Science.gov

Sample records for observations project ceop

  1. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) Data Integration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. F.

    2010-09-01

    Many of the Projects under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) bring together numerous types of data to perform climate research on various regional and time scales using routine operational/research global observations and process studies. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) [under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)] goal is to demonstrate skill in predicting changes in water resources and soil moisture on time scales up to seasonal and annual as an integral part of the climate system. In order to satisfy the multi-disciplinary scientific objectives of CEOP, an integrated approach to bring together such global in-situ observations, remote sensing (satellite), and model output was needed. Both a centralized and distributed integrated data management strategy was then designed and implemented to incorporate and distribute such research quality data. There are multitudes of global/regional surface in-situ measurements made globally that are quite disparate in type, number, quality, and format. The concept of a "Reference Site" combining specialized observations of sub-surface (soil temperature and moisture profiles), near-surface (standard meteorological parameters, radiation, flux), and lower tropospheric profiles (tower, rawinsonde, lidar, wind profiler) over various spatial scales (from single point to 104 square km) was created for evaluation with satellite data and model output analyses. A network of 36 such Reference Sites from various climatic regions was identified and organized through coordination of CEOP's Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHPs). Standardized observation times/averaging and format (with complete metadata) was agreed upon and a "composite" in-situ database developed. This presentation will describe CEOP's data integration approach and "lessons learned" from such a prototype network for use in global climate studies.

  2. Biomass Studies in Monsoon Regions Under the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2003-01-01

    CEOP is an international program sponsored by the World Climate Research Project (WCRP) aiming at an integrated approach towards better understanding and prediction of the global water cycle. I will discuss the scientific rationale and approach that underpin the program, especially with regard to the important implications on variability of climate and rainfall in monsoon regions around the world.

  3. CEOS Data Integration Support for CEOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enloe, Y.; Ochiai, O.; McDonald, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Information Systems and Services (WGISS) to see if they could assist in solving this problem. CEOS WGISS initiated a project where the CEOS information technologists work closely with the CEOP scientists to collaboratively prototype a set of tools and services needed to support data integration to support CEOP science. The initial CEOS/CEOP Prototype, demonstrating a limited set of services needed for data integration, was completed and demoed spring 2005 at the CEOP meeting to wide acclaim from the CEOP science community. A second phase is currently being planned. Existing tools and software (e.g. OPeNDAP suite of clients and servers such as the Grads client and server, the Open Geospatial Web Coverage Server, and NASA's ECHO catalog system) are expected to be tailored to provide a wider set of the data services needed for data integration. From a broader perspective, the goals of the work are clearly aligned with the strategic objectives of the international CEOS community to develop new technologies to improve the study of the Earth system utilizing Earth observations from space and are consistent with goals of the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS). The CEOP/GEWEX science communities have identified barriers they have met in their attempts to access and use satellite data resources, and this input has guided the development of the prototype effort. However, the results of this project will also serve other Earth system studies that rely on the integration of satellite and in situ data and model results.

  4. Distributed Data Integration Prototype System for Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S. H.; Aizawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the JAXA Prototype for CEOP Distributed Data Integration Service is to provide user-friendly access to the CEOP (in-situ, satellite and global gridded model output) data. The system is distributed in the sense that, while the system is located in Tokyo, the data is located in archive centers which are globally distributed. The in-situ data is archived at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) in Boulder, Colorado, USA. The NWP global gridded model output data is archived at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPIM) in cooperation with the World Data Center for Climate (WDC-Climate) in Hamburg, Germany. The satellite data is archived at the IIS (Institute of Industrial Science) at the University of Tokyo, in Tokyo, Japan. Other (non-CEOP) globally distributed data that is on DODS servers can be added in the future according to scientist's requests. The system is integrated in the sense that all of the data is temporally and geospatially coordinated and can be selected and viewed within the same system. The in-situ data are time series data and the global gridded model output data and satellite data are 4D (time series of 2D scenes at levels or in multiple frequency bands). The system knows the geolocation and time of all data sets and supports selection of the data through a uniform set of menus, by data type, reference site and station, and supports sub-setting according to time, area and height/depth. The basic concept for developing the JAXA prototype is " to use existing software where possible". Based on this concept, OPeNDAP, which is widely used in the ocean and atmospheric sciences, was chosen as the data access protocol to enable "access to distributed data". And also the open source Live Access Serve (LAS) was selected as the JAXA Prototype component to enable "integration service". Users can access the system at http://jaxa.ceos.org/wtf_ceop. This system has been online since June 1, 2005

  5. Data Assimilation Office (DAO) Operational Analyses and Reanalyses for Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M.

    2003-01-01

    The DAO operational assimilation system has produced and archived gridded data since 1998, and will continue through the CEOP period. However, major system upgrades and new assimilation variables will significantly affect the surface energy balance and data product. These changes will be discussed and the prospects for a CEOP reanalysis will be presented. W e will also review the data currently available and describe how to access the data.

  6. CEOP-TPE- Concerted Earth Observation and Prediction of Water and Energy Cycles in the Third Pole Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Ma, Y.; van der Velde, R.; Dente, L.; Wang, L.; Zeng, Y.; Chen, X.; Huang, Y.; Menenti, M.; Sobrino, J.; Li, Z.-L.; Sneeuw, N.; Wen, J.; He, Y.; Tang, B.; Zhong, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the past two years of the CEOP-TPE project, a number of progresses have been made. 1. The Tibetan Plateau SM & ST Observatory [1-3] has been further maintained and upgraded. 2. An assessment of ECMWF land surface analysis over the Tibetan plateau [4] has been conducted. 3. A blended soil moisture product over the Tibetan Plateau [5] has been generated. 4. A 10-year (2001-2010) land surface energy balance product for climate and ecohydrological studies has been developed [6,7] and on the basis of this data set it is concluded that the Tibetan plateau is a heating source for the atmosphere in particular in winter months. 5. A method for the quantification of water cycle components based on earth observation data and a comparison to reanalysis data has been developed. An analysis of the Yangtze river basin is preliminarily carried out and concluded that human influences are important in shorter terms, but climate influences seem dominate over direct human influences over longer terms.

  7. The development of an OpeNDAP satellite data server for CEOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, D.; di, L.; Enloe, Y.; Holloway, D.; McDonald, K. R.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a project that develops an OPeNDAP server to serve satellite data to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) community. CEOP, which is built as the foundation of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) in Cooperation with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) under the Framework of Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P), seeks to establish an integrated global observing system for the water cycle to respond to both scientific and social needs. CEOP uses data from field observation, data assimilation, model outputs, and satellite remote sensing in research. The multi-source data integration is one of keys for the success of the CEOP program. Much of the satellite data identified in CEOP are Level-1B and Level-2 products. Data in these products are in Swath coordinates. While CEOP users commonly use the OPeNDAP protocols to access CEOP data for research, most of swath data are not available via this protocol. Instead, many space agencies have developed satellite data servers that implement the Open GIS Consortium (OGC)'s Web Coverage Service (WCS) Specification for serving satellite data to geospatial community. In order to provide satellite data to CEOP community, we developed a middleware, which act as a wrapper around an OpenGIS WCS implementation providing a gateway from the OPeNDAP protocols. The combination of the wrapper and any OGC-compliant WCS server acts as an OPeNDAP server. To provide the capabilities required to convert from Swath coordinates to an equirectangular latitude-longitude coordinate reference system, as well as perform grid cell interpolation and geo-spatial selection the server leverages the capabilities provided by an OGC WCS implementation. Basically, the middleware module does three things: 1). Translate the client requests in OpeNDAP protocols to WCS protocols and pass the requests to a WCS server; 2). Translate the server

  8. The contribution of CEOP data to the understanding and modeling of monsoon systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2005-01-01

    CEOP has contributed and will continue to provide integrated data sets from diverse platforms for better understanding of the water and energy cycles, and for validating models. In this talk, I will show examples of how CEOP has contributed to the formulation of a strategy for the study of the monsoon as a system. The CEOP data concept has led to the development of the CEOP Inter-Monsoon Studies (CIMS), which focuses on the identification of model bias, and improvement of model physics such as the diurnal and annual cycles. A multi-model validation project focusing on diurnal variability of the East Asian monsoon, and using CEOP reference site data, as well as CEOP integrated satellite data is now ongoing. Similar validation projects in other monsoon regions are being started. Preliminary studies show that climate models have difficulties in simulating the diurnal signals of total rainfall, rainfall intensity and frequency of occurrence, which have different peak hours, depending on locations. Further more model diurnal cycle of rainfall in monsoon regions tend to lead the observed by about 2-3 hours. These model bias offer insight into lack of, or poor representation of key components of the convective,and stratiform rainfall. The CEOP data also stimulated studies to compare and contrasts monsoon variability in different parts of the world. It was found that seasonal wind reversal, orographic effects, monsoon depressions, meso-scale convective complexes, SST and land surface land influences are common features in all monsoon regions. Strong intraseasonal variability is present in all monsoon regions. While there is a clear demarcation of onset, breaks and withdrawal in the Asian and Australian monsoon region associated with climatological intraseasonal variability, it is less clear in the American and Africa monsoon regions. The examination of satellite and reference site data in monsoon has led to preliminary model experiments to study the impact of aerosol on

  9. The Contribution of CEOP Data to the Understanding and Modeling of Monsoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2005-01-01

    CEOP has contributed and will continue to provide integrated data sets from diverse platforms for better understanding of the water and energy cycles, and for validaintg models. In this talk, I will show examples of how CEOP has contributed to the formulation of a strategy for the study of the monsoon as a system. The CEOP data concept has led to the development of the CEOP Inter-Monsoon Studies (CIMS), which focuses on the identification of model bias, and improvement of model physics such as the diurnal and annual cycles. A multi-model validation project focusing on diurnal variability of the East Asian monsoon, and using CEOP reference site data, as well as CEOP integrated satellite data is now ongoing. Preliminary studies show that climate models have difficulties in simulating the diurnal signals of total rainfall, rainfall intensity and frequency of occurrence, which have different peak hours, depending on locations. Further more model diurnal cycle of rainfall in monsoon regions tend to lead the observed by about 2-3 hours. These model bias offer insight into lack of, or poor representation of, key components of the convective and stratiform rainfall. The CEOP data also stimulated studies to compare and contrasts monsoon variability in different parts of the world. It was found that seasonal wind reversal, orographic effects, monsoon depressions, meso-scale convective complexes, SST and land surface land influences are common features in all monsoon regions. Strong intraseasonal variability is present in all monsoon regions. While there is a clear demarcation of onset, breaks and withdrawal in the Asian and Australian monsoon region associated with climatological intraseasonal variabillity, it is less clear in the American and Africa monsoon regions. The examination of satellite and reference site data in monsoon has led to preliminary model experiments to study the impact of aerosol on monsoon variability. I will show examples of how the study of the

  10. Development of CEOP Reference Site Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehrer, S. M.; Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2004-05-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a series of specialized observational data sets for the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period. CEOP is composed of a number of global WCRP research programmes [i.e. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR), and Climate and Cryosphere (CliC)]. Each one of the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments selected a number of well instrumented reference sites in various climatic regions of the world (36 in total) to support CEOP research activities. These reference sites provide observations of surface meteorology, radiation, fluxes, soils, and atmospheric profiles in a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions in different formats. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Joint Office for Science Support (UCAR/JOSS) takes these disparate data and conducts a consistent processing and quality assurance methodology leading to the development of a data set in a consistent format and temporal resolution. This presentation will discuss the current status of the CEOP EOP-3 (1 October 2002 to 30 September 2003) data processing, quality assurance, and data archival and distribution as well as plans for the remaining CEOP reference site data sets.

  11. Development of CEOP Reference Site Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehrer, S. M.; Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a series of specialized observational data sets for the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period. CEOP is composed of a number of global WCRP research programmes [i.e. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR), and Climate and Cryosphere (CliC)]. Each one of the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments selected a number of well instrumented reference sites in various climatic regions of the world (36 in total) to support CEOP research activities. These reference sites provide observations of surface meteorology, radiation, fluxes, soils, and atmospheric profiles in a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions in different formats. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Joint Office for Science Support (UCAR/JOSS) takes these disparate data and conducts a consistent processing and quality assurance methodology leading to the development of a data set in a consistent format and temporal resolution. This presentation will discuss the data processing, quality assurance, and data archival and distribution of the initial CEOP data set (1 July to 30 September 2001) and the current status of (and plans for) the three additional annual cycle data sets that will cover the period from October 2001 to December 2004.

  12. The Murrumbidgee Monitoring Network: Supporting CEOP, GEWEX and Hydrological Research in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellett, K. M.; Western, A. W.; Walker, J. P.; Sirawardena, L.; Young, R. I.; Smith, A. B.; Flint, A. L.; Summerell, G.

    2006-12-01

    In 2001 a network of 18 soil moisture monitoring sites were installed across the 80,000 square km Murrumbidgee River catchment in Australia with the aim of evaluating the land surface component of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational weather forecasting model. Since that time the Murrumbidgee Monitoring Network (MMN) has evolved to include 46 sites for continuous measurement of root-zone soil moisture, soil temperature and precipitation, as well as observations of deep soil moisture and ground water variability. Much of these data will soon be incorporated into the World Climate Research Programme's Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) database (www.ceop.net) marking a substantial new contribution from the Australian continent. This paper provides an overview of the MMN and presents current results from applications in a number of regional-scale research projects including the Murray-Darling Basin GEWEX study and the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06) aimed at improving the retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation parameters from airborne and satellite platforms. The MMN also plays an integral role in the HYDROGRACE project with the objectives of (1) providing the first in-situ based validation of terrestrial water storage observations from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission and (2) improving regional-scale model simulations through data assimilation of GRACE observations. The MMN is part of the broader OzNet hydrological monitoring network throughout eastern Australia. Details on OzNet and the projects mentioned above are provided at www.oznet.unimelb.edu.au.

  13. A HHV-8 positive, HIV negative multicentric Castleman disease treated with R-CEOP chemotherapy and valganciclovir combination.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatma Eda Nuhoglu; Eren, Rafet; Gündoğan, Cihan; Huq, Gülben Erdem; Doğu, Mehmet Hilmi; Suyanı, Elif

    2016-07-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by systemic symptoms like recurrent lymphadenopathy, fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) can be associated with MCD whether the patient is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or not. A 59-year-old male patient presented with fatigue, drowsiness and enlarged lymph nodes. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography showed enlarged mediastinal, axillary, paracardiac, paraaortic, celiac, mesenteric, obturator and inguinal lymph nodes concomitant with enlarged liver and spleen. Cervical lymph node biopsy revealed HHV-8 positive plasma cell MCD. The patient's tests were negative for HIV. R-CEOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristin, prednisolone) and valganciclovir treatments were started simultaneously. After sixth cycle of R-CEOP, the patient achieved unconfirmed complete remission. Rituximab combined with CEOP protocol and antiviral therapy against HHV-8 might be an effective therapeutic approach without a considerable side effect for HHV-8-positive HIV-negative MCD patients. PMID:26948831

  14. Observing Projects in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.

  15. Peer Observation Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandt, Fred-Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the initial findings of an action research project that focuses on the possible contribution of peer observation to a more collaborative environment and teachers' professional growth at The University High School. The research component played a significant part as previous attempts to change the culture at the school were…

  16. Weighting climate model projections using observational constraints

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Projected climate change integrates the net response to multiple climate feedbacks. Whereas existing long-term climate change projections are typically based on unweighted individual climate model simulations, as observed climate change intensifies it is increasingly becoming possible to constrain the net response to feedbacks and hence projected warming directly from observed climate change. One approach scales simulated future warming based on a fit to observations over the historical period, but this approach is only accurate for near-term projections and for scenarios of continuously increasing radiative forcing. For this reason, the recent Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) included such observationally constrained projections in its assessment of warming to 2035, but used raw model projections of longer term warming to 2100. Here a simple approach to weighting model projections based on an observational constraint is proposed which does not assume a linear relationship between past and future changes. This approach is used to weight model projections of warming in 2081–2100 relative to 1986–2005 under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 forcing scenario, based on an observationally constrained estimate of the Transient Climate Response derived from a detection and attribution analysis. The resulting observationally constrained 5–95% warming range of 0.8–2.5 K is somewhat lower than the unweighted range of 1.1–2.6 K reported in the IPCC AR5. PMID:26438283

  17. Introduction to Chinese Meridian Observation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi

    Chinese Meridian Chain Meridian Project is a ground-based network program to monitor Solar-Terrestrial space environment, which consists of a chain of ground-based observatories with multiple instruments including magnetometers, ionosondes, HF and VHF radar, Lidar, IPS monitors, sounding rockets etc. The chain is mainly located in the neighborhood of 120o E meridian, and is thus named the Meridian Project. Meridian Project has officially been ap-proved by the Chinese government. The project started construction in 2008, and will be finished by the end of 2010. This talk will give an overview, the recent progress and prelimi-nary observational results of the Meridian Project.

