 2 (OBDII) port that streams live data from sensors located in and around the vehicle. While these sensors were designed for vehicle diagnostics, some of the data can be used to determine weather characteristics around the vehicle. The OBDII data can be collected by a smartphone and sent to a server in real time to be processed. These mobile systems may fill the information gap along the roads that stationary environmental sensor stations are not able to collect. Particular concern and care needs to be focused on data quality and accuracy, requiring the development of quality checks for mobile data collection. Using OBDII-equipped automobiles and mobile collection <span class="hlt">methods</span>, we can begin to address issues of data quality by understanding, characterizing, and demonstrating the quality of mobile system <span class="hlt">observations</span> from operational and research environments. Several forms of quality checking can be used, including range checks, Barnes spatial checks, comparing vehicle data to road weather models, and applying Clarus quality check methodologies and algorithms to mobile <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Development of these quality checks can lead to the future integration of mobile data into the Clarus system, data implementation for improved forecasting, maintenance decision support, and traveler safety. This paper will discuss the benefits and challenges in mobile data collection, along with how the development and implementation of a system of quality checks will improve the quality and accuracy of mobile data collection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koller, Daniel Raymond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT.......246M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">Methods</span> of <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Magnons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The primary objectives of this thesis are the investigation of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the design and construction of advanced techniques for the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons, surface magneto -plasmon-polaritons and surface magnons. They involve on -line <span class="hlt">observation</span> of these phenomena and to accomplish these goals, analytical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the characteristic behaviour of these phenomena have been undertaken. For excitations of surface plasmon- and surface magneto-plasmon-polaritons the most robust and conventional configuration, namely Prism-Medium-Air, coupled to a novel angle scan (prism spinning) <span class="hlt">method</span> was employed. The system to be described here can automatically measure the reflectivity of a multilayer system over a range of angles that includes the resonance angle in an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) experiment. The computer procedure that controls the system is quite versatile so that it allows any right-angle prism of different angle or refractive index to be utilised. It also provided probes to check for optical alignment within the system. Moreover, it performs the angular scan many times and then averages the results in order to reduce the environmental and other possible sources of noise within the system. The mechanical side of the system is unique and could eventually be adopted as a marketable piece of equipment. It consists of a turntable for holding the prism-sample assembly and a drive motor in conjunction with a servo-potentiometer whose output not only operates the turntable but also sends a signal to a computer to measure accurately its position. The interface unit enables a computer to control automatically an angular scan ATR experiment for measuring the resonance reflectivity spectrum of a multilayer system. The interface unit uses an H-bridge switch formed by four bipolar power transistor and two small signal MOSFETs to convert the digital signal from the computer into a voltage drive for the motor. Surface plasmon-polaritons can become surface magneto-plasmon-polaritons in the presence of an external magnetic field. The metal used for this purpose was a nickel film. <span class="hlt">Observation</span> of these effects permits a measurement of certain magneto-optical coefficients that are potentially of technological importance. The mechanical side of the surface plasmon (zero field) equipment was redesigned and reconstructed for the excitation and <span class="hlt">observation</span> of surface magneto-plasmon polaritons. The final part of the thesis is concerned with excitation of magneto-static waves (MSW) and their <span class="hlt">observation</span> by Brillouin light scattering. Optical set up has been designed that can be used for simultaneous forward and backscattering geometries. This was then used with a multiple pass advanced Fabry-Perot interferometer together with a conventional multichannel analyser to <span class="hlt">observe</span> MSW. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moghaddam, Abolghasem Mobaraki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770009162&hterms=taylor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dj.%2Br.%2Btaylor"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Earth <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System Instrumentation <span class="hlt">Study</span> (aeosis)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various types of measurements were <span class="hlt">studied</span> for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4083571"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and interventional <span class="hlt">study</span> design types; an overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The appropriate choice in <span class="hlt">study</span> design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many <span class="hlt">study</span> designs to choose from within two broad categories of <span class="hlt">observational</span> and interventional <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct <span class="hlt">study</span> conclusions. <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> designs, also called epidemiologic <span class="hlt">study</span> designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive <span class="hlt">methods</span>. <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> is diagnostic <span class="hlt">study</span> designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional <span class="hlt">studies</span> are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each <span class="hlt">study</span> design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each <span class="hlt">study</span> design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the <span class="hlt">study</span>. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of <span class="hlt">study</span> design types, strengths and weaknesses of common <span class="hlt">observational</span> and interventional <span class="hlt">study</span> designs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thiese, Matthew S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS3039.1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globally Gridded Satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> for climate <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth <span class="hlt">observations</span> since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate <span class="hlt">studies</span> has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of <span class="hlt">observations</span> back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, <span class="hlt">studies</span> of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knapp, K. R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C. L.; Bourassa, M. A.; Dickinson, M. J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C. N.; Hennon, C. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Huffman, G. J.; Kossin, J. P.; Lee, H. -T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS41D1847K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Study</span> of ENSO Using Satellite <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> within the last 1 to 1.5 decades indicate that the El Niño warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have peaked more often in the central Pacific than in the eastern Pacific. The advection of the eastern edge of western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) plays an important role modulating the SST in the central Pacific, and satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> provide high-resolution information to understand the dynamics in this area. The Aquarius satellite data resolves much more detailed structures of the salinity front (SF) along the eastern edge of WPWP than the in situ <span class="hlt">observations</span> (i.e. Argo). Together with zonal currents from Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-Time product (OSCAR), we calculate the advection of the SF at the equator, which is important for three reasons: First, the advection of the SF affects formation the barrier layer (BL), which can further influence the behavior of ENSO. Second, the east-west SF migration is a prominent feature of ENSO variability. For example, during the 2011 La Niña, the salinity front was advected westward, resulting in much higher salinity in the western Pacific compared to the neutral year in 2012. Third, we can analyze how the ocean compensates for the large vertical net freshwater flux (~3 m yr-1) into the warm pool region using simple salt budget analysis. During the boreal fall, Aquarius reveals the strong SF in line with the north-south zonal bounds of the whole Pacific ITCZ rain band centered at about 8-10°N, which is also aligned with boundaries between the zonal equatorial current and counter current. At the same time, the thick barrier layers underneath the ITCZ are also <span class="hlt">observed</span>. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we apply the first two+ years (25 August 2011 - present) of Aquarius data to describe the correlations among the SF, surface currents, precipitation and the BL in the whole tropical Pacific basin, and discuss findings in the context of ENSO prediction and model comparisons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED233940.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Journalistic <span class="hlt">Observation</span> as a Qualitative Research <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Sociology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison is made between the tools of <span class="hlt">observation</span> and research used by journalists to <span class="hlt">study</span> society and the media, and the qualitative and clinical research tools used in the social and psychological sciences. The first part of the paper, a journalistic approach to sociology, traces the notion of the sociologist as a super-reporter using…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burd, Gene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_4 div --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19690000504&hterms=plastic+bags&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dplastic%2Bbags"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observing</span> gas evolution during plastic laminate cure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polyimide, phenolic, and other resins which develop volatiles during laminating or molding cure are <span class="hlt">studied</span> using optimum cure cycles. The specimen is placed on a platen and sealed in a plastic bag, then heated and <span class="hlt">observed</span> for gas evolution using a binocular microscope. A cover plate is added to sumulate an autoclave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholls, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47336751"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening the reporting of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Poor reporting of research hampers assessment and makes it less useful. An international group of methodologists, researchers, and journal editors sets out guidelines to improve reports of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik von Elm; Douglas G Altman; Matthias Egger; Stuart J Pocock; Jan P Vandenbroucke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56795290"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some <span class="hlt">Observations</span> on the Formvar Replica <span class="hlt">Method</span>, with a Note on Glass Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">study</span> of the capabilities and limitations of the Formvar replica <span class="hlt">method</span> has been made with more particular reference to shadow cast Formvar replicas. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> have been made on the dependence of the deduced surface structure on the <span class="hlt">method</span> of replication of the surface and the <span class="hlt">method</span> of shadow casting the replica. The most suitable thickness of Formvar and evaporated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beatrice M. Deacon; S. G. Ellis; W. G. Cross; R. S. Sennett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1948-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SoPh..289.1403T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applying an Automatic Image-Processing <span class="hlt">Method</span> to Synoptic <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used an automatic image-processing <span class="hlt">method</span> to detect solar-activity features <span class="hlt">observed</span> in white light at the Kislovodsk Solar Station. This technique was applied to automatically or semi-automatically detect sunspots and active regions. The results of this automated recognition were verified with statistical data available from other observatories and revealed a high detection accuracy. We also provide parameters of sunspot areas, of the umbra, and of faculae as <span class="hlt">observed</span> in Solar Cycle 23 as well as the magnetic flux of these active elements, calculated at the Kislovodsk Solar Station, together with white-light images and magnetograms from the Michaelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/MDI). The ratio of umbral and total sunspot areas during Solar Cycle 23 is ? 0.19. The area of sunspots of the leading polarity was approximately 2.5 times the area of sunspots of the trailing polarity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tlatov, Andrey G.; Vasil'eva, Valeria V.; Makarova, Valentina V.; Otkidychev, Pavel A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10156538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reported Significant <span class="hlt">Observation</span> (RSO) <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Revision 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Reported Significant <span class="hlt">Observation</span> (RSO) <span class="hlt">study</span> used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant <span class="hlt">Observations</span>.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eicher, R.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41C1740M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of acoustic <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> for seafloor hydrothermal flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. Acoustic video camera "DIDSON" was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. We could identify shadings inside the acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Silhouettes of the hydrothermal plumes varied from second to second, and the shadings inside them also varied. These variations corresponded to internal structures and flows of the plumes. DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. Ins. of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo has understood DIDSON's superior performance and tried to develop a new <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. The proposed <span class="hlt">method</span> to <span class="hlt">observe</span> and measure hydrothermal flow is the one to utilize a sheet-like acoustic beam. Scanning with concentrated acoustic beam gives distances to the edges of the hydrothermal flows. And then, the shapes of the flows can be identified even in low and zero visibility conditions. Tank experiment was conducted. The purposes of this experiment were to make an attempt at proposed <span class="hlt">method</span> to delineate underwater hydrothermal flows and to understand relationships among acoustic video image, flow rate and water temperature. Water was heated in the hot tub and pumped to the water tank through the silicon tube. We <span class="hlt">observed</span> water flows discharging from the tip of the tube with DIDSON. Flow rate had been controlled and temperatures of the discharging water and background water had been measured. 3D images of flows in the tank could be reconstructed with the proposed <span class="hlt">method</span>. We will report the overview of the tank experiments, and discuss possibility of DIDSON as an <span class="hlt">observation</span> tool for seafloor hydrothermal activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mochizuki, M.; Tamura, H.; Asada, A.; Kinoshita, M.; Tamaki, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891514"> <span id="translatedtitle">BAYESIAN SHRINKAGE <span class="hlt">METHODS</span> FOR PARTIALLY <span class="hlt">OBSERVED</span> DATA WITH MANY PREDICTORS*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by the increasing use of and rapid changes in array technologies, we consider the prediction problem of fitting a linear regression relating a continuous outcome Y to a large number of covariates X, eg measurements from current, state-of-the-art technology. For most of the samples, only the outcome Y and surrogate covariates, W, are available. These surrogates may be data from prior <span class="hlt">studies</span> using older technologies. Owing to the dimension of the problem and the large fraction of missing information, a critical issue is appropriate shrinkage of model parameters for an optimal bias-variance tradeoff. We discuss a variety of fully Bayesian and Empirical Bayes algorithms which account for uncertainty in the missing data and adaptively shrink parameter estimates for superior prediction. These <span class="hlt">methods</span> are evaluated via a comprehensive simulation <span class="hlt">study</span>. In addition, we apply our <span class="hlt">methods</span> to a lung cancer dataset, predicting survival time (Y) using qRT-PCR (X) and microarray (W) measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boonstra, Philip S.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy MG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40..853B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">method</span> for rainfall estimation through soil moisture <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rainfall and soil moisture, SM, are two important quantities for modeling the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere. Usually, rainfall <span class="hlt">observations</span> are used as input data for modeling the time evolution of SM within hydrological and land surface models. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, by inverting the soil-water balance equation, a simple analytical relationship for estimating rainfall accumulations from the knowledge of SM time series is obtained. In situ and satellite SM <span class="hlt">observations</span> from three different sites in Italy, Spain, and France are used to test the reliability of the proposed approach in contrasting climatic conditions. The results show that the model is able to satisfactorily reproduce daily rainfall data when in situ SM <span class="hlt">observations</span> are employed (correlation coefficient, R, nearly equal to 0.9). Furthermore, also by using satellite data reasonable results are obtained in reproducing 4 day rainfall accumulations with R-values close to 0.8. Based on these preliminary results, the proposed approach can be adopted conveniently to improve rainfall estimation at a catchment scale and as a supplementary source of data to estimate rainfall at a global scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Wagner, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890065292&hterms=inertial+navigation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinertial%2Bnavigation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observability</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of inertial navigation systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work deals with an undamped three-channel inertial-navigation-system error model. It is shown that it is possible to fully <span class="hlt">observe</span>, and thus estimate, all the states of the system. This is in contrast to a previous two-channel system, in which it was impossible to fully <span class="hlt">observe</span> and estimate all the states of the system. The conclusions of the analysis are verified through covariance simulation, which yields identical results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Goshen-Meskin, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36831307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Methods</span> in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Implications for Diagnosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reviewed 39 empirical <span class="hlt">studies</span> in which direct <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> were used to assess children in whom attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had been diagnosed. Classroom <span class="hlt">studies</span> distinguished ADHD children from comparison groups better than laboratory <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Behaviors that most consistently distinguished ADHD children from comparison groups included measures of attention, activity, and vocalization. Suggests ways to improve the efficiency and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kathleen A. Platzman; Mary R. Stoy; Ronald T. Brown; Claire D. Coles; Iris E. Smith; Arthur Falek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880005157&hterms=patras&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpatras"> <span id="translatedtitle">A processing <span class="hlt">method</span> and results of meteor shower radar <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Studies</span> of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective <span class="hlt">method</span> of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This <span class="hlt">method</span> and its results are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921732"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of artefacts in the x-ray ptychography <span class="hlt">method</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffraction imaging <span class="hlt">method</span>, was used to reconstruct images of a "Siemens star" test pattern with amplitude and phase contrast. While <span class="hlt">studying</span> how the use of illumination with an increased bandwidth results in clear improvements in the quality of image reconstructions, we found that an artificial change in the overall distance scale factor of the algorithm leads to a systematic response in the image, which is reproduced with an incorrect number of spokes. This pathology is explained by the conflict between the length scales set by the scan and by the diffraction patterns on the detector. PMID:24921732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burdet, Nicolas; Morrison, Graeme R; Huang, Xiaojing; Shi, Xiaowen; Clark, Jesse N; Zhang, Fucai; Civita, Maria; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23648805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the impact of database heterogeneity on <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical <span class="hlt">studies</span> that use <span class="hlt">observational</span> databases to evaluate the effects of medical products have become commonplace. Such <span class="hlt">studies</span> begin by selecting a particular database, a decision that published papers invariably report but do not discuss. <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of the same issue in different databases, however, can and do generate different results, sometimes with strikingly different clinical implications. In this paper, we systematically <span class="hlt">study</span> heterogeneity among databases, holding other <span class="hlt">study</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> constant, by exploring relative risk estimates for 53 drug-outcome pairs and 2 widely used <span class="hlt">study</span> designs (cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> and self-controlled case series) across 10 <span class="hlt">observational</span> databases. When holding the <span class="hlt">study</span> design constant, our analysis shows that estimated relative risks range from a statistically significant decreased risk to a statistically significant increased risk in 11 of 53 (21%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a cohort design and 19 of 53 (36%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a self-controlled case series design. This exceeds the proportion of pairs that were consistent across databases in both direction and statistical significance, which was 9 of 53 (17%) for cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> and 5 of 53 (9%) for self-controlled case series. Our findings show that clinical <span class="hlt">studies</span> that use <span class="hlt">observational</span> databases can be sensitive to the choice of database. More attention is needed to consider how the choice of data source may be affecting results. PMID:23648805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madigan, David; Ryan, Patrick B; Schuemie, Martijn; Stang, Paul E; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Suchard, Marc A; DuMouchel, William; Berlin, Jesse A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8319186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Land <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Data System Feasibility <span class="hlt">Study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Prog...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Buckley H. Kraiman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.2193%2F2008-036+;+http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.2193%2F2008-036"> <span id="translatedtitle">A double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our <span class="hlt">study</span> in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat <span class="hlt">observers</span> immediately following an <span class="hlt">observation</span> by the rear-seat <span class="hlt">observer</span> (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including <span class="hlt">observer</span>, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included <span class="hlt">observer</span> effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate <span class="hlt">observer</span>-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-<span class="hlt">observers</span>, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat <span class="hlt">observers</span>, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat <span class="hlt">observers</span>. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of <span class="hlt">observer</span>-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated <span class="hlt">observer</span>-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-<span class="hlt">observer</span>, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat <span class="hlt">observer</span>, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat <span class="hlt">observer</span>. Estimated <span class="hlt">observer</span> detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an <span class="hlt">observer</span>, because <span class="hlt">observers</span> did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl surveys where birds are distributed at low density in remote areas that are inaccessible by ground crews. Double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span>, however, estimate only detection rate of animals that are potentially <span class="hlt">observable</span> given the survey <span class="hlt">method</span> applied. Auxiliary data and <span class="hlt">methods</span> must be considered to estimate overall detection rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. A.; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/22/7/1986.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation: a French multicentre <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM)—a common complication of kidney transplantation—is associated with increases in graft loss, morbidity and mortality. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>. This is a purely <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of 527 patients taking a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), based on data collected at a single routine visit 6-24 months after kidney transplantation. Diabetes was defined according to ADA\\/WHO guidelines. Results. The mean age of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nassim Kamar; Christophe Mariat; Michel Delahousse; Jacques Dantal; Azmi Al Najjar; Elisabeth Cassuto; Nicole Lefrancois; Olivier Cointault; Guy Touchard; Florence Villemain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ejbrm.com/vol7/v7-i1/iacono_et_al.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research <span class="hlt">Methods</span> - a Case Example of Participant <span class="hlt">Observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the role of the researcher as a participant <span class="hlt">observer</span> and reflective practitioner. The paper aims to assess the benefits and limitations of participant <span class="hlt">observation</span>, and offer guidance as to how to manage the challenges inherent in this technique. The paper draws on the lead author's experience as a participant <span class="hlt">observer</span> when working on her doctoral thesis: 'Factors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jessica Iacono; Ann Brown; Clive Holtham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020052386&hterms=IL2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DIL2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field Science Ethnography: <span class="hlt">Methods</span> For Systematic <span class="hlt">Observation</span> on an Expedition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field <span class="hlt">methods</span> for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the <span class="hlt">study</span> of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JSMEJ..35..280O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of pool boiling under microgravity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pool boiling experiments under microgravity were conducted, utilizing parabolic flight maneuvers with a CNES Caravelle 6R aircraft. The experimental apparatus taken aboard the aircraft was constructed to enable simultaneous recording, by a video camera, of the side view of vapor bubbles generated on Joule-heated titanium foil immersed in a pool of n-pentane liquid, and the color pattern exhibited by a liquid-crystal layer, which was plated on the backside of the foil. This apparatus successfully recorded <span class="hlt">observations</span> of behaviors of vapor bubbles, at various liquid subcoolings (7-32 K) and heat fluxes (1.1-42 kW/sq m), and spatial color variation of the crystal layer, possibly reflecting microlayer dynamics beneath the individual bubbles. In spite of the great difference in size and population of the bubbles, between microgravity and terrestrial conditions, no more than a moderate difference was found in overall heat transfer between the two conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oka, Toshiharu; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kotaro; Mori, Yasuhiko H.; Nagashima, Akira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770008528&hterms=Real+estate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DReal%2Bestate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Earth <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System Instrumentation <span class="hlt">Study</span> (AEOSIS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Var, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_5 div --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830010915&hterms=steno&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522steno%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental land <span class="hlt">observing</span> data system feasibility <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880004731&hterms=acpm&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dacpm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Carbon Dioxide <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility <span class="hlt">study</span> addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">observational</span> data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and <span class="hlt">methods</span> of gathering the required <span class="hlt">observational</span> data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22tehran%22&pg=3&id=EJ926536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">Method</span>-in-Use through Classroom <span class="hlt">Observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Method</span>-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the <span class="hlt">method</span> actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nunn, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987AcAau..15..297M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation <span class="hlt">methods</span> for marine <span class="hlt">observation</span> satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Satellite-1 (MOS-1) is scheduled for launch in the January and February period of 1987. Main objectives of the MOS-1 are to <span class="hlt">observe</span> the sea, land and atmosphere by three radiometers (MESSR, VTIR and MSR) and to develop fundamental technologies for earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> system consisting of space and ground segments. In order to accomplish these objectives NASDA is developing both MOS-1 and ground facilities, and NASDA conducted MOS-1 airborne verification experiment to develop various algorithms which were converted into MOS-1 data processing facility and then used in MOS-1 verification program (MVP). The purposes of the MVP are to evaluate and confirm the distortion correction <span class="hlt">methods</span> and performance evaluation <span class="hlt">methods</span>, to evaluate effectiveness of parameters of MOS-1 mission equipment and to reflect the results of the evaluation on the development and operation of the future earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> system. Concerning radiometric performance, correction <span class="hlt">methods</span> of deviation of CCD sensitivity for MESSR, calibration <span class="hlt">methods</span> for VTIR and MSR have been developed and evaluation <span class="hlt">methods</span> of S/N and dynamic range have been <span class="hlt">studied</span>. Concerning geometric performance, geometric distortions are classified and distortion correction <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been developed. Moreover, spatial resolution have been evaluated. In this paper, some of the geometric and radiometric performance evaluation <span class="hlt">methods</span> are presented and evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maeda, Korehiro; Kojima, Masahiro; Azuma, Yoshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3958780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the <span class="hlt">Study</span>. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and <span class="hlt">Methods</span>. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franchi, Massimo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915473"> <span id="translatedtitle">The value of site-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> complementary to naturalistic driving <span class="hlt">observations</span>: a pilot <span class="hlt">study</span> on the right turn manoeuvre.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Naturalistic driving <span class="hlt">studies</span> are increasingly applied in different shapes and sizes. The European project PROLOGUE has investigated the value and feasibility of a large-scale naturalistic driving <span class="hlt">study</span> in Europe. Within PROLOGUE several pilot <span class="hlt">studies</span> have been conducted in different countries. The Dutch field trial investigated the value and feasibility of adding site-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> to in-vehicle <span class="hlt">observations</span>. In this trial, one intersection was equipped with cameras for site-based <span class="hlt">observation</span>. Additionally eight cars were equipped of drivers crossing this intersection regularly. On this small scale, combining the two <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> turned out to be technically feasible. It was possible to recognise the instrumented vehicles in the site-based video data, to match cases from the different <span class="hlt">observations</span> and the speed measures from the separate <span class="hlt">studies</span> appeared to be similar. The value of combining these two <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> lies in the possibility to enrich the data from one <span class="hlt">study</span> with complementary data from the other <span class="hlt">study</span>. The <span class="hlt">study</span> illustrated that each type of <span class="hlt">observation</span> has its unique values. From in-vehicle data it is possible to look in detail at the driving behaviour of the participants over time and in different situations. The site-based <span class="hlt">study</span> offers information about the position and speed of other road users surrounding the participant's vehicle, including vulnerable road users such as cyclists and pedestrians. Two values of adding site-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> to in-vehicle <span class="hlt">observations</span> were identified: to obtain more in depth understanding and to relate the behaviour of participants of the naturalistic driving <span class="hlt">study</span> to behaviour of the full population of drivers (non-participants). For a future (large-scale) naturalistic driving <span class="hlt">study</span> two research topics are identified that could benefit from these complementary <span class="hlt">observations</span>: driving behaviour in relation to specific infrastructure and the interaction between drivers and vulnerable road users. PMID:23915473</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Nes, Nicole; Christoph, Michiel; Hoedemaeker, Marika; van der Horst, Richard A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44031378"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observed</span> migration of a controlled DNAPL release by geophysical <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seven hundred seventy liters of a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), were released into an isolated volume of a completely saturated natural sandy aquifer. The release was monitored over a period of 984 hours with a variety of geophysical <span class="hlt">methods</span> including ground penetrating radar, time domain reflectometry, in situ resistivity, and a neutron soil moisture probe. The PCE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. L. Brewster; A. P. Annan; J. P. Greenhouse; J. D. Redman; B. H. Kueper; G. R. Olhoeft; K. A. Sander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162984"> <span id="translatedtitle">FISH <span class="hlt">methods</span> in cytogenetic <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This chapter describes the various <span class="hlt">methods</span> derived from the protocol of standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) that are used in human, animal, plant, and microbial <span class="hlt">studies</span>. These powerful techniques allow us to detect and physically map on interphase nuclei, chromatin fibers, or metaphase chromosomes probes derived from single-copy genes to repetitive DNA sequences. Other variants of the technique enable the co-localization of genes and the overall comparison of the genome among individuals of the same species or of different taxa. A further variant detects and localizes bacteria on tissues and cells. Overall, this offers a remarkable multiplicity of possible applications ranging from strict physical mapping, to clinical and evolutionary <span class="hlt">studies</span>, making it a powerful and informative complement to other molecular, functional, or genomic approaches. PMID:24162984</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pita, Miguel; Orellana, Juan; Martínez-Rodríguez, Paloma; Martínez-Ramírez, Angel; Fernández-Calvín, Begoña; Bella, José L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2824800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical <span class="hlt">studies</span> have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this <span class="hlt">study</span> we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant <span class="hlt">observations</span> and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The <span class="hlt">observations</span> were guided by the aim of the <span class="hlt">study</span>. <span class="hlt">Observational</span> notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each <span class="hlt">observation</span> and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This <span class="hlt">study</span> contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bashanfoundation.org/horst/horststriga.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple staining <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observation</span> of germinated Striga seeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In vitro techniques are essential for Striga research and the development of appropriate control <span class="hlt">methods</span>. In the laboratory, pre-screening of non-host or false-host plants of Striga for trap cropping or the screening of hosts for resistance involves visual evaluation of Striga seed germination that may be stimulated by plant parts or root exudates. This technique is presently laborious because the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shusheng Long; Venasius Lendzemo; Thomas W. Kuyper; Zhengsheng Kang; Horst Vierheilig; Siegrid Steinkellner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3756458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors affecting recruitment to an <span class="hlt">observational</span> multicentre palliative care <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care <span class="hlt">study</span>. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Patient accrual to a multicentre, <span class="hlt">observational</span>, palliative care <span class="hlt">study</span> was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the <span class="hlt">study</span> entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the <span class="hlt">study</span>? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the <span class="hlt">study</span>? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for <span class="hlt">study</span> inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the <span class="hlt">study</span> 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the <span class="hlt">study</span>. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://meds.queensu.ca/medicine/obgyn/pdf/strobe.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORIGINAL ARTICLES The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much of biomedical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a <span class="hlt">study</span>'s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. We defined the scope</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik von Elma; Douglas G. Altmanc; Matthias Eggera; Stuart J. Pocockd; Peter C. Gøtzschee; Jan P. Vandenbrouckef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6066884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of the Knox-Thompson <span class="hlt">method</span> to solar <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Knox-Thompson (KT) technique is well suited for speckle imaging of an extended source, such as the sun. Other techniques require that the extent of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> object is restricted to the field size (e.g., the Fienup technique) or even to much less than the seeing disk size (e.g., shift-and-add). The Knox-Thompson technique, as well as the speckle-masking technique, are more general in that they make no assumptions about the object size. Because of its relative simplicity, the KT technique has been applied to solar data. A KT speckle-imaging program has been dedicated to solar data analysis. The program, named KISIP, now runs on the NSO/Sacramento Peak VAX 750 under 4.3 BSD UNIX. Major features of the code are: combination of the Labeyrie (1970, for Fourier-amplitude recovery) - and Knox-Thompson (phase recovery) techniques; incorporation of the spectral-ratio technique to correct Fourier amplitudes for seeing attenuation; and incorporation of a phase consistency test to estimate the accuracy to which phases can be reconstructed from Knox-Thompson bispectra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luhe, O.V.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23687528"> <span id="translatedtitle">CNODES: the Canadian Network for <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Drug Effect <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although administrative health care databases have long been used to evaluate adverse drug effects, responses to drug safety signals have been slow and uncoordinated. We describe the establishment of the Canadian Network for <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Drug Effect <span class="hlt">Studies</span> (CNODES), a collaborating centre of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN). CNODES is a distributed network of investigators and linked databases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Principles of operation are as follows: (1) research questions are prioritized by the coordinating office of DSEN; (2) the linked data stay within the provinces; (3)?for each question, a <span class="hlt">study</span> team formulates a detailed protocol enabling consistent analyses in each province; (4) analyses are "blind" to results obtained elsewhere; (5) protocol deviations are permitted for technical reasons only; (6)?analyses using multivariable <span class="hlt">methods</span> are lodged centrally with a <span class="hlt">methods</span> team, which is responsible for combining the results to provide a summary estimate of effect. These procedures are designed to achieve high internal validity of risk estimates and to eliminate the possibility of selective reporting of analyses or outcomes. The value of a coordinated multi-provincial approach is illustrated by projects <span class="hlt">studying</span> acute renal injury with high-potency statins, community-acquired pneumonia with proton pump inhibitors, and hyperglycemic emergencies with antipsychotic drugs. CNODES is an academically based distributed network of Canadian researchers and data centres with a commitment to rapid and sophisticated analysis of emerging drug safety signals in <span class="hlt">study</span> populations totalling over 40 million. PMID:23687528</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suissa, Samy; Henry, David; Caetano, Patricia; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lelorier, Jacques; Levy, Adrian; Martens, Patricia J; Paterson, J Michael; Platt, Robert W; Sketris, Ingrid; Teare, Gary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/45675"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> for analyzing electron spectra <span class="hlt">observed</span> in solar neutrino experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The normalized spectral ratio (the ratio of the measured electron spectrum to that of the SSM with both spectra normalized to contain the same number of events) is used to <span class="hlt">study</span> results from electron scattering and deuterium dissociation experiments. It is found to be a very useful tool for measuring the energy-dependent deviation from the SSM and results can be expressed in terms of a single parameter---its slope. The number of events needed to see a positive slope preferred by current data at the 3{sigma} level is about 4000--5000 for electron scattering experiments and about 2000 for deuterium dissociation experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P. [Department of Physics,University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States)] [Department of Physics,University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aapd.org/upload/articles/butani-28-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Quality of Reporting <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in the Pediatric Dental Literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate reporting of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in the pediatric dental literature. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: This assessment included the following steps: (1) developing a model for reporting information in clinical dentistry <span class="hlt">studies</span>; (2) identifying treatment comparisons in pediatric dentistry that were evaluated by at least 5 <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>; (3) abstracting from these <span class="hlt">studies</span> any data indicated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yogita Butani; Arthur Hartz; Steven Levy; Catherine Watkins; Michael Kanellis; Arthur Nowak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJT...tmp...43L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Parameter Identification <span class="hlt">Method</span> to Determine Salinity of Sea Ice Using Temperature and Thickness <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">study</span> is intended to provide a parameter identification <span class="hlt">method</span> to determine the salinity of sea ice using temperature and thickness measurements. This <span class="hlt">method</span> is particularly effective when field data are sparse and unsatisfactory due to the difficulties associated with fieldwork, especially during the polar winter. The main idea of the <span class="hlt">method</span> is described. The salinity profile is calculated by the temperature and thickness <span class="hlt">observations</span>, which were measured at Nella Fjord around Zhongshan Station, Antarctica during the polar night time by the 22nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition. Another simulation for temperature profiles during a different measurement period is performed. Results show that better simulations of the salinity and temperature distributions are possible with the estimated parameters than with Eicken's and THESCI's <span class="hlt">methods</span>. This <span class="hlt">method</span> will help people to understand the salinity evolution of sea ice more thoroughly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lv, Wei; Li, Xiaojiao; Feng, Enmin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4331B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Statistical Dead-Time Deconvolution <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Fermi/GBM TGF <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) were first <span class="hlt">observed</span> by CGRO in 1994 and have continued to be <span class="hlt">observed</span> by current gamma-ray telescopes such as Fermi/GBM. Today, TGFs are an area of continued interest and research although many questions remain despite close to 20 years of active research. One of the main reasons for the lack of understanding is the extremely fast, hard and intense nature of TGFs causing numerous instrumental effects in space based observatories. One such effect is that of dead-time which in Fermi/GBM is 2.6?s-count or up to ~ 1% of the TGF duration per count. A statistical temporal deconvolution <span class="hlt">method</span> to recover the dead-time losses has been developed by members of the GBM collaboration1 . Simulations were performed using this <span class="hlt">method</span> to determine how effective it is at reconstructing TGF time profiles. Presented here is the <span class="hlt">method</span> and results of the <span class="hlt">study</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byrne, David; Briggs, Micheal S.; Tierney, David; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; McBreen, Sheila</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56397565"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Solar Magnetic Field and Eruption Phenomena at Huairou Solar <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Station</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of vector magnetic field and also the development of new optical instrumentations at Huairou Solar <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. The presentations are following: 1.The synthetical analysis between photospheric vector magnetic field and the morphological configuration in solar atmosphere provides the essential information on the developments of magnetic energy in source regions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hongqi Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527197"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Method</span> for <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Physical Activity on Residential Sidewalks and Streets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessment of physical activity needs to improve in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between characteristics of the environment and physical activity. Our <span class="hlt">study</span> evaluated a <span class="hlt">method</span> [Block Walk <span class="hlt">Method</span> (BWM)] for <span class="hlt">observing</span> physical activity along residential sidewalks and streets. The BWM was utilized in 12 U.S. Census block groups over a three-month period. Examination transportation routes (ETRs), 1,524 m in length, were constructed and examined in each block group. On 6 days, ETRs were traversed by a trained <span class="hlt">observer</span> for 50 min. Physical activities, street names, and geographical locations (e.g., addresses) were recorded. We found encouraging results for the BWM. The level of agreement between independent <span class="hlt">observers</span> was >98% for activity type. The number of individuals seen walking, running, or biking did not differ significantly between the days of the week or <span class="hlt">observation</span> times. The number of individuals <span class="hlt">observed</span> was correlated with block group characteristics (e.g., percent walking/biking to work) and weather (e.g., temperature). The BWM is an easy to use, economically viable <span class="hlt">observational</span> approach to obtaining reliable information concerning physical activities performed on residential streets and sidewalks. Its use could help advance our understanding about the environment–physical activity relationship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petosa, Rick L.; Stevens, Emily</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_6 div --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29358012"> <span id="translatedtitle">The valuable contribution of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> to nephrology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">studies</span> on the effects of therapy (or other interventions), the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an almost unbeatable standard in clinical research. The value of RCTs leaves unabated the valuable contributions of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> to medicine. This paper discusses some limitations of RCTs providing examples where these are not possible, inappropriate, inadequate, or unnecessary. Thereafter, it focuses on <span class="hlt">observational</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K J Jager; V S Stel; C Wanner; C Zoccali; F W Dekker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3080327"> <span id="translatedtitle">Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few <span class="hlt">studies</span> have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> This was an <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">study</span>. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the <span class="hlt">study</span> period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15%) patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32%) had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35%) had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR) seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> of individual single-stranded DNA molecules using fluorescent replication protein A.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of single molecules have revealed molecular behaviors usually hidden in the ensemble and time-averaging of bulk experiments. Direct single DNA molecule analysis of DNA metabolism reactions such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination is necessary to fully understand these essential processes. Intercalation of fluorescent dyes such as YOYO-1 and SYTOX Orange has been the standard <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observing</span> single molecules of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but effective fluorescent dyes for <span class="hlt">observing</span> single molecules of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) have not been found. To facilitate direct single-molecule <span class="hlt">observations</span> of DNA metabolism reactions, it is necessary to establish <span class="hlt">methods</span> for discriminating ssDNA and dsDNA. To <span class="hlt">observe</span> ssDNA directly, we prepared a fusion protein consisting of the 70 kDa DNA-binding domain of replication protein A and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP). This fusion protein had ssDNA-binding activity. In our experiments, dsDNA was stained by SYTOX Orange and ssDNA by RPA-YFP, and we succeeded in staining ssDNA and dsDNA by using RPA-YFP and SYTOX Orange simultaneously. PMID:21225324</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oshige, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Shohei; Takano, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Kouji; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Mizuno, Akira; Katsura, Shinji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H11B0809P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall <span class="hlt">Observed</span> Over Bangladesh 2000-2008: A Comparison of Spatial Interpolation <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In preparation for a hydrometeorological <span class="hlt">study</span> of freshwater resources in the greater Ganges-Brahmaputra region, we compared the results of four <span class="hlt">methods</span> of spatial interpolation applied to point measurements of daily rainfall over Bangladesh during a seven year period (2000-2008). Two univariate (inverse distance weighted and spline-regularized and tension) and two multivariate geostatistical (ordinary kriging and kriging with external drift) <span class="hlt">methods</span> were used to interpolate daily <span class="hlt">observations</span> from a network of 221 rain gauges across Bangladesh spanning an area of 143,000 sq km. Elevation and topographic index were used as the covariates in the geostatistical <span class="hlt">methods</span>. The validity of the interpolated maps was analyzed through cross-validation. The quality of the <span class="hlt">methods</span> was assessed through the Pearson and Spearman correlations and root mean square error measurements of accuracy in cross-validation. Preliminary results indicated that the univariate <span class="hlt">methods</span> performed better than the geostatistical <span class="hlt">methods</span> at daily scales, likely due to the relatively dense sampled point measurements and a weak correlation between the rainfall and covariates at daily scales in this region. Inverse distance weighted produced the better results than the spline. For the days with extreme or high rainfall—spatially and quantitatively—the correlation between <span class="hlt">observed</span> and interpolated estimates appeared to be high (r2 ~ 0.6 RMSE ~ 10mm), although for low rainfall days the correlations were poor (r2 ~ 0.1 RMSE ~ 3mm). The performance quality of these <span class="hlt">methods</span> was influenced by the density of the sample point measurements, the quantity of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> rainfall along with spatial extent, and an appropriate search radius defining the neighboring points. Results indicated that interpolated rainfall estimates at daily scales may introduce uncertainties in the successive hydrometeorological analysis. Interpolations at 5-day, 10-day, 15-day, and monthly time scales are currently under investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pervez, M.; Henebry, G. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211124D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">methods</span> to derive green-up dates based on daily NDVI satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bridging the gap between satellite derived green-up dates and in situ phenological <span class="hlt">observations</span> has been the purpose of many <span class="hlt">studies</span> over the last decades. Despite substantial advancements in satellite technology and data quality checks there is as yet no universally accepted <span class="hlt">method</span> for extracting phenological metrics based on satellite derived vegetation indices. Dependent on the respective <span class="hlt">method</span> derived green-up dates can vary up to serveral weeks using identical data sets. Consequently, it is difficult to compare various <span class="hlt">studies</span> and to accurately determine an increased vegetation length due to changing temperature patterns as <span class="hlt">observed</span> by ground phenological networks. Here, I compared how the characteristic NDVI increase over temperate deciduous forests in Germany in spring relates to respective budburst events <span class="hlt">observed</span> on the ground. MODIS Terra daily surface reflectances with a 250 m resolution (2000-2008) were gathered to compute daily NDVI values. As ground truth, <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the extensive phenological network of the German Weather Service were used. About 1500 <span class="hlt">observations</span> per year and species (Beech, Oak and Birch) were available evenly distributed all over Germany. Two filtering <span class="hlt">methods</span> were tested to reduce the noisy raw data. The first <span class="hlt">method</span> only keeps NDVI values which are classified as ‚ideal global quality' and applies on those a temporal moving window where values are removed which differ more than 20% of the mean. The second <span class="hlt">method</span> uses an adaptation of the BISE (Best Index Slope Extraction) algorithm. Subsequently, three functions were fitted to the selected <span class="hlt">observations</span>: a simple linear interpolation, a sigmoidal function and a double logistic sigmoidal function allowing to approximate two temporally separated green-up signals. The green-up date was then determined at halfway between minimum and maximum (linear interpolation) or at the inflexion point of the sigmoidal curve. A number of global threshold values (NDVI 0.4,0.5,0.6) and varying definitions of the NDVI baseline during dormancy were also tested. In contrast to most past <span class="hlt">studies</span>, I did not attempt to identify matched pairs of geographically coincident ground and satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Rather than comparing on an individual grid-cell basis I analysed and compared the statistical properties of distributions generated from ground and satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>. It has been noticed that remote sensing provides a statistical distribution of a random variable, not an exact representation of the state of the land surface or atmosphere at a particular pixel. The same holds true for ground <span class="hlt">observations</span> as they sample from biological variability and landscapes with heterogeneous microclimates. First results reveal substantial differences between the applied <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Based on the assumption that the satellite captures predominantly the greening-up of the canopy - which occurs about 2 weeks later than <span class="hlt">observed</span> budburst dates - the double sigmoidal function combined with the BISE filtering procedure performed best.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doktor, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9037E..0OT"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of a practical model-<span class="hlt">observer</span>-based image quality assessment <span class="hlt">method</span> for CT imaging systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The channelized Hotelling <span class="hlt">observer</span> (CHO) is a powerful <span class="hlt">method</span> for quantitative image quality evaluations of CT systems and their image reconstruction algorithms. It has recently been used to validate the dose reduction capability of iterative image-reconstruction algorithms implemented on CT imaging systems. The use of the CHO for routine and frequent system evaluations is desirable both for quality assurance evaluations as well as further system optimizations. The use of channels substantially reduces the amount of data required to achieve accurate estimates of <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance. However, the number of scans required is still large even with the use of channels. This work explores different data reduction schemes and designs a new approach that requires only a few CT scans of a phantom. For this work, the leave-one-out likelihood (LOOL) <span class="hlt">method</span> developed by Hoffbeck and Landgrebe is <span class="hlt">studied</span> as an efficient <span class="hlt">method</span> of estimating the covariance matrices needed to compute CHO performance. Three different kinds of approaches are included in the <span class="hlt">study</span>: a conventional CHO estimation technique with a large sample size, a conventional technique with fewer samples, and the new LOOL-based approach with fewer samples. The mean value and standard deviation of area under ROC curve (AUC) is estimated by shuffle <span class="hlt">method</span>. Both simulation and real data results indicate that an 80% data reduction can be achieved without loss of accuracy. This data reduction makes the proposed approach a practical tool for routine CT system assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Cao, Guangzhi; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Sainath, Paavana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=two-phase+AND+flow&id=ED259186"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two-phase <span class="hlt">study</span> about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-<span class="hlt">observer</span> phase and an <span class="hlt">observational</span> phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stevens, Joy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://origin.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/Docs/JFP_Hand_Hygiene.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An <span class="hlt">Observation</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this <span class="hlt">study</span> collected detailed <span class="hlt">observational</span> data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n 321) were <span class="hlt">observed</span> preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LAURA R. GREEN; CAROL A. SELMAN; VINCENT RADKE; DANNY RIPLEY; JAMES C. MACK; DAVID W. REIMANN; TAMMI STIGGER; MICHELLE MOTSINGER; LISA BUSHNELL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01512.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">A double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> for reducing bias in faecal pellet surveys of forest ungulates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Faecal surveys are used widely to <span class="hlt">study</span> variations in abundance and distribution of forest-dwelling mammals when direct enumeration is not feasible. The utility of faecal indices of abundance is limited, however, by <span class="hlt">observational</span> bias and variation in faecal disappearance rates that obscure their relationship to population size. We developed <span class="hlt">methods</span> to reduce variability in faecal surveys and improve reliability of faecal indices. 2. We used double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> transect sampling to estimate <span class="hlt">observational</span> bias of faecal surveys of Roosevelt elk Cervus elaphus roosevelti and Columbian black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We also modelled differences in counts of faecal groups obtained from paired cleared and uncleared transect segments as a means to adjust standing crop faecal counts for a standard accumulation interval and to reduce bias resulting from variable decay rates. 3. Estimated detection probabilities of faecal groups ranged from < 0.2-1.0 depending upon the <span class="hlt">observer</span>, whether the faecal group was from elk or deer, faecal group size, distance of the faecal group from the sampling transect, ground vegetation cover, and the interaction between faecal group size and distance from the transect. 4. Models of plot-clearing effects indicated that standing crop counts of deer faecal groups required 34% reduction on flat terrain and 53% reduction on sloping terrain to represent faeces accumulated over a standard 100-day interval, whereas counts of elk faecal groups required 0% and 46% reductions on flat and sloping terrain, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> transect sampling provides a cost-effective means of reducing <span class="hlt">observational</span> bias and variation in faecal decay rates that obscure the interpretation of faecal indices of large mammal abundance. Given the variation we <span class="hlt">observed</span> in <span class="hlt">observational</span> bias of faecal surveys and persistence of faeces, we emphasize the need for future researchers to account for these comparatively manageable sources of bias before comparing faecal indices spatially or temporally. Double-<span class="hlt">observer</span> sampling <span class="hlt">methods</span> are readily adaptable to <span class="hlt">study</span> variations in faecal indices of large mammals at the scale of the large forest reserve, natural area, or other forested regions when direct estimation of populations is problematic. ?? 2008 The Authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenkins, K. J.; Manly, B. F. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20120015704"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) <span class="hlt">Observations</span> for Climate <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth <span class="hlt">observations</span> since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate <span class="hlt">studies</span> has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central arc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Loew C. Funk C. C. Hennon C. D. Holmes C. L. Bain C. N. Helms G. Magnusdottir G. J. Huffman H. T. Lee J. P. Kossin K. R. Knapp M. A. Bourassa M. J. Dickinson S. Ansari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20110011237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking Indigenous Knowledge and <span class="hlt">Observed</span> Climate Change <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and <span class="hlt">observed</span> climate change impact <span class="hlt">studies</span>. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives o...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Weeks C. Rosenzweig C. Sakakibara C. C. Alexander C. V. Shadrin J. Waterhouse L. Johnson M. Vicarelli N. Bynum N. Oettle P. Neofotis T. Mustonen U. King</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/~kja/event2010/Tutorial.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">TUTORIAL IN BIOSTATISTICS SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONAL</span> <span class="hlt">STUDIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Multi-centre databases are making an increasing contribution to medical understanding. While the statist- ical handling of randomized experimental <span class="hlt">studies</span> is well documented in the medical literature, the analysis of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> requires the addressing of additional important issues relating to the timing of entry to the <span class="hlt">study</span> and the e?ect of potential explanatory variables not introduced until after that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KATE BULL; DAVID J. SPIEGELHALTER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4660531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceived quality assessment of polygonal meshes using <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>: a new extended protocol</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity of a polygonal mesh is usually reduced by applying a simplification <span class="hlt">method</span>, resulting in a similar mesh having less vertices and faces. Although several such <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been developed, only a few <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> are reported comparing the perceived quality of the simplified meshes, and it is not yet clear how the choice of a given <span class="hlt">method</span>, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samuel Silva; Beatriz Sousa Santos; Joaquim Madeira; Carlos Ferreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35710290"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">methods</span> for analysis of functional <span class="hlt">observation</span> battery (FOB) data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: Different <span class="hlt">methods</span> for the analysis of behavioral <span class="hlt">observation</span> data were compared to evaluate how the interpretation of a data set may depend on the analysis <span class="hlt">method</span> employed. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: Three <span class="hlt">methods</span> of analysis were used to evaluate the same four sets of rodent behavioral FOB data: (1) evaluation by a trained behavioral toxicologist (ToxRev); (2) Kruskal–Wallis statistical analysis of variance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carrie G. Markgraf; Maria Cirino; John Meredith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22pgd%22&pg=3&id=EJ337438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seeing Isn't Believing? Neither Is Hearing! In Defense of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rejects Peter C. Gronn's criticisms of structured <span class="hlt">observation</span> as a <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">studying</span> administrators, arguing that these criticisms grow from a limited conception of administration and an overzealous promotion of alternative research techniques. (PGD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, A. Ross</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24631888"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> Drosophila immunity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Innate immune mechanisms are well conserved throughout evolution, and many theoretical concepts, molecular pathways and gene networks are applicable to invertebrate model organisms as much as vertebrate ones. Drosophila immunity research benefits from an easily manipulated genome, a fantastic international resource of transgenic tools and over a quarter century of accumulated techniques and approaches to <span class="hlt">study</span> innate immunity. Here we present a short collection of ways to challenge the fruit fly immune system with various pathogens and parasites, as well as read-outs to assess its functions, including cellular and humoral immune responses. Our review covers techniques for assessing the kinetics and efficiency of immune responses quantitatively and qualitatively, such as survival analysis, bacterial persistence, antimicrobial peptide gene expression, phagocytosis and melanisation assays. Finally, we offer a toolkit of Drosophila strains available to the research community for current and future research. PMID:24631888</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neyen, Claudine; Bretscher, Andrew J; Binggeli, Olivier; Lemaitre, Bruno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.........6S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: <span class="hlt">Observational</span> and laboratory <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting <span class="hlt">observations</span> of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, <span class="hlt">observations</span> of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous <span class="hlt">studies</span> indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new <span class="hlt">observations</span> indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such <span class="hlt">method</span> is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy was employed only at infrared wavelengths. The final phase of this dissertation work was to design, build and test a velocity modulation spectrometer which functions at millimeter/sub-mm wavelengths. This system was then used to measure the previously unknown pure rotational spectrum of SH+ (X3E- ).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savage, Chandra Shannon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing intraoperative process deviations using a direct <span class="hlt">observational</span> approach: the glitch <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives To develop a sensitive, reliable tool for enumerating and evaluating technical process imperfections during surgical operations. Design Prospective cohort <span class="hlt">study</span> with direct <span class="hlt">observation</span>. Setting Operating theatres on five sites in three National Health Service Trusts. Participants Staff taking part in elective and emergency surgical procedures in orthopaedics, trauma, vascular and plastic surgery; including anaesthetists, surgeons, nurses and operating department practitioners. Outcome measures Reliability and validity of the glitch count <span class="hlt">method</span>; frequency, type, temporal pattern and rate of glitches in relation to site and surgical specialty. Results The glitch count has construct and face validity, and category agreement between <span class="hlt">observers</span> is good (?=0.7). Redundancy between pairs of <span class="hlt">observers</span> significantly improves the sensitivity over a single <span class="hlt">observation</span>. In total, 429 operations were <span class="hlt">observed</span> and 5742 glitches were recorded (mean 14 per operation, range 0–83). Specialty-specific glitch rates varied from 6.9 to 8.3/h of operating (ns). The distribution of glitch categories was strikingly similar across specialties, with distractions the commonest type in all cases. The difference in glitch rate between specialty teams operating at different sites was larger than that between specialties (range 6.3–10.5/h, p<0.001). Forty per cent of glitches occurred in the first quarter of an operation, and only 10% occurred in the final quarter. Conclusions The glitch <span class="hlt">method</span> allows collection of a rich dataset suitable for analysing the changes following interventions to improve process safety, and appears reliable and sensitive. Glitches occur more frequently in the early stages of an operation. Hospital environment, culture and work systems may influence the operative process more strongly than the specialty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Lauren; Robertson, Eleanor; Hadi, Mohammed; Catchpole, Ken; Pickering, Sharon; New, Steve; Collins, Gary; McCulloch, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJMMM..19..111B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observing</span> the three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions in steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observing</span> the three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions by deeply eroding a steel sample with a kind of organic solution composed of bromine water, acetone, and HCl (volume ratio, 45:45:10) was introduced. Four different kinds of inclusions in ultra low carbon steel were compared by metallographic <span class="hlt">observation</span> and erosion <span class="hlt">observation</span>. The results show that the three-dimensional morphologies of different kinds of inclusions could be <span class="hlt">observed</span> clearly and simply after erosion. The <span class="hlt">method</span> is useful for the <span class="hlt">observation</span> and analysis of inclusions made by deep erosion. It also provides a new way to control and remove inclusions based on the true morphologies of inclusions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min; Jiang, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=39250"> <span id="translatedtitle">EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) <span class="hlt">METHOD</span> <span class="hlt">STUDY</span> 29, <span class="hlt">METHOD</span> 624--PURGEABLES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The work which is described in the report was performed for the purpose of validating, through an interlaboratory <span class="hlt">study</span>, <span class="hlt">Method</span> 624 for the analysis of the volatile organic priority pollutants. This <span class="hlt">method</span> is based on purging and concentration of the various analytes on an adsorb...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_7 div --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H31G1207O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of flow direction <span class="hlt">methods</span> against field <span class="hlt">observations</span> of overland flow dispersion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the broad effort made in grid-based distributed catchment modeling to account for planar overland flow dispersion, actual dispersion experienced by overland flow along a natural slope has not been measured so far, and the ability of terrain analysis <span class="hlt">methods</span> to reproduce this dispersion has not been evaluated. In the present <span class="hlt">study</span>, the D8, D8-LTD, D? -LTD, D? , MD? , and MD8 flow direction <span class="hlt">methods</span> are evaluated against field <span class="hlt">observations</span> of overland flow dispersion obtained from novel experimental <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Thin flows of cold (2--10oC) water were released at selected points on a warmer (15--30oC) slope and individual overland flow patterns originating from each of these points were <span class="hlt">observed</span> using a terrestrial laser scanner and a thermal imaging camera. Prior to each experimental water release, a ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner by Leica Geosystems was used to acquire a point cloud having average density of 25~points/cm2. This point cloud was used to generate alternative grid-based digital elevation models having resolution h ranging from 1~cm to 2~m. During the experiments, an Avio Advanced Thermo TVS-500EX camera by Nippon Avionics was used to monitor land surface temperature with resolution better than 0.05oC. The overland flow patterns were also found to be discernible in terrestrial laser scanner reflectance signal acquired immediately following the flow experiments. Overland flow patterns were determined by considering contrasted temperature and reflectance of the dry and wetted land surface portions. Predicted propagation patterns and <span class="hlt">observed</span> flow patterns were compared by considering the fractions of flow released at the point source that propagates through the grid cells. Predictions of these quantities were directly provided by flow direction <span class="hlt">methods</span> and by related flow accumulation algorithms. Suitable data for the comparison were derived from <span class="hlt">observed</span> overland flow patterns by assuming a uniform distribution of flow along each cross section. Planar overland flow dispersion is found to play an important role in the region lying immediately downslope of the point source, but attenuates rapidly as flow propagates downslope displaying a nearly constant width of about 50~cm. In contrast, existing dispersive flow direction <span class="hlt">methods</span> are found to provide a continued dispersion with distance downslope. Predicted propagation patterns, for all <span class="hlt">methods</span> considered here, depend critically on h. All <span class="hlt">methods</span> are found to be poorly sensitive in extremely fine grids (h ? 2~cm), and to be poorly specific in coarse grids (h = 2~m). Satisfactory results are, however, obtained when h approaches the average flow width, with the best performances in terms of Pearson correlation coefficient displayed by the MD8 <span class="hlt">method</span> in the finest grids (5~cm ? h ? 20~cm), and by the MD? , D? , and D? -LTD <span class="hlt">methods</span> in the coarsest grids (20~cm < h ? 1~m). The results obtained in this <span class="hlt">study</span> suggest further testing of terrain analysis <span class="hlt">methods</span> with longer flow patterns and coarser grids. Scale issues affecting the relation between land surface microtopography, dispersion, and size of grid cells involved need then to be addressed to provide a hydrologic model of flow partitioning along the slope directions identified by terrain analysis <span class="hlt">methods</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Corticelli, M. A.; Santangelo, P. E.; Capra, A.; Rivola, R.; Albertson, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApJS..165..386D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating SUMER Coronal Hole <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: A Robust <span class="hlt">Method</span> of Raster Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a physically constrained, comprehensive, and robust means of reducing long-duration spectroscopic raster <span class="hlt">observations</span> made in the important 1530-1555 Å wavelength range by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Our <span class="hlt">method</span> performs corrections in spatial, spectral, and temporal domains following application of the standard SUMER data reduction package to minimize the net Doppler shift of neutral and singly ionized silicon emission lines in the chromosphere. We have applied this <span class="hlt">method</span> to seven raster <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the same equatorial coronal hole acquired over a 5 day period, 1999 November 3-8, and to the well-<span class="hlt">studied</span> <span class="hlt">observations</span> of 1996 September 21-22. This technique allows us to make physically consistent analyses of multiple SUMER rasters and will aid in future investigations of the solar ``rest'' wavelength of the important Ne VIII 770 Å emission line and, as a result, of the properties of transition region blueshifts-specifically, their correlation to multithermal radiance structure, supergranular network patterns, and the coronal magnetic environment at the perceived lower boundary of solar wind outflow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davey, Alisdair R.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Hassler, Donald M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD716449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Communication Behavior under Stress: Concluding <span class="hlt">Observations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a <span class="hlt">study</span> of cross-cultural interaction terminated in the second year of a projected five year research effort, enough data were gathered in the course of systematic laboratory <span class="hlt">observational</span> research and in a pilot laboratory experimental <span class="hlt">study</span>, to allow...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. L. Quarantelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32943323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Randomized trials versus <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in adolescent pregnancy prevention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this <span class="hlt">study</span> is to compare the results of randomized trials and <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy. We identified published and unpublished reports through computerized searches of CATLINE, CINAHL, CONFERENCE PAPERS INDEX, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS ONLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, NTIS, POPLINE, PsycINFO, and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS; manual searches of eight relevant journals; reference lists from primary articles;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon H. Guyatt; Alba DiCenso; Vern Farewell; Andrew Willan; Lauren Griffith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8646Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of local <span class="hlt">observations</span> as evidence to inform effective mitigation <span class="hlt">methods</span> for flood risk management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This poster presents a case <span class="hlt">study</span> that highlights two crucial aspects of a catchment-based flood management project that were used to encourage uptake of an effective flood management strategy. Specifically, (1) the role of detailed local scale <span class="hlt">observations</span> and (2) a modelling <span class="hlt">method</span> informed by these <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Within a 6km2 <span class="hlt">study</span> catchment, Belford UK, a number of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been constructed (including ponds, wetlands and woody debris structures) to address flooding issues in the downstream village. The storage capacity of the RAFs is typically small (200 to 500m3), hence there was skepticism as to whether they would work during large flood events. Monitoring was performed using a dense network of water level recorders installed both within the RAFs and within the stream network. Using adjacent upstream and downstream water levels in the stream network and <span class="hlt">observations</span> within the actual ponds, a detailed understanding of the local performance of the RAFs was gained. However, despite understanding the local impacts of the features, the impact on the downstream hydrograph at the catchment scale could still not be ascertained with any certainty. The local <span class="hlt">observations</span> revealed that the RAFs typically filled on the rising limb of the hydrograph; hence there was no available storage at the time of arrival of a large flow peak. However, it was also clear that an impact on the rising limb of the hydrograph was being <span class="hlt">observed</span>. This knowledge of the functioning of individual features was used to create a catchment model, in which a network of RAFs could then be configured to examine the aggregated impacts. This Pond Network Model (PNM) was based on the <span class="hlt">observed</span> local physical relationships and allowed a user specified sequence of ponds to be configured into a cascade structure. It was found that there was a minimum number of RAFs needed before an impact on peak flow was achieved for a large flood event. The number of RAFs required in the network was also found to differ between events, due to the timing and shape of the hydrograph. However, once a threshold was crossed, for each additional RAF added, a clear impact on the peak flow was <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Using a selection of <span class="hlt">observed</span> flood events and design storms; a typical range of 15 to 35 percent reduction in flow peak was achieved with 35 RAFs. Now that 40 RAFs have been constructed in Belford, the local Environment Agency is confident that the scheme is working satisfactory. Crucially, it was the detailed local <span class="hlt">observations</span> that informed the design of the PNM and it demonstrated to end users why the approach was working. The RAF network approach is being taken up elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg; Owen, Gareth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=46146"> <span id="translatedtitle">EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) <span class="hlt">METHOD</span> <span class="hlt">STUDY</span> 15, <span class="hlt">METHOD</span> 605--BENZIDINES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seventeen laboratories participated in an interlaboratory <span class="hlt">study</span> conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA <span class="hlt">Method</span> 605 for measuring concentrations of the Category 7 chemicals benzidine and 3,3'dichlorobenzidine (DCB) in municipal and industrial aq...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950031628&hterms=study+abroad+advantage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dstudy%2Babroad%2Badvantage"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation energy budget <span class="hlt">studies</span> using collocated AVHRR and ERBE <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband <span class="hlt">observations</span> that are important for climate <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The approach of collocating these <span class="hlt">observations</span> in time and space is used to <span class="hlt">study</span> the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackerman, Steven A.; Inoue, Toshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II4....9A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial web services for limnological data: a case <span class="hlt">study</span> of sensor <span class="hlt">observation</span> service for ecological <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work aims at designing and implementing a spatial data infrastructure for storing and sharing ecological data through geospatial web services. As case <span class="hlt">study</span>, we concentrated on limnological data coming from the drainage basin of Lake Maggiore in the Northern of Italy. In order to establish the infrastructure, we started with two basic questions: (1) What type of data is the ecological dataset? (2) Which are the geospatial web services standards most suitable to store and share ecological data? In this paper we describe the possibilities for sharing ecological data using geospatial web services and the difficulties that can be encountered in this task. In order to test actual technological solutions, we use real data of a limnological published <span class="hlt">study</span>.We concluded that limnological data can be considered <span class="hlt">observational</span> data, composed by biological (species) data and environmental data, and it can be modeled using <span class="hlt">Observation</span> and Measurement (O&M) specification. With the actual web service implementation the geospatial web services that could potentially be used to publish limnological data are Sensor <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Services (SOS) and Web Feature Services (WFS). SOS holds the essential components to represent time series <span class="hlt">observations</span>, while WFS is a simple model that requires profiling. Both, SOS and WFS are not perfectly suitable to publish biological data, so other alternatives must be considered, as linked data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arias Muñoz, C.; Oggioni, A.; Brovelli, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eprints.utm.my/8221/1/ZZainal2007-Case_study_as_a_Research.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case <span class="hlt">study</span> as a research <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although case <span class="hlt">study</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> remain a controversial approach to data collection, they are widely recognised in many social science <span class="hlt">studies</span> especially when in-depth explanations of a social behaviour are sought after. This article, therefore, discusses several aspects of case <span class="hlt">studies</span> as a research <span class="hlt">method</span>. These include the design and categories of case <span class="hlt">studies</span> and how their robustness can be achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zaidah Zainal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/07l45uv827651m23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Print Literacy in Canadian Preschool Classrooms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to examine the role of print literacy in preschool classrooms. There were seven preschool teachers\\u000a working in central Canada who were <span class="hlt">observed</span> over three sessions. The process of analytic induction was used to formulate categories\\u000a based on interviews, classroom <span class="hlt">observations</span> and documents. The following categories were identified from the data: book engagement\\u000a and availability,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacqueline Lynch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4004457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transurethral resection syndrome in elderly patients: a retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves the risk of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome owing to hyponatremia. Irrigation fluid type, duration of operation, and weight of resected mass have been evaluated as risk factors for TUR syndrome. The purpose of the present <span class="hlt">study</span> was to identify risk factors related to TUR syndrome in the elderly. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, data on all elderly males (aged 70 years and older) who underwent TURP under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome was defined as evidence of a central nervous system disturbance such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, confusion, or even coma with a circulatory abnormality both intra- and post-operatively. Patients were divided into two groups, positive and negative, for the occurrence of the syndrome. Data such as previous medical history, preoperative and postoperative serum data, weight of resected mass, duration of operation, irrigation fluid drainage technique, anesthetic technique, operative infusion and transfusion volume, and neurological symptoms were collected. Only <span class="hlt">observational</span> variables with p?<?0.05 on univariate analyses were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to ascertain their independent effects on TUR syndrome. Results Of the 98 patients <span class="hlt">studied</span>, 23 had TUR syndrome (23.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.9–32.0%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that volume of plasma substitute???500 ml (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 2.9–74.5), continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3–16.7), and weight of resected mass?>?45 g (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.7) were associated with significantly increased risks for TUR syndrome (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p?=?0.94, accuracy 84.7%). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of a plasma substitute and continuous irrigation through a suprapubic cystostomy must be avoided during TURP procedures in the elderly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlesional skin in atopic dermatitis is seemingly healthy skin - <span class="hlt">observations</span> using noninvasive <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disorder, which is characterized by abnormal skin barrier function within the entire skin surface. Several noninvasive bioengineering <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been commonly used to quantify disease severity. High-frequency ultrasonography (HF-USG) is an important contribution to this field. Aim To evaluate noninvolved skin during the external treatment in relation to involved regions in patients with AD skin using noninvasive <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Material and <span class="hlt">methods</span> Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance and erythema assessment and HF-USG were performed in 55 AD patients within 2 regions (involved and uninvolved skin) before and after therapy. The clinical severity of the disease process was based on the eczema area and severity index (EASI) score. A control group consisting of 15 subjects was also included. Results On the basis of 4 bioengineering <span class="hlt">methods</span> our <span class="hlt">study</span> revealed that uninvolved skin in AD presents subclinical disturbances and significantly changes during therapy. The HF-USG detects inflammation in the upper dermis in AD patients in the form of a hypoechoic band, which may also be <span class="hlt">observed</span> to a lesser extent within normal-appearing skin. Conclusions Nonlesional skin differs significantly from lesional skin in AD and from skin of healthy subjects. Noninvasive <span class="hlt">methods</span> are able to measure subclinical skin disturbances within normal-appearing skin, which are not evaluated using standard clinical scores. They are objective and may facilitate communication between different research groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Silny, Wojciech; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Osmola-Mankowska, Agnieszka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AMT.....5.2723H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a new data-processing <span class="hlt">method</span> for SKYNET sky radiometer <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to reduce uncertainty in the estimation of Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF), it is important to improve the estimation of the single scattering albedo (SSA). In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we propose a new data processing <span class="hlt">method</span> to improve SSA retrievals for the SKYNET sky radiometer network, which is one of the growing number of networks of sun-sky photometers, such as NASA AERONET and others. There are several reports that SSA values from SKYNET have a bias compared to those from AERONET, which is regarded to be the most accurate due to its rigorous calibration routines and data quality and cloud screening algorithms. We investigated possible causes of errors in SSA that might explain the known biases through sensitivity experiments using a numerical model, and also using real data at the SKYNET sites at Pune (18.616° N/73.800° E) in India and Beijing (39.586° N/116.229° E) in China. Sensitivity experiments showed that an uncertainty of the order of ±0.03 in the SSA value can be caused by a possible error in the ground surface albedo or solid view angle assumed for each <span class="hlt">observation</span> site. Another candidate for possible error in the SSA was found in cirrus contamination generated by imperfect cloud screening in the SKYNET data processing. Therefore, we developed a new data quality control <span class="hlt">method</span> to get rid of low quality or cloud contamination data, and we applied this <span class="hlt">method</span> to the real <span class="hlt">observation</span> data at the Pune site in SKYNET. After applying this <span class="hlt">method</span> to the <span class="hlt">observation</span> data, we were able to screen out a large amount of cirrus-contaminated data and to reduce the deviation in the SSA value from that of AERONET. We then estimated DARF using data screened by our new <span class="hlt">method</span>. The result showed that the <span class="hlt">method</span> significantly reduced the difference of 5 W m-2 that existed between the SKYNET and AERONET values of DARF before screening. The present <span class="hlt">study</span> also suggests the necessity of preparing suitable a priori information on the distribution of coarse particles ranging in radius between 10 ?m and 30 ?m for the analysis of heavily dust-laden atmospheric cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hashimoto, M.; Nakajima, T.; Dubovik, O.; Campanelli, M.; Che, H.; Khatri, P.; Takamura, T.; Pandithurai, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020828&hterms=source+level&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsource%2Blevel"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: III: TOO <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Atoll Sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest <span class="hlt">Observer</span> Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the <span class="hlt">observing</span> time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of <span class="hlt">observational</span> data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic <span class="hlt">studies</span> of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by <span class="hlt">observing</span> the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity <span class="hlt">observations</span> of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paciesas, William S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.kostforskning.dk/Togo%20intake%20pattern%20bmi%20obs%20study.