  18. Skylab 4 visual observations project report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, J. L.; Lenoir, W. B.; Mcewen, M. C.; Weitenhagen, R. A.; Wilmarth, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab 4 Visual Observations Project was undertaken to determine the ways in which man can contribute to future earth-orbital observational programs. The premission training consisted of 17 hours of lectures by scientists representing 16 disciplines and provided the crewmen information on observational and photographic procedures and the scientific significance of this information. During the Skylab 4 mission, more than 850 observations and 2000 photographs with the 70-millimeter Hasselblad and 35-millimeter Nikon cameras were obtained for many investigative areas. Preliminary results of the project indicate that man can obtain new and unique information to support satellite earth-survey programs because of his inherent capability to make selective observations, to integrate the information, and to record the data by describing and photographing the observational sites.

  19. HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS OBSERVING SYSTEM PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HABSOS Pilot Project is being developed through a partnership of federal, state and academic organizations as proof-of-concept for a coastal observing system in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal is to design a HAB data management system and develop the regional communication infra...

  20. Project PHOENIX SETI Observations at Parkes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.

    1995-12-01

    For sixteen weeks (February to June of 1995), Project Phoenix had the exclusive use of the 64 m Parkes radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, as well as another element of the Australian Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the 22 m Mopra telescope, 200 km to the north at Coonabarabran. With these two telescopes, we conducted a targeted search of nearly two hundred solar-type stars covering the frequency range from 1.2 to 3 GHz. The signal detection system was optimized to detect narrowband signals (presumed to be transmitted by another technological civilization) originating in the vicinity of these targets. The system was sensitive to signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drifted, or changed slowly in time. Many signals of precisely this nature were detected, but all were coming from our own technology! All manner of transmitters, from microwave ovens to satellite downlinks, are rapidly making this naturally quiet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extremely noisy. The use of the two widely separated telescopes as a pseudo-interferometer was essential to discriminate against signals of terrestrial origin. The architecture and performance of the system and the results of the observing campaign are presented in this paper.

  1. Project Copernicus: An Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation is presenting this proposal for Project Copernicus to fulfill the need for space-based remote sensing of Earth. Concentration is on data acquisition. Copernicus is designed to be a flexible system of spacecraft in a low near-polar orbit. The goal is to acquire data so that the scientists may begin to understand many Earth processes and interactions. The mission objective of Copernicus is to provide a space-based, remote-sensing measurement data acquisition and transfer system for 15 years. A description of the design project is presented.

  2. A phase II study of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) Alternating with Pralatrexate (P) as front line therapy for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL): final results from the T- cell consortium trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, Ranjana H; Ansell, Stephen M; Lechowicz, Mary J; Beaven, Anne W; Loberiza, Fausto; Carson, Kenneth R; Evens, Andrew M; Foss, Francine; Horwitz, Steven; Pro, Barbara; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Smith, Sonali M; Shustov, Andrei R; Savage, Kerry J; Vose, Julie M

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have suboptimal outcomes using conventional CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. The anti-folate pralatrexate, the first drug approved for patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, provided a rationale to incorporate it into the front-line setting. This phase 2 study evaluated a novel front-line combination whereby cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) alternated with pralatrexate (CEOP-P) in PTCL. Patients achieving a complete or partial remission (CR/PR) were eligible for consolidative stem cell transplantation (SCT) after 4 cycles. Thirty-three stage II-IV PTCL patients were treated: 21 PTCL-not otherwise specified (64%), 8 angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (24%) and 4 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (12%). The majority (61%) had stage IV disease and 46% were International Prognostic Index high/intermediate or high risk. Grade 3-4 toxicities included anaemia (27%), thrombocytopenia (12%), febrile neutropenia (18%), mucositis (18%), sepsis (15%), increased creatinine (12%) and liver transaminases (12%). Seventeen patients (52%) achieved a CR. The 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival, were 39% (95% confidence interval 21-57) and 60% (95% confidence interval 39-76), respectively. Fifteen patients (45%) (12 CR) received SCT and all remained in CR at a median follow-up of 21·5 months. CEOP-P did not improve outcomes compared to historical data using CHOP. Defining optimal front line therapy in PTCL continues to be a challenge and an unmet need. PMID:26627450

  3. Astronomy Remote Observing Research Projects of US High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

    2006-08-01

    In order to address the challenging climate for promoting astronomy education in the high schools we have used astronomy projects to give students authentic research experiences in order to encourage their pursuit of science and technology careers. Initially, we conducted teacher workshops to develop a cadre of teachers who have been instrumental in recruiting students to work on projects. Once identified, these students have been motivated to conduct astronomy research projects with appropriate guidance. Some have worked on these projects during non-school hours and others through a research course. The goal has been for students to meet the objectives of inquiry-based learning, a major US National Science Standard. Case studies will be described using event-based learning with the NASA Deep Impact mission. Hawaii students became active participants investigating comet properties through the NASA Deep Impact mission. The Deep Impact Education and Public Outreach group developed materials which were used by our students. After learning how to use image processing software, these students obtained Comet 9P/ Tempel 1 images in real time from the remote observing Faulkes Telescope North located on Haleakala, Maui for their projects. Besides conducting event-based projects which are time critical, Oregon students have worked on galaxies and sunspots projects. For variable star research, they used images obtained from the remote observing offline mode of Lowell Telescope located in Flagstaff, Arizona. Essential to these projects has been consistent follow-up required for honing skills in observing, image processing, analysis, and communication of project results through Science Fair entries. Key to our success has been the network of professional and amateur astronomers and educators collaborating in a multiplicity of ways to mentor our students. This work-in-progress and process will be shared on how to inspire students to pursue careers in science and technology with

  4. Online Peer Observation: An Exploration of a Cross-Discipline Observation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, Margaret; Harper, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors compare two phases of an ongoing, annual online peer observation project at the Open University. Adopting a non-managerialist approach, the project aims to give teachers a renewed sense of collegiality, allowing them to take responsibility for aspects of their professional development and share practice points. While…

  5. Observations from The EV Project in Q4 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-02-01

    This is a summary report for The EV Project 4th quarter 2013 reports. It describes electric vehicle driver driving and charging behavior observed in Q4. It is the same report as the previously approved/published Q3 2013 report, only the numbers have been updated. It is for public release and does not have limited distribution.

  6. FRESIP project observations of cataclysmic variables: A unique opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    1994-01-01

    FRESIP Project observations of cataclysmic variables would provide unique data sets. In the study of known cataclysmic variables they would provide extended, well sampled temporal photometric information and in addition, they would provide a large area deep survey; obtaining a complete magnitude limited sample of the galaxy in the volume cone defined by the FRESIP field of view.

  7. The Lunar Phases Project: A Mental Model-Based Observational Project for Undergraduate Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…

  8. JPL Year 2000 Project. A Project Manager's Observations: Y2k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathison, Richard P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents observations from a project manager on the Y2K problem. The topics include: 1) Agenda: 2) Scope; 3) Project Organization; 4) The Fixes; 5) The Toughest Part; 6) Validation versus Time; and 7) Information Sources. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  9. SN 2014J and the Harvard Observing Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Melissa; Bieryla, Allyson; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Lewis, John A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Alexander, Kate Denham; Blanchard, Peter

    2014-06-01

    A chance discovery on January 21, 2014 by Steve Fossey et al. of University College London during an undergraduate telescope training session revealed the closest type Ia supernova in the past 42 years. The bright SN 2014J was observed by undergraduates and graduate students alike in the Harvard Observing Project (see poster by A. Bieryla) with the Clay Telescope at Harvard University. Observations were obtained in multiple filters starting January 24, 2014, prior to the supernova reaching its peak brightness, and monitoring will continue as the supernova fades in brightness. We will present multiple band light curve photometry and color RGB images of SN 2014J and its host galaxy M82.

  10. Calibration support for the Earth Observing System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Project (EOS) program guidelines establishes significantly more stringent requirements on calibrations of instruments. This requirement is driven by the need for long-term continuity of acquired data sets and the use of measurements in interdisciplinary investigations. Personnel from the Standards and Calibration Office have been supporting the Program and Project in interpreting these goals into specific requirements. Contributions to EOS have included participation in the Panel of Experts which produced a list of consensus items necessary for accomplishing an accurate calibration and suggested EOS Project Calibration Policy, and drafting the announcement of opportunity and bidders information package positions on instrument calibration and data product validation. Technical staffing was provided to the NASA delegates to the Committee on Earth Orbiting Satellites (club of space-faring nations) for the standing working group on Calibration and Data Validation.

  11. Observationally constrained projections of Antarctic ice sheet instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Ritz, Catherine; Durand, Gael; Payne, Anthony; Peyaud, Vincent; Hindmarsh, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Large parts of the Antarctic ice sheet lie on bedrock below sea level and may be vulnerable to a positive feedback known as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI), a self-sustaining retreat of the grounding line triggered by oceanic or atmospheric changes. There is growing evidence MISI may be underway throughout the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, induced by circulation of warm Circumpolar Deep Water. If this retreat is sustained the region could contribute up to 1-2 m to global mean sea level, and if triggered in other areas the potential contribution to sea level on centennial to millennial timescales could be two to three times greater. However, physically plausible projections of Antarctic MISI are challenging: numerical ice sheet models are too low in spatial resolution to resolve grounding line processes or else too computationally expensive to assess modelling uncertainties, and no dynamical models exist of the ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet system. Furthermore, previous numerical ice sheet model projections for Antarctica have not been calibrated with observations, which can reduce uncertainties. Here we estimate the probability of dynamic mass loss in the event of MISI under a medium climate scenario, assessing 16 modelling uncertainties and calibrating the projections with observed mass losses in the ASE from 1992-2011. We project losses of up to 30 cm sea level equivalent (SLE) by 2100 and 72 cm SLE by 2200 (95% credibility interval: CI). Our results are substantially lower than previous estimates. The ASE sustains substantial losses, 83% of the continental total by 2100 and 67% by 2200 (95% CI), but in other regions losses are limited by ice dynamical theory, observations, or a lack of projected triggers.

  12. The SETI Radio Observational Project - Strategy, instrumentation, and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes strategies, tradeoffs, instrumentation, and overall objectives for the SETI Radio Observation Project. Novel approaches have been formulated in order to achieve coverage of the desirable frequency and spatial regimes (about 80% of the sky and in the frequency range of 1.4-25 GHz). A mixed strategy has been developed which uses the survey capability of small antennas and the sensitivity of modern maser amplifiers to achieve sensitivities comparable to those reached by previous observers, but with as much as 10,000 times the scope of both the frequency and spatial coverage possible to those experimenters.

  13. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  14. The International Data Sharing Challenge: Realities and Lessons Learned from International Field Projects and Data Analysis Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. F.; Moore, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major challenges facing science in general is how foster trust and cooperation between nations that then allows the free and open exchange of data. The rich data coming from many nations conducting Arctic research must be allowed to be brought together to understand and assess the huge changes now underway in the Arctic regions. The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory has been supporting a variety of international field process studies and WCRP sponsored international projects that require international data collection and exchange in order to be successful. Some of the programs include the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the Arctic Climate Systems Study (ACSYS), the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), and the Coordinated Energy and water-cycle Observations Project (CEOP) to name a few. EOL played a major role in the data management of these projects, but the CEOP effort in particular involved coordinating common site documentation and data formatting across a global network (28 sites). All these unique projects occurred over 25 years but had similar challenges in the international collection, archival, and access to the rich datasets that are their legacy. The Belmont Forum offers as its main challenge to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid or adapt to environmental change. One of their major themes is related to the study of these changes in the Arctic. The development of capable e-infrastructure (technologies and groups supporting international collaborative environments networks and data centers) to allow access to large diverse data collections is key to meeting this challenge. The reality of meeting this challenge, however, is something much more difficult. The authors will provide several specific examples of successes and failures when trying to meet the needs of an international community of researchers specifically related to Belmont Forum Work Package Themes regarding standards of

  15. Observational constraints on interannual variability projections in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, Aleksandra; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto

    2014-05-01

    Impacts of climate change are sensitive not only to changes in the mean state but also to potential changes in the internal variability of the climate system at diurnal to interannual and multi-decadal time scales. Internal variability arises from nonlinear interactions and complex feedbacks between ocean, sea ice, atmosphere and land surface without any external forcing. However, an external forcing may change both magnitude, spatial patterns and the time scales of these variations. It is crucial to understand whether and on what temporal and spatial scales internal variability will undergo changes under anthropogenic radiative forcing and to identify the underlying mechanisms. To address these questions, we here use model simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 database (CMIP5) with historical (1850-2005) - RCP8.5 (2006-2100) concentration pathway. First, we show over which latitudes CMIP5 models simulate robust changes in variability. Second, we explore whether models with low present-day internal variability project changes that substantially differ from those models with high present-day internal variability. Such an inter-model relationship is found over the high-latitudes of both hemispheres. For the regions and seasons, for which a relationship across the multi-model ensemble exists, we use observations and reanalyses, to constrain the model projections. This model constraint is based on the assumption that models with a more realistic representation of present-day variability yield more reliable projections. Once a relationship is identified, physical understanding becomes crucial because it must have a strong physical grounding to justify the constraint. We explore mechanisms that explain the inter-model correlation between current variability and its future change especially at high latitudes. We use a "joint projection" approach, which is based on the fact that multiple climate variables are correlated over different scales in

  16. Evaluation of “all weather” microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherinot, J.; Prigent, C.; Maurer, R.; Papa, F.; JiméNez, C.; Aires, F.; Rossow, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface skin temperature Ts plays a key role in meteorological and climatological processes but the availability and the accuracy of Ts measurements over land are still limited, especially under cloudy conditions. Ts estimates from infrared satellite observations can only be derived under clear sky. Passive microwave measurements are much less affected by clouds and can provide Ts regardless of the cloud conditions. A neural network inversion including first guess information has been previously developed to retrieve Ts, along with atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements, with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°, at least twice daily. In this study, Ts estimates are evaluated through careful comparisons with in situ measurements in different environments over a full annual cycle. Under clear sky conditions, the quality of our microwave neural network retrieval is equivalent to the infrared International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project products, for most in situ stations, with errors ˜3 K as compared to in situ measurements. The performance of the microwave algorithm is similar under clear and cloudy conditions, confirming the potential of the microwaves under clouds. The Ts accuracy does not depend upon the surface emissivity, as the variability of this parameter is accounted for in the processing. Our microwave Ts have been calculated for more than 15 years (1993 to mid-2008). These "all weather" Ts are a very valuable complement to the IR-derived Ts, for use in atmospheric and surface models.

  17. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  18. Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

  19. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  20. Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeaver, Eric T.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Tremblay, L.-Bruno

    This volume addresses the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, placing recent sea ice decline in the context of past observations, climate model simulations and projections, and simple models of the climate sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the work presented here include • An appraisal of the role played by wind forcing in driving the decline; • A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice conditions prior to human observations, based on proxy data from sediments; • A modeling approach for assessing the impact of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as input to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act; • Contrasting studies on the existence of a "tipping point," beyond which Arctic sea ice decline will become (or has already become) irreversible, including an examination of the role of the small ice cap instability in global warming simulations; • A significant summertime atmospheric response to sea ice reduction in an atmospheric general circulation model, suggesting a positive feedback and the potential for short-term climate prediction. The book will be of interest to researchers attempting to understand the recent behavior of Arctic sea ice, model projections of future sea ice loss, and the consequences of sea ice loss for the natural and human systems of the Arctic.

  1. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  2. Carnegie Supernova Project: Spectroscopic Observations of Core Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Nidia I.

    2012-09-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) has performed, during the period 2004-2009, the optical and NIR follow up of 253 supernovae (SNe) of all types. Among those, 124 were core collapse events, comprising 93 SNe of type II and 31 of types Ib/Ic/IIb. Our follow up consisted of photometric observations suitable to build detailed light curves and a considerable amount of optical spectroscopy. The bulk of our observations is carried out at Las Campanas Observatory, while access to other facilities is also provided thanks to our strong collaboration with the Millennium Center for Supernova Studies (MCSS). Our spectroscopic observations were primarily aimed at typing possible new SNe, and follow-up the evolution of CSP targets. One of the goals of the follow-up of type II SNe is the application of independent distance indicators such as the Standard Candle (SCM) and the Expanding Photosphere (EPM) methods. Moreover, through the study of the spectroscopic evolution of these objects, from as early as possible after explosion to the nebular phases, we hope to contribute to their further understanding. Specific analysis of particular objects is underway by members of the CSP and an extended collaboration.

  3. QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Offner, Stella S.R.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2013-11-10

    The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ∼40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree

  4. Integrated multidisciplinary fault observation in Marmara Through MARSite - Project Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Ergintav, Semih; Geli, Louis Louis; Favali, Paolo; Guralp, Cansun; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Tan, Onur; Gürbüz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    flow at the IGDAS district regulators during an extreme event. This work is funded by the project MARsite - New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite FP7-ENV.2012 6.4-2, Grant 308417.