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food intake patterns and body mass index in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: To review <span class="hlt">studies</span> of patterns of food intake, as assessed by diet index, factor analysis or cluster analysis, and their associations with body mass index or obesity (BMI\\/Ob).DESIGN: Systematic literature review MEDLINE search with crosscheck of references.<span class="hlt">STUDIES</span>: Thirty <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> relating food intake patterns to anthropometric information were identified and reviewed. Food intake patterns were defined using a diet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P Togo; M Osler; TIA Sørensen; BL Heitmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender differences in young children's temperament traits: Comparisons across <span class="hlt">observational</span> and parent-report <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing <span class="hlt">studies</span> of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present <span class="hlt">study</span> investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory <span class="hlt">observation</span>, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Across three independent samples, behavioral <span class="hlt">observations</span>, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three <span class="hlt">methods</span>, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24370268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Kinect™ sensor in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> for assessing postures at work.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the potential use of Kinect™ range sensor in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> for assessing postural loads. Range sensors can detect the position of the joints at high sampling rates without attaching sensors or markers directly to the subject under <span class="hlt">study</span>. First, a computerized OWAS ergonomic assessment system was implemented to permit the data acquisition from Kinect™ and data processing in order to identify the risk level of each recorded postures. Output data were compared with the results provided by human <span class="hlt">observers</span>, and were used to determine the influence of the sensor view angle relative to the worker. The tests show high inter-<span class="hlt">method</span> agreement in the classification of risk categories (Proportion agreement index = 0.89 ? = 0.83) when the tracked subject is facing the sensor. The camera's point of view relative to the position of the tracked subject significantly affects the correct classification of the postures. Although the results are promising, some aspects involved in the use of low-cost range sensors should be further <span class="hlt">studied</span> for their use in real environments. PMID:24370268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diego-Mas, Jose Antonio; Alcaide-Marzal, Jorge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2043908"> <span id="translatedtitle">A (Revised) Survey of Approximate <span class="hlt">Methods</span> for Solving Partially <span class="hlt">Observable</span> Markov Decision Processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partially <span class="hlt">observable</span> Markov decision processes (POMDPs) are inter- esting because they provide a general framework for learning in the pres- ence of multiple forms of uncertainty. We survey <span class="hlt">methods</span> for learning within the POMDP framework. Because exact <span class="hlt">methods</span> are intractable we concentrate on approximate <span class="hlt">methods</span>. We explore two versions of the POMDP training problem: learning when a model of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas Aberdeen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when <span class="hlt">studying</span> characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ?16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an <span class="hlt">observational</span> multi-centre <span class="hlt">study</span> including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period <span class="hlt">studied</span>, 103 subjects aged ?16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the <span class="hlt">study</span> period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were highest for methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines, most deaths were caused by opiates or opioids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113817V"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution <span class="hlt">observations</span> of rainfall: Potential for scaling <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Delft University has developed a new scanning Doppler-polarimetric radar with the particular aim to enable <span class="hlt">observations</span> at high spatial resolution (a minimum of 3 meter) and high sensitivity. The radar is located on the top of 200 meter high meteorological <span class="hlt">observation</span> tower at CESAR Observatory. The radar is capable of measuring fog, drizzle and heavier rain. Approximately 50 days per year the radar is located inside low-level water clouds, which enables interesting measurements of the horizontal structures of such clouds. With its high resolution new <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the scaling properties of rainfall structures become possible. The presentation will discuss the radar capabilities and its application to the <span class="hlt">study</span> of rainfall structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ventura Figueras, J.; Russchenberg, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_8 div --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930785"> <span id="translatedtitle">An analytical <span class="hlt">method</span> for predicting surface soil moisture from rainfall <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple analytical <span class="hlt">method</span> for estimating surface soil moisture directly from rainfall data is proposed and <span class="hlt">studied</span>. Soil moisture dynamics are represented by a linear stochastic partial differential equation ( Entekhabi and Rodriguez-Iturbe, 1994 ). A diagnostic equation is derived from the soil moisture dynamics equation by eliminating the diffusion term. The derived daily soil moisture function is a time-weighted average of previous cumulative rainfall over a given period (e.g., >14 days). The advantage of this <span class="hlt">method</span> is that information on the initial condition of soil moisture, which is often not available at all times and locations, is not needed. The loss coefficient in the diagnostic equation for soil moisture can be estimated from land surface characteristics and soil properties. The <span class="hlt">method</span> for determining the averaging window size, the loss coefficient, and the infiltration coefficient are described and demonstrated. The soil moisture data <span class="hlt">observed</span> during three field experiments, i.e., Monsoon'90, Washita'92, and SGP'97, are compared to the calculated soil moisture. The results indicate that the proposed <span class="hlt">method</span> is robust and has the potential for useful soil moisture predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Pan, Feifei [Georgia Institute of Technology; Peters-Lidard, C. D. [Georgia Institute of Technology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inverse <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Estimating the Spatial Variability of Soil Particle Size Distribution from <span class="hlt">Observed</span> Soil Moisture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil particle size distribution (PSD) (i.e., clay, silt, sand, and rock contents) information is one of critical factors for understanding water cycle since it affects almost all of water cycle processes, e.g., drainage, runoff, soil moisture, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. With information about soil PSD, we can estimate almost all soil hydraulic properties (e.g., saturated soil moisture, field capacity, wilting point, residual soil moisture, saturated hydraulic conductivity, pore-size distribution index, and bubbling capillary pressure) based on published empirical relationships. Therefore, a regional or global soil PSD database is essential for <span class="hlt">studying</span> water cycle regionally or globally. At the present stage, three soil geographic databases are commonly used, i.e., the Soil Survey Geographic database, the State Soil Geographic database, and the National Soil Geographic database. Those soil data are map unit based and associated with great uncertainty. Ground soil surveys are a way to reduce this uncertainty. However, ground surveys are time consuming and labor intensive. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, an inverse <span class="hlt">method</span> for estimating mean and standard deviation of soil PSD from <span class="hlt">observed</span> soil moisture is proposed and applied to Throughfall Displacement Experiment sites in Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. This <span class="hlt">method</span> is based on the relationship between spatial mean and standard deviation of soil moisture. The results indicate that the suggested <span class="hlt">method</span> is feasible and has potential for retrieving soil PSD information globally from remotely sensed soil moisture data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, Feifei [University of Texas; Peters-lidard, Christa D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44928039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guidelines to Evaluate Human <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> for Quantitative Risk Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Careful evaluation of the quality of human <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective: We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jelle Vlaanderen; Roel Vermeulen; Dick Heederik; Hans Kromhout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55913005"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of accretion processes in T Tauri stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis is a detailed <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of the accretion processes in T Tauri stars (TTS). The interaction between the central star, the circumstellar disk and the magnetic field gives rise to a wide range of features in the spectra of TTS. The current picture of TTS is based on rather simple models assuming that accretion is a homogeneous and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henricus Cornelis Stempels</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3326276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime Socioeconomic Position and Mortality: Prospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. Design: Prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George Davey Smith; Carole Hart; David Blane; Charles Gillis; Victor Hawthorne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950018357&hterms=biosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbiosphere"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space <span class="hlt">observations</span> for global and regional <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the biosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The capability to make space-based measurements of Earth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, which would not otherwise be economically or practically feasible, became available just in time to contribute to scientific understanding of the interactive processes governing the total Earth system. Such understanding has now become essential in order to take practical steps which would counteract or mitigate the pervasive impact of the growing human population on the future habitability of the Earth. The paper reviews the rationale for using space <span class="hlt">observations</span> for <span class="hlt">studies</span> of climate and terrestrial ecosystems at global and regional scales, as well as the requirements for such <span class="hlt">observations</span> for <span class="hlt">studies</span> of climate and ecosystem dynamics. The present status of these developments is reported along with initiatives under way to advance the use of satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> for Earth system <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The most important contribution of space <span class="hlt">observations</span> is the provision of physical or biophysical parameters for models representing various components of the Earth system. Examples of such parameters are given for climatic and ecosystem <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cihlar, J.; Li, Z.; Chen, J.; Sellers, P.; Hall, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/15/1399/1997/angeo-15-1399-1997.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A statistical <span class="hlt">study</span> of ion frictional heating <span class="hlt">observed</span> by EISCAT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of a statistical survey of F-region ion frictional heating are presented, a survey which is based on over 4000 h of common programme <span class="hlt">observations</span> taken by the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar facility. The criterion adopted in this <span class="hlt">study</span> for the identification of ion frictional heating was that defined by McCrea et al., requiring an enhancement in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Davies; M. Lester; I. W. McCrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+communication+AND+pattern&pg=6&id=EJ276811"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Families Select Television Programs: A Mass-<span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reports results of <span class="hlt">study</span> using mass <span class="hlt">observation</span> and survey data to determine who is responsible for selection of television programs at home, how program selection processes occur, and how roles of family position and family communication patterns influence these activities. Research methodology and dominant selectors of television programs are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lull, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=43951"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF <span class="hlt">METHODS</span> FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PANEL <span class="hlt">STUDIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three different <span class="hlt">methods</span> of analysis of panels were compared using asthma panel data from a 1970-1971 <span class="hlt">study</span> done by EPA in Riverhead, New York. The <span class="hlt">methods</span> were (1) regression analysis using raw attack rates; (2) regression analysis using the ratio of <span class="hlt">observed</span> attacks to expected ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Uruguay&pg=3&id=EJ529892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory, <span class="hlt">Method</span>, and Triangulation in the <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Street Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes how a comparative <span class="hlt">study</span> of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and <span class="hlt">method</span>. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant <span class="hlt">observation</span>, and content analysis <span class="hlt">methods</span>;…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lucchini, Riccardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/622816r5w7131460.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of depression in primary care: what do we know?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: We undertook a systematic review of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of depression in primary care to determine 1) the nature and scope of the published <span class="hlt">studies</span> 2) the methodological quality of the <span class="hlt">studies</span>; 3) the identified recovery and risk factors for persistent depression and 3) the treatment and health service use patterns among patients. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gail Gilchrist; Jane Gunn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint_abr/335/7624/809.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amateur Boxing and Risk of Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: Systematic Review of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To evaluate the risk of chronic traumatic brain injury from amateur boxing. Setting: Secondary research performed by combination of sport physicians and clinical academics. Design, data sources, and <span class="hlt">methods</span>: Systematic review of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in which chronic traumatic brain injury was defined as any abnormality on clinical neurological examination, psychometric testing, neuroimaging <span class="hlt">studies</span>, and electroencephalography. <span class="hlt">Studies</span> were identified through</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike Loosemore; Charles H. Knowles; Greg P. Whyte; McCrory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/dq25h62503385571.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postpyloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock: a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been <span class="hlt">studied</span>. The purpose of the <span class="hlt">study</span> was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: A prospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> was performed including critically ill children with shock who</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesús López-Herce; Santiago Mencía; César Sánchez; Maria J Santiago; Amaya Bustinza; Dolores Vigil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51115917"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Studying</span> Formal <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Applications in CBTC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> are mathematics-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyse computer systems. Up to now formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> in railway systems have mostly been used for interlocking applications. We are interested in <span class="hlt">studying</span> and describing some possible formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> applications in CBTC (Communications-Based Train Control). The main goal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fei Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ams.org/publications/books/monographs/b0-8218-0988-1-03016-8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overlapping Nonmatching Grids <span class="hlt">Method</span>: Some Preliminary <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we report some preliminary <span class="hlt">studies</span> of a nite dierence <span class="hlt">method</span> on overlapping nonmatching grids for a two-dimensional Poisson problem. The <span class="hlt">method</span> can be regarded as an extension of the Generalised Additive Schwarz <span class="hlt">Method</span> (GASM). GASM was originally developed as a preconditioning technique that uses special transmission boundary conditions at the subdomain interfaces. By involving a nonmatching grids</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serge Goossens; Xiao-Chuan Cai; Dirk Roose</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPCS&pg=3&id=ED165097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chunking <span class="hlt">Method</span> of Teaching and <span class="hlt">Studying</span>: II.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data from three general psychology classes were used in a <span class="hlt">study</span> of the chunking <span class="hlt">method</span> of teaching and <span class="hlt">studying</span>. Two classes participated in a <span class="hlt">study</span> on chunking <span class="hlt">study</span> outline (CSO) length, and one in a <span class="hlt">study</span> on retention rates. Results of students with high and low cognitive processing capacities (CPC) were also compared. It was found that a CSO…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Furukawa, James M.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=asteroids&pg=2&id=EJ155813"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> for Determining the Radius Vector for a Planet from Two <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Position</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents a <span class="hlt">method</span> for determining the approximate radius vector of a planet or asteroid from two closely separated <span class="hlt">observation</span> positions, using mathematics suitable for lower division college students. (MLH)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gainer, Michael Kizinski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA382093"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Methods</span> to <span class="hlt">Observe</span> Material's Fatigue and Corrosion Damage through Surface Characteristics Monitoring.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">White Light Interferometry was used for surface characterization accompanied by other <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">observe</span> materials damage caused by corrosion and fatigue. White Light Interferometry has a spatial resolution of 0.2 micrometer and depth resolution of 3 nm. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. B. Simon J. L. Schroeder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcAau..94..790G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid alignment <span class="hlt">method</span> based on local <span class="hlt">observability</span> analysis for strapdown inertial navigation system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">method</span> for rapid transfer alignment of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) by combining the local <span class="hlt">observability</span> concept with robust adaptive filtering. The system state and <span class="hlt">observation</span> models are simplified to analyze the <span class="hlt">observability</span> of the SINS attitude error. Based on the simplified models, the <span class="hlt">observability</span> matrix and its condition number are constructed to determine the <span class="hlt">observability</span> degree of SINS during the process of rapid transfer alignment. On the basis of the local obsersability analysis, a robust adaptive filter is developed to estimate the attitude angle error for SINS rapid transfer alignment. Simulation experiments and comparison analysis have been conducted, demonstrating that the proposed <span class="hlt">method</span> cannot only effectively measure the local <span class="hlt">observability</span> of SINS, but it can also enhance the performance of SINS rapid transfer alignment and reduce the alignment time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gao, Shesheng; Wei, Wenhui; Zhong, Yongmin; Feng, Zhihua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27714539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foreground separation <span class="hlt">methods</span> for satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the cosmic microwave background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A maximum entropy <span class="hlt">method</span> (MEM) is presented for separating the emission due\\u000ato different foreground components from simulated satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the\\u000acosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). In particular, the <span class="hlt">method</span> is\\u000aapplied to simulated <span class="hlt">observations</span> by the proposed Planck Surveyor satellite.\\u000aThe simulations, performed by Bouchet and Gispert (1998), include emission from\\u000athe CMBR, the kinetic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. P. Hobson; A. W. Jones; A. N. Lasenby; F. R. Bouchet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55981609"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Molecular Beam Electric Resonance <span class="hlt">Method</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Thallium Monochloride</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hyperfine structure of the first rotational state of TlCl35 and TlCl37 was <span class="hlt">studied</span> by the molecular beam electric resonance <span class="hlt">method</span>. Two types of molecular transitions were <span class="hlt">observed</span>: the conventional mj transition in very weak and in strong Stark fields, the type previously <span class="hlt">studied</span> in several alkali fluorides; the DeltaJ transition (J=0-->J=1), a molecular transition <span class="hlt">observed</span> for the first time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. O. Carlson; C. A. Lee; B. P. Fabricand</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1952-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48874605"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case <span class="hlt">study</span> research: design and <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Providing a complete portal to the world of case <span class="hlt">study</span> research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case <span class="hlt">Study</span> Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case <span class="hlt">study</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case <span class="hlt">studies</span> (approximately 25\\\\% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert K. Yin; M S Sridhar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27205486"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observation</span> of Joining Phenomena in Friction Stage and Improving Friction Welding <span class="hlt">Method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the <span class="hlt">observation</span> result of joining phenomena in the friction stage, and an improvement of the conventional friction welding <span class="hlt">method</span> with similar materials. The materials used were carbon steels and a brake type (direct drive) friction welding machine was used for joining. As the improving friction welding <span class="hlt">method</span>, relative speed was instantaneously rendered to zero at the end</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaaki Kimura; Kenji Seo; Masahiro Kusaka; Akiyoshi Fuji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9058E..0GY"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a standard <span class="hlt">method</span> to <span class="hlt">observe</span> the surface friction of high-strength gels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2003, the most effective but simple way was proposed to synthesize double network gels, whose compression fracture stress reached about 30MPa, while that of common gels were several tens kPa. Our group has focused on PAMPSPDMAAm DN gel, because it possibly has both biocompatibility and permeability, which are good for developing artificial articular cartilage and artificial blood vessel. It is also possibly used for rapid additive manufacturing with 3D gel printer. Here, we develop a novel apparatus of the ball on disk <span class="hlt">method</span> to <span class="hlt">observe</span> the surface friction of the DN gels. We hope to apply this apparatus for various <span class="hlt">studies</span> about the tribological behavior of the gels, especially about the effect of external electric field on the gel friction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, Kouhei; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yamada, Naoya; Wada, Masato; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980236655&hterms=PELE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPELE"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuing <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Support of Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Planetary Atmospheres</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This program was a one-year extension of an earlier Planetary Atmospheres program grant, covering the period 1 August 1996 through 30 September 1997. The grant was for supporting work to complement an active program <span class="hlt">observing</span> planetary atmospheres with Earth-orbital telescopes, principally the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The recent concentration of this work has been on HST <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Jupiter's upper atmosphere and aurora, but it has also included <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Io, serendipitous <span class="hlt">observations</span> of asteroids, and <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the velocity structure in the interplanetary medium. The <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Jupiter have been at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths, including imaging and spectroscopy of the auroral and airglow emissions. The most recent HST <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been at the same time as in situ measurements made by the Galileo orbiter instruments, as reflected in the meeting presentations listed below. Concentrated efforts have been applied in this year to the following projects: The analysis of HST WFPC 2 images of Jupiter's aurora, including the Io footprint emissions. We have performed a comparative analysis of the lo footprint locations with two magnetic field models, <span class="hlt">studied</span> the statistical properties of the apparent dawn auroral storms on Jupiter, and found various other repeated patterns in Jupiter's aurora. Analysis and modeling of airglow and auroral Ly alpha emission line profiles from Jupiter. This has included modeling the aurora] line profiles, including the energy degradation of precipitating charged particles and radiative transfer of the emerging emissions. Jupiter's auroral emission line profile is self-absorbed, since it is produced by an internal source, and the resulting emission with a deep central absorption from the overlying atmosphere permits modeling of the depth of the emissions, plus the motion of the emitting layer with respect to the overlying atmospheric column from the <span class="hlt">observed</span> Doppler shift of the central absorption. By contrast the airglow emission line, which is dominated by resonant scattering of solar emission, has no central absorption, but displays rapid time variations and broad wings, indicative of a superthermal component (or corona) in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Modeling of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> motions of the plumes produced after the impacts of the fragments of Comet S/L-9 with Jupiter in July 1994, from the HST WFPC 2 imaging series.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Handover patterns: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of critical care physicians</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Prospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the opportunities and preceded Plan in just 21.8%. Certain communication elements were occasionally absent. For example, SBAR's Recommendation and admission note information about the patient's Past Medical History were absent from 22 (55.0%) and 20 (50.0%), respectively, of patient handovers. Conclusions Clinical handover practice of faculty-level critical care physicians did not conform to any of the three predefined structuring schemes. Further research is needed to examine whether alternative approaches to handover communication can be identified and to identify features of high-quality handover communication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16478902"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choice as an Alternative to Control in <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a randomized experiment, the investigator creates a clear and\\u000arelatively unambiguous comparison of treatment groups by exerting tight control\\u000aover the assignment of treatments to experimental subjects, ensuring that\\u000acomparable subjects receive alternative treatments. In an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>,\\u000athe investigator lacks control of treatment assignments and must seek a clear\\u000acomparison in other ways. Care in the choice of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul R. Rosenbaum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJWC..1607004C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The new worlds <span class="hlt">observer</span>: The astrophysics strategic mission concept <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept <span class="hlt">Study</span> for the New Worlds <span class="hlt">Observer</span> (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cash, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ASPC..430..353C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The New Worlds <span class="hlt">Observer</span>: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept <span class="hlt">Study</span> for the New Worlds <span class="hlt">Observer</span> (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cash, W.; New Worlds Study Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7436E...5C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The New Worlds <span class="hlt">Observer</span>: the astrophysics strategic mission concept <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept <span class="hlt">Study</span> for the New Worlds <span class="hlt">Observer</span> (NWO). We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cash, Webster; Kendrick, Stephen; Noecker, Charley; Bally, John; Demarines, Julia; Green, James; Oakley, Phillip; Shipley, Ann; Benson, Scott; Oleson, Steve; Content, David; Folta, Dave; Garrison, Sharon; Gendreau, Keith; Hartman, Kate; Howard, Joseph; Hyde, Tupper; Lakins, Darryl; Leitner, Jesse; Leviton, Douglas; Luquette, Rich; Oegerley, Bill; Richon, Karen; Roberge, Aki; Tompkins, Steve; Tveekrem, June; Woodgate, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Dailey, Dean; Decker, Kent; Dehmohseni, Reza; Gaugh, Brian; Glassman, Tiffany; Haney, Mickey; Hejal, Reem; Lillie, Charles; Lo, Amy; O'Conner, David; Oleas, Gina; Polidan, Ronald; Samuele, Rocco; Shields, Stephen; Shirvanian, James; Soohoo, David; Tinetti, Giovanna; Dorland, Bryan; Dudik, Rachel; Gaume, Ralph; Mason, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036539"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS <span class="hlt">STUDIES</span> OF COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES <span class="hlt">OBSERVED</span> IN SNS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the commissioning and early operation of the Spallation Neutron Source, some physics shifts were set aside for high intensity stability <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Under certain, especially contrived conditions, a number of beam instabilities were induced. These included both electron cloud and ring impedance driven phenomena. We are now applying both simple analytic models and the ORBIT Code to the description and simulation of these <span class="hlt">observed</span> instabilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL; Danilov, Viatcheslav V [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Jain, Lalit K [University of Waterloo, Canada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840018460&hterms=observational+cosmology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dobservational%2Bcosmology"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and theoretical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of rich clusters with multiple subcondensations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and theoretical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies are investigated. The relationship between the properties of individual galaxies and their environment is examined. Perphaps the most remarkable physical result derived from these is the apparent substructure in redishift position space. The distribution of spiral galaxies is quite different from the distribution of the ellipticals. The velocity distribution for the spirals is also substantially broader than the distribution for the ellipticals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.........5P"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> and numerical <span class="hlt">study</span> of extragalactic radio sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Very Large Array is used to make radio continuum <span class="hlt">observations</span> of a sample of 12 distant (z = 1) high luminosity 3CR galaxies. Images with arcsecond resolution are produced at wavelength 20 and 6 cm. The total and polarized intensity images are used to create maps of the fractional polarization, depolarization, rotation measure, and spectral index distributions. Additional arcsecond resolution <span class="hlt">observations</span> at wavelength 2 cm, higher resolution wavelength 6 and 2 cm maps, and optical R band continuum and emission-line images of (OII) wavelength 3727 are presented for 3C337. Suggestive evidence for dynamically significant interactions between the emission-line gas and the radio sources is presented. Numerical simulations of the interaction of a Mach 4 relative velocity slip surface with several trains of incident nonlinear sound waves are performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic <span class="hlt">Method</span>. PPM simulations of the supersonic slip surface between 10:1 density ratio fluids are made at M = 1, 1.9, and 4. Further simulations test the effects of grid resolution, the SLIC interface tracking <span class="hlt">method</span>, and the initial transverse perturbation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedelty, Jeffrey Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48187050"> <span id="translatedtitle">A graphical <span class="hlt">method</span> to aid the sequential analysis of <span class="hlt">observational</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, two <span class="hlt">methods</span> of sequential analysis are applied to hypothetical <span class="hlt">observational</span> data. The first <span class="hlt">method</span> employs\\u000a the conventional “conditional probability” approach, illustrated using the GSEQ program (Bakeman & Quera, 1995). In order\\u000a to overcome some of the difficulties associated with the conditional probability approach, the second <span class="hlt">method</span> employs a new\\u000a “normalized and pooled” approach. Essentially, by normalizing periods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott Hall; Chris Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.442.1451B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> to measure the relative fractions of solenoidal and compressible modes in interstellar clouds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We introduce a new <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">observationally</span> estimating the fraction of momentum density (?v) power contained in solenoidal modes (for which ? · ?v = 0) in molecular clouds. The <span class="hlt">method</span> is successfully tested with numerical simulations of supersonic turbulence that produce the full range of possible solenoidal/compressible fractions. At present, the <span class="hlt">method</span> assumes statistical isotropy, and does not account for anisotropies caused by (e.g.) magnetic fields. We also introduce a framework for statistically describing density-velocity correlations in turbulent clouds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brunt, C. M.; Federrath, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030014605&hterms=tehran&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522tehran%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropospheric Chemistry <span class="hlt">Studies</span> using <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from GOME and TOMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Studies</span> to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling <span class="hlt">studies</span> which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME <span class="hlt">observations</span> in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://personal.psc.isr.umich.edu/yuxie-web/files/soc710/Rosenbaum1999.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choice as an Alternative to Control in <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract. In a randomized experiment, the investigator creates a clear and relatively unambiguous,comparison,of treatment,groups,by exerting tight control over the assignment of treatments to experimental subjects, ensuring,that comparable,subjects receive alternative,treatments. In an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>, the investigator lacks control of treatment assign- ments,and must,seek a clear comparison,in other ways. Care in the choice of circumstances,in which the <span class="hlt">study</span>,is conducted,can greatly,inuence the quality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul R. Rosenbaum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36414252"> <span id="translatedtitle">The IPCS Collaborative <span class="hlt">Study</span> on Neurobehavioral Screening <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The International Programme on Chemical Safety sponsored a collaborative <span class="hlt">study</span> to evaluate the utility of neurobehavioral test <span class="hlt">methods</span> for identifying neurotoxic chemicals. The protocol consisted of a functional <span class="hlt">observational</span> battery and automated assessment of motor activity. The <span class="hlt">study</span> involved four laboratories in the United States and four in Europe, each of which evaluated the dose- and time-related effects of seven</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Virginia C. Moser; George C. Becking; Robert C. MacPhail; Beverly M. Kulig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n2410210611w2594.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Procalcitonin reflects bacteremia and bacterial load in urosepsis syndrome: a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend that two blood cultures be performed in patients with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), to detect bacteremia and help diagnose urosepsis. The usefulness and cost-effectiveness of this practice have been criticized. This <span class="hlt">study</span> aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) as an aid in predicting bacteremia. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: A prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> multicenter cohort <span class="hlt">study</span> included</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cees van Nieuwkoop; Tobias N Bonten; Jan W van't Wout; Ed J Kuijper; Geert H Groeneveld; Martin J Becker; Ted Koster; G Hanke Wattel-Louis; Nathalie M Delfos; Hans C Ablij; Jaap T van Dissel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21087249"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simple <span class="hlt">method</span> to hide data loggers safely in <span class="hlt">observation</span> wells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Submersible data loggers are widely used for groundwater monitoring, but their application often runs the risk of hardware and data loss through vandalism or theft. During a field <span class="hlt">study</span> in India, the authors of this article experienced that well locks attract the attention of unauthorized persons and do not provide secure protection in unattended areas. To minimize the risk of losing data loggers, a cheap and simple solution has been invented to hide the instruments and associated attachments below the ground surface, inside <span class="hlt">observation</span> wells. It relies on attaching the logger to a length of small-diameter pipe that is submerged at the bottom of the well, instead of attaching it to the top of the well. The small-diameter pipe with the logger is connected to a small bottle containing a magnet that floats on the water surface of the well and can be recovered using another bottle also with a magnet. A logger that is concealed in this way is difficult to detect and access without knowledge of the <span class="hlt">method</span> and adequate removal tools. The system was tested and successfully applied for monitoring shallow <span class="hlt">observation</span> wells at three field sites in Greater Delhi, India. PMID:21087249</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzen, Gunnar; Sprenger, Christoph; Pekdeger, Asaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_10 div --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57812659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Doing Democracy in Social <span class="hlt">Studies</span> <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, I argue that the social <span class="hlt">studies</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> course is an appropriate place to practice and reflect upon doing democracy. I review the literature on kinds of citizens the <span class="hlt">methods</span> course might support. I consider pre-service teachers' prior and present experiences with doing democracy. I pose a framework for doing democracy centered on processes of investigation, deliberation, service</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marilynne Boyle-Baise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=baise&id=EJ824210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Doing Democracy in Social <span class="hlt">Studies</span> <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, I argue that the social <span class="hlt">studies</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> course is an appropriate place to practice and reflect upon doing democracy. I review the literature on kinds of citizens the <span class="hlt">methods</span> course might support. I consider pre-service teachers' prior and present experiences with doing democracy. I pose a framework for doing democracy centered on…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyle-Baise, Marilynne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22quantitative+AND+research%22&id=EJ1019417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical Appraisal of Mixed <span class="hlt">Methods</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......337C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melt-Triggered Seismic Response in Hydraulically-Active Polar Ice: <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glacier ice responds to environmental forcing through changes in its sliding speed and mass balance. While these changes often occur on daily time scales or longer, they are initiated by brittle deformation events that establish hydrological pathways in hours or seconds and allow meltwater access to englacial or subglacial depths to facilitate ice motion. In this thesis, we (various contributing authors including myself) use seismic monitoring to detect and locate the creation and growth of some of these hydraulic pathways by monitoring their seismic emissions, or icequakes. More specifically, we address (1) what seismic <span class="hlt">observables</span>, unavailable from other sensing <span class="hlt">methods</span>, indicate an initial glaciogenic response to melt- water input and (2) if these comprise evidence of feedbacks that may destabilize polar ice under a warming climate. Supplemental to our scientific contributions, we advance statistical processing <span class="hlt">methods</span> that demonstrably improve the capability of digital detectors at discriminating icequakes from astationary noise. We begin by interpreting geophysical <span class="hlt">observations</span> collected from a dry-based, sub-freezing (--17 ° C), polar glacier environment (Taylor Glacier, ANT). By implementing a calibrated surface energy balance model, we estimate the timing and volume of surface meltwater generated during the collection of seismic data from a six-receiver geophone network. We proceed by contrasting these response characteristics with geophysical <span class="hlt">observations</span> following an early (spring) supraglacial lake drainage within the lake-forming ablation zone of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet. Using measurements from a ˜5km-aperture geophone network, we find that the anticipated post-drainage icequakes are diurnally responsive, largely surficial in origin, and indicative of tensile fracturing from shallow cracks in the ice. The creation of the lake-drainage moulin appears to coincide with a shift in mean icequake source locations, and an increase in icequake occurrence at night relative to that in the day. Contrary to our expectations, we find that the timing of GPS-derived surface speeds do not clearly indicate this seismic activity on any given day. Rather, these icequakes are best explained by peaks in localized strain gradients that develop at night when decreased subglacial water flux likely increases variability in basal traction. Additionally, our results appear comprise the first detailed seismic <span class="hlt">observations</span> targeted at an actively draining lake. Our last <span class="hlt">study</span> addresses the apparent deficiency in <span class="hlt">observed</span> basal icequakes detected from Greenland lake site. To explain the lack of deep icequakes, we compute thresholds on the magnitude of detectable basal events within the network and thereby illustrate that surficial icequakes with similar magnitudes and spectral content are more likely to be <span class="hlt">observed</span>. By restricting our attention to seismic events that produce lower frequency waveforms, we find a population of nearly monochromatic, sub-1Hz, large magnitude ( M w ? 