  5. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Projections of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Chris; Roberts, Nigel; Sessford, Pat

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations and do not capture the properties of sub-daily events that may lead to flooding in urban areas. In the UK and Europe, particularly during the summer, a large proportion of precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. The CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed to provide improvements in estimates of change in extreme rainfall, particularly for summer convective events. As usable predictions require the synthesis of observations, understanding of atmospheric processes and models, a change in focus from traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes for model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales is needed. By adopting this new focus CONVEX aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change on timescales from days to decades. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. Under the project the UK Meteorological Office has run new RCM simulations

  6. Observation of Thermoacoustic Phenomena in a School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present project work on physical measurements and an examination task with a Rijke tube. The aim of our project is to help students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics while at the same time developing their applied information technology skills and improving their cooperation skills. Our school project promotes pedagogy…

  7. All-weather estimates of the land surface skin temperatures from combined analyses of microwave and infrared satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, C.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Catherinot, J.; Rossow, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    The surface skin temperature (Ts) is a key parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. Global datasets of Ts are traditionally estimated from satellite infrared radiance observations, under clear sky conditions. First, the inter-comparison of different IR land surface temperature satellite datasets (ISCCP, MODIS, and AIRS) is presented, along with an evaluation with in situ measurements at selected stations archived during CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period). The objective is to assess the accuracy of the Ts estimates, and to evidence the major error sources in the retrieval. Results show that the major sources of differences between the different satellite products come from instrument calibration differences, especially for high Ts, followed by the impact of the water vapor treatment in the algorithm, and the differences in surface emissivities. The main limitation of satellite infrared measurements of Ts is their inability to penetrate clouds, limiting them to clear conditions. Microwave wavelengths, being much less affected by clouds than the infrared, are an attractive alternative in cloudy regions as they can be used to derive an all-sky skin Ts product. A neural network inversion scheme has been developed to retrieve surface Ts along with atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from a combined analysis of Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence of routine in situ Ts measurements, retrieved all-weather Ts values are first evaluated globally by comparison to the surface air temperature (Tair) measured by the meteorological station network. The Ts-Tair difference from the global comparisons showed all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. This evaluation has been recently extended locally at a few sites by using the Ts in-situ measurements from several CEOP stations representing different

  8. Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project: Observations and Source Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, K. V.; Flaccomio, E.; Broos, P. S.; Feigelson, E. D.; Grosso, N.; Tsujimoto, M.; COUP Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    We present the observations, data analysis methodology, and tabulated results from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP). COUP is based on a single nearly-continuous 850 ks pointing towards the Orion Nebula obtained in January 2003. Over 1600 young stars are detected. Data preparation includes correction for charge transfer inefficiency and subpixel event repositioning. Source detection is based on two wavelet-based search algorithms optimized for maximum reduction of background. For each source, we perform data extraction, pileup correction, spectral and variability analysis, and broad-band luminosity determinations using the sophisticated semi-automated IDL-based ACIS Extract (AE) package. Our treatment of photon pileup using annular extraction regions is effective for both lightly and heavily piledup sources. The AE data products efficiently provide detailed and comprehensive information for point sources in ACIS fields. COUP is supported by Chandra grant SAO GO3-4009A (Feigelson PI). ACIS Extract is available at http://www.astro.psu.edu/xray/docs/TARA/ae_users_guide.html.

  9. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, LI; Sedlacek, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  10. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  11. NASA-SETI microwave observing project: Targeted Search Element (TSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L. D.

    1991-01-01

    The Targeted Search Element (TSE) performs one of two complimentary search strategies of the NASA-SETI Microwave Observing Project (MOP): the targeted search. The principle objective of the targeted search strategy is to scan the microwave window between the frequencies of one and three gigahertz for narrowband microwave emissions eminating from the direction of 773 specifically targeted stars. The scanning process is accomplished at a minimum resolution of one or two Hertz at very high sensitivity. Detectable signals will be of a continuous wave or pulsed form and may also drift in frequency. The TSE will possess extensive radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation and verification capability as the majority of signals detected by the TSE will be of local origin. Any signal passing through RFI classification and classifiable as an extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) candidate will be further validated at non-MOP observatories using established protocol. The targeted search will be conducted using the capability provided by the TSE. The TSE provides six Targeted Search Systems (TSS) which independently or cooperatively perform automated collection, analysis, storage, and archive of signal data. Data is collected in 10 megahertz chunks and signal processing is performed at a rate of 160 megabits per second. Signal data is obtained utilizing the largest radio telescopes available for the Targeted Search such as those at Arecibo and Nancay or at the dedicated NASA-SETI facility. This latter facility will allow continuous collection of data. The TSE also provides for TSS utilization planning, logistics, remote operation, and for off-line data analysis and permanent archive of both the Targeted Search and Sky Survey data.

  12. Comparing climate projections to observations up to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Foster, Grant; Cazenave, Anny

    2012-12-01

    We analyse global temperature and sea-level data for the past few decades and compare them to projections published in the third and fourth assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The results show that global temperature continues to increase in good agreement with the best estimates of the IPCC, especially if we account for the effects of short-term variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, volcanic activity and solar variability. The rate of sea-level rise of the past few decades, on the other hand, is greater than projected by the IPCC models. This suggests that IPCC sea-level projections for the future may also be biased low.

  13. WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

  14. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  15. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  16. Microspacecraft and Earth observation: Electrical field (ELF) measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Tanya; Elkington, Scot; Parker, Scott; Smith, Grover; Shumway, Andrew; Christensen, Craig; Parsa, Mehrdad; Larsen, Layne; Martinez, Ranae; Powell, George

    1990-01-01

    The Utah State University space system design project for 1989 to 1990 focuses on the design of a global electrical field sensing system to be deployed in a constellation of microspacecraft. The design includes the selection of the sensor and the design of the spacecraft, the sensor support subsystems, the launch vehicle interface structure, on board data storage and communications subsystems, and associated ground receiving stations. Optimization of satellite orbits and spacecraft attitude are critical to the overall mapping of the electrical field and, thus, are also included in the project. The spacecraft design incorporates a deployable sensor array (5 m booms) into a spinning oblate platform. Data is taken every 0.1 seconds by the electrical field sensors and stored on-board. An omni-directional antenna communicates with a ground station twice per day to down link the stored data. Wrap-around solar cells cover the exterior of the spacecraft to generate power. Nine Pegasus launches may be used to deploy fifty such satellites to orbits with inclinations greater than 45 deg. Piggyback deployment from other launch vehicles such as the DELTA 2 is also examined.

  17. Microspacecraft and Earth observation: Electrical field (ELF) measurement project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Tanya; Elkington, Scot; Parker, Scott; Smith, Grover; Shumway, Andrew; Christensen, Craig; Parsa, Mehrdad; Larsen, Layne; Martinez, Ranae; Powell, George

    The Utah State University space system design project for 1989 to 1990 focuses on the design of a global electrical field sensing system to be deployed in a constellation of microspacecraft. The design includes the selection of the sensor and the design of the spacecraft, the sensor support subsystems, the launch vehicle interface structure, on board data storage and communications subsystems, and associated ground receiving stations. Optimization of satellite orbits and spacecraft attitude are critical to the overall mapping of the electrical field and, thus, are also included in the project. The spacecraft design incorporates a deployable sensor array (5 m booms) into a spinning oblate platform. Data is taken every 0.1 seconds by the electrical field sensors and stored on-board. An omni-directional antenna communicates with a ground station twice per day to down link the stored data. Wrap-around solar cells cover the exterior of the spacecraft to generate power. Nine Pegasus launches may be used to deploy fifty such satellites to orbits with inclinations greater than 45 deg. Piggyback deployment from other launch vehicles such as the DELTA 2 is also examined.

  18. Principle characteristics of the National Earth Observation Satellite. Project SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazenave, M.

    1977-01-01

    A recent meeting of the Economic and Social Committee examined the programs and means currently being implemented by France in the field in the field of space research and industry which could bring about fast results. This was prompted by man's desire to insure rational resource management of his planet and by man's awareness of the definite contribution that space observation can make to this field of research. Through discussion, the Economic and Social Committee has approved the plan for creating an earth observation satellite. A detailed discussion of the principle characteristics of this earth observation satellite include the objectives, the orbit, characteristics and operations of the platform, maintenance, attitude measurement, the power available and many other characteristics.

  19. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. VI. OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 6323

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, C. Y.; Suyu, S. H.; Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Reid, M. J.; Pesce, D. W.; Henkel, C.

    2015-02-10

    We present observations of the H{sub 2}O megamasers in the accretion disk of NGC 6323. By combining interferometric and spectral monitoring data, we estimate H{sub 0}=73{sub −22}{sup +26} km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}, where the low strength of the systemic masers (<15 mJy) limits the accuracy of this estimate. The methods developed here for dealing with weak maser emission provide guidance for observations of similar sources, until significant increases in radio telescope sensitivity, such as anticipated from the next generation Very Large Array, are realized.

  20. PROJECT CONDORS - CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION OBSERVED BY REMOTE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data report presents results from two diffusion experiments conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in 1982 and 1983. The objective was to compare diffusion in the atmospheric convective boundary layer with that observed in laboratory tank experiments and numer...

  1. Personality Projections. The Montessori Observer. Volume 32, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature article,…

  2. Microspacecraft and Earth observation: Electrical Field (ELF) measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for an inexpensive, extensive, long-lasting global electric field measurement system (ELF). The primary performance driver of this mission is the need to measure the attitude of each spacecraft in the Earth's electric field very accurately. In addition, it is necessary to know the electric charge generated by the satellite as it crosses the magnetic field lines (E equals V times B). In order to achieve the desired global coverage, a constellation of about 50 satellites in at least 18 different orbits will be used. To reduce the cost of each satellite, off-the-shelf, proven technology will be used whenever possible. Researchers have set a limit of $500,000 per satellite. Researchers expect the program cost, including the deployment of the entire constellation, to be less than $100 million. The minimum projected mission life is five years.

  3. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  4. NASA SETI microwave observing project: Sky Survey element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The SETI Sky Survey Observing Program is one of two complimentary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the sky survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range of 1.0 to 10.0 GHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin. Frequency resolutions of 30 Hz or narrower will be used across the entire band. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of ten million channels are required to keep the survey time approximately 6 years. Data rates in excess of 10 megabits per second will be generated in the data taking process. Sophisticated data processing techniques will be required to determine the ever changing receiver baselines, and to detect and archive potential SETI signals. Existing radio telescopes, including several of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34 meter antennas located at Goldstone, CA and Tidbinbilla, Australia will be used for the observations. The JPL has the primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey. In order to lay the foundation for the full scale SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system is being developed at the JPL. The system will be installed at the new 34-m high efficiency antenna at the Deep Space Station (DSS) 13 research and development station, Goldstone, CA, where it will be used to initiate the observational phase of the NASA SETI Sky Survey. It is anticipated that the early observations will be useful to test signal detection algorithms, scan strategies, and radio frequency interference rejection schemes. The SETI specific elements of the prototype system are: (1) the Wide Band Spectrum Analyzer (WBSA); a 2-million channel fast Fourier transformation (FFT) spectrum analyzer which covers an instantaneous bandpass of 40 MHz; (2) the signal detection processor; and (3) the SETI Sky Survey Manager, a network-based C-language environment that provides observatory control, performs data acquisition and analysis

  5. Expectation on Observation of Supernova Remnants with the LHAASO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Cao, Zhen; Chen, Songzhan; Chen, Yang; Cui, Shuwang; He, Huihai; Huang, Xingtao; Ma, Xinhua; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao; LHAASO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the most important acceleration sites for cosmic rays (CRs) below ∼1015 eV in the Galaxy. High-energy photons, either directly from the shocks of the SNRs or indirectly from the interaction between SNRs and the nearby clouds, are crucial probes for the CR acceleration. Big progresses on observations of SNRs have been achieved by space- and ground-based γ-ray facilities. However, whether γ-rays come from accelerated hadrons or not, as well as their connection with the CRs observed at Earth, remains in debate. Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), a next-generation experiment, is designed to survey the northern part of the very high energy γ-ray sky from ∼0.3 TeV to PeV with the sensitivity of ≲1% of the Crab Nebula flux. In this paper, we indicate that LHAASO will be dedicated to enlarging the γ-ray SNR samples and improving the spectral and morphological measurements. These measurements, especially at energies above 30 TeV, will be important for us to finally understand the CR acceleration in SNRs.

  6. Final Results From the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012, the physical and biogeochemical properties of ~60 lakes in northern Alaska have been investigated under CALON, a project to document landscape-scale variability of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten nodes along two latitudinal transects extending inland 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. A meteorological station is deployed at each node and six representative lakes instrumented and continuously monitored, with winter and summer visits for synoptic assessment of lake conditions. Over the 4-year period, winter and summer climatology varied to create a rich range of lake responses over a short period. For example, winter 2012-13 was very cold with a thin snowpack producing thick ice across the region. Subsequent years had relatively warm winters, yet regionally variable snow resulted in differing gradients of ice thickness. Ice-out timing was unusually late in 2014 and unusually early in 2015. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods in summer. Lake water temperature records and morphometric data were used to estimate the ground thermal condition beneath 28 lakes. Application of a thermal equilibrium steady-state model suggests a talik penetrating the permafrost under many larger lakes, but lake geochemical data do not indicate a significant contribution of subpermafrost groundwater. Biogeochemical data reveal distinct spatial and seasonal variability in chlorophyll biomass, chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), and major cations/anions. Generally, waters sampled beneath ice in April had distinctly higher concentrations of inorganic solutes and methane compared with August. Chlorophyll concentrations and CDOM absorption were higher in April, suggesting significant biological/biogeochemical activity under lake ice. Lakes are a positive source of methane in summer, and some also emit nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. As part of the

  7. Status of the NASA SETI Sky Survey microwave observing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Wilck, H. C.; Olsen, E. T.; Garyantes, M. F.; Burns, D. J.; Asmar, P. R.; Brady, R. B.; Deich, W. T. S.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sky Survey observing program is one of two complementary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the Sky Survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range 1000-10,000 MHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial, intelligent origin. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of 10 million channels and data rates in excess of 10 gigabits per second are required to complete the survey in less than 7 years. To lay the foundation for the operational SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system has been built to test and refine real time signal detection algorithms, to test scan strategies and observatory control functions, and to test algorithms designed to reject radio frequency interference. This paper presents a high level description of the prototype hardware and reports on the preparations to deploy the system to the 34-m antenna at the research and development station of NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California.

  8. Status of the NASA SETI Sky Survey microwave observing project.

    PubMed

    Klein, M J; Gulkis, S; Wilck, H C; Olsen, E T; Garyantes, M F; Burns, D J; Asmar, P R; Brady, R B; Deich, W T; Renzetti, N A

    1992-01-01

    The Sky Survey observing program is one of two complementary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the Sky Survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range 1000-10,000 MHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial, intelligent origin. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of 10 million channels and data rates in excess of 10 gigabits per second are required to complete the survey in less than 7 years. To lay the foundation for the operational SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system has been built to test and refine real time signal detection algorithms, to test scan strategies and observatory control functions, and to test algorithms designed to reject radio frequency interference. This paper presents a high level description of the prototype hardware and software and reports on the preparations to deploy the system to the 34-m antenna at the research and development station of NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California. PMID:11537160

  9. Initial Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Lenters, J. D.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Liu, H.; Kim, C.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2011-12-01

    About half of the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is covered with thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, making lakes a dominant landscape element and a crucial component of the Arctic permafrost system. However, to date there has been no systematic collection of key lake parameters or baseline data with which to make spatial and temporal comparisons to assess the impact of warmer temperatures, changing cloud cover and precipitation patterns, permafrost degradation, and direct human impacts on lakes. As separate groups, we have been working on lakes in arctic Alaska for the past decade and are currently monitoring some lakes. This effort has recently been organized into the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) with funding from NSF's Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The objective of CALON is to expand and integrate our existing lake monitoring network across arctic Alaska to provide data for key indices using in situ measurements, field surveys, interviews with members of the indigenous community, and remote sensing/GIS technologies. In 2012, we will enhance the existing in situ network by developing lake monitoring sites to collect year-round baseline data and assess physical, chemical, and biological lake characteristics across environmental gradients. This will be accomplished by implementing a multiscale (hierarchical) lake instrumentation scheme such that basic data are collected from 51 lakes, while a subset of 16 lakes is more intensively instrumented. Regional scaling and extrapolation of key metrics is accomplished through validation of satellite imagery with ground measurements, and standardized protocols will be developed to enable inter-site comparison and to prepare for expansion towards a pan-Arctic network. Initial results are available from lake water profile temperature measurements made in summer 2010 along a 130-km transect extending from Barrow southward toward the interior. Ice-out occurs about 2-4 weeks later

  10. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  11. The Due Innovators II Apollo Project: Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution with Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; Del Frate, F.; Di Noia, A.; Sambucini, V.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we present the Innovators II - APOLLO (monitoring Atmospheric POLLution with earth Observation) project which has been carried out in the framework of the ESA Data User Element programme (http://www.esa.int/due). The projects aims at the development of an innovative service for the monitoring of the air quality from ground based measurements and by means of satellite data e.g. provided by the OMI mission. The core of the APOLLO project is the OMI-TOC NN (neural networks) algorithm.

  12. Citizen Science participation in the NASA CERES Students' Cloud Observations Online Project (S'COOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    Many science programs designed for the classroom see little participation when school is not in session. Many factors, such as materials, cost, needing a teacher to lead discussion, and reporting/assessment criteria are classroom-centric. The S'COOL project has the ability to serve not only as a classroom-teaching tool, but as a citizen science project in which anyone can help NASA collect cloud data. Since its inception in 1997, the S'COOL project has invited help from the citizen science community from age 6 to 99. The S'COOL project has the ability to reach everyone in the world through satellite overpasses. This provides the citizen scientist with a temporal "match", i.e., the opportunity to make cloud observations "looking up" as various NASA Earth observing satellites make cloud observations "looking down" at the same location. After an observation is made, the observing scientist completes an online report form and sends this directly to NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center. After the satellite data are processed, generally within a week, an auto-generated email informs the observer of what the satellite observed, compared side-by-side with what they observed. All of the observations are stored in a database for later viewing and analysis. The ability to view satellite matches and past observations allows the citizen scientist to develop good scientific practices, particularly skills in cloud observation and data analysis techniques. Much of the success of the S'COOL project can be associated with its aim as a classroom-based program that transcends to the citizen science community. This allows both parties to have access to the same materials and data, creating an authentic science experience. Another avenue of success can be found in the project's translation of materials into French and Spanish. Translation provides a multicultural perspective and enables broader participation. Since the aim of the S'COOL project is to collect

  13. Project 5322 Mid-Term Report: Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Retrieval And Land Data Assimilation System Development In A Typical Inland River Basin Of Chinas Arid Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, R.; Colin, J.; Menenti, M.; Lindenbergh, R.; Van Den Bergh, L.; Yu, H.; Jia, L.; Xin, L.

    2010-10-01

    Improving the understanding and the monitoring of high elevation regions hydrology is of major relevance from both societal and environmental points of view for many Asian countries, in particular in terms of flood and drought, but also in terms of food security in a chang- ing environment. Satellite and airborne remote sensing technologies are of utmost for such a challenge. Exist- ing imaging spectro-radiometers, radars, microwave ra- diometers and backscatter LIDAR provide a very com- prehensive suite of measurements over a wide rage of wavelengths, time frequencies and spatial resolu- tions. It is however needed to devise new algorithms to convert these radiometric measurements into useful eco-hydrological quantitative parameters for hydrologi- cal modeling and water management. The DRAGON II project entitled Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Re- trieval and Land Data Assimilation System Development in a Typical Inland River Basin of Chinas Arid Region (ID 5322) aims at improving the monitoring, understand- ing, and predictability of hydrological and ecological pro- cesses at catchment scale, and promote the applicability of quantitative remote sensing in watershed science. Ex- isting Earth Observation platforms provided by the Euro- pean Space Agency as well as prototype airborne systems developed in China - ENVISAT/AATSR, ALOS/PRISM and PALSAR, Airborne LIDAR - are used and combined to retrieve advanced land surface physical properties over high elevation arid regions of China. The existing syn- ergies between this project, the CEOP-AEGIS project (FP7) and the WATER project (CAS) provide incentives for innovative studies. The investigations presented in the following report focus on the development of advanced and innovative methodologies and algorithms to monitor both the state and the trend of key eco-hydrological vari- ables: 3D vegetation properties, land surface evaporation, glacier mass balance and drought indicators.

  14. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Koenigk, Torben; Semenov, Vladimir; Suo, Lingling; Yang, Shuting; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  15. The Climate and Cryosphere Project (CliC): Helping bring sea ice Models and Observations together.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, V.; Goodison, B.; Worby, A.; Ryabinin, V.; Prick, A.; Villinger, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Climate and Cryosphere Project is sponsored by the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR). One of the four themes within the CliC project is the Marine Cryosphere Theme (MarC). This paper will review the recent projects and workshops held within this Theme and how they relate to other, international initiatives. Recent recommendations on sea ice thickness are being implemented, and groups have been formed to work towards improvements in models, particularly in their representation of the Southern Ocean. SOPHOCLES (Southern Ocean Physical Oceanography and Cryosphere Processes and Climate) will work with other modeling groups to improve the representation of the Southern Ocean in climate models. This will include cooperation with other modeling and observational groups to develop metrics to help evaluate models. In the Arctic, we are working to help develop, standardize, and implement observation and measurement protocols for Arctic sea ice in coastal, seasonal, and perennial ice zones.

  16. Requirements for Expanding the Role of Science and Technology through the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to meet the Information Needs of Water Managers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Earth Observations provide broad support for the management of renewable resources including water. In the past and even today, water managers do not have access to the best scientific understanding and information to support their decision making. Through the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), initiatives are underway to bring together science and information systems in three broad areas related to water management namely: 1) integrated data sets using both emerging and operational remote sensing technologies, 2) integrated information systems that rely on water cycle science to focus on floods and droughts, and 3) capacity building through technology transfer and training. Specific areas of progress that rely on science and new technological developments include new observational capabilities for ground water (e.g. GRACE), soil moisture (e.g. SMOS) and precipitation (e.g., Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)). The development of information systems builds upon the Hydrologic Ensembles Prediction Experiment (HEPEX), drought studies, and aspects of the former Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observations Project (CEOP) that was developed through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). In addition to outlining the contributions of science to the GEO water tasks this talk will seek to draw some more fundamental lessons about the interface of science with GEO in the water sector. Although progress is being made, this progress is sometimes sub-optimal for reasons unrelated to science. The talk will conclude with a short discussion of some emerging priority areas being considered for the 2012-2015 GEO Work Plan where more scientific inputs are required. It also will provide suggestions for interested experts on how they could become more actively involved in GEO water-related activities.

  17. Observing Classroom Processes in Project-Based Learning Using Multimedia: A Tool for Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Means, Barbara

    This paper describes how researchers at SRI International's Center for Technology and Learning designed and used an observation tool as part of its evaluation of a local Technology Innovation Challenge Grant program called Challenge 2000: Multimedia Project. The paper aims to present both the process and the tool that researchers, program…

  18. Special Education Management System Project Document. 2. Santa Cruz BCP Observation Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented in booklet and chart form is the Behavioral Characteristics Progression (BCP), part of the Santa Cruz Special Education Management Project, consisting of 2400 observable traits grouped into 50 behavioral strands. The BCP is seen to be a nonstandardized criterion referenced tool which replaces conventional age and disability labels with…

  19. Interobserver Agreement for the Observation Procedures for the DMP and WDRSD Observers. Descriptive Study. Phase IV. Project Paper 79-25. Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.

    This project paper reports the interobserver agreements and reliabilities for the observation procedures used in the Descriptive Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education Evaluation Project. Only data from four observers--at the two Developing Mathematical Processes Schools and the two Wisconsin Design for Reading Skills Development…

  20. Observation of magnetic field-induced contraction of fission yeast cells using optical projection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Beckwith, Andrew; Miller, John; Wood, Lowell

    2004-12-01

    The charges in live cells interact with or produce electric fields, which results in enormous dielectric responses, flexoelectricity, and related phenomena. Here we report on a contraction of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cells induced by magnetic fields, as observed using a phase-sensitive projection imaging technique. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields only act on moving charges. The observed behavior is therefore quite remarkable, and may result from a contractile Lorentz force acting on diamagnetic screening currents. This would indicate extremely high intracellular charge mobilities. Besides, we observed a large electro-optic response from fission yeast cells.

  1. Observation of magnetic field-induced contraction of fission yeast cells using optical projection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Beckwith, A. W.

    2005-03-01

    The charges in live cells interact with or produce electric fields, which results in enormous dielectric responses, flexoelectricity, and related phenomena. Here we report on a contraction of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cells induced by magnetic fields, as observed using a phase-sensitive projection imaging technique. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields only act on moving charges. The observed behavior is therefore quite remarkable, and may result from a contractile Lorentz force acting on diamagnetic screening currents. This would indicate extremely high intracellular charge mobilities. Besides, we observed a large electro-optic response from fission yeast cells.

  2. Projected metastable Markov processes and their estimation with observable operator models

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao Prinz, Jan-Hendrik Noé, Frank

    2015-10-14

    The determination of kinetics of high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as macromolecules, polymers, or spin systems, is a difficult and generally unsolved problem — both in simulation, where the optimal reaction coordinate(s) are generally unknown and are difficult to compute, and in experimental measurements, where only specific coordinates are observable. Markov models, or Markov state models, are widely used but suffer from the fact that the dynamics on a coarsely discretized state spaced are no longer Markovian, even if the dynamics in the full phase space are. The recently proposed projected Markov models (PMMs) are a formulation that provides a description of the kinetics on a low-dimensional projection without making the Markovianity assumption. However, as yet no general way of estimating PMMs from data has been available. Here, we show that the observed dynamics of a PMM can be exactly described by an observable operator model (OOM) and derive a PMM estimator based on the OOM learning.

  3. Projected metastable Markov processes and their estimation with observable operator models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik; Noé, Frank

    2015-10-01

    The determination of kinetics of high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as macromolecules, polymers, or spin systems, is a difficult and generally unsolved problem — both in simulation, where the optimal reaction coordinate(s) are generally unknown and are difficult to compute, and in experimental measurements, where only specific coordinates are observable. Markov models, or Markov state models, are widely used but suffer from the fact that the dynamics on a coarsely discretized state spaced are no longer Markovian, even if the dynamics in the full phase space are. The recently proposed projected Markov models (PMMs) are a formulation that provides a description of the kinetics on a low-dimensional projection without making the Markovianity assumption. However, as yet no general way of estimating PMMs from data has been available. Here, we show that the observed dynamics of a PMM can be exactly described by an observable operator model (OOM) and derive a PMM estimator based on the OOM learning.

  4. Improving Future Ecosystem Benefits through Earth Observations: the H2020 Project ECOPOTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Ziv, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential goods and services to human societies. In the last decades, however, anthropogenic pressures caused serious threats to ecosystem integrity, functions and processes, potentially leading to the loss of essential ecosystem services. ECOPOTENTIAL is a large European-funded H2020 project which focuses its activities on a targeted set of internationally recognised protected areas in Europe, European Territories and beyond, blending Earth Observations from remote sensing and field measurements, data analysis and modelling of current and future ecosystem conditions and services. The definition of future scenarios is based on climate and land-use change projections, addressing the issue of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation across the modelling chain. The ECOPOTENTIAL project addresses cross-scale geosphere-biosphere interactions and landscape-ecosystem dynamics at regional to continental scales, using geostatistical methods and the emerging approaches in Macrosystem Ecology and Earth Critical Zone studies, addressing long-term and large-scale environmental and ecological challenges. The project started its activities in 2015, by defining a set of storylines which allow to tackle some of the most crucial issues in the assessment of present conditions and the estimate of the future state of selected ecosystem services. In this contribution, we focus on some of the main storylines of the project and discuss the general approach, focusing on the interplay of data and models and on the estimate of projection uncertainties.

  5. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    PubMed

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. PMID:26732346

  6. Observed and Projected Ocean Wind Speed Trends and Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.

    2013-12-01

    Marine boundary layer clouds respond to wind speed, inter alia, via the wind speed dependence of surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and sea spray aerosol. Wind speed trends have the potential to change the properties and radiative forcing of marine boundary layer clouds in the 21st century. Satellite observations show a trend in mean ocean surface wind speed over the period 1991-2008, with increases by at least 5-10 %, depending on region. This observed trend in ocean surface wind speed is not necessarily related to anthropogenic climate forcing, but could arise from decadal internal variability of the climate system. Climate simulations project a decrease in surface wind speed in the north Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and an increase in the Southern Ocean over the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate forcing. This presentation addresses the response of cloud properties and cloud radiative forcing in the large, climatically relevant stratocumulus decks along the western shores of continents to the observed and projected trends in ocean wind speed. Results of cloud-system-resolving simulations of marine stratocumulus clouds are presented, in which the response of cloud properties and of cloud radiative forcing to the observed and projected changes in surface wind speed is quantified.

  7. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  8. Sludge Settling Rate Observations and Projections at the Savannah River Site - 13238

    SciTech Connect

    Gillam, Jeffrey M.; Shah, Hasmukh B.; Keefer, Mark T.

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, sludge batches have included a high percentage of stored sludge generated from the H- modified (HM) process. The slow-settling nature of HM sludge means that the settling is often the major part of the washing tank quiescent period between required pump runs to maintain flammability control. Reasonable settling projections are needed to wash soluble salts from sludge in an efficient manner, to determine how much sludge can be washed in a batch within flammability limits, and to provide composition projections for batch qualification work done in parallel with field preparation. Challenges to providing reasonably accurate settling projections include (1) large variations in settling behavior from tank-to-tank, (2) accounting for changing initial concentrations, sludge masses, and combinations of different sludge types, (3) changing the settling behavior upon dissolving some sludge compounds, and (4) sludge preparation schedules that do not allow for much data collection for a particular sludge before washing begins. Scaling from laboratory settling tests has provided inconsistent results. Several techniques have been employed to improve settling projections and therefore the overall batch preparation efficiency. Before any observations can be made on a particular sludge mixture, projections can only be made based on historical experience with similar sludge types. However, scaling techniques can be applied to historical settling models to account for different sludge masses, concentrations, and even combinations of types of sludge. After sludge washing/settling cycles begin, the direct measurement of the sludge height, once generally limited to a single turbidity meter measurement per settle period, is now augmented by examining the temperature profile in the settling tank, to help determine the settled sludge height over time. Recently, a settling model examined at PNNL [1,2,3] has been applied to observed thermocouple and turbidity meter readings to

  9. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  10. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is one of the first documents for developing an approach for achieving ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies Shiprock site information to a regulatory compliance framework, which identifies strategies for meeting ground water compliance at the site. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA ground water programmatic environmental impact statement.

  11. Using Roving Cloud Observations from the S'COOL Project to Engage Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. M.; Oostra, D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.; Crecelius, S. A.; Chambers, L. H.

    2011-12-01

    Students' Clouds Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a hands-on project, which supports NASA research on the Earth's climate. Through their observations, participants are engaged in identifying cloud-types and levels and sending that information to NASA. The two main groups of S'COOL observers are permanent locations such as regularly participating classrooms, and non-permanent locations or Rovers. These non-permanent locations can be a field trip, vacation, or just an occasional observation from a backyard. S'COOL welcomes participation from any interested observers, especially from places where official weather observations are few and far between. This program is offered to citizen scientists all over the world. They are participating in climate research by reporting cloud types and levels within +/- 15 minutes of a satellite overpass and sending that information back to NASA. When a participant's cloud observation coincides with a satellite overpass, the project sends them an email with a MODIS image of the overpass location, and a comparison of the satellite's cloud data results next to their ground-based report. This allows for the students and citizen scientists to participate in ground-truthing the CERES satellite data, to determine the level of agreement/disagreement. A new tool slated for future use in cloud identification, developed by the S'COOL team, is a mobile application. The application is entitled "Cloud Identification for Students" or "CITRUS". The mobile application utilizes a cloud dichotomous key with images to help with cloud identification. Also included in the application is a link to the project's cloud-reporting page to help with data submission in the field. One of the project's recent and most unique roving observers is a solo ocean rower who has traversed many of the world's ocean basins alone in a rowboat. While rowing across the oceans, she has recently been making cloud observations, which she sends back to us for analysis. In doing so

  12. Project Phoenix: A Summary of SETI Observations and Results, 1995 - 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2004-05-01

    Project Phoenix was a Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) that observed nearly 800 stars within about 80 parsecs over the available frequencies in the microwave spectrum from 1200 to 3000 MHz with a resolution of 0.7 Hz. The search had three major observing campaigns using the Parkes 64 meter, the NRAO 140 Foot, and the Arecibo 305 meter antennas. Phoenix used real time signal detection and immediate verification of possible ETI signals. The search looked for narrowband signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, and allowed for frequency drift rates of up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week was used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, were checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation using a second, distant antenna, or by simple on-off observations if the second antenna was unavailable. While millions of signals were detected, all proved to be from terrestrial technology. In conclusion, we can set upper limits on the power of narrowband transmitters in the vicinity of nearby stars. Project Phoenix was the privately-funded continuation of the NASA Targeted Search SETI program and we gratefully acknowledge the use of NASA equipment on long term loan through 2002. The search was supported by contributions from Bernard M. Oliver, William and Rosemary Hewlett, Gordon and Betty Moore, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation.

  13. Astropol: Russian pilot project on coordinated observations of hazardous celestial objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahimov, Mansur

    Cooperative graund-based ASTROPOL (ASTeRoid and cOmet POLice) project had been started in June 2012. ASTROPOL was initiated and currently advised by the Institute of Astronomy RAS (INASAN). It is believed to be a long-term dedicated Russian pilot project on coordinated observations of hazardous celestial objects - potentially hazardous asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Basic facility of ASTROPOL is its (permanently enlarged) observational network which presently incorporates 12 academical and university observatories. Network includes all the largest Russian optical telescopes (SAO RAS 6m, INASAN TB 2m, ISTP SSO 1.6m) and a number of 1-1.5m telescopes located around Russia (Uzbek UBAI MAO 1.5m, Russian-Turkish 1.5m RTT150 in Antalya, Turkey, Latvian IAUL BAO 1.2m Schmidt, and Ukrainian CrAO Simeiz 1m). All mentioned telescopes together with a number of 0.4-0.6m ones have been using to get low-resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and astrometry of hazardous objects. By the end of 2013 two successful coordinated sessions had been undertaken by ASTROPOL cooperation: observations of Apophis in Jan13-Feb28 and 2010 CF19 in Aug16-Sep02 2013. Observation and reduction methods and results obtained during the both coordinated sessions as well as some current problem and prospects of the ASTROPOL cooperation are analysed and discussed in the talk.