3) seismic events borne from remote glaciogenic sources. In contrast to surficial icequakes, these events occur without significant bias between day and/or night periods and are best explained as glacial earthquakes generated by sliding episodes or iceberg calving events in the vicinity of Jakobshavn Glacier. These events occur daily and not correlate with the presence of local, surficial seismicity. We conclude with three general assertions regarding melt-triggered response characteristics of polar ice. First, hydraulic connections established by fracture events do not necessarily result in seismogenic basal stick slip, and therefore cannot necessarily be <span class="hlt">observed</span> with conventional GPS monitoring. This was demonstrated at Taylor Glacier. Here, meltwater input to a hydraulic pathway led to fracture growth deep within a cold glacier without any change in surface speed. Second, the presence of melt-triggered basal sliding does not necessarily induce a clear seismogenic basal response in the lakes regions. This was demonstrated on the Greenland Ice Sheet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carmichael, Joshua D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kkrm1233720023m6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">IVF conversion to IUI in poor responders: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose  The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to evaluate the significance of converting an IVF stimulation cycle with poor ovarian response\\u000a to an IUI cycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a <span class="hlt">Methods</span>  Between January and December 2007, 47 cycles of IVF conversion to IUI were retrospectively <span class="hlt">studied</span> in 44 infertile women who\\u000a had a low response to ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. Patients’ characteristics, ovarian stimulation, and ovarian response</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas Freour; Sophie Dubourdieu; Sophie Mirallie; Marie Laure Langlois; Miguel Jean; Paul Barrière</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015704&hterms=Cell+Phone+Tracking&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCell%2BPhone%2BTracking"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) <span class="hlt">Observations</span> for Climate <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth <span class="hlt">observations</span> since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate <span class="hlt">studies</span> has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of <span class="hlt">observations</span> back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, <span class="hlt">studies</span> of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910007618&hterms=poveda&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpoveda"> <span id="translatedtitle">A statistical <span class="hlt">study</span> of merging galaxies: Theory and <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">study</span> of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the <span class="hlt">observed</span> value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatterjee, Tapan K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7360389"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Evaluation of left ventricular function with polygraphic <span class="hlt">method</span> in subjects with prior myocardial infarct. Preliminary <span class="hlt">observations</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a group of patients with previous myocardial infarction S.T.I. are evaluated by polygraphic <span class="hlt">method</span>. In all examined patients an increment of Pre ejection period (PEP) has been <span class="hlt">observed</span> caused by the increase of the Deformation time (Q-S1). Increased values of SFW/RFW ratio are <span class="hlt">observed</span> in dyastolic phase. The Authors, in absence of other meccanocardiographic alterations, have ascribed the anomaly to the alteration of the myocardial contraction because of previous necrosis. PMID:7360389</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schirripa, V; Attisano, N; Sarica, G; Grenci, G; Martelli, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/870845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by <span class="hlt">observing</span> corresponding acoustic resonances therein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">method</span> for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by <span class="hlt">observing</span> corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present <span class="hlt">method</span> useful in refineries and distilleries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/441853"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by <span class="hlt">observing</span> corresponding acoustic resonances therein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">method</span> is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by <span class="hlt">observing</span> corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present <span class="hlt">method</span> useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015937&hterms=weather&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dweather"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Impact of <span class="hlt">Observations</span> on Numerical Weather Forecasts Using the Adjoint <span class="hlt">Method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adjoint of a data assimilation system provides a flexible and efficient tool for estimating <span class="hlt">observation</span> impacts on short-range weather forecasts. The impacts of any or all <span class="hlt">observations</span> can be estimated simultaneously based on a single execution of the adjoint system. The results can be easily aggregated according to data type, location, channel, etc., making this technique especially attractive for examining the impacts of new hyper-spectral satellite instruments and for conducting regular, even near-real time, monitoring of the entire <span class="hlt">observing</span> system. This talk provides a general overview of the adjoint <span class="hlt">method</span>, including the theoretical basis and practical implementation of the technique. Results are presented from the adjoint-based <span class="hlt">observation</span> impact monitoring tool in NASA's GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation and forecast system. When performed in conjunction with standard <span class="hlt">observing</span> system experiments (OSEs), the adjoint results reveal both redundancies and dependencies between <span class="hlt">observing</span> system impacts as <span class="hlt">observations</span> are added or removed from the assimilation system. Understanding these dependencies may be important for optimizing the use of the current <span class="hlt">observational</span> network and defining requirements for future <span class="hlt">observing</span> systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gelaro, Ronald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3668213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian <span class="hlt">study</span>, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Using a mixed-<span class="hlt">methods</span>, case-<span class="hlt">study</span> design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured <span class="hlt">method</span> and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection <span class="hlt">methods</span> captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results <span class="hlt">Study</span> cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE <span class="hlt">method</span> complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline). To adequately address local concerns, cases found it necessary to also search and appraise primary <span class="hlt">studies</span>, resulting in hybrid (adaptation plus de novo) guideline development strategies that required advanced methodological skills. Adaptation was found to be an action element in the knowledge translation continuum that required integration of an implementation perspective. Accordingly, the adaptation methodology and resources were reformulated and substantially augmented to provide practical assistance to groups not supported by a dedicated guideline panel and to provide more implementation planning support. The resulting framework is called CAN-IMPLEMENT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000017914&hterms=120km&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D120km"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spacelab Science Results <span class="hlt">Study</span>. Volume 1; External <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an <span class="hlt">observing</span> platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results <span class="hlt">study</span> will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which <span class="hlt">studies</span> the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assembly+AND+line&id=EJ679661"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Conceptual <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Visual Training <span class="hlt">Methods</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proposes a research <span class="hlt">study</span> to investigate the effects of two visual training <span class="hlt">methods</span> on the productivity of new workers on an assembly line at a wood products plant in Indonesia. Suggests that such a <span class="hlt">study</span> would be useful to the managers in deciding what types of training would be most appropriate. (Contains 23 references.) (CAK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aik, Chong-Tek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22221611S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational and <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Interstellar Thioformaldehyde Masers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interstellar spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) holds considerable promise because of the close relationship between the H2CS molecule and the well-<span class="hlt">studied</span> formaldehyde (H2CO) molecule. In particular, the well-known J(Ka,Kc) = 1(1,0) to 1(1,1) transition of H2CO at 6 cm (4.8 GHz) has an analogous H2CS transition at 1046 MHz. However, the 1046-MHz line of H2CS has never been detected astronomically. We present here a summary of: (1) a computational investigation of H2CS level populations related to known H2CO 6-cm masers, and (2) an <span class="hlt">observational</span> campaign of four isotopologues of H2CS. Maser emission from H2CO has been <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 6 cm for which Boland and de Jong (1981) have developed a pump model. We have extended this model to H2CS and we present preliminary calculations for a 1046-MHz maser. We intend to develop a quantitative tool for interpreting H2CS <span class="hlt">observations</span> toward Galactic and extragalactic locations of H2CO maser emission by constructing a radiative-transfer maser model for H2CS. Thioformaldehyde has been detected in a few Galactic sources via J>1 transitions. However, interpretation of these results has two outstanding problems: the H2CS/H2CO abundances do not agree with known sulfur-to-oxygen ratios nor do the J>1 populations have the expected Boltzmann relationship to the J=1 states. A detection of the 1046-MHz transition of H2CS with J=1 would alleviate many of the ambiguities in the interpretation of existing <span class="hlt">observational</span> results. We describe our forthcoming experiment to search in a Galactic star-forming region for thermal and nonthermal emission and absorption from four thioformaldehyde isotopologues: H2(12C)(32S), H2(13C)(32S), H2(12C)(34S), and D2(12C)(32S). Taken together, both parts of this research effort will provide valuable and novel constraints on H2CS and H2CO. New <span class="hlt">observations</span> of H2CS isotopologues will yield new measurements of deuterium-to-hydrogen and sulfur-to-oxygen ratios in star-forming environments. Also, the application of the H2CO maser pump model to H2CS will provide new insights on the rare and enigmatic H2CO masers in the Galaxy. This work is supported by Wittenberg University through the Physics Department and the Student Development Board.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simpson, Lisa; Hoffman, I. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........37S"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of post-asymptotic-giant-branch stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis, we present an LTE model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type postasymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars. With initial masses ? 9M?, post-AGB stars form an important group of evolved stars and provide a unique opportunity to <span class="hlt">study</span> stellar evolution almost on a human time-scale. Post-AGB stars have spectral types ranging from K to B and luminosities between 103 and 104L?. These objects ended their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution phase with a period of strong mass loss (10-7 - 10-4M? yr-1) and have been evolving from cooler to hotter temperatures at almost constant luminosity on a timescale of ˜ 104yr. B-type pAGB stars span a wide range in effective temperature (10 000 - 30 000K). Their expected surface gravities (log g ) and effective temperatures ( Teff ) coincide with those of B stars evolving from the main sequence. Therefore systematic <span class="hlt">observational</span> analyses are required to distinguish these two groups. Furthermore, p! ost-AGB stars may be divided into four distinct groups based on their chemical composition. In this thesis, groups I and II represent post-AGB stars which are very metal deficient with C/O ? 1 and metal poor with C/O<1, when compared with the Sun, respectively. The question is whether hot pAGB stars belong to either of these four groups. Three further objectives included: 1. to discover whether post-AGB star have helium-normal or helium-rich photospheres. 2. the detection and measurement of s-process element abundances (e.g. Sr, Y, Ba, Hf). 3. to determine whether they show any anomaly in phosphorus abundance such as that seen in the extreme helium stars (EHes). High-resolution ´echelle spectra of several post-AGB stars were obtained at the AAT in 1999 and 2005 in order to <span class="hlt">study</span> chemical composition, rotation velocities and other fundamental properties. Echelle spectra present many difficulties for data reduction, including the problems of order rectification and merging. To address these problems we developed an ´echelle spectrum reduction package, known as TIGER. These spectra were analyzed using model atmospheres and synthetic spectra computed with the Armagh LTE stellar atmospheres software. The semiautomated spectral fitting package SFIT was used to measure the stellar surface parameters and composition. The results show that Teff of the programme stars are in the range 15 000 - 25 000 K and log g are in the range 2.5 - 3.0. In addition to being metal-poor stars, they show mostly C/O<1. Several of our programme stars, namely HD119608, LSS4331, LSS5112, and LB3116 confirm this. The majority of hot post-AGB stars can be identified with the group II, metal-poor and C-deficient post-AGB stars. The model atmosphere parameters, LTE element abundances and estimated distance obtained here support the idea that programme stars are in true post-AGB stars. We detected helium enrichment in the post-AGB stars Hen3-1428 and LSS4331. We did not detect any evidence of s-process elements, primarily because of the high Teff of our targets. Our results do not show overabundance in phosphorus for any hot pAGB stars. Since we used the same atomic data and <span class="hlt">methods</span>, we conclude that the enhancement of phosphorus previously found in some EHe stars is real. We <span class="hlt">studied</span> stellar wind signatures for the post-AGB star LSIV-12 111. Emission line equivalent widths for Balmer lines show changes between two different epochs. Hen3-1428 and LSIV-12 111 show blue shifted absorption lines. A stellar wind is clearly present in both stars. We compared variability of a group of post-AGB and a group EHe stars using archival photometry. We did not detect variability in EHe stars. We detected variability in five post-AGB stars. Large variations in HR4049, HD213985, and HD52961 appear to be related to the binary period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahin, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5749..484S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing three <span class="hlt">methods</span> for simplifying mesh models of the lungs: an <span class="hlt">observer</span> test to assess perceived quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meshes are currently used to model objects, namely human organs and other structures. However, if they have a large number of triangles, their rendering times may not be adequate to allow interactive visualization, a mostly desirable feature in some diagnosis (or, more generally, decision) scenarios, where the choice of adequate views is important. In this case, a possible solution consists in showing a simplified version while the user interactively chooses the viewpoint and, then, a fully detailed version of the model to support its analysis. To tackle this problem, simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span> can be used to generate less complex versions of meshes. While several simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been developed and reported in the literature, only a few <span class="hlt">studies</span> compare them concerning the perceived quality of the obtained simplified meshes. This work describes an experiment conducted with human <span class="hlt">observers</span> in order to compare three different simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span> used to simplify mesh models of the lungs. We intended to <span class="hlt">study</span> if any of these <span class="hlt">methods</span> allows a better-perceived quality for the same simplification rate. A protocol was developed in order to measure these aspects. The results presented were obtained from 32 human <span class="hlt">observers</span>. The comparison between the three mesh simplification <span class="hlt">methods</span> was first performed through an Exploratory Data Analysis and the significance of this comparison was then established using other statistical <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Moreover, the influence on the <span class="hlt">observers</span>' performances of some other factors was also investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva, Samuel; Santos, Beatriz S.; Madeira, Joaquim; Ferreira, Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of imputation <span class="hlt">methods</span> for microbial surface water quality <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">studies</span> of microbial water quality are subject to missing <span class="hlt">observations</span>. This <span class="hlt">study</span> evaluates multiple imputation (MI) against data deletion, mean or median imputation for replacing missing microbial water quality data. The specific context is data collected in Chicago Area Waterway System (2007-2009), where 45% of Escherichia coli and 53% of enterococci densities were missing owing to sample analysis deficiencies. Imputation <span class="hlt">methods</span> were compared performing a simulation <span class="hlt">study</span> using complete <span class="hlt">observations</span> with introduced missing values and subsequently compared with the original data with missing <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Coefficients for E. coli densities in linear regression models predicting somatic coliphages density show that MI introduces the least bias among other <span class="hlt">methods</span> while controlling Type I error. Further exploration of utilizing different MI implementations is recommended to address the influence of missing percentage on MI performance and to explore sensitivity to the degree of violation of the missing completely at random assumption. PMID:24705739</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nieh, Chiping; Dorevitch, Samuel; Liu, Li C; Jones, Rachael M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087872"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of <span class="hlt">study</span> regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this <span class="hlt">study</span>. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the <span class="hlt">study</span>. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890018776&hterms=navy+changes+arctic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnavy%2Bchanges%2Barctic"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Sea ice <span class="hlt">studies</span> with passive microwave satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this research are: (1) to improve sea ice concentration determinations from passive microwave space <span class="hlt">observations</span>; (2) to <span class="hlt">study</span> the role of Arctic polynyas in the production of sea ice and the associated salinization of Arctic shelf water; and (3) to <span class="hlt">study</span> large scale sea ice variability in the polar oceans. The strategy is to analyze existing data sets and data acquired from both the DMSP SSM/I and recently completed aircraft underflights. Special attention will be given the high resolution 85.5 GHz SSM/I channels for application to thin ice algorithms and processes <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Analysis of aircraft and satellite data sets is expected to provide a basis for determining the potential of the SSM/I high frequency channels for improving sea ice algorithms and for investigating oceanic processes. Improved sea ice algorithms will aid the <span class="hlt">study</span> of Arctic coastal polynyas which in turn will provide a better understanding of the role of these polynyas in maintaining the Arctic watermass structure. Analysis of satellite and archived meteorological data sets will provide improved estimates of annual, seasonal and shorter-term sea ice variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cavalieri, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50474599"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved perturbation and <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> (IP&O) of MPPT control for photovoltaic power systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) system to maximize the PV array output power irrespective of temperature and irradiation conditions. In this paper, an improved perturbation and <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span> (IP&O) based on adaptive algorithm is proposed, which is automatically adjusts the reference step size and hysteresis bandwidth for power comparison. The digital signal processor (DSP) was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Youngseok Jung; Junghun So; Gwonjong Yu; Jaeho Choi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22803355"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the number of <span class="hlt">observable</span> species, <span class="hlt">observable</span> reactions and <span class="hlt">observable</span> fluxes in chemometric <span class="hlt">studies</span> and the role of multichannel integration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is assumed that preliminary experiments are performed to measure the absorbance of a liquid in a chemically reactive system. Further, given the exploratory nature of the <span class="hlt">study</span> it is assumed that no further information is available concerning the species present nor the reactions occurring. The principle chemometric goals of such an exploratory experimental <span class="hlt">study</span> can be stated as follows;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc Garland; Erik Visser; Peter Terwiesch; David W. T. Rippin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y02127537q64q187.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort <span class="hlt">study</span> (CKDCS): A prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of incident hemodialysis patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Many nephrology <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease\\u000a Cohort <span class="hlt">Study</span> (CKDCS) is a large prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers.\\u000a This <span class="hlt">study</span> focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving\\u000a dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a <span class="hlt">Methods</span>\\/Design  The CKDCS collects information on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aminu K Bello; Ravi Thadhani; Brenda Hemmelgarn; Scott Klarenbach; John Gill; Christopher Chan; Deborah Zimmerman; Daniel Holmes; George Cembrowski; Dawn Opgenorth; Rafael Sibrian; Mohammad Karkhaneh; Sophanny Tiv; Natasha Wiebe; Marcello Tonelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38420144"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Aging, Demographics, and Memory <span class="hlt">Study</span>: <span class="hlt">Study</span> Design and <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: We describe the design and <span class="hlt">methods</span> of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory <span class="hlt">Study</span> (ADAMS), a new national <span class="hlt">study</span> that will provide data on the antecedents, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of dementia and ‘cognitive impairment, not demented’ (CIND) using a unique <span class="hlt">study</span> design based on the nationally representative Health and Retirement <span class="hlt">Study</span> (HRS). We also illustrate potential uses of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth M. Langa; Brenda L. Plassman; Robert B. Wallace; A. Regula Herzog; Steven G. Heeringa; Mary Beth Ofstedal; James R. Burke; Gwenith G. Fisher; Nancy H. Fultz; Michael D. Hurd; Guy G. Potter; Willard L. Rodgers; David C. Steffens; David R. Weir; Robert J. Willis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ675831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shaping the Future: Writing up the <span class="hlt">Method</span> on Qualitative <span class="hlt">Studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> on qualitative manuscripts submitted for publication identified problem areas: organization and format, relationship of concept and <span class="hlt">method</span>, methodological issues (<span class="hlt">study</span> type, conceptual framework, sample, data collection/analysis, integrity, data management), discussion, and data presentation. Recommendations for improving quality of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rocco, Tonette S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jamia.bmj.com/content/15/2/240.full.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Research-based Synopses Delivered as Daily E-mail: A Prospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> to (1) determine usage and construct validity of a <span class="hlt">method</span> to gauge the cognitive impact of information derived from daily e-mail, and (2) describe self-reported impacts of research-based synopses (InfoPOEMs) delivered as e-mail. Ratings of InfoPOEMs using an Impact assessment scale provided (a) data on usage of the impact assessment <span class="hlt">method</span>, (b) reports of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ROLAND M. GRAD; PIERRE PLUYE; JAY MERCER; BERNARD MARLOW; MARIE-EVE BEAUCHAMP; MICHAEL SHULHA; JANIQUE JOHNSON-LAFLEUR; SHARON WOOD-DAUPHINEE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39190654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patient complexity in quality comparisons for glycemic control: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Patient complexity is not incorporated into quality of care comparisons for glycemic control. We developed a <span class="hlt">method</span> to adjust hemoglobin A1c levels for patient characteristics that reflect complexity, and examined the effect of using adjusted A1c values on quality comparisons. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: This cross-sectional <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> used 1999 national VA (US Department of Veterans Affairs) pharmacy, inpatient and outpatient utilization,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monika M Safford; Michael Brimacombe; Quanwu Zhang; Mangala Rajan; Minge Xie; Wesley Thompson; John Kolassa; Miriam Maney; Leonard Pogach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP43C..07R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Satellite <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Induced Magnetic Fields using Scripted Finite Element <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scripted finite element <span class="hlt">methods</span> allow flexible investigations of the influence of asymmetric external source fields and 3-dimensional (3D) internal electrical conductivity structure in the problem of global geomagnetic depth sounding. Our forward modeling is performed in the time and frequency domains via FlexPDE, a commercial finite element modeling package, and the technique has been validated against known solutions to 3D steady state and time-dependent problems. The induction problem is formulated in terms of the magnetic vector potential and electric scalar potential, and mesh density is managed both explicitly and through adaptive mesh refinement. We investigate the effects of 3D Earth conductivity on both satellite and ground-based magnetic field <span class="hlt">observations</span> in the form of a geographically varying conductance map of the crust and oceans overlying a radially symmetric core and mantle. This map is used in conjunction with a novel boundary condition based on Ampere's Law to model variable near-surface induction without the computational expense of a 3D crust/ocean mesh and is valid for magnetic signals in the frequency range of interest for satellite induction <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The simulated external magnetic field is aligned with Earth's magnetic pole, rather than its rotational pole, and increases in magnitude along the Earth/Sun axis. Earth rotates through this field with a period of 24 hours. Electromagnetic c-responses estimated from satellite data under the assumption that the primary and induced fields are dipolar in structure are known to be biased with respect to local time. We investigate the influence of Earth's rotation through the non-uniform external field on these c-responses, to determine whether this can explain the <span class="hlt">observed</span> local time bias.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribaudo, J. T.; Constable, C.; Parker, R. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2564896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathway to psychiatric care in Japan: A multicenter <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background This <span class="hlt">study</span> examines pathways to psychiatric care in Japan using the same <span class="hlt">method</span> as the collaborative <span class="hlt">study</span> carried out in 1991 under the auspices of the World Health Organization. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Thirteen psychiatric facilities in Japan were involved. Of the 228 patients who contacted psychiatric facilities with any psychiatric illness, eighty four visiting psychiatric facilities for the first time were enrolled. Pathways to psychiatric care, delays from the onset of illness to treatment prior to reaching psychiatrists were surveyed. Results Thirty three patients (39.4%) directly accessed mental health professionals, 32 patients (38.1%) reached them via general hospital, and 13 patients (15.5%) via private practitioners. The patients who consulted mental health professionals as their first carers took a longer time before consulting psychiatrists than the patients who consulted non-mental health professionals as their first carers. The patients who presented somatic symptoms as their main problem experienced longer delay from the onset of illness to psychiatric care than the patients who complained about depressive or anxiety symptoms. Prior to the visit to mental health professionals, patients were rarely informed about their diagnosis and did not receive appropriate treatments from their physicians. Private practitioners were more likely to prescribe psychotropics than physicians in general hospitals, but were less likely to inform their patients of their diagnosis. Conclusion This first pathway to psychiatric care <span class="hlt">study</span> in Japan demonstrated that referral pathway in Japan heavily relies on medical resources. The <span class="hlt">study</span> indicates possible fields and gives indications, underlining the importance of improving skills and knowledge that will facilitate the recognition of psychiatric disorders presenting with somatic and depressive symptoms in the general health care system and by private practitioners.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Masamune-Koizumi, Yayoi; Otsuka, Kotaro; Tateno, Masaru; Okugawa, Gaku; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sato, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tonai, Eita; Yoshida, Kosuke; Mori, Takatoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Sato, Soichiro; Igimi, Hiroyasu; Waseda, Yoshibumi; Ueno, Takefumi; Morokuma, Ippei; Takahashi, Katsuyoshi; Sartorius, Norman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022191&hterms=Gordon+JEFF&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGordon%2BJEFF"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active region <span class="hlt">studies</span> with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scientific justification for an <span class="hlt">observing</span> campaign to <span class="hlt">study</span> the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holman, Gordon D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39169607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Procalcitonin as a marker of bacterial infection in the emergency department: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION: Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a marker of infection in critically ill patients; its level is related to the severity of infection. We evaluated the value of PCT as a marker of bacterial infection for emergency department patients. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: This prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> consecutively enrolled 120 adult atraumatic patients admitted through the emergency department of a 3000-bed tertiary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi-Ling Chan; Ching-Ping Tseng; Pei-Kuei Tsay; Shy-Shin Chang; Te-Fa Chiu; Jih-Chang Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32775482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teach the Teachers: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> on Mentor Traineeship in Gynecological Laparoscopic Surgery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: To evaluate the effect of a mentor traineeship in laparoscopic surgery in a teaching hospital. <span class="hlt">Method</span>: This <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> was performed between January 1997 and December 2004 at Bronovo Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands. Since January 2001, an advanced endoscopic gynecologist has mentored a trainee in laparoscopic surgery. Data on the trainee’s procedures preceding (1997–2000) and during the mentor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wendela Kolkman; Lieselotte E. Engels; Maddy J. G. H. Smeets; Frank Willem Jansen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scale+AND+olson&pg=5&id=ED160611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Psychometrics and <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: Issues in a Dual Approach to the <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Classroom Learning Environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropological <span class="hlt">methods</span> of classroom <span class="hlt">observation</span> were combined with the results of student responses to three questionnaires in a <span class="hlt">study</span> of classroom learning environments. The questionnaires were: Learning Environment Inventory, Class Activities Questionnaire, and ALP (Authenticity, Legitimacy, Productivity) Ethos Instrument. Although the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39187086"> <span id="translatedtitle">Professional quality of life and organizational changes: a five-year <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> in Primary Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: The satisfaction and the quality of life perceived by professionals have implications for the performance of health organizations. We have assessed the variations in professional quality of life (PQL) and their explanatory factors during a services management decentralization process. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: It was designed as a longitudinal analytical <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> in a Health Area in Madrid, Spain. Three surveys were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesus Martin-Fernandez; Tomas Gomez-Gascon; Milagros Beamud-Lagos; Jose Alfonso Cortes-Rubio; Angel Alberquilla-Menendez-Asenjo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Small+AND+medium-sized+AND+enterprises&pg=3&id=EJ667470"> <span id="translatedtitle">Success and Failure in Helping SMEs. A Three-Year <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 3-year <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of a project to help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) conducted by a British university highlighted initial contacts and working <span class="hlt">methods</span> that were effective. Results identified why some SMEs do not make full use of facilities offered and reasons for overall success. (Contains 13 references.) (JOW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewardson, Dave; Coleman, Shirley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030052005&hterms=dendrimer&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddendrimer"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate <span class="hlt">studies</span> at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent <span class="hlt">observations</span> implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory <span class="hlt">study</span> of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saykally, Richard James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......193H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Pre-Main Sequence Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars <span class="hlt">observed</span> represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-<span class="hlt">studied</span> stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> characteristics of the stars <span class="hlt">studied</span>. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hutchinson, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997185"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Multicenter prospective <span class="hlt">study</span> of poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (AMPAS): <span class="hlt">observational</span> registry <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Our limited knowledge on predictors of long-term outcome in poor-grade patients with aSAH definitively managed comes from retrospective and prospective <span class="hlt">studies</span> of small case series of patients in single center. The purpose of the AMPAS is to determine the long-term outcomes in poor-grade patients with different managements within different time after aSAH, and identify the independent predictors of the outcome that help guide the decision on definitive management. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>/design The AMPAS <span class="hlt">study</span> is a prospective, multicenter, <span class="hlt">observational</span> registry of consecutive hospitalized patients with poor grade aSAH (WFNS grade IV and V). The aim is to enroll at least 226 poor-grade patients in 11 high-volume medical centers (eg, >150 aSAH cases per year) affiliated to different universities in China. This <span class="hlt">study</span> will describe poor grade patients and aneurysm characteristics, treatment strategies (modality and time of definitive management), hospitalization complications and outcomes evolve over time. The definitive management is ruptured aneurysm treatment. Outcomes at 3, 6, 12 months after the management were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. Discussion The AMPAS is the first prospective, multicenter, <span class="hlt">observational</span> registry of poor grade aSAH with any management. This <span class="hlt">study</span> will contribute to a better understanding of significant predictors of outcome in poor grade patients and help guide future treatment of the worst patients after aSAH. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TNRC-10001041.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57639948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of clustering algorithms on generalized propensity score in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>: a simulation <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>, unbalanced <span class="hlt">observed</span> covariates between treatment groups often cause biased inferences on the estimation of treatment effects. Recently, generalized propensity score (GPS) has been proposed to overcome this problem; however, a practical technique to apply the GPS is lacking. This <span class="hlt">study</span> demonstrates how clustering algorithms can be used to group similar subjects based on transformed GPS. We compare</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chunhao Tu; Shuo Jiao; Woon Yuen Koh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002942&hterms=ricardo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dricardo"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Impacts in Two Forecast Systems using Adjoint <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experiment is being conducted to compare directly the impact of all assimilated <span class="hlt">observations</span> on short-range forecast errors in different operational forecast systems. We use the adjoint-based <span class="hlt">method</span> developed by Langland and Baker (2004), which allows these impacts to be efficiently calculated. This presentation describes preliminary results for a "baseline" set of <span class="hlt">observations</span>, including both satellite radiances and conventional <span class="hlt">observations</span>, used by the Navy/NOGAPS and NASA/GEOS-5 forecast systems for the month of January 2007. In each system, about 65% of the total reduction in 24-h forecast error is provided by satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>, although the impact of rawinsonde, aircraft, land, and ship-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> remains significant. Only a small majority (50- 55%) of all <span class="hlt">observations</span> assimilated improves the forecast, while the rest degrade it. It is found that most of the total forecast error reduction comes from <span class="hlt">observations</span> with moderate-size innovations providing small to moderate impacts, not from outliers with very large positive or negative innovations. In a global context, the relative impacts of the major <span class="hlt">observation</span> types are fairly similar in each system, although regional differences in <span class="hlt">observation</span> impact can be significant. Of particular interest is the fact that while satellite radiances have a large positive impact overall, they degrade the forecast in certain locations common to both systems, especially over land and ice surfaces. Ongoing comparisons of this type, with results expected from other operational centers, should lead to more robust conclusions about the impacts of the various components of the <span class="hlt">observing</span> system as well as about the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to assimilate them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gelaro, Ronald; Langland, Rolf; Todling, Ricardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_12 div --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020793&hterms=neutron+stars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dneutron%2Bstars"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: II: Too <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Transient LMXBs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NASA Grant NAG 5-9045 provided funds for the research project 'TOO <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Transient LMxBs' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest <span class="hlt">Observer</span> Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the <span class="hlt">observing</span> time proposal was Dr. M. Mendez (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/1/2000. The original proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. William S. Pauesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of <span class="hlt">observational</span> data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. The proposal was intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by making RXTE target-of-opportunity <span class="hlt">observations</span> of two transient LMXBs, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, if the sources became sufficiently bright.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paciesas, William S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18996044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Singlet oxygen generated from the decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate and its <span class="hlt">observation</span> with chemiluminescence <span class="hlt">method</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate (HCO(4)(-)) has been investigated by flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) <span class="hlt">method</span>. An ultraweak CL was <span class="hlt">observed</span> during mixing the bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide solution in organic cosolvent. An appropriate amount of fluorescent organic compounds, such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), was added to the HCO(4)(-) solution, a strong CL was recorded. Based on <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the spectrum of fluorescence, CL and UV-vis spectra, electron spin trapping (ESR) technique, mass spectra (MS) and comparison with H(2)O(2)/hypochlorite (ClO(-)) and H(2)O(2)/molybdate (MoO(4)(-)) systems, the CL mechanism was proposed. The reaction is initiated by unimolecular homolysis of the peroxo O-O bond in HO-OCOO(-) molecule. It was suggested that the bond rearrangement within radicals yield superoxide ion (O(2)(*-)). The interaction of superoxide ion with perhydroxyl radical produces singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The energy transfers from singlet oxygen to DCF forming an excited energy acceptor (DCF*). Luminescence (lambda(max)=509 nm) was emitted during the relaxation of the energy acceptor to the ground state. PMID:18996044</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Jin-Ming; Liu, Meilin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.436.1123M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-parametric <span class="hlt">method</span> for measuring gas inhomogeneities from X-ray <span class="hlt">observations</span> of galaxy clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a non-parametric <span class="hlt">method</span> to measure inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium (ICM) from X-ray <span class="hlt">observations</span> of galaxy clusters. Analysing mock Chandra X-ray <span class="hlt">observations</span> of simulated clusters, we show that our new <span class="hlt">method</span> enables the accurate recovery of the 3D gas density and gas clumping factor profiles out to large radii of galaxy clusters. We then apply this <span class="hlt">method</span> to Chandra X-ray <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Abell 1835 and present the first determination of the gas clumping factor from the X-ray cluster data. We find that the gas clumping factor in Abell 1835 increases with radius and reaches ˜2-3 at r = R200. This is in good agreement with the predictions of hydrodynamical simulations, but it is significantly below the values inferred from recent Suzaku <span class="hlt">observations</span>. We further show that the radially increasing gas clumping factor causes flattening of the derived entropy profile of the ICM and affects physical interpretation of the cluster gas structure, especially at the large cluster-centric radii. Our new technique should be useful for improving our understanding of the cluster structure and to advance the use of galaxy clusters as cosmological probes, by helping to exploit rich data sets provided by Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray space telescopes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morandi, Andrea; Nagai, Daisuke; Cui, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006442&hterms=satellite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsatellite"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Perturbation <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytic perturbation <span class="hlt">method</span> is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes <span class="hlt">observed</span> by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the <span class="hlt">observations</span> consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The <span class="hlt">method</span> is tested using simulated <span class="hlt">observations</span> that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-<span class="hlt">observed</span> flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koshak, William; Solakiewicz, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE13A0323K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Perturbation <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytic perturbation <span class="hlt">method</span> is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes <span class="hlt">observed</span> by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the <span class="hlt">observations</span> consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The <span class="hlt">method</span> is tested using simulated <span class="hlt">observations</span> that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-<span class="hlt">observed</span> flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995770"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected <span class="hlt">observation</span> and validation <span class="hlt">study</span> was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy. PMID:23995770</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD692084"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Method</span> for <span class="hlt">Studying</span> Altruism in Monkeys.