  14. Sea Level Change for Norway: Past and Present Observations and Projections to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even; Ravndal, Oda; Breili, Kristian; Sande, Hilde; Kierulf, Halfdan; Steffen, Holger; Jansen, Eystein; Carson, Mark; Vestol, Olav

    2016-04-01

    Changes to mean sea level and/or sea level extremes (e.g., storm surges) will lead to changes in coastal impacts. These changes represent a changing exposure or risk to our society. Here we try to synthesize our understanding of past and present observed sea level changes for Norway, as well as providing sea level projections up until 2100. Our primary focus is changes to mean sea level but we also give updated return heights for each coastal municipality in Norway. We first analyse observed sea level changes from the Norwegian tide gauge network and from satellite altimetry. After the tide gauge data have been corrected for the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, we show that 20th century sea level rise in Norwegian waters is broadly similar to the global average rise. Contributions to the observed sea level change and variability are discussed. We find that rate of sea level rise along the Norwegian coast is significantly higher for the period 1993-2014 than for the period 1960-2010. It is unclear, however, to what extent this higher rate represents natural variability rather than a sustained increase owing to global warming. Our regional sea level projections are based on findings from the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) output. Average projected 21st century relative sea level change in Norway is -0.10-0.35 m (5 to 95% model ranges which is the likely range in AR5; P>66%) for RCP2.6, -0.05-0.45 m for RCP4.5, and 0.10-0.65 m for RCP8.5. The relative sea level projections can differ as much as 0.50 m from place to place. This pattern is governed by the vertical uplift rates. Quantifying the probability of levels above the likely range (i.e., the upper tail of the probability distribution) remains difficult because information is lacking. And of particular concern is that the ice sheet contribution might have a skewed distribution, which would

  15. Absolute gravity measurements in Southeast Alaska and continuous gravity observation in Juneau by ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazama, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Okubo, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Kaufman, M.; Herreid, S. J.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that Southeast Alaska (SE-AK) shows a large uplift rates exceeding 32 mm/year at the maximum mainly due to the three ice changes in ages, i.e. in the Large Glacier Maximum, the Little Ice Age and the present day. Comparisons between rates of change obtained from GPS and absolute gravimeter (AG) observations and the rates predicted by model computations based on independently estimated ice mass changes indicate the existence of a very thin lithosphere (on the order of 60 km) and a low viscousity upper mantle (on the order of 1.E18 Pa s) beneath SE-AK (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al, 2011; Sato et al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also known that there are very large oceanic tidal loading effects in SE-AK, i.e. exceeding 2.7 cm and 8 microGals for the M2 constituent of the vertical displacement and gravity, respectively (Sato et al., 2008; Inazu et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012). These regional large loading and unloading effects provide good signals to study the viscoelastic structure beneath SE-AK. A joint observation project (ISEA2) between Japan and USA groups has restarted as a five years project beginning in 2012. In June 2012, we conducted the AG measurements at the 6 sites in SE-AK at where the AG measurements were conducted by the previous ISEA1 project (Sun et al., 2010). Continuous gravity observation started also on June 2012 with a portable super conducting gravimeter (iGrav) at the EGAN library of UAS. We will introduce the results for these observations and comparisons with the previous observations and model computations. It is noted that the precipitation during the period from the winter in 2011 to the spring in 2012 was very large compared with the usual amount. We evaluate this effect on our gravity observations with a hydrological model computation (Kazama and Okubo, 2009) using the observed precipitation data as an input data. The observation with the iGrav super conducting gravimeter shall give us a useful data

  16. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures. PMID:25058894

  17. Operational tools for irrigation water management based on Earth observation: the DEMETER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calera, Alfonso; Jochum, M. Anna Osann

    2006-09-01

    The project DEMETER (DEMonstration of Earth observation TEchnologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) was designed to assess and demonstrate improvements introduced by Earth observation (EO) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in farm and Irrigation Advisory Service (IAS) day-to-day operations. The DEMETER concept of near-real-time delivery of EO-based irrigation scheduling information to IAS and farmers has proven to be valid. The operationality of the space segment was demonstrated in three different pilot zones in South Europe during the 2005 irrigation campaigns. Extra-fast image delivery and quality controlled operational processing make the EO-based crop coefficient maps available at the same speed and quality as ground-based data (point samples), while significantly extending the spatial coverage and reducing service cost. The new online Space-Assisted Irrigation Advisory Service (e-SAIAS) is the central outcome of the project. Its key feature is the operational generation of irrigation scheduling information products from a virtual constellation of high-resolution EO satellites and their delivery to farmers in near-real-time using leading-edge on-line analysis and visualization tools. First feedback of users at IAS and farmer level is encouraging. The paper gives an overview of the project and its main achievements.

  18. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards.

  19. FAME project: use of ESA earth observation data for flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, P.; Timbe, L.; Thompson, S.; Campling, P.; Barbieri, M.

    2003-04-01

    The FAME project on "Flood risk and damage Assessment using Modelling and Earth observation techniques" aims to meet the flood and spatial information needs of the water authorities and the insurance industry. The project is supported by the DUP-2 Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). In the first phase of the project, the improvements in flood modelling performance by the use of earth observation products have been demonstrated. Also the use of the earth observation data for flood mapping (historical events) and flood risk mapping (at given risk levels) has been studied. On the basis of three case-studies (incl. rivers Dender and Demer in Belgium) and existing hydrodynamic flood models, the use of different types of earth observation data has been demonstrated. Landsat ETM+ images have been used to update the land use map and the infrastructural map using supervised classification techniques. Both maps provide the hydrological and hydraulic modeller with more detailed data, and allow further refinement of the flood model. The land use map is also useful for flood damage and flood risk calculations. For a limited stretch along the Dender river, additional IKONOS images were processed and compared with the Landsat data. For validation of the flood models, historical flood information is needed. Apart from historical flood maps collected by the water authorities, use can be made of satellite images: ERS SAR, RADARSAT and ENVISAT images. For the Dender catchment, SAR image acquisitions were made for 2 historical floods. For the spatial extent of the flooding and the temporal evolution, a comparison was made between the flood model results (using the MIKE11 hydraulic river sofware), the SAR derived flood maps and the map of recent floods from the Flemish water authorities.

  20. TAOS Project: Searching for Variable Stars in the Selected TAOS Fields and Optical Followup Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, Chow Choong; Chang, D.; Pan, K.; Chung, T.; Koptelova, E.; TAOS Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    The Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project is aimed to find Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) and measure their size distribution using the occultation technique. The TAOS project employed four 20-inch wide-field (F/1.9, 3 degree-squared FOV) telescopes, equipped with a 2K x 2K CCD, to simultaneously monitor the same patch of the sky. All four TAOS telescopes, which can be operated automatically, were located at the Lulin Observatory in central Taiwan. The TAOS project has been continuously taking data since 2005. In addition of finding KBO, the dense sampling strategy employed in TAOS can also be used to find variable stars. We report the search of variable stars from selected TAOS fields at this Meeting. For example, we found about 50 candidate variables (out of 2600 stars) in TAOS 60 Field (RA: 04h48m00s, DEC: +20d46m20s, with limiting magnitudes about15 mag. at S/N=10), including three previously known variables, using sigma deviation and Stetson's J-index methods. The available data in this field spanned about 150 days in time. However, TAOS observations were conducted using a customized filter. We therefore initiated a followup program to observe and construct the light curves of these candidate variables in the BVRI bands, using the Lulin's One-Meter telescope, Lulin's SLT telescope (16-inch aperture) and 32-inch telescope from the Tenagra II Observatory. The multi-band optical followup observation will help in improving the classification of these candidates, estimate their BVRI mean magnitudes, colors as well as extinction. This will enable a wide range of research in astrophysics for these variables. We also present our preliminary results based on the first season of the followup observations. CCN acknowledges the support from NSC 98-2112-M-008-013-MY3.

  1. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy.

  2. Elusive drought: uncertainty in observed trends and short- and long-term CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2013-05-01

    Recent years have seen a number of severe droughts in different regions around the world, causing agricultural and economic losses, famines and migration. Despite their devastating consequences, the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) of these events lies within the general range of observation-based SPI time series and simulations from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In terms of magnitude, regional trends of SPI over the last decades remain mostly inconclusive in observation-based datasets and CMIP5 simulations, but Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMAs) in CMIP5 simulations hint at increased drought in a few regions (e.g., the Mediterranean, Central America/Mexico, the Amazon, North-East Brazil and South Africa). Also for the future, projections of changes in the magnitude of meteorological (SPI) and soil moisture (SMA) drought in CMIP5 display large spreads over all time frames, generally impeding trend detection. However, projections of changes in the frequencies of future drought events display more robust signal-to-noise ratios, with detectable trends towards more frequent drought before the end of the 21st century in the Mediterranean, South Africa and Central America/Mexico. Other present-day hot spots are projected to become less drought-prone, or display non-significant changes in drought occurrence. A separation of different sources of uncertainty in projections of meteorological and soil moisture drought reveals that for the near term, internal climate variability is the dominant source, while the formulation of Global Climate Models (GCMs) generally becomes the dominant source of spread by the end of the 21st century, especially for soil moisture drought. In comparison, the uncertainty from Green-House Gas (GHG) concentrations scenarios is negligible for most regions. These findings stand in contrast to respective analyses for a heat wave index, for which GHG concentrations scenarios constitute the main source of

  3. Observing the Arctic Ocean under melting ice - the UNDER-ICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagen, Hanne; Ullgren, Jenny; Geyer, Florian; Bergh, Jon; Hamre, Torill; Sandven, Stein; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Falck, Eva; Gammelsrød, Tor; Worcester, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean is gradually diminishing in area and thickness. The variability of the ice cover is determined by heat exchange with both the atmosphere and the ocean. A cold water layer with a strong salinity gradient insulates the sea ice from below, preventing direct contact with the underlying warm Atlantic water. Changes in water column stratification might therefore lead to faster erosion of the ice. As the ice recedes, larger areas of surface water are open to wind mixing; the effect this might have on the water column structure is not yet clear. The heat content in the Arctic strongly depends on heat transport from other oceans. The Fram Strait is a crucial pathway for the exchange between the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean. Two processes of importance for the Arctic heat and freshwater budget and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation take place here: poleward heat transport by the West Spitzbergen Current and freshwater export by the East Greenland Current. A new project, Arctic Ocean under Melting Ice (UNDER-ICE), aims to improve our understanding of the ocean circulation, water mass distribution, fluxes, and mixing processes, sea ice processes, and net community primary production in ice-covered areas and the marginal ice zone in the Fram Strait and northward towards the Gakkel Ridge. The interdisciplinary project brings together ocean acoustics, physical oceanography, marine biology, and sea ice research. A new programme of observations, integrated with satellite data and state-of-the-art numerical models, will be started in order to improve the estimates of heat, mass, and freshwater transport between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. On this poster we present the UNDER-ICE project, funded by the Research Council of Norway and GDF Suez E&P Norge AS for the years 2014-2017, and place it in context of the legacy of earlier projects in the area, such as ACOBAR. A mooring array for acoustic tomography combined with

  4. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY NOVA PROJECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE CLASSICAL NOVA V1723 AQUILAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J. E-mail: lchomiuk@nrao.edu E-mail: nroy@nrao.edu

    2011-09-20

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova V1723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of V1723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of V1723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  5. Expanded Very Large Array Nova Project Observations of the Classical NovaV1723 Aquilae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Bode, M. F.; Eyres, S. P. S.; OBrien, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova VI723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of VI723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of VI723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  6. Expanded Very Large Array Nova Project Observations of the Classical Nova V1723 Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Bode, M. F.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2011-09-01

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova V1723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of V1723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of V1723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  7. Earth observations for the space radar laboratory mission: Report on the student challenge awards project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Holt, Benjamin; Schier, Marguerite; Connors, Vickie; Godwin, Linda; Jones, Tom; Campbell, Alicyn; Dean, Freedom; Garrett, Timothy; Hartley, Hillary

    1994-01-01

    The Challenge Awards are designed to provide a unique perspective to students gifted in the arts and humanities from which to understand scientific endeavor by giving students an opportunity to participate in an ongoing research project. In the graduate program, seven students who had participated in previous Challenge Awards programs were selected to help develop the tools for Earth observations for the astronauts on the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) missions. The goal of the Challenge Awards program was to prepare a training manual for the astronauts on the SRL missions. This paper describes the observations to be made by the astronauts on the SRL missions. The emphasis is on the dynamic seasonal features of the Earth's surface and atmosphere which justify the need for more than one flight of the SRL. Complete notebooks of the sites, global seasonal patterns, examples of radar and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites data, and shuttle photographs have been given to each of the SRL crews.

  8. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  9. THE zCOSMOS-SINFONI PROJECT. I. SAMPLE SELECTION AND NATURAL-SEEING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Cresci, G.; Peng, Y.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, M.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Daddi, E.; McCracken, H. J.; Bouche, N.; Shapiro, K.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The zCOSMOS-SINFONI project is aimed at studying the physical and kinematical properties of a sample of massive z {approx} 1.4-2.5 star-forming galaxies, through SINFONI near-infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFS), combined with the multiwavelength information from the zCOSMOS (COSMOS) survey. The project is based on one hour of natural-seeing observations per target, and adaptive optics (AO) follow-up for a major part of the sample, which includes 30 galaxies selected from the zCOSMOS/VIMOS spectroscopic survey. This first paper presents the sample selection, and the global physical characterization of the target galaxies from multicolor photometry, i.e., star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age, etc. The H{alpha} integrated properties, such as, flux, velocity dispersion, and size, are derived from the natural-seeing observations, while the follow-up AO observations will be presented in the next paper of this series. Our sample appears to be well representative of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, covering a wide range in mass and SFR. The H{alpha} integrated properties of the 25 H{alpha} detected galaxies are similar to those of other IFS samples at the same redshifts. Good agreement is found among the SFRs derived from H{alpha} luminosity and other diagnostic methods, provided the extinction affecting the H{alpha} luminosity is about twice that affecting the continuum. A preliminary kinematic analysis, based on the maximum observed velocity difference across the source and on the integrated velocity dispersion, indicates that the sample splits nearly 50-50 into rotation-dominated and velocity-dispersion-dominated galaxies, in good agreement with previous surveys.

  10. Changes of storm properties in the United States: Observations and multimodel ensemble projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Yu, Zhongbo; Gautam, Mahesh R.; Yuan, Feifei; Acharya, Kumud

    2016-07-01

    Changes in climate are likely to induce changes in precipitation characteristics including intensity, frequency, duration and patterns of events. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of multiple regional climate models (RCMs) in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to simulate storm properties including storm duration, inter-storm period, storm intensity, and within-storm patterns at eight locations in the continental US. We also investigate the future projections of them based on precipitation from NARCCAP historic runs and future runs. Results illustrate that NARCCAP RCMs are consistent with observed precipitation in the seasonal variation of storm duration and inter-storm period, but fail to simulate the magnitude. The ability to simulate the seasonal trend of average storm intensity varies among locations. Within-storm patterns from RCMs exhibit greater variability than from observed records. Comparisons between RCM-historic simulations and RCM projections indicate that there is a large variation in the future changes in storm properties. However, multi-model ensembles of the storm properties suggest that most regions of the United States will experience future changes in storm properties that includes shorter storm duration, longer inter-storm period, and larger average storm intensity.

  11. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  12. Projected Regional Climate Change in the Context of Recent Observed Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1950 most of the north-central U.S. has seen an increase in warm-season precipitation. In contrast, the ensemble mean of CMIP5 global model projections suggest that warm season precipitation will decrease over the region during the coming decades. Given that this is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world the discrepancy between observations and simulations is important to understand from societal and economic perspectives. We explore some of the reasons for this discrepancy by focusing on results from regional climate model simulations over the CORDEX North America domain. We show that results from RCM simulations agree better with observed trends compared to the CMIP5 global models and discuss the reasons for this improved agreement, namely the role of organized mesoscale convection. We also show that trends in extreme precipitation intensity are more robust than trends in mean precipitation, in that precipitation intensity trends are more consistent among global models, regional models and observations. We discuss the reasons for this seeming contradiction between mean and extreme precipitation.Since 1950 most of the north-central U.S. has seen an increase in warm-season precipitation. In contrast, the ensemble mean of CMIP5 global model projections suggest that warm season precipitation will decrease over the region during the coming decades. Given that this is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world the discrepancy between observations and simulations is important to understand from societal and economic perspectives. We explore some of the reasons for this discrepancy by focusing on results from regional climate model simulations over the CORDEX North America domain. We show that results from RCM simulations agree better with observed trends compared to the CMIP5 global models and discuss the reasons for this improved agreement, namely the role of organized mesoscale convection. We also show that trends in

  13. The HELCATS Project: Characterising the Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections Observed During Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Moestl, C.; Rouillard, A. P.; Bothmer, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kilpua, E.; Gallagher, P.; Odstrcil, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is fundamental to advancing our knowledge of energy and mass transport in the solar system, thus also rendering it crucial to space weather and its prediction. The advent of truly wide-angle heliospheric imaging has revolutionised the study of CMEs, by enabling their direct and continuous observation as they propagate from the Sun out to 1 AU and beyond. The recently initiated EU-funded FP7 Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Technique Service (HELCATS) project combines European expertise in the field of heliospheric imaging, built up over the last decade in particular through lead involvement in NASA's STEREO mission, with expertise in such areas as solar and coronal imaging as well as the interpretation of in-situ and radio diagnostic measurements of solar wind phenomena. The goals of HELCATS include the cataloguing of CMEs observed in the heliosphere by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments on the STEREO spacecraft, since their launch in late October 2006 to date, an interval that covers much of the historically weak solar cycle 24. Included in the catalogue will be estimates of the kinematic properties of the imaged CMEs, based on a variety of established, and some more speculative, modelling approaches (geometrical, forward, inverse, magneto-hydrodynamic); these kinematic properties will be verified through comparison with solar disc and coronal imaging observations, as well as through comparison with radio diagnostic and in-situ measurements made at multiple points throughout the heliosphere. We will provide an overview of the HELCATS project, and present initial results that will seek to illuminate the unusual nature of solar cycle 24.

  14. Elusive drought: uncertainty in observed trends and short- and long-term CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a number of severe droughts in different regions around the world, causing agricultural and economic losses, famines and migration. Despite their devastating consequences, the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) of these events lies within the range of internal climate variability, which we estimate from simulations from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In terms of drought magnitude, regional trends of SPI over the last decades remain mostly inconclusive in observations and CMIP5 simulations, although Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMAs) in CMIP5 simulations hint at increased drought in a few regions (e.g. the Mediterranean, Central America/Mexico, the Amazon, North-East Brazil and South Africa). Also for the future, projections of meteorological (SPI) and agricultural (SMA) drought in CMIP5 display large uncertainties over all time frames, generally impeding trend detection. Analogue analyses of the frequencies rather than magnitudes of future drought display, however, more robust signal-to-noise ratios with detectable trends towards more frequent drought until the end of the 21st century in the Mediterranean, South Africa and Central America/Mexico. Other present-day hot spots are projected to become less drought-prone, or to display unsignificant changes in drought occurrence. A separation of different sources of uncertainty in drought projections reveals that for the near term, internal climate variability is the dominant source, while the formulation of Global Climate Models (GCMs) generally becomes the dominant source of uncertainty by the end of the 21st century, especially for agricultural (soil moisture) drought. In comparison, the uncertainty in Green-House Gas (GHG) concentrations scenarios is negligible for most regions. These findings stand in contrast to respective analyses for a heat wave indicator, for which GHG concentrations scenarios constitute the main source of uncertainty. Our results

  15. Impacts of observation-driven trait variation on carbon fluxes in an earth system projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Lieneke; van Bodegom, Peter; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections are still highly uncertain and differences in predicted terrestrial global carbon budgets by earth system models (ESMs) are large, both with respect to the size and direction of change. Part of these uncertainties in the land carbon dynamics are caused by differences in the modeled functional responses of vegetation in reaction to climatic drivers. In reality, changes in vegetation responses to the environment are driven by processes like species plasticity, acclimation, (genotypic) adaptation, species turnover and shifts in species abundances. These processes can cause shifts within community mean trait values, which in turn are will affect carbon fluxes to and from the system. Because most current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs, the terrestrial part of ESMs) are not species based, these processes are not or poorly modeled. The recent availability of a large trait database (TRY-database), including both field measurements and experimental data, enables parameterization of the models with observational trait data. Many community mean trait values correlate with local environmental conditions. Such trait-climate relationships can be used to model variation in traits in DGVMs and allow for spatial and temporal variation in functional vegetation responses. The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of observation-driven trait variation on modeled carbon fluxes in climate projections. We determined and incorporated relationships between observational trait and climate data for each plant functional type (PFT) in the DGVM JSBACH. Within each grid cell, traits were varied every year, based on the local climatic conditions in the model. We also included CO2 acclimation of traits based on FACE-experiments, as projections concern elevated CO2 concentrations. Impacts on global carbon budgets were large; in the simulation with variable traits the high latitudes (temperate, boreal and arctic areas) were stronger carbon sinks and the tropical

  16. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. I. The type II Cepheid κ Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Willson, M.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The distance of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Aims: Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid κ Pavonis. Methods: The parallax of the type-II Cepheid κ Pav was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of κ Pav, using the SPIPS technique (Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars), which is a robust version of the parallax-of-pulsation method that employs radial velocity, interferometric and photometric data. We applied this technique to a combination of new VLTI/PIONIER optical interferometric angular diameters, new CORALIE and HARPS radial velocities, as well as multi-colour photometry and radial velocities from the literature. Results: We obtain a value of p = 1.26 ± 0.07 for the p-factor of κ Pav. This result agrees with several of the recently derived Period-p-factor relationships from the literature, as well as previous observational determinations for Cepheids. Conclusions: Individual estimates of the p-factor are fundamental to calibrating the parallax of pulsation distances of Cepheids. Together with previous observational estimates, the projection factor we obtain points to a weak dependence of the p-factor on period. Based on observations realized with ESO

  17. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; de Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M ⊙). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band Hα images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. SIM PlanetQuest Key Project Precursor Observations to Detect Gas Giant Planets Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Angelle; Beichman, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ghez, Andrea; Grankin, Konstantin N.; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Huerta, Marcos; Konopacky, Quinn; Metchev, Stanimir; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    We present a review of precursor observing programs for the SIM PlanetQuest Key project devoted to detecting Jupiter mass planets around young stars. In order to ensure that the stars in the sample are free of various sources of astrometric noise that might impede the detection of planets, we have initiated programs to collect photometry, high contrast images, interferometric data and radial velocities for stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We have completed a high contrast imaging survey of target stars in Taurus and the Pleiades and found no definitive common proper motion companions within one arcsecond (140 AU) of the SIM targets. Our radial velocity surveys have shown that many of the target stars in Sco-Cen are fast rotators and a few stars in Taurus and the Pleiades may have sub-stellar companions. Interferometric data of a few stars in Taurus show no signs of stellar or sub-stellar companions with separations of <5 mas. The photometric survey suggests that approximately half of the stars initially selected for this program are variable to a degree (1(sigma) >0.1 mag) that would degrade the astrometric accuracy achievable for that star. While the precursor programs are still a work in progress, we provide a comprehensive list of all targets ranked according to their viability as a result of the observations taken to date. By far, the observable that removes the most targets from the SIM-YSO program is photometric variability.

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the first document for the UMTRA Ground Water Project to address site-specific activities to meet compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987)). In support of the activities the regulatory framework and drivers are presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. A combination of the two compliance strategies that will be recommended for this site are no remediation with the application of alternate concentration levels (ACL) and natural flushing in conjunction with institutional controls. ACLs are to be applied to constituents that occur at concentrations above background levels but which are essential nutrients and occur within nutritional ranges and/or have very low toxicity and high dietary intake rates compared to the levels detected in the ground water. The essential premise of natural flushing is that ground water movement and natural attenuation processes will reduce the detected contamination to background levels within 1 00 years. These two recommended compliance strategies were evaluated by applying Riverton site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement. There are three aquifers beneath the site: a surficial unconfined aquifer, a middle semiconfined aquifer, and a deeper confined aquifer. The milling-related contamination at the site has affected both the surficial and semiconfined aquifers, although the leaky shale aquifers separating these units limits the downward migration of contamination into the semiconfined aquifer. A shale aquitard separates the semiconfined aquifer from the underlying confined aquifer which has not been contaminated by milling-related constituents.

  20. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the initial document for developing site-specific activities to achieve regulatory compliance in the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The regulatory framework used to select the proposed ground water compliance strategies is presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. The Shiprock site consists of two, interconnected hydrogeologic systems: the terrace system and the floodplain system. Separate compliance strategies are proposed for these two systems. The compliance strategy for the terrace aquifer is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards based on classification of the terrace aquifer as having Class III (limited-use) ground water. The compliance strategy for the floodplain aquifer is active remediation using a subsurface biological barrier. These strategies were selected by applying site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1994a). The site conceptual model indicates that milling-related contamination has impacted the ground water in the terrace and floodplain aquifers. Ground water occurs in both aquifers in alluvium and in fractures in the underlying Cretaceous age Mancos Shale. A mound of ground water related to fluids from the milling operations is thought to exist in the terrace aquifer below the area where settling ponds were in use during the mill operations. Most of the water occurring in the floodplain aquifer is from recharge from the San Juan River.

  1. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  2. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  3. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Spook, Wyoming, site observational work plan proposes site-specific activities to achieve compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) of the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards 60 FR 2854 (1995) at this Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This draft SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of existing site characterization data, a conceptual site model of the nature and extent of ground water contamination, exposure pathways, and potential impact to human health and the environment. Section 2.0 describes the requirements for meeting ground water standards at UMTRA Project sites. Section 3.0 defines past and current conditions, describes potential environmental and human health risks, and provides site-specific data that supports the selection of a proposed ground water compliance strategy. Section 4.0 provides the justification for selecting the proposed ground water compliance strategy based on the framework defined in the ground water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS).

  4. Earth observation products for operational irrigation management: the PLEIADeS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, G.; Vuolo, F.; Richter, K.; Calera Belmonte, A.; Osann, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    In the context of a sustainable agriculture, a controlled and efficient irrigation management is required to avoid negative effects of the increasing water scarcity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Within this background, the project 'Participatory multi-Level EO-assisted tools for Irrigation water management and Agricultural Decision-Support' (PLEIADeS: http://www.pleiades.es) addressed the efficient and sustainable use of water for food production in water-scarce environments. Economical, environmental, technical, social and political dimensions are considered by means of a synergy of leading-edge technologies and participatory approaches. Project partners, represented by a set of nine pilot case studies, include a broad range of conditions characteristic for the European, Southern Mediterranean and American regions. PLEIADeS aimed at improving the performance of irrigation schemes by means of a range of measures, made possible through wide space-time coverage of Earth observation (E.O.) data and interactive networking capabilities of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Algorithms for a number of basic products to estimate Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) in an operational context are defined. In this study, the pilot zone at the Nurra site in Sardinia, Italy, is chosen to test, validate and apply these methodologies.

  5. Global warming projections derived from an observation-based minimal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple conceptual model for the global mean surface temperature (GMST) response to CO2 emissions is presented and analysed. It consists of linear long-memory models for the GMST anomaly response ΔT to radiative forcing and the atmospheric CO2-concentration response ΔC to emission rate. The responses are connected by the standard logarithmic relation between CO2 concentration and its radiative forcing. The model depends on two sensitivity parameters, αT and αC, and two "inertia parameters," the memory exponents βT and βC. Based on observation data, and constrained by results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the likely values and range of these parameters are estimated, and projections of future warming for the parameters in this range are computed for various idealised, but instructive, emission scenarios. It is concluded that delays in the initiation of an effective global emission reduction regime is the single most important factor that influences the magnitude of global warming over the next 2 centuries. The most important aspect of this study is the simplicity and transparency of the conceptual model, which makes it a useful tool for communicating the issue to non-climatologists, students, policy makers, and the general public.

  6. Observations and exploration of a sequence of design environments: Students designing a series of multimedia projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viner, Mark

    The goal of this research study was to observe and describe changes that occurred in student and teacher skills, conceptual beliefs and actions as students designed a series of multimedia projects for authentic audiences. Furthermore, the research was designed to explore the scaffolding of events and actions of sequence of five design environments. In each environment, an instructor and his students worked toward creating integrated, collaborative curriculum projects. HyperStudio authoring software was used as a construction tool and publishing medium for student artifacts. Results of this study indicate that both teacher and students need to have an active role in the design process. Working as 'student designers' is a collaborative process that is both time-consuming and complex. Overall, both the teacher and his students were receptive to the process of design and felt it provided valuable benefits when compared to the traditional learning process. While this study did not address the issues of content knowledge acquisition or performances on standardized tests, it does provide some practical recommendations for teachers working with students in a design environment.

  7. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This site observational work plan (SOWP) is one of the first Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement. This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards. The conceptual model demonstrates that the uranium processing-related contamination at the site has affected the unconfined alluvial aquifer, but not the deeper confined aquifer.

  8. Increasing Climate Literacy in Introductory Oceanography Classes Using Ocean Observation Data from Project Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    This session will present educational activities developed for an introductory Oceanography lecture and laboratory class by NOAA Teacher-at-Sea Jacquelyn Hams following participation in Leg 3 of Project DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) in November-December 2011. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an important tropical weather phenomenon with origins in the Indian Ocean that impacts many other global climate patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Hemisphere monsoons, tropical storm development, and pineapple express events. The educational activities presented include a series of lessons based on the observational data collected during Project DYNAMO which include atmospheric conditions, wind speeds and direction, surface energy flux, and upper ocean turbulence and mixing. The lessons can be incorporated into any introductory Oceanography class discussion on ocean properties such as conductivity, temperature, and density, ocean circulation, and layers of the atmosphere. A variety of hands-on lessons will be presented ranging from short activities used to complement a lecture to complete laboratory exercises.

  9. Global warming projections derived from an observation-based minimal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2015-09-01

    A simple conceptual model for the global mean surface temperature (GMST) response to CO2 emissions is presented and analysed. It consists of linear long-memory models for the GMST anomaly response ΔT to radiative forcing and atmospheric CO2-concentration response ΔC to emission rate. The responses are connected by the standard logarithmic relation between CO2 concentration and its radiative forcing. The model depends on two sensitivity parameters, αT and αC, and two "inertia parameters", the memory exponents βT and βC. Based on observation data, and constrained by results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the likely values and range of these parameters are estimated, and projections of future warming for the parameters in this range are computed for various idealised, but instructive, emission scenarios. It is concluded that delays in the initiation of an effective global emission reduction regime is the single most important factor that influences the magnitude of global warming over the next two centuries. The main value of this study is the simplicity and transparency of the conceptual model, which makes it a useful tool for communicating the issue to non-climate scientists, students, policy-makers, and the general public.

  10. THE HUNT FOR EXOMOONS WITH KEPLER (HEK). I. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW OBSERVATIONAL PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, D. M.; Bakos, G. A.; Buchhave, L.; Nesvorny, D.; Schmitt, A.

    2012-05-10

    Two decades ago, empirical evidence concerning the existence and frequency of planets around stars, other than our own, was absent. Since that time, the detection of extrasolar planets from Jupiter-sized to, most recently, Earth-sized worlds has blossomed and we are finally able to shed light on the plurality of Earth-like, habitable planets in the cosmos. Extrasolar moons may also be frequently habitable worlds, but their detection or even systematic pursuit remains lacking in the current literature. Here, we present a description of the first systematic search for extrasolar moons as part of a new observational project called 'The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler' (HEK). The HEK project distills the entire list of known transiting planet candidates found by Kepler (2326 at the time of writing) down to the most promising candidates for hosting a moon. Selected targets are fitted using a multimodal nested sampling algorithm coupled with a planet-with-moon light curve modeling routine. By comparing the Bayesian evidence of a planet-only model to that of a planet-with-moon, the detection process is handled in a Bayesian framework. In the case of null detections, upper limits derived from posteriors marginalized over the entire prior volume will be provided to inform the frequency of large moons around viable planetary hosts, {eta} leftmoon. After discussing our methodologies for target selection, modeling, fitting, and vetting, we provide two example analyses.

  11. JPL's Real-Time Weather Processor project (RWP) metrics and observations at system completion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loesh, Robert E.; Conover, Robert A.; Malhotra, Shan

    1990-01-01

    As an integral part of the overall upgraded National Airspace System (NAS), the objective of the Real-Time Weather Processor (RWP) project is to improve the quality of weather information and the timeliness of its dissemination to system users. To accomplish this, an RWP will be installed in each of the Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs), located in 21 of the 23 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The RWP System is a prototype system. It is planned that the software will be GFE and that production hardware will be acquired via industry competitive procurement. The ARTCC is a facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plans within controlled airspace, principally during the en route phase of the flight. Covered here are requirement metrics, Software Problem Failure Reports (SPFRs), and Ada portability metrics and observations.