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental <span class="hlt">method</span> was developed to <span class="hlt">study</span> possible 'altruistic' interactions in monkeys. Two monkeys were placed in adjacent cages. Each monkey could choose to feed itself by pressing one lever or to feed both itself and the other monkey by pressing a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. D. Colman K. E. Liebold J. J. Boren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079226"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing Suicide in Toronto: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> and Cluster Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To determine whether people who have died from suicide in a large epidemiologic sample form clusters based on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. <span class="hlt">Method</span>: We conducted a coroner’s chart review for 2886 people who died in Toronto, Ontario, from 1998 to 2010, and whose death was ruled as suicide by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. A cluster analysis using known suicide risk factors was performed to determine whether suicide deaths separate into distinct groups. Clusters were compared according to person- and suicide-specific factors. Results: Five clusters emerged. Cluster 1 had the highest proportion of females and nonviolent <span class="hlt">methods</span>, and all had depression and a past suicide attempt. Cluster 2 had the highest proportion of people with a recent stressor and violent suicide <span class="hlt">methods</span>, and all were married. Cluster 3 had mostly males between the ages of 20 and 64, and all had either experienced recent stressors, suffered from mental illness, or had a history of substance abuse. Cluster 4 had the youngest people and the highest proportion of deaths by jumping from height, few were married, and nearly one-half had bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Cluster 5 had all unmarried people with no prior suicide attempts, and were the least likely to have an identified mental illness and most likely to leave a suicide note. Conclusions: People who die from suicide assort into different patterns of demographic, clinical, and death-specific characteristics. Identifying and <span class="hlt">studying</span> subgroups of suicides may advance our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of suicide and help to inform development of more targeted suicide prevention strategies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Streiner, David L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3325970"> <span id="translatedtitle">DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in the Neotropical Legume Parkia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of <span class="hlt">observationally</span> and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field <span class="hlt">study</span> on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we <span class="hlt">observationally</span> determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through <span class="hlt">observational</span> and genetic <span class="hlt">methods</span> and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our <span class="hlt">study</span> showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our <span class="hlt">study</span> demonstrated that DNA extraction <span class="hlt">methods</span> so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heymann, Eckhard W.; Luttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3458229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinicians' gut feeling about serious infections in children: <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To investigate the basis and added value of clinicians’ “gut feeling” that infections in children are more serious than suggested by clinical assessment. Design <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. Setting Primary care setting, Flanders, Belgium. Participants Consecutive series of 3890 children and young people aged 0-16 years presenting in primary care. Main outcome measures Presenting features, clinical assessment, doctors’ intuitive response at first contact with children in primary care, and any subsequent diagnosis of serious infection determined from hospital records. Results Of the 3369 children and young people assessed clinically as having a non-severe illness, six (0.2%) were subsequently admitted to hospital with a serious infection. Intuition that something was wrong despite the clinical assessment of non-severe illness substantially increased the risk of serious illness (likelihood ratio 25.5, 95% confidence interval 7.9 to 82.0) and acting on this gut feeling had the potential to prevent two of the six cases being missed (33%, 95% confidence interval 4.0% to 100%) at a cost of 44 false alarms (1.3%, 95% confidence interval 0.95% to 1.75%). The clinical features most strongly associated with gut feeling were the children’s overall response (drowsiness, no laughing), abnormal breathing, weight loss, and convulsions. The strongest contextual factor was the parents’ concern that the illness was different from their previous experience (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 12.3 to 107). Conclusions A gut feeling about the seriousness of illness in children is an instinctive response by clinicians to the concerns of the parents and the appearance of the children. It should trigger action such as seeking a second opinion or further investigations. The <span class="hlt">observed</span> association between intuition and clinical markers of serious infection means that by reflecting on the genesis of their gut feeling, clinicians should be able to hone their clinical skills.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14524848"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observing</span> stochastic resonance in an underdamped bistable Duffing oscillator by the <span class="hlt">method</span> of moments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">method</span> of moments is applied to an underdamped bistable oscillator driven by Gaussian white noise and a weak periodic force for the <span class="hlt">observations</span> of stochastic resonance and the resulting resonant structures are compared with those from Langevin simulation. The physical mechanisms of the stochastic resonance are explained based on the evolution of the intrawell frequency peak and the above-barrier frequency peak via the noise intensity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and the three possible sources of stochastic resonance in the system are confirmed. Additionally, with the noise intensity fixed, the stochastic resonant structures are also <span class="hlt">observed</span> by adjusting the nonlinear parameter. PMID:14524848</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Jian-Xue; Xie, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950035260&hterms=ccd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dccd"> <span id="translatedtitle">The overlapping plates <span class="hlt">method</span> applied to CCD <span class="hlt">observations</span> of 243 Ida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overlapping plates <span class="hlt">method</span> has been applied to crossing-point Charge Coupled Device (CCD) <span class="hlt">observations</span> of minor planet 243 Ida to produce absolute position measurements precise to better than 0.1 sec and differential position measurements precise to better than 0.06 sec. Although these <span class="hlt">observations</span> numbered only 17 out of the 520 that produced the final ground-based Ida ephemeris for the Galileo spacecraft flyby, their inclusion decreased Ida's downtrack error from 78 to 60 km and its out-of-plane error from 58 to 44 km.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owen, W. M., Jr.; Yeomans, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AZh....69.1090Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photographic zenith tube of the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory - Processing <span class="hlt">method</span> and <span class="hlt">observation</span> results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">method</span> for the reduction of PZT plates which has been used at the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory since 1986 is described. The formulas used for computing the coordinates of the stellar image in the focal plane at the midpoint of the exposure are correct to 0.0024 arcsec. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from February 1986 to October 1988 are compared with data of BIH and IERS, and the results of the comparison are used to compute the amplitudes of the annual terms of nonpolar variations in the <span class="hlt">observed</span> latitudes and Delta(UTI).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yurov, E. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23142899"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> used to <span class="hlt">observe</span> a dynamical quantum nonlocality effect in a twin Mach-Zehnder interferometer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Straightforward novel <span class="hlt">methods</span> for stabilizing, tuning, and controlling a twin Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the purpose of <span class="hlt">observing</span> a subtle dynamical quantum nonlocality effect in a recent optical experiment are presented and discussed. Weak measurements were required for <span class="hlt">observing</span> a subtle quantum dynamical nonlocality effect that reveals itself in a change of a weak value. Consequently, emphasis is placed upon describing the approaches to apparatus stabilization and interaction strength control between photons and the apparatus. The details discussed in this paper should be of general interest to experimentalists engaging in weak measurement and weak value research. PMID:23142899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spence, Scott E; Parks, Allen D; Niemi, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22248496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy intakes of ultraendurance cyclists during competition, an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endurance events>10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous <span class="hlt">studies</span> in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. This <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> included 18 cyclists in a 384-km cycle race. At race registration each cyclist's support crew was provided with a food diary for their cyclist. On completion of the race, cyclists were asked to recall their race food and drink intakes. All food and fluids were analyzed using a computer software package. Mean (SD) time to complete the race was 16 hr 21 min (2 hr 2 min). Mean (SD) energy intake was 18.7 (8.6) MJ, compared with an estimated energy requirement for the race of 25.5 (7.4) MJ. There was a significant negative relationship between energy intake and time taken to complete the race (p=.023, r²=-.283). Mean (SD) carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes were 52 (27), 15.84 (56.43), and 2.94 (7.25) g/hr, respectively. Only carbohydrate (p=.015, r²=-.563) and fat intake (p=.037, r²=-.494) were associated with time taken to complete the race. This <span class="hlt">study</span> demonstrates the difficulties in meeting the high energy demands of ultraendurance cycling. The relationship between energy intake and performance suggests that reducing the energy deficit may be advantageous. Given the high carbohydrate intakes of these athletes, increasing energy intake from fat should be investigated as a means of decreasing energy deficits. PMID:22248496</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L; Brown, Rachel C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140004055&hterms=NASA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNASA"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formal <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Case <span class="hlt">Studies</span> for DO-333</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">RTCA DO-333, Formal <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case <span class="hlt">studies</span> describing the use of different classes of formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case <span class="hlt">studies</span> illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal <span class="hlt">methods</span> can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN21A1382S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth-viewing <span class="hlt">methods</span> for on orbit assessment of ATMS <span class="hlt">observation</span> system spatial response function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a key instrument on board the S-NPP satellite and future JPSS satellites, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), a cross-track scanner with 22 channels, provides sounding <span class="hlt">observations</span> needed to retrieve profiles of atmospheric temperature and moisture for civilian operational weather forecasting, as well as continuity of these measurements for climate monitoring purposes. The ATMS <span class="hlt">observation</span> system spatial response function is a fundamental important parameter since it enables an objective assessment of spatial resolution and provides basic characteristic data for instrument calibration and satellite data algorithm development. The ATMS <span class="hlt">observation</span> system spatial response function is a combined result of the antenna pattern as well as the motion introduced by both cross track scanning and along track satellite movement during the sensor integration time. There is no on-board calibration device fully appropriate for the assessment of the <span class="hlt">observation</span> effective system spatial response function. In this paper, an <span class="hlt">observation</span> system spatial response retrieval algorithm based upon the earth-viewing is described. The algorithm uses a knife-edge scanning <span class="hlt">method</span> to retrieve the line spread function (LSF) of the ATMS <span class="hlt">observation</span> and a Filtered Back Projection algorithm based upon the Fourier slice theorem is applied to rebuild the instrument spatial response function. Preliminary retrieval results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">sun, H.; Wolf, W.; Thomas, K. S.; Maddy, E. S.; Sampson, S.; Keehn, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B43B0371M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating Animals in Phenological Assessments: USA National Phenology Network <span class="hlt">Methods</span> to <span class="hlt">Observe</span> Animal Phenology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many assessments of phenology, particularly those operating at large scales, focus on the phenology of plants, in part because of the relevance of plants in cycles of leaf greening and browning that are visible from satellite-based remote sensing, and because plants contribute significantly to global and regional biogeochemical cycles. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), a consortium of individuals, agencies, and organizations, promotes integrated assessments of both plant and animal phenology. The network is currently developing standard <span class="hlt">methods</span> to add animal phenology to existing assessments of plant phenology. The first phase will of the standard <span class="hlt">methods</span> will be implemented online in spring 2010. The <span class="hlt">methods</span> for <span class="hlt">observing</span> animals will be similar to the standard <span class="hlt">methods</span> for making on-the-ground <span class="hlt">observations</span> of plants—<span class="hlt">observers</span> will be asked to monitor a fixed location regularly throughout the year. During each visit, <span class="hlt">observers</span> will answer a series of “yes-no” questions that address the phenological state of the species of interest: Is the species present? Is it mating? Is it feeding? And so on. We are currently testing this <span class="hlt">method</span> in several national parks in the northeastern United States, including Acadia National Park and the Appalachian Trail. By collecting new <span class="hlt">observations</span> of this sort for a range of animals—amphibians, birds, fish, insects, mammals, and reptiles—we will greatly increase the ability of scientists and natural resource managers to understand how temporal relationships among these species and the plants on which they depend may be changing. To bolster the data available, we are collaborating with existing monitoring programs to develop common monitoring techniques, data sharing technologies, and visualizations. We are also beginning to collect legacy datasets, such as one from North American Bird Phenology Program that includes 90 years of <span class="hlt">observations</span> of bird migration times from across the continent. We believe that increasing the amount of animal phenology data available for scientists, natural resource managers, and educators, will greatly advance our understanding of phenological changes and their causes and consequences, particularly in this time of rapid environmental change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller-Rushing, A. J.; Weltzin, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020080865&hterms=nltl&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnltl"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Method</span> to Retrieve Rainfall Rate Over Land from TRMM Microwave Imager <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over tropical land regions, rain rate maxima in mesoscale convective systems revealed by the Precipitation Radar (PR) flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are found to correspond to thunderstorms, i.e., Cbs. These Cbs are reflected as minima in the 85 GHz brightness temperature, T85, <span class="hlt">observed</span> by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer. Because the magnitude of TMI <span class="hlt">observations</span> do not discriminate satisfactorily convective and stratiform rain, we developed here a different TMI discrimination <span class="hlt">method</span>. In this <span class="hlt">method</span>, two types of Cbs, strong and weak, are inferred from the Laplacian of T85 at minima. Then, to retrieve rain rate, where T85 is less than 270 K, a weak (background) rain rate is deduced using T85 <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Furthermore, over a circular area of 10 km radius centered at the location of each T85 minimum, an additional Cb component of rain rate is added to the background rain rate. This Cb component of rain rate is estimated with the help of (T19-T37) and T85 <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Initially, our algorithm is calibrated with the PR rain rate measurements from 20 MCS rain events. After calibration, this <span class="hlt">method</span> is applied to TMI data taken from several tropical land regions. With the help of the PR <span class="hlt">observations</span>, we show that the spatial distribution and intensity of rain rate over land estimated from our algorithm are better than those given by the current TMI-Version-5 Algorithm. For this reason, our algorithm may be used to improve the current state of rain retrievals on land.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DokPh..57..317G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of new <span class="hlt">methods</span> of interpretation of meteor <span class="hlt">observations</span> at the Institute of Astrophysics of Tajikistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New <span class="hlt">methods</span> of interpretation of meteor <span class="hlt">observations</span> were developed and published in [1-9]. The interpretation of ground-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> of meteors and bolides available today in the scientific literature all over the world suffers from serious contradictions. <span class="hlt">Observers</span> use the so-called photometric approach for determination of extra-atmospheric masses of meteoric bodies. This approach is based on the formula proposed in 1933 [10] and very simple ideas of how to describe the interaction between the atmospheric air and the surface of a meteoric body. These ideas are provisionally suitable to describe the flow around a body in a free molecular regime. Subsequently, the photometric approach was applied to all the meteor events including bolides. The main effort aimed to elaborate the approach included a choice of new formulas for the radiative efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gritsevich, M. I.; Popelenskaya, N. V.; Stulov, V. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_13 div --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34531743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron microscopic <span class="hlt">observations</span> on isolated mitochondrial membranes, prepared by various histological <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pictures of isolated mitochondrial membranes, as seen on the electron-microscope, depend very much on the <span class="hlt">method</span> of specimen preparation. Subunits of linear dimensions of about 25 mµ, (electron transport particles) are <span class="hlt">observed</span> in carbon-replicas of the membranes and in specimens treated with trypsin or pepsin (0.02% for 30 mins) and shadowed with platinum. A three-layered structure of the unit</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl Deutsch; Werner Krause</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JCli...16..593F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> Buoy <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Coastal Air-Sea Fluxes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advancements in measurement and analysis techniques have allowed air-sea fluxes to be measured directly from moving platforms at sea relatively easily. These advances should lead to improved surface flux parameterizations, and thus to improved coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. The Naval Postgraduate School has developed a `flux buoy' (FB) that directly measures air-sea fluxes, mean meteorological parameters, and one-dimensional and directional wave spectra. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, the FB instrumentation and data analysis techniques are described, and the data collected during two U.S. east coast buoy deployments are used to examine the impact of atmospheric and surface wave properties on air-sea momentum transfer in coastal ocean regions. Data obtained off Duck, North Carolina, clearly show that, for a given wind speed, neutral drag coefficients in offshore winds are higher than those in onshore winds. Offshore wind drag coefficients <span class="hlt">observed</span> over the wind speed range from 5 to 21 m s1 were modeled equally well by a linear regression on wind speed, and a Charnock model with a constant of 0.016. Measurements from an FB deployment off Wallops Island, Virginia, show that neutral drag coefficients in onshore winds increase as the wind-wave direction differences increase, especially beyond ±60°.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frederickson, Paul A.; Davidson, Kenneth L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960000877&hterms=NASA+Gravity+Waves&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNASA%2BGravity%2BWaves"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and numerical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of extreme frontal scale contraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling <span class="hlt">study</span> of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed <span class="hlt">observations</span> ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The fifth objective was to complete the analysis of data collected during the Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler <span class="hlt">Studies</span> (COPS-91) field project, which was supported by NASA. The analysis of the mesoscale surface and sounding data, Doppler radar imagery, and other remote sensing data from multi frequency wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and the Radio Acoustic Sounding System has been completed. This <span class="hlt">study</span> is a unique investigation of processes that caused the contraction of a cold front to a microscale zone exhibiting an undular bore-like structure. Results were reported at a scientific conference and are being prepared for publication. In summary, considerable progress has been achieved under NASA funding in furthering our understanding of frontal scale contraction and density current - gravity wave interaction processes, and in utilizing models and remotely sensed data in such <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, Steven E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BoLMe.tmp...27K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation <span class="hlt">Method</span> of the Effect of <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Environment on Air Temperature Measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-surface air temperature is the most important variable in the climatic analysis of global warming. The air temperature near the surface is affected by the artificial surface (asphalt, concrete and buildings for example) surrounding the thermometer. However, there is no quantitative <span class="hlt">method</span> for evaluating the <span class="hlt">observational</span> environment. Therefore, a practical evaluation <span class="hlt">method</span> with a scientific basis is required to aid <span class="hlt">observational</span> network managers and data users. The magnitude of the artificial surface influence on the air temperature and its characteristics are investigated using numerical experiments with various road widths and wind speeds. The results show that the temperature increase in the lee of the road depends on the distance from the road, the road width, the wind speed and the thermal stratification and that the temperature increase can be estimated using an analytical footprint model. In order to estimate the largest value of the temperature increase, a function is developed from the footprint model; it depends on the normalized distance based on the road width, and thus can be calculated easily. A practical <span class="hlt">method</span> using this function is proposed for the evaluation of the effect of the <span class="hlt">observational</span> environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinoshita, Nobuyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APh....41....7A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cherenkov ? shower earth-skimming <span class="hlt">method</span> for PeV-EeV ?? <span class="hlt">observation</span> with Ashra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a <span class="hlt">method</span> of <span class="hlt">observation</span> for PeV-EeV ? neutrinos using Cherenkov light from the air showers of decayed ?s produced by ? neutrino interactions in the Earth. Aiming for the realization of neutrino astronomy utilizing the Earth-skimming ? neutrino detection technique, highly precise determination of arrival direction is key due to the following issues: (1) clear identification of neutrinos by identifying those vertices originating within the Earth's surface and (2) identification of very high energy neutrino sources. The Ashra detector uses newly developed light collectors which realize both a 42°-diameter field-of-view and arcminute resolution. Therefore, it has superior angular resolution for imaging Cherenkov air showers. In this paper, we estimate the sensitivity of and cosmic-ray background resulting from application of the Ashra-1 Cherenkov ? shower <span class="hlt">observation</span> <span class="hlt">method</span>. Both data from a commissioning run and a long-term <span class="hlt">observation</span> (with fully equipped trigger system and one light collector) are presented. Our estimates are based on a detailed Monte Carlo simulation which describes all relevant shower processes from neutrino interaction to Cherenkov photon detection produced by ? air showers. In addition, the potential to determine the arrival direction of Cherenkov showers is evaluated by using the maximum likelihood <span class="hlt">method</span>. We conclude that the Ashra-1 detector is a unique probe into detection of very high energy neutrinos and their accelerators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asaoka, Yoichi; Sasaki, Makoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> prospective <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective <span class="hlt">study</span> to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring <span class="hlt">method</span> may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062280"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using direct clinical <span class="hlt">observation</span> to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special <span class="hlt">study</span> was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical <span class="hlt">observation</span> as an assessment <span class="hlt">method</span> in low-resource settings. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of <span class="hlt">observations</span> with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the <span class="hlt">observation</span> period at each facility. For both <span class="hlt">observed</span> cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. Results All time intervals with the exception of “decision to skin incision” were longer in the record reviews than in <span class="hlt">observed</span> cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups <span class="hlt">observed</span> survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in <span class="hlt">observed</span> births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Conclusions Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of <span class="hlt">observations</span> with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether <span class="hlt">observed</span> practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect potential Hawthorne effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H23G1694D"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Stochastically Based <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Multiphase Flow Modeling in Heterogeneous Media - Experimental <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and Model Design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of two collaborative <span class="hlt">studies</span> of multiphase flow that involve new modeling and experimentation are summarized. The goal was to explore new modeling approaches to explain <span class="hlt">observations</span> of NAPL behavior in heterogeneous soils. In the modeling component, the ideas involving stochastic differential equations (SDE) used previously to model single-phase flow are extended to two phase flow. This approach results in a nonlinear SDE describing the position of the non-wetting phase fluid particle. The control of non-wetting phase particles across an interface is made using a jump term which derives from the Ito formula for cadlag semimartingales and is based on capillary diffusivity and the pressure-saturation curves of the sands forming the interface. The experiments were conducted in two-dimensional test tanks. The focus was to characterize the test material, develop experimental <span class="hlt">methods</span> and conduct spill simulations in test tanks. The tanks were packed to represent different configurations of heterogeneity. The packing produced interfaces between different combinations of test sands, which allowed for the investigation of critical flow, fingering and pooling phenomena that occur at the transition zones of the heterogeneity field. The test soils that were used in the packing were accurately characterized using a new <span class="hlt">method</span> based on Time Domain Reflectometry to obtain the constitutive relations needed in flow modeling. An X-ray photon attenuation <span class="hlt">method</span> was used to determine porosity and saturations. This automated X-ray system was installed on a movable gantry that allowed for the continuous tracking of the NAPL saturations during migration and after entrapment. Three original ideas in our SDE model of multiphase flow are described which contribute to the relationship between the mathematical theory and the physical theory. The first idea is the inclusion of the jump term to model the capillary end effect. The second is what we call "anisotropic dispersion", where both the mathematical theory and the physical theory contribute to each other. In the case of the physics, the physical experiments clearly demonstrated the anomalous dispersion of the NAPL along the interface between two different sands, which dictated to the mathematical theory that a modification to the traditional diffusion model was needed. The mathematical theory, on the other hand, responded with the Girsanov-Meyer change of measure, which added a scaled dispersion term to the drift component of the SDE, allowing the model to simulate the anomalous dispersion effect. Finally, the third idea that we implemented was based on an approach that takes the flow to be controlled by pore-scale processes. Again, the modification to the macro-scale model was driven by the experimental <span class="hlt">observations</span>, which many times showed the NAPL plume finding unexpected channels and exhibiting other types of instabilities commonly called "fingering".</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dean, D. W.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Russell, T. F.; Barnhart, K. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12999454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic ocean <span class="hlt">study</span>: Synthesis of model results and <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Model development and simulations represent a comprehensive synthesis of <span class="hlt">observations</span> with advances in numerous disciplines (physics; mathematics; and atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and related sciences), enabling hypothesis testing via numerical experiments. For the Arctic Ocean, modeling has become one of the major instruments for understanding past conditions and explaining recently <span class="hlt">observed</span> changes.In this context, the international Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Proshutinsky; J. Yang; R. Krishfield; R. Gerdes; M. Karcher; F. Kauker; C. Koeberle; S. Hakkinen; W. Hibler; D. Holland; M. Maqueda; G. Holloway; E. Hunke; W. Maslowski; M. Steele; J. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24631891"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> for <span class="hlt">studying</span> metabolism in Drosophila.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research using Drosophila melanogaster has seen a resurgence in <span class="hlt">studies</span> of metabolism and physiology. This review focuses on major <span class="hlt">methods</span> used to conduct this work. These include protocols for dietary interventions, measurements of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, trehalose, and glycogen, stains for lipid detection, and the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect major polar metabolites. It is our hope that this will provide a useful framework for both new and current researchers in the field. PMID:24631891</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tennessen, Jason M; Barry, William E; Cox, James; Thummel, Carl S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752897"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> for <span class="hlt">studying</span> habitual behavior in mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Habit formation refers to the process by which goal-directed behavior becomes automatized and less sensitive to changes in the value of the goal. It has clear relevance for our understanding of skill learning and addiction. Recent <span class="hlt">studies</span> have begun to reveal the neural substrates underlying this process. This unit summarizes what is known about the experimental <span class="hlt">methods</span> used, and provides a protocol for generating and assessing habit formation in mice. PMID:22752897</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossi, Mark A; Yin, Henry H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/1247ju484j01727w.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypoalbuminemia and acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis of <span class="hlt">observational</span> clinical <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose  To test the hypothesis that hypoalbuminemia is independently associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a <span class="hlt">Methods</span>  A meta-analysis was performed of <span class="hlt">observational</span> clinical <span class="hlt">studies</span> evaluating the relationship between serum albumin level and\\u000a the occurrence of AKI by multivariate <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Additionally, the impact was assessed of lower serum albumin on mortality in\\u000a patients who developed AKI. Eligible <span class="hlt">studies</span> were sought</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christian J. Wiedermann; Wolfgang Wiedermann; Michael Joannidis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20130000799&hterms=satellite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsatellite"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of Satellite-Based Objective Overshooting Cloud-Top Detection <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Using CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two satellite infrared-based overshooting convective cloud-top (OT) detection <span class="hlt">methods</span> have recently been described in the literature: 1) the 11-mm infrared window channel texture (IRW texture) <span class="hlt">method</span>, which uses IRW channel brightness temperature (BT) spatial gradients and thresholds, and 2) the water vapor minus IRW BT difference (WV-IRW BTD). While both <span class="hlt">methods</span> show good performance in published case <span class="hlt">study</span> examples, it is important to quantitatively validate these <span class="hlt">methods</span> relative to overshooting top events across the globe. Unfortunately, no overshooting top database currently exists that could be used in such <span class="hlt">study</span>. This <span class="hlt">study</span> examines National Aeronautics and Space Administration CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar data to develop an OT detection validation database that is used to evaluate the IRW-texture and WV-IRW BTD OT detection <span class="hlt">methods</span>. CloudSat data were manually examined over a 1.5-yr period to identify cases in which the cloud top penetrates above the tropopause height defined by a numerical weather prediction model and the surrounding cirrus anvil cloud top, producing 111 confirmed overshooting top events. When applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager proxy data, the IRW-texture (WV-IRW BTD) <span class="hlt">method</span> offered a 76% (96%) probability of OT detection (POD) and 16% (81%) false-alarm ratio. Case <span class="hlt">study</span> examples show that WV-IRW BTD.0 K identifies much of the deep convective cloud top, while the IRW-texture <span class="hlt">method</span> focuses only on regions with a spatial scale near that of commonly <span class="hlt">observed</span> OTs. The POD decreases by 20% when IRW-texture is applied to current geostationary imager data, highlighting the importance of imager spatial resolution for <span class="hlt">observing</span> and detecting OT regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedka, Kristopher M.; Dworak, Richard; Brunner, Jason; Feltz, Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1569861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of <span class="hlt">studies</span> that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3837237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporomandibular Disorders in Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by absence of any lesions and burning of the oral mucosa associated to a sensation of dry mouth and/or taste alterations. The purpose of our <span class="hlt">study</span> is to estimate signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in patients with BMS and to investigate for the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. MATERIALS AND <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: Forty-four BMS patients were enrolled; BMS subtype was established according to the classification of Lamey. After a gnathological evaluation, according to the protocol of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders, patients were classified by RDC/TMD criteria. The data were compared and analyzed using a chi-square test to describe the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. RESULTS: 65.9% the BMS patients showed disorders classified as primary signs and symptoms of TMD according to RDC / TMD criteria, and 72.7% showed parafunctional habits. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p = 0.035) between BMS and TMD. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that there is a possible relationship not yet well understood between BMS and TMD, may be for neurophatic alterations assumed for BMS that could be also engaged in TMD pathogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3766132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral and dental health in Huntington's disease - an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Only a few case reports and case series dealing with oral and dental health care are available in literature until now. The aim of the present pilot <span class="hlt">study</span> was to determine the status of dental health in comparison to matched controls and to heighten the neurologists’ and dentists’ awareness of the oral aspects of the disease. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> 42 Huntington’s disease (HD) participants were scored according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale. The dental status was assessed by using the well established score for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and the dental plaque score (Silness-Loe plaque index). Results Compared to controls HD participants showed significantly more decayed teeth and more plaques in both plaque indices. A higher motor impairment and a lower functional status of the patients lead to a worsening in dental status. Conclusion Possible reasons for our findings are discussed. Apart from local oral complications general complications may also occur. Thus, as a consequence, we would encourage patients, caregivers, neurologists, and the dentists to ensure regular preventive dental examinations and dental treatments of individuals with Huntington’s disease even in the premanifest stage of this disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2579987"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Video <span class="hlt">Method</span> to <span class="hlt">Study</span> Drosophila Sleep</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Study</span> Objectives: To use video to determine the accuracy of the infrared beam-splitting <span class="hlt">method</span> for measuring sleep in Drosophila and to determine the effect of time of day, sex, genotype, and age on sleep measurements. Design: A digital image analysis <span class="hlt">method</span> based on frame subtraction principle was developed to distinguish a quiescent from a moving fly. Data obtained using this <span class="hlt">method</span> were compared with data obtained using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System (DAMS). The location of the fly was identified based on its centroid location in the subtracted images. Measurements and Results: The error associated with the identification of total sleep using DAMS ranged from 7% to 95% and depended on genotype, sex, age, and time of day. The degree of the total sleep error was dependent on genotype during the daytime (P < 0.001) and was dependent on age during both the daytime and the nighttime (P < 0.001 for both). The DAMS <span class="hlt">method</span> overestimated sleep bout duration during both the day and night, and the degree of these errors was genotype dependent (P < 0.001). Brief movements that occur during sleep bouts can be accurately identified using video. Both video and DAMS detected a homeostatic response to sleep deprivation. Conclusions: Video digital analysis is more accurate than DAMS in fly sleep measurements. In particular, conclusions drawn from DAMS measurements regarding daytime sleep and sleep architecture should be made with caution. Video analysis also permits the assessment of fly position and brief movements during sleep. Citation: Zimmerman JE; Raizen DM; Maycock MH; Maislin G; Pack AI. A video <span class="hlt">method</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> drosophila sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1587–1598.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zimmerman, John E.; Raizen, David M.; Maycock, Matthew H.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B: An <span class="hlt">Observation</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background For mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the US Centers for Disease Control recommend immunoprophylaxis to decrease perinatal transmission; however, its effectiveness and risk factors for failure have not been well <span class="hlt">studied</span> in community practice. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a contemporary immunoprophylaxis protocol. Design <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>. Setting HBV perinatal immunoprophylaxis program within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health services delivery organization. Patients 4,446 infants born to 3,253 HBV positive mothers, between 1997-2010. Measurements Compliance with immunoprophylaxis, follow-up testing rates, maternal risk factors for HBV transmission and transmission rates. Results The infant infection rate was 0.75 per 100 births for 1997-2010 (Poisson 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.10)]. Rates were 3.37 per 100 (95% CI 2.08-5.14) for e-antigen positive mothers; and 0.04 (95% CI 0.001-0.24) for e-antigen negative mothers. Among mothers with viral load testing, the lowest level associated with transmission was 63,200,000 IU/ml. Infection rates per 100 were 3.61 (95% CI 0.75-10.56) among the 83 births to mothers with viral loads ?50,000,000 IU/mL and 0.00 among the 831 births to mothers with viral loads <50,000,000 IU/mL, regardless of e-antigen status. Limitations Testing for HBV immunity and infection was somewhat less complete in earlier years. Viral load testing was only consistently available starting in 2007. Conclusion Pre-natal HBV screening followed by post-natal prophylaxis is highly effective in preventing vertical transmission of HBV. A negative e-antigen status or a viral load of <50,000,000 IU/mL (90.9% of women tested) identifies women at extremely low risk of transmission after immunoprophylaxis who are unlikely to benefit from further interventions. Primary Funding Source Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Grant (CN-09LShla-01-H); National Institute of Health (K07CA166143-01A1 and KL2TR000143).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kubo, Ai; Shlager, Lyle; Marks, Amy R.; Lakritz, Dena; Beaumont, Colette; Gabellini, Kim; Corley, Douglas A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221627"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7820M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Landscape discretization as a <span class="hlt">method</span> for transferring field <span class="hlt">observations</span> into model space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transfer of field <span class="hlt">observations</span> to model space in the hydrological sciences is by no means straightforward. Often the idiosyncrasies of individual catchments inhibit the development of generally applicable model structures. Since experimentalists are seldom able to <span class="hlt">observe</span> all controlling fluxes and state variables, modeling can help to estimate such parameters. However, the combination of complex and qualitative perceptual understanding, desired model complexity, and limited availability of field <span class="hlt">observations</span> usually results in model equifinality and significant prediction uncertainty. We suggest that field <span class="hlt">observation</span> and landscape analysis together can help determine the minimum model complexity required to capture the basic hydrological behavior of a catchment. This approach includes discretization of catchments into the most important functional landscape units, and quantification of their hydrological response to water inputs, such as thresholds in runoff generation processes. Quantitative analysis of landscape connectivity provides one way forward for scaling multiple plot-scale <span class="hlt">observations</span> to larger catchments and for helping to inform hydrologic modeling approaches. As modeling efforts shift from headwater catchments to larger catchment scales, consideration of processes becomes even more difficult. However, based on the analysis of landscape organization and the connections and disconnections between dominant landscape units, knowledge from field <span class="hlt">studies</span> at smaller scales can be incorporated into large scale modeling efforts. We illustrate this approach based on detailed field <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the Maimai catchment in New Zealand where the dominant landscape units can be described simply as hillslopes and riparian zones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGlynn, B.; Seibert, J.; McDonnell, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12148750"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">method</span> for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral <span class="hlt">observation</span> of the atmosphere.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">study</span> concerns the development of a new inversion <span class="hlt">method</span> for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals in the upper layers of the atmosphere from limb-viewing multiwavelength-transmission infrared measurements. In this <span class="hlt">method</span>, concentrations of gas species such as O3, NO2, HNO3, N2O, CH4, and H2O, and spectral dependences of the aerosol extinction coefficient are retrieved simultaneously. When this is done, smoothness constraints on the desired spectral dependencies of the aerosol extinction coefficient are used as an a priori assumption. The <span class="hlt">method</span> is used in the treating of synthetic transmission spectra of the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer, which is based on the solar occultation technique and was on board the Advanced Earth <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Satellite. A set of numerical tests shows the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">method</span>. PMID:12148750</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oshchepkov, Sergey; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Tatsuya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460209"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">observe</span> the distribution of lipids in the cellular membrane.