  12. Evaluation of observation-driven evaporation algorithms: results of the WACMOS-ET project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, Diego G.; Jimenez, Carlos; Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew F.; Michel, Dominik; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Jung, Martin; Wood, Eric F.; (Bob) Su, Z.; Timmermans, Joris; Chen, Xuelong; Fisher, Joshua B.; Mu, Quiaozen; Fernandez, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial evaporation (ET) links the continental water, energy and carbon cycles. Understanding the magnitude and variability of ET at the global scale is an essential step towards reducing uncertainties in our projections of climatic conditions and water availability for the future. However, the requirement of global observational data of ET can neither be satisfied with our sparse global in-situ networks, nor with the existing satellite sensors (which cannot measure evaporation directly from space). This situation has led to the recent rise of several algorithms dedicated to deriving ET fields from satellite data indirectly, based on the combination of ET-drivers that can be observed from space (e.g. radiation, temperature, phenological variability, water content, etc.). These algorithms can either be based on physics (e.g. Priestley and Taylor or Penman-Monteith approaches) or be purely statistical (e.g., machine learning). However, and despite the efforts from different initiatives like GEWEX LandFlux (Jimenez et al., 2011; Mueller et al., 2013), the uncertainties inherent in the resulting global ET datasets remain largely unexplored, partly due to a lack of inter-product consistency in forcing data. In response to this need, the ESA WACMOS-ET project started in 2012 with the main objectives of (a) developing a Reference Input Data Set to derive and validate ET estimates, and (b) performing a cross-comparison, error characterization and validation exercise of a group of selected ET algorithms driven by this Reference Input Data Set and by in-situ forcing data. The algorithms tested are SEBS (Su et al., 2002), the Penman- Monteith approach from MODIS (Mu et al., 2011), the Priestley and Taylor JPL model (Fisher et al., 2008), the MPI-MTE model (Jung et al., 2010) and GLEAM (Miralles et al., 2011). In this presentation we will show the first results from the ESA WACMOS-ET project. The performance of the different algorithms at multiple spatial and temporal

  13. WFIP2 - The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project: Observing Systems And Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, J. M.; Cline, J.; Banta, R. M.; Benjamin, L.; Benjamin, S.; Berg, L. K.; Bianco, L.; Bickford, J.; Brewer, A.; Choukulkar, A.; Clawson, K.; Clifton, A.; Cook, D. R.; Djalalova, I.; Fernando, H.; Friedrich, K.; Kenyon, J.; Kosovic, B.; King, C. W.; Marquis, M.; McCaa, J. R.; McCaffrey, K.; Olson, J. B.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Sharp, J.; Shaw, W. J.; Wade, K.; Wharton, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Lantz, K. O.; Long, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DOE and NOAA funded public-private partnership whose goal is to improve NWP model forecast skill for turbine-height winds in regions with complex terrain. WFIP2 partners include DOE National Laboratories (PNNL, ANL, NREL, LLNL), NOAA Laboratories (ESRL, ARL), Vaisala Inc., NCAR, the University of Notre Dame and University of Colorado, and the Bonneville Power Administration. A core element of WFIP2 is an 18 month field program located in the Pacific Northwest, focusing on the Columbia River Gorge and Basin in eastern Oregon and Washington states, with instrument deployment occurring in the summer and autumn of 2015. The approach taken is to collect an extensive set of new meteorological observations, especially within the atmospheric boundary layer, use these to observe and understand relevant atmospheric processes, develop and test new model physical parameterization schemes, and ultimately transfer these improved models to NOAA/NWS operations and to the wider meteorological community. Observing systems that will be deployed for WFIP2 include: 11 wind profiling radars 17 sodars 5 wind profiling lidars 4 scanning lidars 4 radiometers 10 microbarographs ceilometer 28 sonic anemometers Numerical models that are being used for WFIP2 are WRF-based models including the NOAA RAP (Rapid Refresh) and High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), as well as the NAM and GFS. Science issues that are being addressed include gap flow, mountain waves, mountain wakes, convective storm outflows, the mix-out of stable cold pools, and boundary layer turbulence profiling. An overview of WFIP2 will be given with an emphasis on the suite of instrumentation deployed and their observational capabilities. Several case studies of interesting meteorological events from the first several months of the field program will be presented, including comparisons with model forecasts.

  14. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been strongly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of this coupling occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. However, limited observations prevent to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The main challenge of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe) project is to combine existing national and international observation networks including: the International infrasound monitoring system developed for the CTBT (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) verification, the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) lidar network, European observation infrastructures at mid latitudes (OHP observatory), tropics (Maïdo observatory), high latitudes (ALOMAR and EISCAT), infrasound stations which form a dense European network and satellites. The ARISE network is unique by its coverage (polar to equatorial regions in the European longitude sector), its altitude range (from troposphere to mesosphere and ionosphere) and the involved scales both in time (from seconds to tens of years) and space (from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers). Advanced data products are produced with the scope to assimilate data in the Weather Prediction models to improve future forecasts over weeks and seasonal time scales. ARISE observations are especially relevant for the monitoring of extreme events such as thunderstorms, volcanoes, meteors and at larger scales, deep convection and stratospheric warming events for physical processes description and study of long term evolution with climate change. Among the applications, ARISE fosters integration of innovative methods for remote detection of non-instrumented volcanoes including distant eruption characterization to provide notifications with reliable confidence indices to the

  15. Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.

    2006-12-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Applied Sciences Program is to manifest societal benefits from the vast store of Earth Observations through partnerships with public, private and academic organizations. The SERVIR project represents an early success toward this goal. By combining Earth Observations from NASA missions, results from environmental models and decision support tools from its partners the SERVIR project has produced an integrated systems solution that is yielding societal benefits for the region of Mesoamerica. The architecture of the SERVIR system consists of an operational facility in Panama with regional nodes in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize plus a Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC), located in Huntsville, Alabama. The RPC, funded by NASA's Applied Sciences Division, and developed by the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, produces scientifically strong decision support products and applications. When mature, the products and applications migrate to the operational center in Panama. There, they are available to environmental ministers and decision makers in Mesoamerica. In June 2004, the SERVIR project was contacted by the environmental ministry of El Salvador, which urgently requested remote sensing imagery of the location, direction, and extent of a HAB event off the coast of El Salvador and Guatemala. Using MODIS data the SERVIR team developed a value added product that predicts the location, direction, and extent of HABs. The products are produced twice daily and are used by the El Salvadoran and Guatemalan governments to alert their tourism and fishing industries of potential red tide events. This has enabled these countries to save millions of dollars for their industries as well as improve the health of harvested fish. In the area of short term weather forecasting the SERVIR team, in collaboration with the NASA Short

  16. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope

  17. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 Stellar Mass). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  18. SETI prototype system for NASA's Sky Survey microwave observing project - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Wilck, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two complementary search strategies, a Targeted Search and a Sky Survey, are part of NASA's SETI microwave observing project scheduled to begin in October of 1992. The current progress in the development of hardware and software elements of the JPL Sky Survey data processing system are presented. While the Targeted Search stresses sensitivity allowing the detection of either continuous or pulsed signals over the 1-3 GHz frequency range, the Sky Survey gives up sensitivity to survey the 99 percent of the sky that is not covered by the Targeted Search. The Sky Survey spans a larger frequency range from 1-10 GHz. The two searches will deploy special-purpose digital signal processing equipment designed and built to automate the observing and data processing activities. A two-million channel digital wideband spectrum analyzer and a signal processor system will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. The design will permit future expansion to meet the SETI requirement that the processor concurrently search for left and right circularly polarized signals.

  19. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT: UNRAVELING TARANTULA'S WEB. I. OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Larsen, S. S.; and others

    2013-09-15

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  20. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and

  1. First Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Frey, K. E.; Lenters, J. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    In April 2012, instruments were deployed in over 50 lakes in northern Alaska as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to observe short- and long-term variability in physical, limnological and biogeochemical processes in Arctic lakes. The network currently consists of nine observation nodes on two parallel transects extending from the Arctic Ocean south to the Brooks Range Foothills. At each node, at least six representative lakes that vary by surface area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels: basic, enhanced and comprehensive. At each node we deployed a suite of instrumentation and collected a variety of field measurements. This approach allows for the study of lakes and their diversity across strong physical and biological gradients. To date we have established sites at a wide variety of Arctic lake types; 25 are thermokarst lakes set in ice-rich, fine-grained marine surficial sediments (Outer Coastal Plain), 6 lakes are in alluvial/aeolian sediments (Inner Coastal Plain) and 6 are in ice-rich silt (Arctic Foothills Yedoma), 5 are depressional lakes formed in a late Pleistocene sand sheet (Ikpikpuk Sand Sea), 6 represent glacial thermokarst or kettle lakes near the Brooks Range (Toolik region), 7 lakes are of fluvial or deltaic origin (Fish Creek basin, Ikpikpuk Delta), and Teshekpuk Lake, the largest lake in Arctic Alaska, is of a complex origin. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth were deployed through the ice cover, water samples were collected, and real-time time lapse cameras were installed to capture snow melt and ice-off. Sensors were recovered from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording lake regimes and events from ice decay and snowmelt influx to open-water warming and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude; in lakes deeper than 2 m, ice was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the coast of the Arctic Ocean with inter

  2. Ground Deformation Measurement with SAR Interferometry - Exupéry Project WP2 Space Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Eineder, Michael; Minet, Christian

    2010-05-01

    As one of major natural hazards volcanic unrest and volcanic eruption are gaining more attention nowadays. The Exupéry project aimed at setting-up an Early Response System (VFRS) for volcanic activity was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Within Work Package 2 'Space Based Observations' SAR interferometry is used for monitoring the ground deformation. In comparison with conventional monitoring techniques like GPS the surface changes can be directly detected by using 2 SAR images from different acquisition times and an external DEM. Persistent scatterer SAR interferometry (PSI) method is applied by using a stack of interferograms with common master image. Instead of whole SAR scene only the coherent scatterers during whole acquisition duration are selected and its phase measurements are used to estimate modelled parameters such as deformation velocity, DEM error and atmospheric distortions. In mountainous area backscatterers are decorrelated during the time because of vegetation. To ensure the coherence corner reflector (CR) is used to get stable backscattering. To test the whole system a campaign was carried out during April to August 2009. Two CRs were installed for TerraSAR-X satellite on the test site Lagoa do Fogo volcano. During the campaign 11 strip-map scenes were gathered consequently. Post-processed interferograms as well as the coherence maps were delivered to database center in Hannover and would be published in project website. Time series analysis with coherent scatterers from the stacking was applied in order to detect complex deformation from mountainous area. The CRs were successfully detected in SAR image and will be used as reference points in PSI processing. At the end the interferograms computed from different wavelengths will be compared in this area.

  3. HR Diagrams of Open Clusters: A Virtual Observational Exercise from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Glenn; Marschall, L. A.; Cooper, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Project CLEA announces a new laboratory exercise on the analysis of HR Diagrams of Open Clusters. The new software allows students to examine plots of V vs B-V for any of 14 open clusters for which high quality data has been published in the literature. (E.g., NGC 752, Alpha Persei, M45, and M67) The clusters range in distance from about 50 to 2000 pc, and in age from 2 x 106 to 4.5 x 109 years. Students can overlay theoretical isochrones and ZAMS lines to these plots using sliders on an interactive tool to determine the distance, age, and even the metallicity of the cluster. Files of magnitudes and colors can be loaded directly into the plotting program, or students can carry out their own photometry using a simulated optical telescope and photometer or a simulated CCD camera that produces FITS files. A student manual provides information on the software and alternative exercises for in-class use and independent study. This exercise is the first that utilizes CLEA's new Virtual Educational Observatory, VIREO. VIREO is a simulated multi-wavelength observatory including optical, radio, infrared, and x-ray instrumentation very large-all-sky database, and access to catalog resources on the Web. The VIREO software provides an environment under which a wide variety of astronomical exercises can be carried out, from observations of asteroids, to searches for high-redshift quasars using a multi-slit spectrograph. The website of Project CLEA is http://public.gettysburg.edu/~marschal/clea/CLEAhome.html This research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Gettysburg College.

  4. HR Diagrams of Open Clusters: A Virtual Observational Exercise from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Glenn; Marschall, L. A.; Cooper, P. R.

    2007-05-01

    Project CLEA announces a new laboratory exercise on the analysis of HR Diagrams of Open Clusters. The new software allows students to examine plots of V vs B-V for any of 14 open clusters for which high quality data has been published in the literature. (E.g., NGC 752, Alpha Persei, M45, and M67) The clusters range in distance from about 50 to 2000 pc, and in age from 2 x 106 to 4.5 x 109 years. Students can overlay theoretical isochrones and ZAMS lines to these plots using sliders on an interactive tool to determine the distance, age, and even the metallicity of the cluster. Files of magnitudes and colors can be loaded directly into the plotting program, or students can carry out their own photometry using a simulated optical telescope and photometer or a simulated CCD camera that produces FITS files. A student manual provides information on the software and alternative exercises for in-class use and independent study. This exercise is the first that utilizes CLEA’s new Virtual Educational Observatory, VIREO. VIREO is a simulated multi-wavelength observatory including optical, radio, infrared, and x-ray instrumentation very large-all-sky database, and access to catalog resources on the Web. The VIREO software provides an environment under which a wide variety of astronomical exercises can be carried out, from observations of asteroids, to searches for high-redshift quasars using a multi-slit spectrograph. The website of Project CLEA is http://www.gettysburg.edu/ marschal/clea/CLEAhome.html This research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Gettysburg College.

  5. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network): Network Status and Project Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Dausz, K.; Friesen, B. T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Seider, E.; Wang, G.

    2012-12-01

    The beauty and diversity of the Caribbean region result from geological and atmospheric processes that also pose serious threats to the large population within reach of seismic faults, hurricanes tracks, or sea-level change. The capacity to understand, prepare for, adapt to, and in some cases predict these natural hazards requires Earth observations on both large and small scales. The COCONet project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. COCONet will consist of 50 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 15 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from up to 61 existing operational GPS stations. Additional funding has recently been allocated to install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and also add GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. COCONet will provide free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products for researchers, educators, students, and the private sector. Data will be used by US and international scientists to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics and dynamics as well as plate boundary interactions and deformation, with an emphasis on the earthquake cycle. COCNet will also serve atmospheric science objectives by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor and enabling better forecast of the dynamics of airborne moisture associated with the yearly Caribbean hurricane cycle. COCONet is being installed and will be maintained by UNAVCO on behalf of the science and other user communities in the United States and abroad, thus leveraging UNAVCO's proven record of

  6. Local short-duration precipitation extremes in Sweden: observations, forecasts and projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jonas; Berg, Peter; Simonsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Local short-duration precipitation extremes (LSPEs) are a key driver of hydrological hazards, notably in steep catchments with thin soils and in urban environments. The triggered floodings, landslides, etc., have large consequences for society in terms of both economy and health. Accurate estimations of LSPEs on both climatological time-scales (past, present, future) and in real-time is thus of great importance for improved hydrological predictions as well as design of constructions and infrastructure affected by hydrological fluxes. Analysis of LSPEs is, however, associated with various limitations and uncertainties. These are to a large degree associated with the small-scale nature of the meteorological processes behind LSPEs and the associated requirements on observation sensors as well as model descriptions. Some examples of causes for the limitations involved are given in the following. - Observations: High-resolution data sets available for LSPE analyses are often limited to either relatively long series from one or a few stations or relatively short series from larger station networks. Radar data have excellent resolutions in both time and space but the estimated local precipitation intensity is still highly uncertain. New and promising techniques (e.g. microwave links) are still in their infancy. - Weather forecasts (short-range): Although forecasts with the required spatial resolution for potential generation of LSPEs (around 2-4 km) are becoming operationally available, the actual forecast precision of LSPEs is largely unknown. Forecasted LSPEs may be displaced in time or, more critically, in space which strongly affects the possibility to assess hydrological risk. - Climate projections: The spatial resolution of the current RCM generation (around 25 km) is not sufficient for proper description of LSPEs. Statistical post-processing (i.e. downscaling) is required which adds substantial uncertainty to the final result. Ensemble generation of sufficiently

  7. Observed and projected climate change implications for urban infrastructure and society in the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Efimov, S. V.; Shkolnik, I.

    2012-12-01

    The discoveries of mineral resources followed by an extensive economic development of the Russian North in 1960s led to a development of complex infrastructure on permafrost and urbanization of the Russian Arctic. Despite the mass migration from the northern regions, followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the diminishing government support, the Russian Arctic inherited massive infrastructure and remained predominantly urban. Currently, only in five districts bordering Arctic Ocean more than 1.4 million people live in urban-style buildings built on permafrost. Majority of the buildings are constructed assuming the equilibrium conditions of heat-exchange between atmosphere and permafrost underneath. This is usually achieved by construction on piles with ventilated cellars allowing ground cooling in a winter and shading in a summer. The ability of the foundations to carry structural load or foundation bearing capacity (FBC) depends on permafrost properties and changes according to permafrost temperature and active-layer depth. Climate warming observed in recent decades created conditions of diminishing FBC and resulted in deformations and failures of structures built on permafrost. This work is focused on quantitative assessment of these changes at a regional scale. In order to estimate the role of climate change on stability of structures build according to the passive principle, the permafrost-geotechnical model was developed. The historical changes were assessed by comparing model results for period associated with industrialization and construction boom in the Russian North (1965-1975) and present conditions (1995-2005) using NCEP climatic datasets. Projected changes in FBC according to A2 IPCC scenario for the mid-21st century (2041-2060) relative to baseline period (1981-2000) were assessed using output from the ensemble of MGO RCM climate change simulations. It has been found that substantial decrease in FBC will likely occur for the majority of

  8. Microlensing Events from the 11 Year Observations of the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-H.; Riffeser, A.; Seitz, S.; Bender, R.; Koppenhoefer, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of the decade-long M31 observation from the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project (WeCAPP). WeCAPP has monitored M31 from 1997 until 2008 in both R- and I-filters, and thus provides the longest baseline of all M31 microlensing surveys. The data are analyzed with difference imaging analysis, which is most suitable for studying variability in crowded stellar fields. We extracted light curves based on each pixel, and devised selection criteria that are optimized to identify microlensing events. This leads to 10 new events, and adds up to a total of 12 microlensing events from WeCAPP, for which we derive their timescales, flux excesses, and colors from their light curves. The colors of the lensed stars fall in the range (R - I) = 0.56 to 1.36, with a median of 1.0 mag, in agreement with our expectation that the sources are most likely bright, red stars at the post-main-sequence stage. The event FWHM timescales range from 0.5 to 14 days, with a median of 3 days, in good agreement with predictions based on the model of Riffeser et al.