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Membrane lipids not only provide the structural framework of cellular membranes but also influence protein functions in several different ways. In comparison to proteins, however, relatively little is known about distribution of membrane lipids because of the insufficiency of microscopic <span class="hlt">methods</span>. The difficulty in <span class="hlt">studying</span> lipid distribution results from several factors, including their unresponsiveness to chemical fixation, fast translational movement, small molecular size, and high packing density. In this Current Topic, we consider the major microscopic <span class="hlt">methods</span> and discuss whether and to what degree of precision these <span class="hlt">methods</span> can reveal membrane lipid distribution in situ. We highlight two fixation <span class="hlt">methods</span>, chemical and physical, and compare the theoretical limitations to their spatial resolution. Recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of each <span class="hlt">method</span> should help researchers interpret their microscopic results and increase our understanding of the physiological functions of lipids. PMID:24460209</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takatori, Sho; Mesman, Rob; Fujimoto, Toyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761495"> <span id="translatedtitle">In-situ <span class="hlt">observation</span> and relocation <span class="hlt">method</span> of nanomaterial samples based on microscope systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taking poly(lactic acid) microbubbles and purple membranes as examples, a general in situ <span class="hlt">observation</span> and relocation <span class="hlt">method</span> of nanomaterial samples based on microscope systems was reported. First, a four-grade coordinate with different precisions was marked around a substrate by UV lithography. Second, using optical microscope and scanning probe microscope, special positions of poly(lactic acid) microbubbles and purple membranes were <span class="hlt">observed</span>, respectively. Third, the four-grade coordinate value corresponded to the special sample position, and the distance between the special position and coordinate edge were recorded, respectively. Finally, the special position can be easily found again, or the sample in the special position can be manipulated and secondary processed based on the recorded coordinate value and distance, after the sample was removed and then was reset on the sample stage of microscope. The in situ <span class="hlt">observation</span> and relocation <span class="hlt">method</span> can be applied in different microscope systems and different sample substrates, and will have potential applications in the manipulation and the secondary process of micro- and nano-devices. PMID:21761495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeng, Leyong; Wu, Aiguo; Wang, Yazhuo; Pu, Shiliu; Ding, Jiandong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1466635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Designing A Mixed <span class="hlt">Methods</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> In Primary Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND Mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span> We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 <span class="hlt">studies</span> analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, <span class="hlt">observational</span> checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field <span class="hlt">observations</span> that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The <span class="hlt">studies</span> showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these <span class="hlt">studies</span> occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed <span class="hlt">methods</span> designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our <span class="hlt">study</span> and the need for future research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424615"> <span id="translatedtitle">AphasiaBank: <span class="hlt">Methods</span> for <span class="hlt">Studying</span> Discourse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual <span class="hlt">methods</span> for transcription, coding, and analysis. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our <span class="hlt">methods</span> for the <span class="hlt">study</span> of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the <span class="hlt">study</span> of aphasia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2688809"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> Epidemiologic <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Nutrition and Cancer: The Next Generation (with Better <span class="hlt">Observation</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It would be of enormous public health importance if diet and physical activity—both modifiable behavioral factors--were causally related to cancer. Nevertheless, the nutritional epidemiology of cancer remains problematic, in part because of persistent concerns that standard questionnaires measure diet and physical activity with too much error. We present a new strategy for addressing this measurement error problem. First, as background, we note that food frequency and physical activity questionnaires require respondents to report ‘typical’ diet or activity over the previous year or longer. Multiple 24-hour recalls (24HR), based on reporting only the previous day’s behavior, offer potential cognitive advantages over the questionnaires, and biomarker evidence suggests the 24HR is more accurate than the food frequency questionnaire. The expense involved in administering multiple 24HRs in large epidemiologic <span class="hlt">studies</span>, however, has up to now been prohibitive. In that context, we suggest that internet-based 24HRs, for both diet and physical activity, represent a practical and cost-effective approach for incorporating multiple recalls in large epidemiologic <span class="hlt">studies</span>. We discuss 1) recent efforts to develop such internet-based instruments and their accompanying software support systems; 2) ongoing <span class="hlt">studies</span> to evaluate the feasibility of using these new instruments in cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span>; 3) additional investigations to gauge the accuracy of the internet-based recalls vis-à-vis standard instruments and biomarkers; and 4) new statistical approaches for combining the new instruments with standard assessment tools and biomarkers The incorporation of internet-based 24HRs into large epidemiologic <span class="hlt">studies</span> may help advance our understanding of the nutritional determinants of cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F.; Moore, Steven; Park, Yikyung; Potischman, Nancy; Thompson, Frances E.; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Kipnis, Victor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8318E..24O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creation of an ensemble of simulated cardiac cases and a human <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>: tools for the development of numerical <span class="hlt">observers</span> for SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our previous Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) research explored the utility of numerical <span class="hlt">observers</span>. We recently created two hundred and eighty simulated SPECT cardiac cases using Dynamic MCAT (DMCAT) and SIMIND Monte Carlo tools. All simulated cases were then processed with two reconstruction <span class="hlt">methods</span>: iterative ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and filtered back-projection (FBP). <span class="hlt">Observer</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> sets were assembled for both OSEM and FBP <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Five physicians performed an <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> on one hundred and seventy-nine images from the simulated cases. The <span class="hlt">observer</span> task was to indicate detection of any myocardial perfusion defect using the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) 17-segment cardiac model and the ASNC five-scale rating guidelines. Human <span class="hlt">observer</span> Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) <span class="hlt">studies</span> established the guidelines for the subsequent evaluation of numerical model <span class="hlt">observer</span> (NO) performance. Several NOs were formulated and their performance was compared with the human <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance. One type of NO was based on evaluation of a cardiac polar map that had been pre-processed using a gradient-magnitude watershed segmentation algorithm. The second type of NO was also based on analysis of a cardiac polar map but with use of a priori calculated average image derived from an ensemble of normal cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Gifford, Howard C.; Licho, Robert; Joffe, Samuel; McGuiness, Matthew; Mehurg, Shannon; Zacharias, Michael; Brankov, Jovan G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/609116"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Studies</span> on a simple Limulus test, a slide <span class="hlt">method</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple micromethod of Limulus test was <span class="hlt">studied</span>. Briefly, this <span class="hlt">method</span> is as follows. A 20 microliter aliquot of Pregel lysate solution and the same amount of sample are dropped on the same place on the silicone coated slide glasg and mixed well. Then it is incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes in a moisture chamber. After the incubation, the vibration of the droplet surface is <span class="hlt">observed</span>. When the vibration is no longer <span class="hlt">observed</span>, it is judged as positive reaction, and when the vibration is still <span class="hlt">observed</span> as before the incubation, it is judged as negative reaction. Compared with the conventional tube <span class="hlt">method</span>, this <span class="hlt">method</span> has advantages as below: 1) the judgement of the result is relatively objective, 2) shorter incubation period is enough for the reaction to take place and 3) smaller amount of Limulus lysate is enough for each sample. Besides these merits, the detection limit of this <span class="hlt">method</span> is not inferior to that of the tube <span class="hlt">method</span>. PMID:609116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goto, H; Watanabe, M; Nakamura, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770019112&hterms=laser+pulsation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlaser%2Bpulsation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dittmer, P. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2126019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease; greater attenuation was seen in the association with mortality from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer disease. Fathers having a manual [corrected] occupation was strongly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease: relative rate 1.41 (1.15 to 1.72). Participants' social class at the time of screening was more strongly associated than the other social class indicators with mortality from cancer and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors acting over the lifetime affect health and risk of premature death. The relative importance of influences at different stages varies for the cause of death. <span class="hlt">Studies</span> with data on socioeconomic circumstances at only one stage of life are inadequate for fully elucidating the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health and mortality risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050070879&hterms=water+monitoring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bmonitoring"> <span id="translatedtitle">ICESat <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Hydrologic Monitoring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly <span class="hlt">observed</span> globally and the prospects for adequate <span class="hlt">observations</span> from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a <span class="hlt">method</span> to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse <span class="hlt">observations</span> of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to <span class="hlt">observations</span> of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be achieved for clear atmosphere conditions, suitable for detection of stage changes through time, (4) ability to precisely point the spacecraft so as to position the laser profile on the Earth the surface with a cross-track accuracy of 50 m (1 sigma), enabling small water bodies and specific locations to be targeted and re-<span class="hlt">observed</span> through time, (5) adequate signal levels from specular water surfaces up to 5 degrees off-nadir, enabling complete global access to any location on the Earth's surface from the ICESat repeat orbit by off-nadir pointing, and (6) day and night operation with successful laser ranging to the Earth's surface through thin to moderate cloud cover, enabling more frequent measurements than can be achieved by passive optical sensors. Here we illustrate these capabilities by showing ICESat <span class="hlt">observations</span> through time for selected river and lake locations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ChJOL..18..283M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> for <span class="hlt">observation</span> of deembedded sections of fish gonad by scanning electron microscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reports a <span class="hlt">method</span> for examining the intracellular structure of fish gonads using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The specimen preparation procedure is similar to that for transmission electron microscopy wherein samples cut into semi-thin sections are fixed and embedded in plastic. The embedment matrix was removed by solvents. Risen-free specimens could be <span class="hlt">observed</span> by SEM. The morphology of matured sperms in the gonad was very clear, and the oocyte internal structures appeared in three-dimensional images. Spheroidal nucleoli and yolk vesicles and several bundles of filaments adhered on the nucleoli could be viewed by SEM for the first time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mao, Lian-Ju</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36901940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marital Interaction of Agoraphobic Women: A Controlled, Behavioral <span class="hlt">Observation</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Married couples with a female agoraphobic spouse (n = 22) were compared with demographically similar community control couples (n = 21) on self-report and <span class="hlt">observational</span> measures of marital interaction. Consistent with hypotheses, husbands of agoraphobic women were more critical of their wives than were control husbands, and clinical couples were less likely to engage in positive problem solution than control</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dianne L. Chambless; James A. Fauerbach; Frank J. Floyd; Kimberly A. Wilson; Anna L. Remen; Babette Renneberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP51C0571B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Method</span> to Rapidly Collect Thousands of Velocity <span class="hlt">Observations</span> to Validate Million-Element 2D Hydrodynamic Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-dimensional (depth-averaged) hydrodynamic models have existed for decades and are used to <span class="hlt">study</span> a variety of hydrogeomorphic processes as well as to design river rehabilitation projects. Rapid computer and coding advances are revolutionizing the size and detail of 2D models. Meanwhile, advances in topo mapping and environmental informatics are providing the data inputs to drive large, detailed simulations. Million-element computational meshes are in hand. With simulations of this size and detail, the primary challenge has shifted to finding rapid and inexpensive means for testing model predictions against <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Standard <span class="hlt">methods</span> for collecting velocity data include boat-mounted ADCP and point-based sensors on boats or wading rods. These <span class="hlt">methods</span> are labor intensive and often limited to a narrow flow range. Also, they generate small datasets at a few cross-sections, which is inadequate to characterize the statistical structure of the relation between predictions and <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Drawing on the long-standing oceanographic <span class="hlt">method</span> of using drogues to track water currents, previous <span class="hlt">studies</span> have demonstrated the potential of small dGPS units to obtain surface velocity in rivers. However, dGPS is too inaccurate to test 2D models. Also, there is financial risk in losing drogues in rough currents. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, an RTK GPS unit was mounted onto a manned whitewater kayak. The boater positioned himself into the current and used floating debris to maintain a speed and heading consistent with the ambient surface flow field. RTK GPS measurements were taken ever 5 sec. From these positions, a 2D velocity vector was obtained. The <span class="hlt">method</span> was tested over ~20 km of the lower Yuba River in California in flows ranging from 500-5000 cfs, yielding 5816 <span class="hlt">observations</span>. To compare velocity magnitude against the 2D model-predicted depth-averaged value, kayak-based surface values were scaled down by an optimized constant (0.72), which had no negative effect on regression analysis. The r2 value for speed was 0.78 by this <span class="hlt">method</span>, compared with 0.57 based on 199 points from traditional measurements. The r2 value for velocity direction was 0.77. Although it is not ideal to rely on <span class="hlt">observed</span> surface velocity to evaluate depth-average velocity predictions, all available velocity-measurement <span class="hlt">methods</span> have a suite of assumptions and complications. Using this <span class="hlt">method</span>, the availability of 10-100x more data was so beneficial that the outcome was among the highest model performance outcomes reported in the literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barker, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Bratovich, P.; Massa, D.; Reedy, G.; Johnson, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/STROKEAHA.107.482760v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation Between Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage and Clinical Symptoms Systematic Review of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Purpose—We sought to investigate the association between carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and ipsilateral symptoms of cerebral ischemia. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>—A search was performed for clinical <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> comparing the incidence of IPH between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Odds ratios (ORs) for IPH as a factor in the pathogenesis of neurologic events were calculated and combined by a meta-analysis. Interstudy heterogeneity,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peng Gao; Zuo-quan Chen; Yu-hai Bao; Li-qun Jiao; Feng Ling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30292660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest London: a 25 year <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: To identify changes in the presenting number and species of imported malaria in children in southwest London.<span class="hlt">Methods</span>: A prospective single <span class="hlt">observer</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> over 25 years (1975–99) of all cases of paediatric malaria seen at St George's Hospital.Results: A confirmed diagnosis was made in 249 children (56% boys; 44% girls; median age 8.0 years). Of these, 53% were UK residents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J P Williams; M Chitre; M Sharland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720006792&hterms=German&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGerman"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plate measurement techniques and reduction <span class="hlt">methods</span> used by the West German satellite <span class="hlt">observers</span>, and resulting consequences for the <span class="hlt">observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The West German tracking stations are equipped with ballistic cameras. Plate measurement and plate reduction must therefore follow photogrammetric <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Approximately 100 star positions and 200 satellite positions are measured on each plate. The mathematical model for spatial rotation of the bundle of rays is extended by including terms for distortion and internal orientation of the camera as well as by providing terms for refraction which are computed for the measured coordinates of the star positions on the plate. From the measuring accuracy of the plate coordinates it follows that the timing accuracy for the exposures has to be about one millisecond, in order to obtain a homogeneous system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deker, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18361008"> <span id="translatedtitle">Communication during induction of paediatric anaesthesia: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to identify and categorise advanced communication skills used by experienced consultant paediatric anaesthetists to facilitate the induction of paediatric anaesthesia. The communication techniques were both verbal and non-verbal. Communications with potentially negative effects were also noted. Eighty-three inductions were <span class="hlt">observed</span> over a three-month period. The 12 anaesthetists <span class="hlt">observed</span> were all senior consultants at a tertiary referral paediatric centre. The mean age of patients was 6.1 years SD+/-4.8. There were 53 males (63.9%) and 30 females (36.1%). A first anaesthetic was administered to 43 patients (56%) and sedative premedication to six (8%). Inhalational inductions were <span class="hlt">observed</span> in 59 patients (71%). The remainder received an intravenous induction. Anaesthesia was induced in the operating room on 68 occasions (82%), in the induction room on 11 (13%) and in the radiology department on 4(5%). The most common communication techniques used were: voice change in 60 (72%); distraction in 49 (59%); direct commands in 39 (47%); repetition in 34 (41%); imagery in 21 (25%) and focused attention 21 (25%). Other techniques used were seeding of ideas, utilisation, non-verbal cues, double-binds, story-telling, indirect suggestion, dissociation and reversed effect. Sabotage by parents or staff such as inadvertent negative suggestions, was <span class="hlt">observed</span> on 14 occasions (17%). Paediatric anaesthetists utilise a wide range of communication techniques in a highly flexible manner when inducing anaesthesia in children. Many of these communications can be characterised as hypnotherapeutic. Our <span class="hlt">observations</span> suggest that formal structured training in communication skills and further research is warranted. PMID:18361008</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlyle, A V; Ching, P C; Cyna, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19610201"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> for mucin analysis: a comparative <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim was to compare five techniques commonly used to quantify mucin concentrations in ileal digesta collected from three growing pigs that had been fed a diet in which the sole protein was casein. Ileal mucin output was estimated by the periodic acid-Schiff, ethanol precipitation, and phenol-sulfuric acid <span class="hlt">methods</span> as 25.1, 19.3, and 20.7 g kg-1 of dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. The mucin concentration estimated from sialic acid was only 5.9 g kg-1 of DMI. On the basis of the concentrations of the hexosamines N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, mucin output was estimated as 44.9 g kg-1 pf DMI. Of the five assays <span class="hlt">studied</span>, the ethanol precipitation, periodic acid-Schiff, phenol-sulfuric acid, and sialic acid <span class="hlt">methods</span> may considerably underestimate mucin in the digesta, which calls into question the accuracy of all of these approaches. In contrast, the gas chromatography <span class="hlt">method</span> for the determination of hexosamines gave more information on the type and state of the mucin present. PMID:19610201</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miner-Williams, Warren; Moughan, Paul J; Fuller, Malcolm F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proteomics <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> methionine oxidation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxidation and consequent reduction of protein-bound methionine residues is of great interest in understanding different aspects of how oxidative stress affects protein functions and cellular signaling. To date, few technologies are available for the <span class="hlt">study</span> of methionine sulfoxides. And, especially the absence of highly specific antibodies has impeded the field in understanding the exact role of methionine oxidation on a proteome-wide level. Nonetheless, the different models where the responsible enzymes for repair of the oxidized methionines have been <span class="hlt">studied</span> show that there is an important role for this modification in a cellular context. We here review different mass spectrometry based and proteomics <span class="hlt">methods</span> for characterizing in vivo methionine oxidation. PMID:24178673</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghesquière, Bart; Gevaert, Kris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NPGeo..19..541W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation and calibration of <span class="hlt">observation</span> impact signals using the Lanczos <span class="hlt">method</span> in NOAA/NCEP data assimilation system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in data assimilation (DA) methodology, <span class="hlt">observing</span> systems that reduce <span class="hlt">observation</span> errors, and model improvements that reduce background errors, the analyses produced by the best available DA systems are still different from the truth. Analysis error and error covariance are important since they describe the accuracy of the analyses, and are directly related to the future forecast errors, i.e., the forecast quality. In addition, analysis error covariance is critically important in building an efficient ensemble forecast system (EFS). Estimating analysis error covariance in an ensemble-based Kalman filter DA is straightforward, but it is challenging in variational DA systems, which have been in operation at most NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) centers. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we use the Lanczos <span class="hlt">method</span> in the NCEP (the National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DA system to look into other important aspects and properties of this <span class="hlt">method</span> that were not exploited before. We apply this <span class="hlt">method</span> to estimate the <span class="hlt">observation</span> impact signals (OIS), which are directly related to the analysis error variances. It is found that the smallest eigenvalue of the transformed Hessian matrix converges to one as the number of minimization iterations increases. When more <span class="hlt">observations</span> are assimilated, the convergence becomes slower and more eigenvectors are needed to retrieve the <span class="hlt">observation</span> impacts. It is also found that the OIS over data-rich regions can be represented by the eigenvectors with dominant eigenvalues. Since only a limited number of eigenvectors can be computed due to computational expense, the OIS is severely underestimated, and the analysis error variance is consequently overestimated. It is found that the mean OIS values for temperature and wind components at typical model levels are increased by about 1.5 times when the number of eigenvectors is doubled. We have proposed four different calibration schemes to compensate for the missing trailing eigenvectors. Results show that the <span class="hlt">method</span> with calibration for a small number of eigenvectors cannot pick up the <span class="hlt">observation</span> impacts over the regions with fewer <span class="hlt">observations</span> as well as a benchmark with a large number of eigenvectors, but proper calibrations do enhance and improve the impact signals over regions with more data. When compared with the <span class="hlt">observation</span> locations, the <span class="hlt">method</span> generally captures the OIS over regions with more <span class="hlt">observation</span> data, including satellite data over the southern oceans. Over the tropics, some <span class="hlt">observation</span> impacts may be missed due to the smaller background errors specified in the GSI, which is not related to the <span class="hlt">method</span>. It is found that a large number of eigenvectors are needed to retrieve impact signals that resemble the banded structures from satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span>, particularly over the tropics. Another benefit from the Lanczos <span class="hlt">method</span> is that the dominant eigenvectors can be used in preconditioning the conjugate gradient algorithm in the GSI to speed up the convergence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei, M.; De Pondeca, M. S. F. V.; Toth, Z.; Parrish, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24680701"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Methods</span> for <span class="hlt">studying</span> planar cell polarity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the polarity of epithelial cells in the plane orthogonal to the apical-basal axis, and is controlled by a partially defined signaling system. PCP related signaling also plays roles in cell migration, tissue re-organization and stem cell differentiation during embryonic development, and later, in regeneration and repair. Aberrant signaling has been linked to a broad range of pathophysiologies including cancer, developmental defects, and neurological disorders. The deepest mechanistic insights have come from <span class="hlt">studies</span> of PCP in Drosophila. In this chapter we review tools and <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> PCP signaling in Drosophila epithelia, where it was found to involve asymmetric protein localization that is coordinated between adjacent cells. Such signaling has been most extensively <span class="hlt">studied</span> in wing, eye, and abdomen, but also in other tissues such as leg and notum. In the adult fly, PCP is manifested in the coordinated direction of hairs and bristles, as well as the organization of ommatidia in the eye. The polarity of these structures is preceded by asymmetric localization of PCP signaling proteins at the apical junctions of epithelial cells. Based on genetic and molecular criteria, the proteins that govern PCP can be divided into distinct modules, including the core module, the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Fat/Ds/Fj) module (often referred to as the 'global' module) as well as tissue specific effector modules. Different tissues and tissue regions differ in their sensitivity to disturbances in the various modules of the PCP signaling system, leading to controversies about the interactions among the modules, and emphasizing the value of <span class="hlt">studying</span> PCP in multiple contexts. Here, we review <span class="hlt">methods</span> including those generally applicable, as well as some that are selectively useful for analyses of PCP in eye (including eye discs), wing (including wing discs), pupal and adult abdomen, and the cuticle of larvae and embryos. PMID:24680701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olofsson, Jessica; Axelrod, Jeffrey D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhPl...18c3701C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass changes of microparticles in a plasma <span class="hlt">observed</span> by a phase-resolved resonance <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of a plasma environment on melamine formaldehyde particles is <span class="hlt">studied</span>. High-precision measurements of the vertical confinement frequency with a phase-resolved resonance <span class="hlt">method</span> indicate that the particle mass is affected in two ways: the deposition of sputtered material at the particle leads to a mass gain, whereas the outgassing of water causes a mass loss.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carstensen, Jan; Jung, Hendrik; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass changes of microparticles in a plasma <span class="hlt">observed</span> by a phase-resolved resonance <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of a plasma environment on melamine formaldehyde particles is <span class="hlt">studied</span>. High-precision measurements of the vertical confinement frequency with a phase-resolved resonance <span class="hlt">method</span> indicate that the particle mass is affected in two ways: the deposition of sputtered material at the particle leads to a mass gain, whereas the outgassing of water causes a mass loss.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carstensen, Jan; Jung, Hendrik; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890020423&hterms=Research+Methods&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Research%2BMethods%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">CSM research: <span class="hlt">Methods</span> and application <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the <span class="hlt">study</span> of physical phenomena by means of computational <span class="hlt">methods</span> based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the <span class="hlt">Methods</span> and Application <span class="hlt">Studies</span> Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knight, Norman F., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3303947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coordination and management of multicenter clinical <span class="hlt">studies</span> in trauma: Experience from the PRospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) <span class="hlt">Study</span> Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a <span class="hlt">study</span> to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> PROMMTT was a multisite prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were <span class="hlt">observed</span> over the course of the <span class="hlt">study</span> at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite <span class="hlt">study</span> to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion <span class="hlt">studies</span>. The <span class="hlt">observational</span> data collected from this <span class="hlt">study</span> will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/588554"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and theoretical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of the nova outburst</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the <span class="hlt">observations</span> demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5187W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol and trace gas profile retrievals from MAX-DOAS <span class="hlt">observations</span> using simple least squares <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS <span class="hlt">observations</span> have become a widely used technique for the retrieval of atmospheric profiles of trace gases and aerosols. Since the information content of MAX-DOAS <span class="hlt">observations</span> is limited, usually optimal estimation techniques are used for profile inversion, and a-priori assumptions are needed. In contrast, in our retrieval we limit the retrieved parameter to few basic profile parameters (e.g. profile shape and integrated column density), which are retrieved without further a-priori assumptions. The retrieval is instead based on simple least squares <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Despite the simple retrieval scheme, our <span class="hlt">method</span> has the advantage that it is very robust and stable. It also yields the most important parameters with good accuracy (e.g. total aerosol optical depth, total tropospheric trace gas column density, surface aerosol extinction, surface trace gas mixing ratio). Some of these parameters can even be retrieved for cloudy conditions. We present MAX-DOAS results from two measurement campaigns: The CINDI campaign in Cabauw, The Netherlands, in 2009 and the FORMAT campaign in Milano, Italy, in 2003. Results for aerosols, NO2, and HCHO, are presented and compared to independent measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, Thomas; Beirles, Steffen; Shaiganfar, Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044257&hterms=semiconductor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsemiconductor"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> on ion track structure in semiconductors : a phenomenological <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ion track structure model at the nanometer scale is presented. The model is based on electrostatic principles and is supported by <span class="hlt">observed</span> experimental results conducted on power MOSFETs. The model predicts the existence of a transient induced electric field following the passage of an energetic heavy ion. There are two segments to the field (a radial and an axial component). It is the interaction of this transient electric field with the local environment that can trigger a catastrophic failure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Selva, L. E.; Wallace, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..561Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">studies</span> applied to UVIS <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Titan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Titan's atmosphere is mainly made of N2 with several percents of CH4. Other minor species, numerous hydrocarbons and nitriles, are also present as products of a complex chemistry ini-tiated by several energy sources (e.g. solar UV photons, Saturn's magnetosphere electrons). With the Cassini-Huygens mission, and in particular from UVIS <span class="hlt">observations</span> for the high at-mosphere, we have already learned a lot about Titan's chemical composition and atmospheric profiles. However, the interpretations still need new determination of some absorption cross sec-tions. Then, with the aim to analyse UVIS <span class="hlt">observations</span>, we have determined low temperature VUV high resolution spectra for organic comounds. These experiments have been carried out using VUV synchrotron facilities (BESSY II in Germany and SOLEIL in France). The most recent results concerning hydrocarbons like C4H2 and C6H2, and nitriles like HCN, HC3N, HC5N, C2N2, and C4N2 will be presented. Those experimental data are then used to analyse stellar occultation by Titan's atmosphere <span class="hlt">observed</span> by UVIS in order to retrieve the abundance of those species or upper limits in case of non detection. Latest results in this field will also be shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yves, Benilan; Capalbo, Fernando; Sebbar, Et Touhami Es; Fray, Nicolas; Jolly, Antoine; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Schwell, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcASn..48..200R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">method</span> of determining binary orbits by incorporating long-term <span class="hlt">observational</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early ground based <span class="hlt">observations</span> accumulated a large amount of long-term data about binary stellar systems. Compared with the data obtained by various present-day techniques, the early data have much lower precision. However, the span of the longer time interval makes these data still irreplaceable in certain astronomical researches. The present work shows that they are crucial in determining binary orbits with period longer than ~10 years, such as the G stars in the double and multiple systems annex of Hipparcos catalogue, and, a new combining <span class="hlt">method</span> is developed in order to determine the above-mentioned orbits. There are two main steps. Firstly, by fitting IAD, we obtain many local minimum solutions. Then, the "best-fit" solution can be unambiguously selected by long-term <span class="hlt">observations</span>. As an application, we revisit the binary stellar system "73Leo", of which there are only 7 usable long-term <span class="hlt">observational</span> data and two different problematic orbit solutions. According to external analysis of the mass of secondary, we argue that the newly determined orbit and the component masses are reliable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, S. L.; Fu, Y. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3789390"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. This <span class="hlt">study</span> aims to share our experiences when carrying out <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). <span class="hlt">Methods</span>. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN54A..08P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applying Agile <span class="hlt">Methods</span> to the Development of a Community-Based Sea Ice <span class="hlt">Observations</span> Database</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Local and traditional knowledge and community-based monitoring programs are increasingly being recognized as an important part of establishing an Arctic <span class="hlt">observing</span> network, and understanding Arctic environmental change. The Seasonal Ice Zone <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Network (SIZONet, http://www.sizonet.org) project has implemented an integrated program for <span class="hlt">observing</span> seasonal ice in Alaska. <span class="hlt">Observation</span> and analysis by local sea ice experts helps track seasonal and inter-annual variability of the ice cover and its use by coastal communities. The ELOKA project (http://eloka-arctic.org) is collaborating with SIZONet on the development of a community accessible, Web-based application for collecting and distributing local <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The SIZONet project is dealing with complicated qualitative and quantitative data collected from a growing number of <span class="hlt">observers</span> in different communities while concurrently working to design a system that will serve a wide range of different end users including Arctic residents, scientists, educators, and other stakeholders with a need for sea ice information. The benefits of linking and integrating knowledge from communities and university-based researchers are clear, however, development of an information system in this multidisciplinary, multi-participant context is challenging. Participants are geographically distributed, have different levels of technical expertise, and have varying goals for how the system will be used. As previously reported (Pulsifer et al. 2010), new technologies have been used to deal with some of the challenges presented in this complex development context. In this paper, we report on the challenges and innovations related to working as a multi-disciplinary software development team. Specifically, we discuss how Agile software development <span class="hlt">methods</span> have been used in defining and refining user needs, developing prototypes, and releasing a production level application. We provide an overview of the production application that includes discussion of a hybrid architecture that combines a traditional relational database, schema-less database, advanced free text search, and the preliminary framework for Semantic Web support. The current version of the SIZONet web application is discussed in relation to the high-value features defined as part of the Agile approach. Preliminary feedback indicates a system that meets the needs of multiple user groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pulsifer, P. L.; Collins, J. A.; Kaufman, M.; Eicken, H.; Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5913556"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> on <span class="hlt">studies</span> useful to asbestos operations and management activities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely <span class="hlt">observational</span> in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHEP...10..143A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Study</span> of decays with first <span class="hlt">observation</span> of and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A search for charmless three-body decays of B 0 and mesons with a meson in the final state is performed using the pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the LHCb experiment. Branching fractions of the decay modes ( h (') = ?, K), relative to the well measured decay, are obtained. First <span class="hlt">observation</span> of the decay modes and and confirmation of the decay are reported. The following relative branching fraction measurements or limits are obtained [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Cowie, E.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMSH33B0412B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Solar Farside <span class="hlt">Observations</span> to Predict Active Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of sunspots on the far side of the Sun have been obtained for several years with SOHO/MDI and recently with GONG <span class="hlt">observations</span>. E.g. http://soi.stanford.edu/data/full_farside/. We have examined the predictive usefulness of far-side images of regions within a few days of the East limb by comparing the far-side images with subsequent magnetograms. We developed a quantitative measure of success based on the frequency of true positives and false alarms. We can detect about 75% of strong magnetic regions with a false alarm rate of less than 20%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buder, I.; Scherrer, P. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980001208&hterms=scm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522scm%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and Modeling <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between <span class="hlt">observations</span> and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somerville, Richard C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15557774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disfluency in Tourette syndrome: <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> in three cases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is often stated that stuttering is a common speech disorder in individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). It has also been suggested, however, that the fluency failures <span class="hlt">observed</span> in people with TS do not completely conform to the classic pattern of stuttering. The present paper describes the results of an analysis of the speech patterns of three individuals with TS. A picture emerged that bears some resemblance to stuttering, cluttering, and palilalia but that is also different from each of these disfluency types. PMID:15557774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Borsel, J; Goethals, L; Vanryckeghem, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9037E..0LK"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observer</span> assessment of multi-pinhole SPECT geometries for prostate cancer imaging: a simulation <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPECT imaging using In-111 ProstaScint is an FDA-approved <span class="hlt">method</span> for diagnosing prostate cancer metastases within the pelvis. However, conventional medium-energy parallel-hole (MEPAR) collimators produce poor image quality and we are investigating the use of multipinhole (MPH) imaging as an alternative. This paper presents a <span class="hlt">method</span> for evaluating MPH designs that makes use of sampling-sensitive (SS) mathematical model <span class="hlt">observers</span> for tumor detectionlocalization tasks. Key to our approach is the redefinition of a normal (or background) reference image that is used with scanning model <span class="hlt">observers</span>. We used this approach to compare different MPH configurations for the task of small-tumor detection in the prostate and surrounding lymph nodes. Four configurations used 10, 20, 30, and 60 pinholes evenly spaced over a complete circular orbit. A fixed-count acquisition protocol was assumed. Spherical tumors were placed within a digital anthropomorphic phantom having a realistic Prostascint biodistribution. Imaging data sets were generated with an analytical projector and reconstructed volumes were obtained with the OSEM algorithm. The MPH configurations were compared in a localization ROC (LROC) <span class="hlt">study</span> with 2D pelvic images and both human and model <span class="hlt">observers</span>. Regular and SS versions of the scanning channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) and visual-search (VS) model <span class="hlt">observers</span> were applied. The SS models demonstrated the highest correlations with the average human-<span class="hlt">observer</span> results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalantari, Faraz; Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8949E..0CT"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical spherical aberration correction <span class="hlt">method</span> using spatial light modulator under deep-part fluorescence <span class="hlt">observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a confocal fluorescence laser scanning microscopy (CFLSM) incorporating a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM). To achieve high-resolution and high-contrast imaging for deeper part of the tissue with CFLSM, high numerical aperture objective lenses are required to tightly focus excitation light to meet Rayleigh limit(criterion) for the specimens. However, mismatch of refractive index at the boundary of interfacing materials, such as atmosphere, glass cover, and biological tissues, causes spherical aberration. Recently, we proposed a numerical <span class="hlt">method</span> for correcting spherical aberration. In this <span class="hlt">method</span> a pre-distorted wavefront pattern for aberration correction is calculated by ray tracing from a hypothetical focal point inside a specimen to the pupil plane. The resulting microscope can correct such spherical aberration. We <span class="hlt">observed</span> 6.0?m fluorescent micro-beads dispersed three-dimensionally in agarose gel to confirm effectiveness of aberration correction. We reconstructed a three-dimensional image by taking 20 images by changing the depth with 1 ?m interval and stacking them. It was apparent that the longitudinal/depth resolution was improved and that the intensity of fluorescence image was increased with aberration correction. While this <span class="hlt">method</span> is applicable to other laser scanning microscopes, it has potential to enhance the signals for various super-resolution microscopic techniques, such as stimulated- emission-depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takiguchi, Yu; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Kanada, Masamitsu; Inoue, Takashi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Terakawa, Susumu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_16 div --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JSMEA..46..384K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observation</span> of Joining Phenomena in Friction Stage and Improving Friction Welding <span class="hlt">Method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the <span class="hlt">observation</span> result of joining phenomena in the friction stage, and an improvement of the conventional friction welding <span class="hlt">method</span> with similar materials. The materials used were carbon steels and a brake type (direct drive) friction welding machine was used for joining. As the improving friction welding <span class="hlt">method</span>, relative speed was instantaneously rendered to zero at the end of each friction time. The wear of both surfaces started at periphery portion (outer surface) of the joint and moved to center portion (center axis). Seizure and joining began at center portion and then extended toward periphery portion. The friction torque reached to initial peak torque when the welded interface was joined completely and upsetting of both base metals started. It was determined that friction welded joints with 100% joint efficiency and good bend ductility could be obtained by using only the friction stage up to initial peak torque and without the need for the forging (upsetting) stage. As a conclusion, friction welded joints made without using the forging stage has the same mechanical properties as those welded by the conventional friction welding process including that stage. The friction welding <span class="hlt">method</span> without forging stage has the advantages of less burn-off (axial shortening) and less burr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimura, Masaaki; Seo, Kenji; Kusaka, Masahiro; Fuji, Akiyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6938K"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">study</span> on the characteristics of retrospective optimal interpolation using an <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System Simulation Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">study</span> presents the introduction of retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) and its application with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Song et al. (2009) suggested ROI <span class="hlt">method</span> which is an optimal interpolation (OI) that gradually assimilates <span class="hlt">observations</span> over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window. The assimilation window of ROI algorithm is gradually increased, similar with that of the quasi-static variational assimilation (QSVA; Pires et al., 1996). Unlike QSVA <span class="hlt">method</span>, however, ROI <span class="hlt">method</span> assimilates the data at post analysis time using perturbation <span class="hlt">method</span> (Verlaan and Heemink, 1997) without adjoint model. Song and Lim (2011) improved this <span class="hlt">method</span> by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. The computational costs for ROI can be reduced due to the eigen-decomposition of background error covariance which can concentrate ROI analyses on the error variances of governing eigenmodes by transforming the control variables into eigenspace. A total energy norm is used for the normalization of each control variables. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, ROI <span class="hlt">method</span> is applied to WRF model with <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to validate the algorithm and to investigate the capability. Horizontal wind, pressure, potential temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio are used for control variables and <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Firstly, 1-profile assimilation experiment is performed. Subsequently, OSSE's are performed using the virtual <span class="hlt">observing</span> system which consists of synop, ship, and sonde data. The difference between forecast errors with assimilation and without assimilation is obviously increased as time passed, which means the improvement of forecast error with the assimilation by ROI. The characteristics and strength/weakness of ROI <span class="hlt">method</span> are also investigated by conducting the experiments with 3D-Var (3-dimensional variational) <span class="hlt">method</span> and 4D-Var (4-dimensional variational) <span class="hlt">method</span>. In the initial time, ROI produces a larger forecast error than that of 4D-Var. However, the difference between the two experimental results is decreased gradually with time, and the ROI shows apparently better result (i.e., smaller forecast error) than that of 4D-Var after 9-hour forecast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Shin-Woo; Noh, Nam-Kyu; Lim, Gyu-Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........31P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling, Theoretical and <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of the Lunar Photoelectron Sheath</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Moon, lacking an atmosphere and a global magnetic field, is directly exposed to both solar ultraviolet radiation and a variety of ambient plasmas. On the lunar dayside, a photoelectron sheath develops and the surface typically charges positively since the photoemission current is at least an order-of-magnitude greater than any ambient current. This sheath dominates the nearsurface plasma environment and controls the charging, levitation and transport of micron-sized dust grains. In this thesis, we first model the lunar near-surface plasma environment via a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The sheath potential, electric field and plasma densities are presented over a wide range of plasma parameters. Additionally, the charging and transport of micron- and submicron sized dust grains is modeled via a test-particle approach in an attempt to explain Apolloera <span class="hlt">observations</span> of lunar dust dynamics. Secondly, we present a comparison of the particle-in-cell results with theoretical, kinetic derivations of the lunar photoelectron sheath. We extend previous theories to include the presence of a kappa-distribution for the solar wind electrons. Finally, we present a comparison of in-situ measurements of the lunar photoelectron sheet in the terrestrial plasma sheet by the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer with particle-in-cell simulations to confirm the presence of non-monotonic sheath potentials above the Moon. Future work in all three sections, (simulation, theory and <span class="hlt">observation</span>) is presented as a guide for continuing research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poppe, Andrew Reinhold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24702361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span>, <span class="hlt">study</span>, and control of molecular superrotors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with the molecular bond strength are known as "superrotors." It has been speculated that superrotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of molecular superrotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an "optical centrifuge" is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultrabroad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N=95 in oxygen and N=60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular superrotors can be created and <span class="hlt">observed</span> in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, intermolecular collisions, and chemical reactions can be readily explored. PMID:24702361</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Milner, Valery</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29533642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Different oral contraceptives and voice quality — an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The classical literature on endocrine effect on voice considers oral contraceptives (OCs) as a risk factor for voice. However, recent <span class="hlt">studies</span> revealed no adverse effect of new-generation OCs on voice. It was also suggested that OCs could improve specific voice characteristics via different mechanisms. The aim of the present <span class="hlt">study</span> was to evaluate the effect of OCs on voices of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ofer Amir; Tal Biron-Shental; Osnat Tzenker; Tal Barer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...323..931W"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of cometary globules near the Rosette nebula.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular line <span class="hlt">observations</span> are reported of two regions containing small cometary globules at the edge of the Rosette Nebula. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of the CO, 3CO and C^18^O J=21,-and CO J=43-molecular lines towards Globule 1, the most prominent of the group, show it has a well-developed head-tail structure, with a head diameter ~0.4pc, and a tail extending ~1.3pc behind it. The major axis of the system points about 45 degrees away from the direction to the centre of the Rosette Nebula (which contains the [presumed] illuminating stars), and 20 degrees out of the plane of the sky, along a projected line towards the luminous (924Lsun_) infrared source IRAS 06314+0427. The CO lines have a complex velocity structure; with a pronounced broadening at the front of the head (as viewed from IRAS 06314+0427); a velocity gradient ~1.4km/s along the tail, and material at the front of the head is blue-shifted by ~0.5km/s compared to surrounding gas. The CO J=21-line intensity peaks towards the front of the head, and along the edges of the tail. The 3CO J=21-antenna temperatures in the head are very similar to those of CO, suggesting very high opacities or column densities, or that there is significant CO self-absorption. There is a narrow rim of CO J=43-emission around the front of the head over a limited velocity range, which correlates with the position of a faint optical rim, and a narrow ridge of 2?m H_2_ emission. These data give strong support to the Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) model of Lefloch and Lazareff (1994 -- hereafter LL94), which was developed to explain the physical structure of cometary globules. Using an RDI simulation, a remarkably good fit to the data has been obtained, allowing the CO, 3CO and C^18^O spatial structures and velocity field to be modelled. This simulation suggests that Globule 1 is ~400,000years old, and has a mass ~50Msun_. Additional <span class="hlt">observations</span> towards the region close to IRAS 06314+0427 show that it is associated with an intense molecular concentration lying at the northern end of a ~5pc long molecular ridge, with a mass ~330Msun_, and lies close to the centre of a shell-like condensation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, G. J.; Lefloch, B.; Fridlund, C. V. M.; Aspin, C. A.; Dahmen, G.; Minchin, N. R.; Huldtgren, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980002697&hterms=RMAX+L27&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRMAX%2BL27"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical and <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of the Central Engines of AGN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the <span class="hlt">observed</span> spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the <span class="hlt">observed</span> luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With <span class="hlt">observations</span> from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or near, the central engine of MCG -6-30-15. Cold matter in the central engine, and evidence of the effects of shocks, is probably forthcoming with future X-ray satellites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sivron, Ran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2629369"> <span id="translatedtitle">The ALFA (Activity Log Files Aggregation) Toolkit: A <span class="hlt">Method</span> for Precise <span class="hlt">Observation</span> of the Consultation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is a lack of tools to evaluate and compare Electronic patient record (EPR) systems to inform a rational choice or development agenda. Objective To develop a tool kit to measure the impact of different EPR system features on the consultation. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> We first developed a specification to overcome the limitations of existing <span class="hlt">methods</span>. We divided this into work packages: (1) developing a <span class="hlt">method</span> to display multichannel video of the consultation; (2) code and measure activities, including computer use and verbal interactions; (3) automate the capture of nonverbal interactions; (4) aggregate multiple <span class="hlt">observations</span> into a single navigable output; and (5) produce an output interpretable by software developers. We piloted this <span class="hlt">method</span> by filming live consultations (n = 22) by 4 general practitioners (GPs) using different EPR systems. We compared the time taken and variations during coded data entry, prescribing, and blood pressure (BP) recording. We used nonparametric tests to make statistical comparisons. We contrasted <span class="hlt">methods</span> of BP recording using Unified Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams. Results We found that 4 channels of video were optimal. We identified an existing application for manual coding of video output. We developed in-house tools for capturing use of keyboard and mouse and to time stamp speech. The transcript is then typed within this time stamp. Although we managed to capture body language using pattern recognition software, we were unable to use this data quantitatively. We loaded these <span class="hlt">observational</span> outputs into our aggregation tool, which allows simultaneous navigation and viewing of multiple files. This also creates a single exportable file in XML format, which we used to develop UML sequence diagrams. In our pilot, the GP using the EMIS LV (Egton Medical Information Systems Limited, Leeds, UK) system took the longest time to code data (mean 11.5 s, 95% CI 8.7-14.2). Nonparametric comparison of EMIS LV with the other systems showed a significant difference, with EMIS PCS (Egton Medical Information Systems Limited, Leeds, UK) (P = .007), iSoft Synergy (iSOFT, Banbury, UK) (P = .014), and INPS Vision (INPS, London, UK) (P = .006) facilitating faster coding. In contrast, prescribing was fastest with EMIS LV (mean 23.7 s, 95% CI 20.5-26.8), but nonparametric comparison showed no statistically significant difference. UML sequence diagrams showed that the simplest BP recording interface was not the easiest to use, as users spent longer navigating or looking up previous blood pressures separately. Complex interfaces with free-text boxes left clinicians unsure of what to add. Conclusions The ALFA <span class="hlt">method</span> allows the precise <span class="hlt">observation</span> of the clinical consultation. It enables rigorous comparison of core elements of EPR systems. Pilot data suggests its capacity to demonstrate differences between systems. Its outputs could provide the evidence base for making more objective choices between systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995931"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging <span class="hlt">Studies</span>: A Systematic Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Complete reporting assists readers in confirming the methodological rigor and validity of findings and allows replication. The reporting quality of <span class="hlt">observational</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) <span class="hlt">studies</span> involving clinical participants is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the quality of reporting in <span class="hlt">observational</span> fMRI <span class="hlt">studies</span> involving clinical participants. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> We searched OVID MEDLINE for fMRI <span class="hlt">studies</span> in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011.Three independent reviewers abstracted data from articles using an 83-item checklist adapted from the guidelines proposed by Poldrack et al. (Neuroimage 2008; 40: 409–14). We calculated the percentage of articles reporting each item of the checklist and the percentage of reported items per article. Results A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in the <span class="hlt">study</span>. Thirty-one items were reported by fewer than 50% of the articles and 13 items were reported by fewer than 20% of the articles. The median percentage of reported items per article was 51% (ranging from 30% to 78%). Although most articles reported statistical <span class="hlt">methods</span> for within-subject modeling (92%) and for between-subject group modeling (97%), none of the articles reported <span class="hlt">observed</span> effect sizes for any negative finding (0%). Few articles reported justifications for fixed-effect inferences used for group modeling (3%) and temporal autocorrelations used to account for within-subject variances and correlations (18%). Other under-reported areas included whether and how the task design was optimized for efficiency (22%) and distributions of inter-trial intervals (23%). Conclusions This <span class="hlt">study</span> indicates that substantial improvement in the reporting of <span class="hlt">observational</span> clinical fMRI <span class="hlt">studies</span> is required. Poldrack et al.'s guidelines provide a means of improving overall reporting quality. Nonetheless, these guidelines are lengthy and may be at odds with strict word limits for publication; creation of a shortened-version of Poldrack's checklist that contains the most relevant items may be useful in this regard.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, Qing; Parlar, Melissa; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey; Thabane, Lehana; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946432"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scalable <span class="hlt">Methods</span> for Electronic Excitations and Optical Responses of Nanstructures: Mathematics to Algorithms to <span class="hlt">Observables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This multi-investigator project was concerned with the development and application of new <span class="hlt">methods</span> and computer codes that would allow realistic modeling of nanosystems. Carter's part in this team effort involved two <span class="hlt">method</span>/algorithm/code development projects during the first 14 months of this grant. Carter's group has been advancing theory and applications of the orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT), the only DFT <span class="hlt">method</span> that exhibits linear scaling for metals. Such a <span class="hlt">method</span> offers the possibility of simulating large numbers of atoms with quantum mechanics, such that properties of metallic nanostructures (e.g. nanowires of realistic dimensions) could be investigated. In addition, her group has been developing and applying an embedded correlated wavefunction theory for treating localized excited states in condensed matter (including metals). The application of interest here is spin manipulation at the nanoscale, i.e., spintronics, in which local electron excitations interact with the surrounding material. Her embedded correlation <span class="hlt">method</span> is ideal for <span class="hlt">studying</span> such problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emily A. Carter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819722"> <span id="translatedtitle">Herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV disease progression: a systematic review of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common co-infection among HIV-infected adults that is hypothesized to accelerate HIV disease progression. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> We searched Medline, EMBASE, relevant conference proceedings (2006–12) and bibliographies of identified <span class="hlt">studies</span> without language restriction for cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> examining the impact of HSV-2 on highly active antiretroviral therapy-untreated HIV disease in adults. The exposure of interest was HSV-2 seropositivity or clinical/laboratory markers of HSV-2 activity. The primary outcome was HIV disease progression, defined as antiretroviral initiation, development of AIDS/opportunistic infection, or progression to CD4 count thresholds (?200 or ?350 cells/mm3). Secondary outcomes included HIV plasma viral load and CD4 count. Results Seven <span class="hlt">studies</span> were included. No definitive relationship was <span class="hlt">observed</span> between HSV-2 seropositivity and time to antiretroviral initiation (n=2 <span class="hlt">studies</span>), CD4?350 (n=1), CD4?200 (n=1), death (n=1), viral load (n=6) or CD4 count (n=3). Although two <span class="hlt">studies</span> each <span class="hlt">observed</span> trends towards accelerated progression to clinical AIDS/opportunistic infection in HSV-2 seropositives, with pooled unadjusted hazard ratio=1.85 (95% CI=1.12,3.06; I2=2%), most OIs <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the <span class="hlt">study</span> for which data were available can occur at high CD4 counts and may not represent HIV progression. In contrast, a single <span class="hlt">study</span> HSV-2 disease activity found that the presence of genital HSV-2 DNA was associated with a 0.4 log copies/mL increase in HIV viral load. Conclusions Despite an <span class="hlt">observation</span> that HSV-2 activity is associated with increased HIV viral load, definitive evidence linking HSV-2 seropositivity to accelerated HIV disease progression is lacking. The attenuating effects of acyclovir on HIV disease progression <span class="hlt">observed</span> in recent trials may result both from direct anti-HIV activity as well as from indirect benefits of HSV-2 suppression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9116931"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical <span class="hlt">Study</span> of Merging Galaxies: Theory and <span class="hlt">Observations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">study</span> of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. K. Chatterjee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654287"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Dynamic Scheduling <span class="hlt">Method</span> of Earth-<span class="hlt">Observing</span> Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-<span class="hlt">observing</span> satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented <span class="hlt">methods</span> in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3668620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Presentation of continuous outcomes in randomised trials: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To characterise the percentage of available outcome data being presented in reports of randomised clinical trials with continuous outcome measures, thereby determining the potential for incomplete reporting bias. Design Descriptive cross sectional <span class="hlt">study</span>. Data sources A random sample of 200 randomised trials from issues of 20 medical journals in a variety of specialties during 2007–09. Main outcome measures For each paper’s best reported primary outcome, we calculated the fraction of data reported using explicit scoring rules. For example, a two arm trial with 100 patients per limb that reported 2 sample sizes, 2 means, and 2 standard deviations reported 6/200 data elements (1.5%), but if that paper included a scatterplot with 200 points it would score 200/200 (100%). We also assessed compliance with 2001 CONSORT items about the reporting of results. Results The median percentage of data reported for the best reported continuous outcome was 9% (interquartile range 3–26%) but only 3.5% (3–7%) when we adjusted <span class="hlt">studies</span> to 100 patients per arm to control for varying <span class="hlt">study</span> size; 17% of articles showed 100% of the data. Tables were the predominant means of presenting the most data (59% of articles), but papers that used figures reported a higher proportion of data. There was substantial heterogeneity among journals with respect to our primary outcome and CONSORT compliance. Limitations We <span class="hlt">studied</span> continuous outcomes of randomised trials in higher impact journals. Results may not apply to categorical outcomes, other <span class="hlt">study</span> designs, or other journals. Conclusions Trialists present only a small fraction of available data. This paucity of data may increase the potential for incomplete reporting bias, a failure to present all relevant information about a <span class="hlt">study’s</span> findings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511184O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">method</span> to derive the stratospheric lifetime from <span class="hlt">observed</span> tracer-tracer-correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The atmospheric lifetime of a trace gas is defined as the ratio of its global atmospheric burden to its annually averaged global loss rate. Here, we are interested in the lifetimes of the dominant ozone-depleting substances (ODS), which are the prerequisite for the calculation of their ozone-depletion potentials (ODPs). Due to the fact that there is some evidence that the lifetimes for some important ODSs like CFC-11 may be somewhat longer than reported in past WMO assessments the re-evaluation of the dominant ODP lifetimes will be done in the framework of SPARC. Some of the most important ODSs, i.e. CFCs, have solely stratospheric sinks and their stratospheric equals their atmospheric lifetime. For these compounds, the use of tracer-tracer correlation as described by Volk et al. (1997) is the only way that allows to calculate stratospheric lifetimes from solely <span class="hlt">observations</span>. We will present an evaluation of this <span class="hlt">method</span> using the results of the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM). Hereby, the modelled lifetime serves as an independent reference for the lifetime calculated from the tracer-tracer correlation consistently derived from the same model experiment. We will discuss the implications of these results on the validity and applicability of the <span class="hlt">method</span> for lifetime calculations described by Volk et al. (1997). Volk, C. M., Elkins, J. W., Fahey, D. W., Dutton, G. S., Gilligan, J. M., Loewenstein, M., Podolske, J. R., Chan, K. R., and Gunson, M. R.: Evaluation of source gas lifetimes from stratospheric <span class="hlt">observations</span>, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25543-25564, 1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostermöller, Jennifer; Boenisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas; Liang, Qing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3982178"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eribulin Mesylate in Pretreated Breast Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Retrospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Eribulin was recently approved in patients progressing after being treated with anthracyclines and taxanes and after two or more chemotherapy lines for advanced disease. Objectives: This multicenter <span class="hlt">observational</span> retrospective <span class="hlt">study</span> was performed in order to evaluate activity and tolerability of eribulin in real-world patient population. <span class="hlt">Methods</span>: 133 advanced breast cancer patients pretreated with ? 2 chemotherapy lines for metastatic disease were retrospectively enrolled in the <span class="hlt">observational</span> trial in 11 italian cancer centres. Results: A median of 5 cycles of eribulin (range, 1-15) were administered. Twenty-eight partial responses were <span class="hlt">observed</span>, for an overall response rate of 21.1% (95%CI,14.1-28.0). A stable disease was recorded in 57 patients (42.8%), and a clinical benefit (response or stable disease lasting ? six months) was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in 51 patients (38.3%, 95%CI, 30.1-46.6). The subgroup analysis showed that a significant improvement in term of partial response and clinical benefit was achieved when eribulin was administered in HER-2 negative tumors (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively) and when it is given as third-line (p=0.09 and p=0.02, respectively). Toxicity was manageable; fatigue is the most common side effect <span class="hlt">observed</span>, usually of low-grade, and clearly cumulative-dose related. Conclusions: In this retrospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> analysis eribulin confirmed its efficacy and manageable tolerability even in real-world population and in heavily pretreated patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gamucci, Teresa; Michelotti, Andrea; Pizzuti, Laura; Mentuccia, Lucia; Landucci, Elisabetta; Sperduti, Isabella; Di Lauro, Luigi; Fabi, Alessandra; Tonini, Giuseppe; Sini, Valentina; Salesi, Nello; Ferrarini, Ilaria; Vaccaro, Angela; Pavese, Ida; Veltri, Enzo; Moscetti, Luca; Marchetti, Paolo; Vici, Patrizia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42541443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental and Social Correlates of Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> in Tampa and Chicago</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">study</span> used <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">methods</span> to examine physical activity (PA) and selected correlates in 28 parks in Tampa, Florida, and Chicago, Illinois. We <span class="hlt">observed</span> 9,454 park users within predetermined activity zones and coded their activity as sedentary, walking (i.e., moderate intensity), or vigorous PA. In Tampa, higher temperature, unorganized activity, lower amounts of shade, lower neighborhood income, Hispanic neighborhood ethnicity,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myron F. Floyd; J. O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster; Luis Suau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IAUJD..16E..45K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of CRF and TRF from VLBI <span class="hlt">observations</span> by the Least Square Collocation <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work is to obtain the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF), Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) series from processing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data by the Least Square Collocation (LSC) <span class="hlt">method</span>. The <span class="hlt">observations</span> from 1979 to 2006 were processed with the QUASAR software. More than 4.5 millions delays were used. Coordinates and velocities of 126 VLBI stations and coordinates of 707 radio-sources were estimated. The 12 stations which have more than 200000 <span class="hlt">observations</span> were used for no-net-translation/no-net-rotation tie to the VTRF2003 catalogue. The 212 defining radio-sources of ICRF-ext.2 were used for no-net-rotation tie to the CRF. The wet component of tropospheric delay and station clock offsets were estimated as sum of polynomial trend and stochastic signal with a-priori defined covariance function. The catalogues with and without stations antenna axis offset estimation were obtained and compared. The obtained solution were compared with other TRF/CRF VLBI solutions and there are showed that the QUASAR LSC solution have the same precision than others.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurdubov, S. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JSG....30..868G"> <span id="translatedtitle">A graphical algebraic <span class="hlt">method</span> for analysing shear zone displacements from <span class="hlt">observations</span> on arbitrarily oriented outcrop surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a practical graphical-algebraic <span class="hlt">method</span> that enables one to achieve the true displacement and shape of deformed geological markers in fault or shear zones as <span class="hlt">observed</span> on arbitrarily oriented outcrop surfaces. We use as our natural example deformed quartz veins that have been sheared across brittle-ductile faults in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The technique is based on the assumption that simple shear has dominated the shear zone formation. For input data we require the strikes and dips of the outcrop surfaces, the offset markers, and the shear zones as well as the pitch of the simple shear vector in the plane of the shear zone. The paper develops a set of algebraic and graphical operations that allow one to convert photographs of faulted or sheared planar markers <span class="hlt">observed</span> on an arbitrary outcrop surface into an equivalent view that is coincident with the movement ( m) plane of the fault or shear zone. This view displays the true displacement of the offset marker and delineates its deformed shape as seen in a section that is parallel to the slip vector.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigull, Susanne; Little, Timothy A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AnGeo..14.1422N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of F-region electron density <span class="hlt">observations</span> by satellite radio tomography and incoherent scatter <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In November 1995 a campaign of satellite radiotomography supported by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar and several other instruments was arranged in Scandinavia. A chain of four satellite receivers extending from the north of Norway to the south of Finland was installed approximately along a geomagnetic meridian. The receivers carried out difference Doppler measurements using signals from satellites flying along the chain. The EISCAT UHF radar was simultaneously operational with its beam swinging either in geomagnetic or in geographic meridional plane. With this experimental set-up latitudinal scans of F-region electron density are obtained both from the radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> and by tomographic inversion of the phase <span class="hlt">observations</span> given by the difference Doppler experiment. This paper shows the first results of the campaign and compares the electron densities given by the two <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the UK Particle-Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The assistance of the director and staff of the EISCAT Scientific Association, the staff of the Norsk Polarinstitutt and the director and staff of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics is gratefully acknowledged. In addition the authors would like to thank Professor Evgeny Tereshchenko of the Polar Geophysical Institute in Mumansk, Russia and Dr Tuomo Nygrén of the University of Oulu, Finland for provision of data from EISCAT special program time during the November 1995 campaign. Topical Editor D. Alcaydé thanks E. J. Fremouw and another referee for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: I. K. Walker--></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nygrén, T.; Markkanen, M.; Lehtinen, M.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Khudukon, B. Z.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Pollari, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_17 div --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2190P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling non-Gaussianity of background and <span class="hlt">observational</span> errors by the Maximum Entropy <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) has widely been used in atmospheric-oceanic data assimilation. However, when data errors have non-Gaussian pdfs, the BLUE differs from the absolute Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimator (MVUE), minimizing the mean square analysis error. The non-Gaussianity of errors can be due to the statistical skewness and positiveness of some physical <span class="hlt">observables</span> (e.g. moisture, chemical species) or due to the nonlinearity of the data assimilation models and <span class="hlt">observation</span> operators acting on Gaussian errors. Non-Gaussianity of assimilated data errors can be justified from a priori hypotheses or inferred from statistical diagnostics of innovations (<span class="hlt">observation</span> minus background). Following this rationale, we compute measures of innovation non-Gaussianity, namely its skewness and kurtosis, relating it to: a) the non-Gaussianity of the individual error themselves, b) the correlation between nonlinear functions of errors, and c) the heteroscedasticity of errors within diagnostic samples. Those relationships impose bounds for skewness and kurtosis of errors which are critically dependent on the error variances, thus leading to a necessary tuning of error variances in order to accomplish consistency with innovations. We evaluate the sub-optimality of the BLUE as compared to the MVUE, in terms of excess of error variance, under the presence of non-Gaussian errors. The error pdfs are obtained by the maximum entropy <span class="hlt">method</span> constrained by error moments up to fourth order, from which the Bayesian probability density function and the MVUE are computed. The impact is higher for skewed extreme innovations and grows in average with the skewness of data errors, especially if those skewnesses have the same sign. Application has been performed to the quality-accepted ECMWF innovations of brightness temperatures of a set of High Resolution Infrared Sounder channels. In this context, the MVUE has led in some extreme cases to a potential reduction of 20-60% error variance as compared to the BLUE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pires, Carlos; Talagrand, Olivier; Bocquet, Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">methods</span> for inverse problems in geophysics: inversion of travel time <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">General ways of solving various inverse problems are <span class="hlt">studied</span> for given travel time <span class="hlt">observations</span> between sources and receivers. These problems are separated into three components: (a) the representation of the unknown quantities appearing in the model; (b) the nonlinear least-squares problem; (c) the direct, two-point ray-tracing problem used to compute travel time once the model parameters are given. Novel software is described for (b) and (c), and some ideas given on (a). Numerical results obtained with artificial data and an implementation of the algorithm are also presented. ?? 1980.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereyra, V.; Keller, H. B.; Lee, W. H. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22816254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feature selection <span class="hlt">methods</span> in QSAR <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) relates quantitative chemical structure attributes (molecular descriptors) to a biological activity. QSAR <span class="hlt">studies</span> have now become attractive in drug discovery and development because their application can save substantial time and human resources. Several parameters are important in the prediction ability of a QSAR model. On the one hand, different statistical <span class="hlt">methods</span> may be applied to check the linear or nonlinear behavior of a data set. On the other hand, feature selection techniques are applied to decrease the model complexity, to decrease the overfitting/overtraining risk, and to select the most important descriptors from the often more than 1000 calculated. The selected descriptors are then linked to a biological activity of the corresponding compound by means of a mathematical model. Different modeling techniques can be applied, some of which explicitly require a feature selection. A QSAR model can be useful in the design of new compounds with improved potency in the class under <span class="hlt">study</span>. Only molecules with a predicted interesting activity will be synthesized. In the feature selection problem, a learning algorithm is faced with the problem of selecting a relevant subset of features upon which to focus attention, while ignoring the rest. Up to now, many feature selection techniques, such as genetic algorithms, forward selection, backward elimination, stepwise regression, and simulated annealing have been used extensively. Swarm intelligence optimizations, such as ant colony optimization and partial swarm optimization, which are feature selection techniques usually simulated based on animal and insect life behavior to find the shortest path between a food source and their nests, recently are also involved in QSAR <span class="hlt">studies</span>. This review paper provides an overview of different feature selection techniques applied in QSAR modeling. PMID:22816254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goodarzi, Mohammad; Dejaegher, Bieke; Vander Heyden, Yvan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.G23C0706S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic <span class="hlt">methods</span> for monitoring water overexploitation: Results from geometric and gravimetric <span class="hlt">observation</span> techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth of population and urbanisation place increasing demands on groundwater resources for irrigation, drinking water supply and industrialisation. In semiarid and arid regions, decades of unrestrained extraction of groundwater has resulted in severe depletion of this valuable resource, leaving in turn its fingerprints in the time series of different space geodetic <span class="hlt">observing</span> systems. On the one hand, the loss of water is accompanied by local and regional scale surface deformations that can be monitored by InSAR and permanent GPS networks with an accuracy of few millimeters. On the other hand, the mass loss is associated with changes of the Earth’s gravity field, being reflected by the <span class="hlt">observations</span> of dedicated satellite missions. This paper analyses <span class="hlt">observation</span> time series of InSAR and GRACE and quantifies the loss of water mass due to overexploitation of groundwater in selected regions over a period of several years. The results are subsequently compared with the output of the numerical hydrological models LaD and WGHM. Surface deformations are derived from InSAR time-series analysis using Envisat data. Mass variations are deduced from spherical harmonic expansions as well as from regional analyses of the GRACE gravity field as provided by various processing centers. Our case-<span class="hlt">studies</span> are performed for regions in Central Iran where groundwater overdrafting is widespread.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seitz, F.; Motagh, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JESS..122.1219H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric correction of Earth-<span class="hlt">observation</span> remote sensing images by Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In earth <span class="hlt">observation</span>, the atmospheric particles contaminate severely, through absorption and scattering, the reflected electromagnetic signal from the earth surface. It will be greatly beneficial for land surface characterization if we can remove these atmospheric effects from imagery and retrieve surface reflectance that characterizes the surface properties with the purpose of atmospheric correction. Giving the geometric parameters of the <span class="hlt">studied</span> image and assessing the parameters describing the state of the atmosphere, it is possible to evaluate the atmospheric reflectance, and upward and downward transmittances which take part in the garbling data obtained from the image. To that end, an atmospheric correction algorithm for high spectral resolution data over land surfaces has been developed. It is designed to obtain the main atmospheric parameters needed in the image correction and the interpretation of optical <span class="hlt">observations</span>. It also estimates the optical characteristics of the Earth-<span class="hlt">observation</span> imagery (LANDSAT and SPOT). The physics underlying the problem of solar radiation propagations that takes into account multiple scattering and sphericity of the atmosphere has been treated using Monte Carlo techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hadjit, Hanane; Oukebdane, Abdelaziz; Belbachir, Ahmad Hafid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52378278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">methods</span> of statistic simulation of virtual parameter values for investigating uncertainties in orbits determined from <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determination of orbital parameters from <span class="hlt">observations</span> is formally a nonlinear inverse problem for solving which evidently nonlinear <span class="hlt">methods</span> are required. Meanwhile, an accompanying stage in solving the inverse problem is the evaluation of parametric accuracy to which, however, linear <span class="hlt">methods</span> are conventionally applied. This is quite justified if parametric errors caused by <span class="hlt">observation</span> errors are rather small, otherwise this is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Victor A. Avdyushev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED353826.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Foreigner Talk of a Family Physician: An <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">study</span> analyzed the characteristics of one male physician's foreigner talk over the telephone with non-native speakers (NNSs) of English and compared it to that of native speakers (NSs). The conversations all related to requests that patients come into the office for a periodic, preventative physical exam. Data came from tape recordings of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Dana Kristine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=164743"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONAL</span> HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT <span class="hlt">STUDIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure <span class="hlt">Studies</span>." The presentation desc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036926"> <span id="translatedtitle">A NEW <span class="hlt">METHOD</span> TO CONSTRAIN SUPERNOVA FRACTIONS USING X-RAY <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span> OF CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a <span class="hlt">method</span> to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The <span class="hlt">method</span> has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H <span class="hlt">observations</span> of a cooling flow cluster, A3112. We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% {+-} 5.4% to 37.1% {+-} 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the <span class="hlt">observed</span> metals is in the range of (1.06 {+-} 0.34) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to (1.28 {+-} 0.43) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9}, from snapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kpc of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2288-9-50.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data enhancement for co-morbidity measurement among patients referred for sleep diagnostic testing: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: <span class="hlt">Observational</span> outcome <span class="hlt">studies</span> of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) require adjustment for co-morbidity to produce valid results. The aim of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to evaluate whether the combination of administrative data and self-reported data provided a more complete estimate of co-morbidity among patients referred for sleep diagnostic testing. <span class="hlt">METHODS</span>: A retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> of 2149 patients referred for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul E Ronksley; Willis H Tsai; Hude Quan; Peter Faris; Brenda R Hemmelgarn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3538624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> prospective <span class="hlt">study</span> (CIAOW <span class="hlt">Study</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) has designed the CIAOW <span class="hlt">study</span> in order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community- and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in a worldwide context. The CIAOW <span class="hlt">study</span> (Complicated Intra-Abdominal infection <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Worldwide <span class="hlt">Study</span>) is a multicenter <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> currently underway in 57 medical institutions worldwide. The <span class="hlt">study</span> includes patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections. This preliminary report includes all data from almost the first two months of the six-month <span class="hlt">study</span> period. Patients who met inclusion criteria with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included in the <span class="hlt">study</span>. 702 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range 18–98) were enrolled in the <span class="hlt">study</span>. 272 patients (38.7%) were women and 430 (62.3%) were men. Among these patients, 615 (87.6%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 87 (12.4%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Generalized peritonitis was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in 304 patients (43.3%), whereas localized peritonitis or abscesses was registered in 398 (57.7%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 10.1% (71/702). The final results of the CIAOW <span class="hlt">Study</span> will be published following the conclusion of the <span class="hlt">study</span> period in March 2013.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1062541"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scalable <span class="hlt">Methods</span> for Electronic Excitations and Optical Responses of Nanostructures: Mathematics to Algorithms to <span class="hlt">Observables</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) is a powerful, well-established tool for the <span class="hlt">study</span> of condensed phase electronic structure. However, there are still a number of situations where its applicability is limited. The basic theme of our research is the development of first principles electronic structure approaches for condensed matter that goes beyond what can currently be done with standard implementations ofKohn-Sham DFT. Our efforts to this end have focused on two classes or' <span class="hlt">methods</span>. The first addresses the well-lmown inability of DFT to handle strong, many-body electron correlation effects. Our approach is a DFT -based embedding theory, to treat localized features (e.g. impurity, adsorbate, vacancy, etc.) embedded in a periodic, metallic crystal. A description for the embedded region is provided by explicitly correlated, ab initio wave function <span class="hlt">methods</span>. DFT, as a fo1n1ally ground state theory, does not give a good description of excited states; an additional feature of our approach is the ability to obtain excitations localized in this region. We apply our <span class="hlt">method</span> to a first-principles <span class="hlt">study</span> of the adsorption of a single magnetic Co ada tom on non-magnetic Cu( 111 ), a known Kondo system whose behavior is governed by strong electron correlation. ? The second class of <span class="hlt">methods</span> that we are developing is an orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT), which addresses the speed limitations ofKohn-Sham DFT. OFDFT is a powerful, O(N) scaling <span class="hlt">method</span> for electronic structure calculations. Unlike Kohn-Sham DFT, OFDFT goes back to the original Hohenberg-Kohn idea of directly optimizing an energy functional which is an explicit functional of the density, without invoking an orbital description. This eliminates the need to manipulate orbitals, which leads to O(N{sup 3}) scaling in the Kahn-Sham approach. The speed of OFDFT allows direct electronic structure calculations on large systems on the order of thousands to tens of thousands of atoms, an expensive feat within Kohn-Sham. Due to our incomplete knowledge of the exact, universal energy density functional, this speedup comes at the cost of some accuracy with respect to Kohn-Sham <span class="hlt">methods</span>. However, OFDFT has been shown to be remarkably accurate with respect to Kohn-Sham when used in the <span class="hlt">study</span> of nearly-free-electron-like metals, e.g., AI, for which good density functionals have been derived. Examples of past applications of OFDFT include the prediction of properties of bulk crystals, surfaces, vacancies, vacancy clusters, nanoclusters, and dislocations, as well as OFDFT -based multiscale simulations of nanoindentation in AI and Al-Mg alloys.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carter, Emily A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..258L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Study</span> of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence <span class="hlt">observed</span> by DEMETER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence <span class="hlt">observed</span> by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750002819&hterms=kini&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522kini%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical and dynamical <span class="hlt">studies</span> of meteors. [radar <span class="hlt">observation</span> of fragmentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a <span class="hlt">study</span> of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation <span class="hlt">study</span>, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48484124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for\\u000a treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse\\u000a effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide\\u000a treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort <span class="hlt">study</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yasuo Takahashi; Yayoi Nishida; Tomohiro Nakayama; Satoshi Asai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Nanot..17..355K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of alumina nanowire formation from porous anodic alumina membrane via the droplet etching <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the first direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of the formation process of an alumina nanowire (ANW) array from a porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane employing a simple droplet etching <span class="hlt">method</span>, not a general immersion etching <span class="hlt">method</span>, using field emission scanning electron spectroscopy (FESEM). The PAA membrane is prepared by the two-step anodization <span class="hlt">method</span> and subsequent lift-off process. The surface view SEM images of the PAA membrane show an array of highly ordered hexagonal pore distribution within the domains of 1-2 µm size, which are separated from neighbouring domains with different orientations of the pore lattice by grain boundaries. The FESEM analysis of the formation process of the alumina nanowire reveals that the formation process consists of three critical steps. The first step involves an image revealing that the outer parts of pore walls are dissolved. The image can be described by the different etching rates of oxide layers in the PAA membrane. Differences in the etching rate can be explained in terms of the different anion impurity concentration in the oxide layer of the PAA membrane. The second step produces an image of the PAA membrane with triangular triple points, surrounded by three adjacent pores. This image can be interpreted as the combined effects of the thickness difference of pore walls and the thermal annealing of the PAA membrane. The last step shows images where the triangular cross section ANWs transform into circular cross section ones as further etching occurs. This can result from the crystallization of the triple points during the annealing process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, J.; Choi, Y. C.; Chang, K.-S.; Bu, S. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1890289"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of depression in primary care: what do we know?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background We undertook a systematic review of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of depression in primary care to determine 1) the nature and scope of the published <span class="hlt">studies</span> 2) the methodological quality of the <span class="hlt">studies</span>; 3) the identified recovery and risk factors for persistent depression and 3) the treatment and health service use patterns among patients. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO using combinations of topic and keywords, and Medical Subject Headings in MEDLINE, Headings in CINAHL and descriptors in PsycINFO. Searches were limited to adult populations and articles published in English during 1985–2006. Results 40 articles from 17 <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> were identified, most were undertaken in the US or Europe. <span class="hlt">Studies</span> varied widely in aims and <span class="hlt">methods</span> making it difficult to meaningfully compare the results. Methodological limitations were common including: selection bias of patients and physicians; small sample sizes (range 35–108 patients at baseline and 20–59 patients at follow-up); and short follow-up times limiting the extent to which these <span class="hlt">studies</span> can be used to inform our understanding of recovery and relapse among primary care patients with depression. Risk factors for the persistence of depression identified in this review were: severity and chronicity of the depressive episode, the presence of suicidal thoughts, antidepressant use, poorer self-reported quality of life, lower self-reported social support, experiencing key life events, lower education level and unemployment. Conclusion Despite the growing interest in depression being managed as a chronic illness, this review identified only 17 <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> of depression in primary care, most of which have included small sample sizes and been relatively short-term. Future research should be large enough to investigate risk factors for chronicity and relapse, and should be conducted over a longer time frame.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilchrist, Gail; Gunn, Jane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3748094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Pooled Risk Estimates for Adverse Effects from Different <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span> Designs: Methodological Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background A diverse range of <span class="hlt">study</span> designs (e.g. case-control or cohort) are used in the evaluation of adverse effects. We aimed to ascertain whether the risk estimates from meta-analyses of case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> differ from that of other <span class="hlt">study</span> designs. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> Searches were carried out in 10 databases in addition to reference checking, contacting experts, and handsearching key journals and conference proceedings. <span class="hlt">Studies</span> were included where a pooled relative measure of an adverse effect (odds ratio or risk ratio) from case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> could be directly compared with the pooled estimate for the same adverse effect arising from other types of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Results We included 82 meta-analyses. Pooled estimates of harm from the different <span class="hlt">study</span> designs had 95% confidence intervals that overlapped in 78/82 instances (95%). Of the 23 cases of discrepant findings (significant harm identified in meta-analysis of one type of <span class="hlt">study</span> design, but not with the other <span class="hlt">study</span> design), 16 (70%) stemmed from significantly elevated pooled estimates from case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span>. There was associated evidence of funnel plot asymmetry consistent with higher risk estimates from case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span>. On average, cohort or cross-sectional <span class="hlt">studies</span> yielded pooled odds ratios 0.94 (95% CI 0.88–1.00) times lower than that from case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span>. Interpretation Empirical evidence from this overview indicates that meta-analysis of case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> tend to give slightly higher estimates of harm as compared to meta-analyses of other <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>. However it is impossible to rule out potential confounding from differences in drug dose, duration and populations when comparing between <span class="hlt">study</span> designs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K.; Bland, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018308"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of a comparability scoring system in reporting <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The traditional statistical analyses with adjustment for confounders in <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> assume that there is perfect similarity in the already-provided medical management between the comparison groups. However, variations in medical management frequently exist because of differences in circumstances of health care. We propose that to minimize the selection bias of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span>, the degree of similarity or dissimilarity of the comparison groups regarding the circumstances of health care should be considered. Circumstances of health care include the geographic setting, health care setting, type of health care providers, and likelihood in having confounding introduced by differences in the medical management between comparison groups. We propose a comparability scoring system of circumstances of care and provide examples of the application of this system, using recent literature to assess comparability among <span class="hlt">study</span> groups. In our examples, the presupposed statistical associations disappeared once the analyses accounted for the differences in circumstances of care. Authors of submitted manuscripts using an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> design may consider incorporating our scoring system or an equivalent in their <span class="hlt">methods</span> and in reporting of the results. The comparability score should be factored during statistical analysis so that the appropriate analysis can correct for differences in circumstances of care. The use of a comparability scoring system can provide important insights for reviewers and readers that will improve the interpretation of this type of research <span class="hlt">study</span>. PMID:24018308</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vintzileos, Anthony M; Ananth, Cande V; Smulian, John C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24728164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid autoimmunity in patients with hyperprolactinemia: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective : To establish whether there is a relationship between hyperprolactinemia and primary thyroid disorders, focusing on patients with autoimmune features. Materials and <span class="hlt">methods</span> : The medical records of 100 patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) were retrospectively examined. Records of thyroid ultrasonography (USG), basal serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, circulating free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and antithyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies were analyzed. In 100 control subjects, matched by age and gender with HPRL patients, thyroid USG, thyroid function tests (TFTs), and autoantibody panel were obtained. Results : The median PRL in patients was 93 ng/mL (range: 37-470). Twenty-five patients (25%) and 22 controls (22%) had positive anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO titers (P = 0.739). The median serum PRL was 98 (37-470) ng/mL in patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies, and 92 (40-470) ng/mL in patients who were negative (P = 0.975). Among the individuals with autoantibody positivity TFTs abnormalities were more frequent in HPRL patients (60%, out of 25 patients, 14 with subclinical hypothyroidism and one with hyperthyroidism) than in controls (9.1%, out of 22 patients, 2 with subclinical hyperthyroidism) (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven patients with HPRL and 31 controls had goiter (27 vs. 31%, P = 0.437). Forty-six patients (46%) and 50 (50%) controls had one or more of the features of thyroid disorder, which were goiter, positive thyroid autoantibody, and thyroid function abnormality (P = 0.888). Conclusion : HPRL may be associated with more severe thyroid dysfunction in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:24728164</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onal, Eda Demir; Saglam, Fatma; Sacikara, Muhammed; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Body Composition, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of <span class="hlt">studies</span> the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This <span class="hlt">study</span> investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/<span class="hlt">Methods</span> Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>, minimized the differences between the RCT and <span class="hlt">observational</span> data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Road traffic crashes in Ramadan: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this <span class="hlt">study</span> was to investigate trends in road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by an emergency service, Rescue 1122, in 2011 in Punjab, Pakistan. RTC data were collected from 35 districts of Punjab and reviewed retrospectively. Data analysis revealed that the service responded to 12 969 RTC emergencies during August 2011 (Ramadan), compared with an average of 11 573 RTCs per month from January to August 2011. The younger age group (11-27 years) was victims in 29% of RTCs; 39% were due to speeding and 43% occurred in peak rush hours (14:00-18:00) before iftar (breakfast).Results of the <span class="hlt">study</span> showed that Rescue 1122 faced more RTCs during Ramadan compared with the preceding months. Road safety is an important public health issue in Pakistan. Although there have been great improvements in roads in the past few years, much work needs to be done to deal with mounting trends in RTCs. Public awareness, political will and stringent law enforcement are key factors. PMID:24995738</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tahir, M N; Macassa, G; Akbar, A H; Naseer, R; Zia, A; Khan, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013prpl.conf2B023L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> of Protoplanetary Disks at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have used mid-infrared cameras on 8-to-10 m class telescopes to <span class="hlt">study</span> the properties of young circumstellar disks. During the initial phases of this program we examined a large sample of mid-IR images of standard stars delivered by T-ReCS at Gemini South to evaluate its on-sky performance as characterized by, for example the angular resolution, the PSF shape, and the PSF temporal stability, properties that are most relevant to our high-angular resolution <span class="hlt">study</span> of disks. With this information we developed an Interactive Data Language (IDL) package of routines optimized for reducing the data and correcting for image defects commonly seen in ground-based mid-IR data. We obtained, reduced, and analyzed mid-IR images and spectra of several Herbig Ae/Be disks (including HD 259431, MWC 1080, VV Ser) and the debris disk (? Pic), and derived their physical properties by means of radiative transfer modeling or spectroscopic decomposition and analyses. These results are highlighted here. During this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we also helped commission CanariCam, a new mid-IR facility instrument built by the University of Florida for the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. CanariCam is an imager with spectroscopic, polarimetric, and coronagraphic capabilities, with the dual-beam polarimetry being a unique mode introduced with CanariCam for the first time to a 10 m telescope at mid-IR wavelengths. It is well known that measurements of polarization, originating from aligned dust grains in the disks and their environments, have the potential to shed light on the morphologies of the magnetic fields in these regions, information that is critical to understanding how stars and planets form. We have obtained polarimetric data of several Herbig Ae/Be disks and YSOs, and the data reduction and analyses are in process. We present preliminary results here. This poster is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant AST-0903672 and AST-0908624 awarded to C.M.T.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles; Wright, Christopher; Packham, Christopher; Marinas, Naibi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22610698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">studies</span> on some analytical <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work present comparative results on powder milk storage quality, obtained from analytical <span class="hlt">methods</span>. Protein content was\\u000a determined conventional (Kjeldahl) and colorimetric with biuret reagent at 540 nm and integral quality by thermogravimetric\\u000a and biological <span class="hlt">methods</span>. A <span class="hlt">method</span> was developed for the protein separation of powder milk. Powder milk was submitted to degradation\\u000a processes at 45, 60 and 80°C for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. O. Macêdo; O. M. de Moura; A. G. de Souza; A. M. C. Macêdo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3227377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weight versus volume in breast surgery: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives The <span class="hlt">study</span> hypothesis is to assess correlation of breast specimen weight versus volume. Design Consecutive patients undergoing breast surgery at a single tertiary referral centre during a 6-month period were included. Specimen weight was measured in grams. Direct volume measurements were performed using water displacement. Data including side of the breast, age and menstrual status of the patient were noted. Setting Knowledge of breast volume provides an objective guide in facilitating the achievements of balance in reconstructive operations. Surgeons use intraoperative weight measurements from individual breasts to calculate the breast volume assuming that weight is equal to the volume of the specimen. However, it is unclear whether weight accurately reveals the true volume of resection. Participants Forty-one patients were included in the <span class="hlt">study</span> with 28 having bilateral surgeries, 13 having unilateral procedures giving a total of 69 breast specimens. Main outcome measures Breast specimen weight correlation to breast specimen volume. Results The mean age of the group was 42.4 years. Fifty-two specimens were from premenopausal patients and 17 were of postmenopausal. Thirty-five were left-sided. Twenty-six patients had bilateral breast reduction, two had bilateral mastectomy, nine had a unilateral mastectomy and four patients had a unilateral breast reduction. The difference between weight and volume of these breasts was 36.4 units (6.6% difference). The difference in measurement of weight and volume in premenopausal was 37.6 units compared to 32.6 units in postmenopausal women. The density was 1.07 and 1.06, respectively. This was statistically not significant. Conclusions No significant difference between volume and weight was seen in this series. Furthermore, we are unable to support the notion that premenopausal patients have a significant difference in the proportion of fatty and glandular tissue as there was little difference between the weight and the volume. An easy, clinically proper formula for the quantification of actual breast volume has yet to be derived.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parmar, Chetan; West, Malcolm; Pathak, Samir; Nelson, J; Martin, Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3868561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Offshore <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey <span class="hlt">Methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal <span class="hlt">observations</span> of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were <span class="hlt">observed</span> between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline <span class="hlt">study</span> of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey <span class="hlt">methods</span> also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These <span class="hlt">observations</span> provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatch, Shaylyn K.; Connelly, Emily E.; Divoll, Timothy J.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Williams, Kathryn A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5638..912Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Study</span> on measurement <span class="hlt">method</span> of necking process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, a new <span class="hlt">method</span> of optical scanning measurement was put forward, using the semiconductor laser and octagon prism. This <span class="hlt">method</span> realized on-line non-touch measurement of the necking value and necking position in the process of material tensile testing by the assist of machine scanning. The principle and key technical of this measuring <span class="hlt">method</span> had been introduced, and the main factor to the measurement accuracy was analysed too. It is shown by test that this <span class="hlt">method</span> is more accurate, faster and simpler than ever before for giving out the capability of material by omnipotence tensile machine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Lizhong; Yu, Zhenglin; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Guohua; Wang, Yanfei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........96S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observational</span> and modelling <span class="hlt">studies</span> of Australian severe weather</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The forecastability of severe weather conditions over sub-tropical Australia are tested with a mesoscale model capable of running at high resolutions over a region of interest anywhere in the world. Improved forecast output, for example, of precipitation, wind speed/direction and humidity which are required to indicate severe weather conditions are dependent on model improvements and the following areas are addressed: (1)data; (2)theory; (3)model; and, (4)computing. The initial condition uncertainty inherent in the data which is used in the analysis to initialise numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is addressed through two ensemble forecasting <span class="hlt">studies</span>, one on rainfall from a mesoscale system and the other on the central low position, wind and rainfall distribution of an explosive east coast low. Also, relating to data, some major mesoscale phenomena are described in the form of New South Wales coastal ridging which helps produce severe weather in this area and which needs to be captured by a mesoscale NWP model in order that improved predictions can be made. In terms of theory the major focus is on the ensemble methodology and on the use of improved precipitation parameterisations, namely, those of Fritsch-Chappell and Kain-Fritsch. The mesoscale model development is extended through the use of increased resolution <span class="hlt">studies</span>, for example, by showing statistically significant greater than operational skill in predicting details of wind, relative humidity and temperature patterns both near the surface and above the boundary layer in relation to the Sydney January 1994 bushfire weather; by including an option for a Lagrangian particle dispersion model; and by replacement of a previously inadequate representation of cumulus convection which was required to represent the effects of mesoscale downdrafts which are essential for the successful prediction of the squall-line over Sydney in Chapter 7. Mesoscale weather prediction is one of the so called `grand challenges' of computational science in that it requires large amounts of memory and very efficient use of high performance computers. In this thesis the computations ranged form multiprocessor shared memory main frames; high performance work stations; and, now state-of-the-art Pentium PCs. Each of these machines has its distinct requirements for optimisation. Much work has been dedicated in producing code that transfers easily between platforms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Speer, Milton Samuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE33A0317A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection <span class="hlt">Method</span> of Lightning and TLEs by JEM-GLIMS Nadir <span class="hlt">Observation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scientific payload named JEM-GLIMS aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is aimed at <span class="hlt">observing</span> lightning and Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) globally. Keeping its field-of-view toward the nadir direction, GLIMS clarifies the horizontal structures of lightning and TLEs, which is a crucial issue to understand the electrodynamic coupling between the troposphere and ionosphere. A difficult point, however, is that careful analyses are necessary to separate the emissions of lightning and TLEs which spatially overlap along the line-of-sights in the case of nadir <span class="hlt">observation</span>. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we analyze the multi-wavelength optical data obtained by GLIMS to identify lightning and TLEs. The main data analyzed are those of imager (LSI) and spectrophotometer (PH). LSI consists of two cameras equipped with a broadband red filter and a narrowband 762-nm filter, respectively, and obtains imagery at a spatial resolution of 400 m/pixel on the ground surface. PH detects time-resolved emission intensity at a sampling rate of 20 kHz by six photometer channels measuring at 150-280, 337, 762, 600-900, 316 and 392 nm, respectively. During a period between November 2012 and June 2013, GLIMS <span class="hlt">observed</span> 815 lightning and/or TLE events, and in 494 of them, both LSI and PH data showed clear signals above the noise level. As the first step, we carried out case <span class="hlt">study</span> using an event <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 09:50:47UT on Jan 29 2013 which did not cause strong saturation on the LSI and PH data. The estimated peak irradiance was 1.38x10^(-3) W/m^(2) at 600-900 nm, which is equivalent to the top 10 % bright lightning events <span class="hlt">observed</span> by FORTE satellite in the past. This finding suggests that GLIMS selectively <span class="hlt">observes</span> the most optically-powerful events. The peak irradiance was estimated also for the other PH channels. At all visible channels other than a far ultra violet (FUV) channel, the peak irradiance was estimated to be in good agreement with the atmospheric transmittance curve calculated between 10 km and ISS altitude. We therefore primarily attribute the visible emissions of this event to lightning discharge occurring in the troposphere. Interestingly, GLIMS also detected the FUV emission which is significantly stronger than that expected for tropospheric lightning. This finding suggests that TLE also occurred at higher altitudes where the FUV emission is not affected by atmospheric attenuation. As such, it is clear that GLIMS is able to discriminate optical emissions of lightning and TLEs occurring in the nadir direction. In the conference, we will examine the identification technique in details and, by applying it to all the events, will discuss the validity and limitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adachi, T.; Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Suzuki, M.; Masayuki, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal analyses of early lesions by fluorescence: an <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous caries experience correlates to future caries risk; thus, early identification of lesions has importance for risk assessment and management. In this <span class="hlt">study</span>, we aimed to determine if Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) parameters--area (A [mm(2)]), fluorescence loss (F [%]), and Q [% × mm(2)]--obtained by image analyses can predict lesion progression. We secured consent from 565 children (from 5-13 years old) and their parents/guardians and examined them at baseline and regular intervals over 48 months according to the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), yearly radiographs, and QLF. QLF images from surfaces with ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 at baseline that progressed (N = 2,191) to cavitation (ICDAS 5/6) or fillings and surfaces that did not progress to cavitation/fillings (N = 4,141) were analyzed independently for A, F, and Q. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare means and slopes (changes over time) between surfaces that progressed and those that did not. QLF A, F, and Q increased at a faster rate for surfaces that progressed than for surfaces that did not progress (p = .0001), regardless of type of surface or baseline ICDAS score. AUC for ICDAS ranged from 0.65 to 0.80, but adding QLF information improved AUC (0.82-0.87, p < .0005). We concluded that faster changes in QLF variables can indicate lesion progression toward cavitation and be more clinically relevant than actual QLF values. PMID:23690351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira Zandoná, A; Ando, M; Gomez, G F; Garcia-Corretjer, M; Eckert, G J; Santiago, E; Katz, B P; Zero, D T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2931139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous nephrostomy by direct puncture technique: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percutaneous nephrostomy is the procedure of establishing a temporary drainage tract of the renal pelvi-calyceal system through the skin. This <span class="hlt">study</span> aims to find out whether low cost trocar catheter can be a suitable substitute for the relatively high cost fluoroscopy/ultrasonography guided tract dilatation and tube insertion procedure. Percutaneous nephrostomy by the trocar catheter was performed in 126 patients. Under local anesthesia, a stab wound deep enough to traverse the muscle layer was made through which the trocar - catheter drainage set was inserted under ultrasonography guidance. About 179 procedures were performed in 126 patients. Primary technical success rate was 94%, major complication rate 1.6%, minor complication rate 11% and catheter related complications like catheter blockage or dislodgement were 13%. There was no procedure related mortality in our series. The ultrasonography-guided trocar, catheter nephrostomy, is a quick, safe and low cost procedure in selected cases of upper urinary tract obstruction. The primary technical success and complication rates are comparable to any other reported procedure and its low cost is particularly suitable for developing countries like India.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karim, R.; Sengupta, S.; Samanta, S.; Aich, R. K.; Das, U.; Deb, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9228456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taguchi <span class="hlt">Methods</span> in Electronics: A Case <span class="hlt">Study</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi <span class="hlt">method</span>. This is an optimization <span class="hlt">method</span> that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Kissel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22de+bruijn%22&pg=2&id=EJ597623"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Automated <span class="hlt">Method</span> for <span class="hlt">Studying</span> Interactive Systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents an interaction model and an experimental <span class="hlt">method</span> for information retrieval. This automated <span class="hlt">method</span> helps identify which user and system variables are relevant, which are independent of other variables, and which ranges of the variables are most important. Results show that relevance feedback consistently improves retrieval performance. (AEF)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Bruijn, Berry; Holte, Robert; Martin, Joel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51126815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case <span class="hlt">study</span>: Merging technology management <span class="hlt">methods</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays IT functions are integrated part of organizations' business. One way to manage this integration is to make sure that both parties use similar words with the same meaning to everybody. A way to achieve this common vocabulary is to share <span class="hlt">methods</span> and measurements to govern the activities. Unfortunately, many of these <span class="hlt">methods</span> and frameworks are customized for a specific</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pia Narman; Evelina Ericsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=size+AND+matters&pg=7&id=EJ866934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unbiased Causal Inference from an <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Study</span>: Results of a Within-<span class="hlt">Study</span> Comparison</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adjustment <span class="hlt">methods</span> such as propensity scores and analysis of covariance are often used for estimating treatment effects in nonexperimental data. Shadish, Clark, and Steiner used a within-<span class="hlt">study</span> comparison to test how well these adjustments work in practice. They randomly assigned participating students to a randomized or nonrandomized experiment.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pohl, Steffi; Steiner, Peter M.; Eisermann, Jens; Soellner, Renate; Cook, Thomas D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S53B2424K"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Study</span> of the Dynamic Amplification Characteristics of the Domestic Seismic <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Sites using Coda Wave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For more reliable estimation of soil-structure interaction and seismic source and attenuation properties, site amplification function should be considered. This <span class="hlt">study</span> use the Nakamura's <span class="hlt">method</span>(1989) for estimating site amplification though various <span class="hlt">methods</span> for the same purpose have been proposed. This <span class="hlt">method</span> was originally applied to the surface waves of background noise and therefore there are some limitation for applications to general wave energy. however, recently this <span class="hlt">method</span> has been extended and applied to the S wave energy successfully. This <span class="hlt">study</span> applied the <span class="hlt">method</span> to the coda wave energy which is equivalent to the backscattered S wave energy. We used more than 60 <span class="hlt">observed</span> ground motions from 5 earthquakes which were occurred recently, with magnitude range from 3.6 to 5.1 Each station showed characteristic site amplification property in low-, high- and resonance frequency ranges. In the case of comparing these results to those from S wave energy, lots of information to the site classification work can be gained. Moreover, removal of site amplification can give us more reliable seismic source parameters. Site Amplification at GKP! site</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ysc..conf...15P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stellar spectroscopy <span class="hlt">methods</span> for <span class="hlt">study</span> of supernova remnants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the <span class="hlt">method</span> for <span class="hlt">study</span> of the characteristics of the supernova remnants using their absorption properties. The background radiation sources are several stars with wide range of distances. Main task is accurate extraction of stellar spectra from <span class="hlt">observations</span>. For Vela Jr. supernova remnant we found the absence of typical broad absorption in the spectral lines of Ca II doublet. Using modeles of supernovae remnants and data on radiation in ^{44}Ti ?-ray line we estimated the age and the distance to Vela Jr. We showed that a hypernova may be a probable candidate for Vela Jr. protogenitor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Chugai, N. N.; Iyudin, A. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2436...50K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reduction of patient exposure in pediatric radiology: an <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine if presently used exposure levels in pediatric imaging can be reduced without loss of information or decrease in diagnostic accuracy, a <span class="hlt">method</span> for multiple (stacked) image detectors and filters using a computed radiography system was used to obtain identical images of different exposure levels of neonates with either no active lung disease or hyaline membrane disease. Physical characteristics of the images were measured. A contrast-detail <span class="hlt">study</span> and an ROC <span class="hlt">study</span> were conducted to measure <span class="hlt">observer</span> performance. Physical measurements and the contrast detail <span class="hlt">study</span> revealed that all images were essentially x-ray photon noise limited. The ROC <span class="hlt">study</span> indicated that diagnostic accuracy did not decrease significantly up to about 75% exposure reduction levels, although image quality rating data decreased with each exposure reduction. Decreasing exposure levels to about 75% of current levels may be acceptable in some clinical situations where dose is a concern, such as in pediatric imaging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Roehrig, Hans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyC..469.1446Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">observation</span> of microstructures in Y123 films fabricated by TFA-MOD <span class="hlt">method</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We were successful for three-dimensional imaging of microstructures in YBa 2Cu 3O 7-y (Y123) films fabricated by metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) <span class="hlt">method</span>. We have reported previously, that a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis clarified microstructures such as Y123 crystal grains and pores in the Y123 films. In order to derive important parameters for enhancement of superconducting properties of the Y123 films, quantitative analyses of those microstructures are required. Then, control of both pores and a-axis oriented grains distribution in the Y123 films are important. However, general TEM images provide only a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional object. An electron tomography is an effective technique for three-dimensional structure analysis of various materials. Cross-sectional view specimen for the three-dimensional electron tomography was prepared by focused ion-beam milling equipped with micro-sampling system. A scanning transmission electron microscopy - annular dark field technique was used for the present three-dimensional electron tomography. For the cross-sectional specimen of fired Y123 films, three-dimensional shapes and distributions of both pores and unreacted phases were <span class="hlt">observed</span> in reconstructed images. Also, morphologies of the Y123 film surface were clearly seen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, K.; Mitsuhara, M.; Hata, S.; Miyanaga, Y.; Teranishi, R.; Mori, N.; Mukaida, M.; Kaneko, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.S33B..01V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microtremors <span class="hlt">study</span> applying the SPAC <span class="hlt">method</span> in Colima state, Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the main parts of seismic risk <span class="hlt">studies</span> is to determine the site effect. This can be estimated by means of the microtremors measurements. From the H/V spectral ratio (Nakamura, 1989), the predominant period of the site can be estimated. Although the predominant period by itself can not represent the site effect in a wide range of frequencies and doesn't provide information of the stratigraphy. The SPAC <span class="hlt">method</span> (Spatial Auto-Correlation <span class="hlt">Method</span>, Aki 1957), on the other hand, is useful to estimate the stratigraphy of the site. It is based on the simultaneous recording of microtremors in several stations deployed in an instrumental array. Through the spatial autocorrelation coefficient computation, the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve can be cleared. Finally the stratigraphy model (thickness, S and P wave velocity, and density of each layer) is estimated by fitting the theoretical dispersion curve with the <span class="hlt">observed</span> one. The theoretical dispersion curve is initially computed using a proposed model. That model is modified several times until the theoretical curve fit the <span class="hlt">observations</span>. This <span class="hlt">method</span> requires of a minimum of three stations where the microtremors are <span class="hlt">observed</span> simultaneously in all the stations. We applied the SPAC <span class="hlt">method</span> to six sites in Colima state, Mexico. Those sites are Santa Barbara, Cerro de Ortega, Tecoman, Manzanillo and two in Colima city. Totally 16 arrays were carried out using equilateral triangles with different apertures with a minimum of 5 m and a maximum of 60 m. For recording microtremors we used short period (5 seconds) velocity type vertical sensors connected to a K2 (Kinemetrics) acquisition system. We could estimate the velocities of the most superficial layers reaching different depths in each site. For Santa Bárbara site the exploration depth was about 30 m, for Tecoman 12 m, for Manzanillo 35 m, for Cerro de Ortega 68 m, and the deepest site exploration was obtained in Colima city with a depth of around 73 m. The S wave velocities fluctuate between 230 m/s and 420 m/s for the most superficial layer. It means that, in general, the most superficial layers are quite competent. The superficial layer with smaller S wave velocity was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in Tecoman, while that of largest S wave velocity was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in Cerro de Ortega. Our estimations are consistent with down-hole velocity records obtained in Santa Barbara by previous <span class="hlt">studies</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vázquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre González, J.; Mijares Arellano, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_19 div --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030071103&hterms=MDI&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522MDI%253F%253F%253F%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic <span class="hlt">Study</span> of The Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI <span class="hlt">Observations</span> during Solar Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principal investigator describes several types of solar research conducted during the reporting period and gives a statement of work to be performed in the following year. Research conducted during the reporting period includes: exhaustive analysis of <span class="hlt">observational</span> and instrumental effects that might cause systematic errors in the characterization of high-degree p-modes; <span class="hlt">study</span> of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings; characterizing the solar rotation; Time-Distance inversion; and developing and using a new peak-fitting <span class="hlt">method</span> for very long MDI time series at low degrees.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korzennik, Sylvain G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7631722130864r04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of anorexia on mortality among older adults receiving home care: An <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose  We describe the prevalence of secondary anorexia in a population of older people living in community and receiving home care.\\u000a In addition, we examined the relationship between secondary anorexia and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a <span class="hlt">Methods</span>  We analyzed data from a large collaborative <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">study</span> group, the Italian Silver Network Home Care project, that\\u000a collected data on patients admitted to home care programs. A total</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesco Landi; R. Liperoti; F. Lattanzio; A. Russo; M. Tosato; C. Barillaro; R. Bernabei; G. Onder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/cpl32413wp886l21.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Failure of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute lung injury: <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">study</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction  The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) is controversial.\\u000a We sought to assess the outcome of ALI that was initially treated with NIPPV and to identify specific risk factors for NIPPV\\u000a failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a <span class="hlt">Methods</span>  In this <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort <span class="hlt">study</span> at the two intensive care units of a tertiary center, we identified consecutive patients</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sameer Rana; Hussam Jenad; Peter C Gay; Curtis F Buck; Rolf D Hubmayr; Ognjen Gajic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA211213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of Research <span class="hlt">Methods</span> to <span class="hlt">Study</span> Design.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report identifies and evaluates <span class="hlt">methods</span> used by the design research community that could be used to establish requirements for improving the effectiveness of the engineering design process in a Unified Life Cycle Engineering (ULCE) environment. More ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. A. Dierolf K. J. Richter M. Brei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n6735k6k3300u340.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> the polling systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reviewed were the mathematical <span class="hlt">methods</span> that are used to investigate the polling systems which found wide application in modeling\\u000a and design of various transport and industrial processes. Emphasis was made on the models of polling systems used to investigate\\u000a the wireless broadband networks. The polling systems were classified; presented were stochastic models and <span class="hlt">methods</span> of investigating\\u000a discrete-time and continuous-time systems,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. M. Vishnevskii; O. V. Semenova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4090187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Association between Dairy Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> have given inconsistent findings on the relationship between intake of dairy products and gastric cancer. We therefore conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> to summarize available evidence on this point. <span class="hlt">Methods</span> We searched the electronic literature databases of PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up until August 30, 2013. All <span class="hlt">studies</span> were limited to the English language. Random-effects models were used to pool <span class="hlt">study</span> results between dairy products consumption and the risk of gastric cancer. We also performed subgroup, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Results Eight prospective <span class="hlt">studies</span> and 18 case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> were included in our analysis, with a total number of 7272 gastric cancer cases and 223,355 controls. Pooled relative risks of all <span class="hlt">studies</span> showed no significant association between dairy intake and gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.25). When <span class="hlt">study</span> design was separately analyzed, population-based case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> showed a positive association between dairy intake and gastric cancer risk (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.74), whereas no associations were shown by hospital-based case-control <span class="hlt">studies</span> (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72–1.02) or cohort <span class="hlt">studies</span> (OR?=?1.01, 95% CI?=?0.91–1.13). Conclusions The meta-analysis shows that no clear association apparently exists between consumption of dairy products and gastric cancer risk. Further well-designed cohort and intervention <span class="hlt">studies</span> should be conducted to verify this lack of association.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, Shu-bo; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Cao, Zhan-jiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nihtraining.com/cc/ippcr/current/downloads/observational.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much medical research is <span class="hlt">observational</span>. The reporting of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">studies</span> is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a <span class="hlt">study</span> and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Studies</span> in Epidemiology (STROBE)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Erik von Elm; Douglas G. Altman; Peter C. Gøtzsche; Cynthia D. Mulrow; Stuart J. Pocock; Charles Poole; James J. Schlesselman; Matthias Egger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790017541&hterms=precipitation+isotope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dprecipitation%2Bisotope"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Study</span> report on a double isotope <span class="hlt">method</span> of calcium absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some of the pros and cons of three <span class="hlt">methods</span> to <span class="hlt">study</span> gastrointestinal calcium absorption are briefly discussed. The <span class="hlt">methods</span> are: (1) a balance <span class="hlt">study</span>; (2) a single isotope <span class="hlt">method</span>; and (3) a double isotope <span class="hlt">method</span>. A procedure for the double isotope <span class="hlt">method</span> is also included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56966420"> <span id="translatedtitle">A high-gain <span class="hlt">observer</span> vs. algebraic derivative <span class="hlt">methods</span> for track estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper track estimation algorithms for a multiple articulated vehicle are examined to be used in advanced steering control systems. Therefore a high-gain <span class="hlt">observer</span> based track estimator is designed for different sensor configurations. The results of an <span class="hlt">observability</span> analysis are used for the <span class="hlt">observer</span> design. The accuracy can be improved by the sensor fusion. Furthermore this approach utilizes the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Huber; S. Zipser; S. Wagner; K. Robenack</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=composite+AND+uses&pg=5&id=EJ949640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occasions and the Reliability of Classroom <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: Alternative Conceptualizations