  9. The Moon's Permanently Shadowed Regions as Observed by LRO's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A.; Miles, P. F.; Versteeg, M.; Slater, D.; Davis, M. W.; Parker, J.; Kaufmann, D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Horvath, D.; Rojas, P.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Although of great interest for science and resource utilization, the Moon's permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near each pole present difficult targets for remote sensing. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is able to map PSRs at far-ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths using two faint sources of illumination from the night sky: the all-sky Lyα glow produced as interplanetary medium (IPM) H atoms scatter the Sun's Lyα emissions, and the much fainter source from UV-bright stars. Since the reflected light from these two sources produces only a few hundred events per second in the photon-counting LAMP instrument, building maps with useful signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios requires the careful accumulation of the observations from thousands of individual LRO orbits. In this talk we present the latest FUV albedo maps obtained by LAMP of the Moon's southern and northern polar regions. The results show that 1) most PSR regions are darker at all FUV wavelengths, consistent with their surface soils having much larger porosities than non-PSR regions (e.g., P~0.9 or so), and 2) most PSRs are somewhat "redder" (i.e., more reflective at the longer FUV wavelengths) than non-PSR regions, consistent with the presence of ~1-2% water frost at the surface.

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  11. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  12. European Space Agency Campaign Activities in Support of Earth Observation Projects: Examples for Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Davidson, M.; Casal, T.; Perrera, A.; Bianchi, R.; Kern, M.; Scipal, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. Campaigns in support of future mission development have technological, geophysical and simulation objectives while exploitation projects need validation for the assessment of the quality of the earth observation products and of the service provision. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int]. In 2005, ESA released a call for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission Ideas with the aim to select a 7th Earth Explorer (EE7) mission to be launched in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to detailed scientific and technical assessment. During the so-called Phase 0, six concepts were selected and further investigated. A down-selection was made after the User Consultation Meeting held in Lisbon, Portugal in January 2009. Three candidate mission concepts were selected for further feasibility phase (phase A) investigation. Each of the candidate missions are being elaborated through two parallel industrial

  13. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC

  14. Everyday Observations: Developing a Sociological Perspective through a Portfolio Term Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Renzulli, Linda; Bunch, Jackson; Paino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We describe a semester-long active learning project in which students practice the skills of synthesis and analysis by developing portfolios organized around a topic of their own choosing (relevant to their substantive course). We build on prior contributions in four ways. First, we offer a project that is indicative of basic skills in the…

  15. Validation Engine for Observational Protocols. Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation launched the two-year Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to rigorously develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. As part of the project, partners from more than a dozen reputable academic, non-profit and for-profit organizations collected and analyzed data from…

  16. Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher

  17. Ten Tips for Talking to Townies: Observations on Risk Communication from the Multihazards Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K. A.; Jones, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The USGS’s Multihazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) seeks to demonstrate how hazard science can improve a community’s resiliency to natural hazards. To do so, it must accurately but clearly communicate scientific concepts and findings to a wide variety of nonscientist stakeholders, many of whom are technical experts in their field primarily interested in the implications of MHDP’s science for them, and relatively uninterested in the science per se. During the development and rollout of the MHDP scenarios we found several strategies of risk communication helpful. Use availability. Relate new ideas to events the audience personally observed. Avoid sensationalism, since even the appearance of an appeal to emotion seemed to undermine the credibility of the message among certain constituencies. Avoid probability. However tempted we are as scientists to emphasize the unknown, stakeholders preferred a single coherent story. We can accompany the coherent story with an acknowledgment of uncertainty and limited knowledge. Engage stakeholders in the science as early as possible. They can help ground, direct, and vet the science as it emerges, and help us avoid “spherical-cow” simplifications. Get to the point. Soundbites, despite negative connotations, promote conciseness. Emphasize consensus. While scientists are primarily interested in the boundaries of knowledge, the public is more interested in what is known, and acts more readily where there is no ambiguity. Confront misinformation. Science sometimes competes with pseudoscience for public mindspace. Where the goal is enhancing community resiliency, the competition becomes a battle. Temper talk with activities. We learn by doing, and some of us have no patience for lectures. Use engaging imagery. We found that modern media such as Youtube videos with high production quality and geospatial imagery that the public sees as cutting edge, captured people’s attention, even senior professionals and academics who

  18. Third-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012, 60 lakes in northern Alaska have been instrumented under the auspices of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten observation nodes along two latitudinal transects extending from the Arctic Ocean inland some 200 km to the Brooks Range foothills. At each node, a meteorological station is deployed, and six representative lakes of differing area and depth are instrumented and sampled at different intensity levels to collect basic field measurements. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and depth are deployed through the ice in each lake, ice and snow thickness recorded, and water samples are collected. Data are downloaded, lakes re-sampled, and bathymetric surveys are conducted in August. In 2014, the snow cover on inland lakes was thinner than in previous years but thicker on lakes located near the coast. Lake ice was generally thinner near the coast, but the difference diminished inland. Winters (Oct-March) have been progressively warmer over the 3-year period, which partially explains the thinner lake ice that formed in 2013-14. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. These regional lake and meteorological data sets, used in conjunction with satellite imagery, supports the wind-driven lake circulation model for the origin of thermokarst lakes. Results of biogeochemical analyses of lake waters generally show notably higher concentrations of cations/anions, chromophoric dissolved organic matter, and chlorophyll-a during April as compared with August. Dissolved methane concentrations are also much higher under ice than in open water during summer, although all lakes are a source of atmospheric methane. Interviews with indigenous elders in Anaktuvuk Pass indicate that mountain lakes are drying up. During the 2014 breakup

  19. Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2004-01-01

    Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

  20. NEETs versus EETs: An Observational Study in Italy on the Framework of the HEALTH25 European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bernardo; Lucarelli, Chiara; Talamonti, Marta; Arimatea, Emidio; Fiori, Valentina; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrès

    2015-01-01

    An observational study of young Italian NEETs (not in education, employment or training) and their EET peers (in education, employment or training) was conducted in the framework of a European Union (EU) project. Main characteristics and behaviours were compared to gain insights into the NEET condition in Italy. The sample included 111 NEETs…

  1. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Observed Atmospheric and Solar Information System (OASIS); Tucson, Arizona (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-11-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  2. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  3. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  4. Skylab-4 visual observations project: Geological features of southwestern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    Visual observations conducted by Skylab-4 crewmen on seven designated geological target areas and other targets of opportunity in parts of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico were described. The experiments were designed to learn how effectively geologic features could be observed from orbit and what research information could be obtained from the observations when supported by ground studies. For the limited preparation they received, the crewmen demonstrated exceptional observational ability and produced outstanding photographic studies. They also formulated cogent opinions on how to improve future observational and photo-documentation techniques. From the photographs and other observations, it was possible to obtain significant research contributions to on-going field investigations. These contributions were integrated into other aspects of the ground investigations to the following topics: major faults, regional stratigraphy, occurrence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mapping of Mesozoic volcanic rocks, regional geology.

  5. Improving Wind Energy Forecasts through Assimilation of New Meteorological Observations: Results from the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, L.; Wilczak, J. M.; Djalalova, I. V.; Olson, J. B.; Benjamin, S.; Finley, C. A.; Freedman, J. M.; DiMego, G.; Carley, J. R.; Orwig, K.; Cline, J.; Marquis, M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a joint research project with NOAA and private industry to improve wind energy forecasts, called the Wind Forecast Improvement Project. The key elements of this program have been 1) a one-year deployment of extensive meteorological observing systems in two regions with significant wind energy production, from August 2011-September 2012; 2) assimilation of these observations into the hourly-updated NOAA Rapid Refresh (RAP), run nationwide each hour at 13 km resolution; and 3) evaluation of the benefits of these improved wind forecasts on electrical utility operations, especially for ramp-events in the 0-6 h forecast time-frame. The special observation data sets assimilated are concentrated over the two selected regions of the U.S. and include: 12 wind profiling radars, 12 sodars, 185 instrumented tall towers (40-200m tall), and 400 nacelle anemometers. In this presentation we will describe results from data denial experiments that have been run for limited periods within the WFIP project. The goal of the data denial experiments is to quantitatively document the precise impact that assimilation of the special WFIP data had on model accuracy, by comparing simulations from identical models run with and without the new data. Standard statistical measures show a significant improvement from the assimilation of the new data, and metrics for wind ramp events (including magnitude and phase of the ramps) show an even larger impact of the observations.

  6. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; Hudspeth, W.; Bunderson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  7. SAFE Project: An integrated system of earthquake physics study from ground and space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, Angelo; De Franceschi, Giorgiana; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Perrone, Loredana; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Cianchini, Gianfranco; Pavón-Carrasco, Javier F.; Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca; Piscini, Alessandro; De Santis, Anna; D'Angelo, Giulia; Musicò, Elvira; Malagnini, Andrea; Amoruso, Leonardo; Carbone, Marianna; Abbattista, Cristoforo; Drimaco, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm satellite mission by ESA has the primary goal to measure the magnetic signals from the Earth to get new insights of the geomagnetic field and its sources. The SAFE ("Swarm for Earthquake study") project (funded by ESA in the framework "STSE Swarm+lnnovation", 2014) aims at applying the new approach of geosystemics to the analysis of Swarm satellite electromagnetic data for investigating the preparatory phase of earthquakes. The main objective of this project is to explore the possible link between magnetic ionospheric anomalies and large earthquakes analysing Swarm as well as ground based data (seismic, magnetic, GNSS, etc.). This work will show the state of the art in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) together with some recent case studies.

  8. Motivating and Constructing Understanding through Observation and Data Analysis: The S`COOL and MY NASA DATA Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Diones, D. D.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Phelps, C. S.

    2008-05-01

    Inquiry is widely recognized as an effective method for science teaching. Exploration of the local environment lends itself well to this method. However, to foster understanding about the broader global scale of the Earth system, another approach is needed. Here we present two projects that seek to provide motivation and resources for helping K-12 students construct their own understanding of our Earth system. The S`COOL Project, begun in 1997, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum (with a particular focus on upper elementary grades) to learn relevant science basics and how these basics tie in to a larger picture. The project uses a connection to an on-going NASA science investigation, the Clouds and the Earth`s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, as a powerful motivator. Student cloud observations coordinated with the passage of orbiting satellite instruments provide useful validation information for the CERES science team. The students receive timely feedback, with a simple and direct link to the corresponding piece of satellite data. Finally, students are encouraged to perform data analysis through an on-line database and the provision of simple tools that allow students to look at not only their own familiar observations, but also those from other participants around the world. The project is placed in the context of our efforts to understand the Earth's energy balance, which controls our climate. The MY NASA DATA project, begun in 2004, provides K-12 students (with a particular focus on middle and high school) with direct on-line access to Earth system science data for global inquiry. The project collects over 140 Earth system science parameters from NASA and other government resources through a single, relatively simple, web-based visualization interface. In addition to offering a large number of contributed lesson plans and science projects on specific topics, this website enables students to explore their own inquiry questions to

  9. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  10. False-color images from observations by the Supernova Cosmology Project of one of the two most dista

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TFalse-color images from observations by the Supernova Cosmology Project of one of the two most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. From the left: the first two images, from the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory 4-meter telescope, show a small region of sky just before and just after the the appearance of a type-Ia supernova that exploded when the universe was about half its present age. The third image shows the same supernova as observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. This much sharper picture allows a much better measurement of the apparent brightness and hence the distance of this supernova. Because their intrinsic brightness is predictable, such supernovae help to determine the deceleration, and so the eventual fate, of the universe. Credit: Perlmutter et al., The Supernova Cosmology Project

  11. Demonstration of random projections applied to the retrieval problem of geophysical parameters from hyper-spectral infrared observations.

    PubMed

    Serio, Carmine; Masiello, Guido; Liuzzi, Giuliano

    2016-08-20

    The random projections statistical technique has been used to reduce the dimensionality of the radiance data space generated from high spectral resolution infrared observations. The mathematical inversion of the physical radiative transfer equation for geophysical parameters has been solved in this space of reduced dimensionality. The great advantage of using random projections is that they provide an unified treatment of instrument noise and forward model error, which can be comprehensively modeled with a single variance term. The result is a novel retrieval approach, which combines computational efficiency to possibly improved accuracy of the retrieval products. The novel approach has been demonstrated through application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer. We have found that state-of-the-art spectroscopy and related line-mixing treatment for the ν2CO2 absorption band, i.e., the fundamental band for temperature retrieval, show an excellent consistency with satellite observations. PMID:27556974

  12. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Voulgaris, George; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during January through April 2012 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics near Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deploymed. The data collected and supporting meteorological observations are presented as time series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual, links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  13. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for oceanographic observations near Fire Island, New York, February through May 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Voulgaris, George

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  14. Light Pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia: An Observational Project for Introductory Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, K. S.; VSU Astronomy Students Team

    2000-12-01

    A long-term study of light pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia has been initiated as a collaborative project among students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses at Valdosta State University. A single honors student began the project in Spring 2000; during the Fall 2000 semester all students enrolled in ASTR 1020K (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students were provided with charts showing the appearance of the constellations Cygnus, Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Orion (as appropriate) at limiting magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 in 0.5-magnitude steps. On clear, moonless nights students compared the visual appearance of these constellations to the charts, allowing them to determine a limiting magnitude for their location. Preliminary results suggest that, even on the clearest nights, stars fainter than magnitude 5.0 are not visible from any location within Lowndes County. This limitation results largely from ambient light from Valdosta, the only urban area within the county, and also from atmospheric extinction in a region of high humidity. By participating in this exercise, students in a class traditionally populated by non-science majors gain an appreciation for the collaborative nature of modern science. They also become familiar more familiar with the night sky than they might were their exposure limited to the traditional two-hour weekly laboratory session. Most importantly, as young adults they experience first-hand the deleterious effects of light intrusion upon their enjoyment of the night sky!

  15. System study of the carbon dioxide observational platform system (CO-OPS): Project overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. Briscoe; Thompson, Wilbur E.

    1987-01-01

    The resulting options from a system study for a near-space, geo-stationary, observational monitoring platform system for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) on the greenhouse effect are discussed. CO-OPS is being designed to operate continuously for periods of up to 3 months in quasi-fixed position over most global regional targets of interest and could make horizon observations over a land-sea area of circular diameter up to about 600 to 800 statute miles. This affords the scientific and engineering community a low-cost means of operating their payloads for monitoring the regional parameters they deem relevant to their investigations of the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect at one-tenth the cost of most currently utilized comparable remote sensing techniques.

  16. Cirrus cloud spectra and layers observed during the FIRE and GASP projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatau, Piotr J.; Gultepe, I.; Nastrom, G.; Cotton, William R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A general characterization is developed for cirrus clouds in terms of their spectra, shapes, optical thicknesses, and radiative properties for use in numerical models. Data sets from the Global Atmospheric Sampling Project (GASP) of the upper troposphere and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) are combined and analyzed to study general traits of cirrus clouds. A definition is given for 2D turbulence, and the GASP and FIRE data sets are examined with respect to cirrus layers and entrainment and to dominant turbulent scales. The approach employs conditional sampling in cloudy and clear air, power-spectral analysis, and mixing-line-type diagrams. Evidence is given for a well mixed cloud deck and for the tendency of cirrus to be formed in multilayer structures. The results are of use in mesoscale and global circulation models which predict cirrus, in small-scale cirrus modeling, and in studying the role of gravity waves in the horizontal structure of upper tropospheric clouds.

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ``limited use.``

  18. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere is a complex system submitted to disturbances in a wide range of scales, including high frequency sources as volcanoes, thunderstorms, tornadoes and at larger scales, gravity waves from deep convection or wind over mountains, atmospheric tides and planetary waves. These waves affect the different atmospheric layers submitted to different temperature and wind systems which strongly control the general atmospheric circulation. The full description of gravity and planetary waves constitutes a challenge for the development of future models of atmosphere and climate. The objective of this paper is to present a review of recent advances obtained in this topic, especially in the framework of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project

  19. Induced Seismicity Related to Hydrothermal Operation of Geothermal Projects in Southern Germany - Observations and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megies, T.; Kraft, T.; Wassermann, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal power plants in Southern Germany are operated hydrothermally and at low injection pressures in a seismically inactive region considered very low seismic hazard. For that reason, permit authorities initially enforced no monitoring requirements on the operating companies. After a series of events perceived by local residents, a scientific monitoring survey was conducted over several years, revealing several hundred induced earthquakes at one project site.We summarize results from monitoring at this site, including absolute locations in a local 3D velocity model, relocations using double-difference and master-event methods and focal mechanism determinations that show a clear association with fault structures in the reservoir which extend down into the underlying crystalline basement. To better constrain the shear wave velocity models that have a strong influence on hypocentral depth estimates, several different approaches to estimate layered vp/vs models are employed.Results from these studies have prompted permit authorities to start imposing minimal monitoring requirements. Since in some cases these geothermal projects are only separated by a few kilometers, we investigate the capabilities of an optimized network combining the monitoring resources of six neighboring well doublets in a joint network. Optimization is taking into account the -- on this local scale, urban environment -- highly heterogeneous background noise conditions and the feasibility of potential monitoring sites, removing non-viable sites before the optimization procedure. First results from the actual network realization show good detection capabilities for small microearthquakes despite the minimum instrumentational effort, demonstrating the benefits of good coordination of monitoring efforts.

  20. NOAA-ISRO joint science projects on Earth observation system science, technology, and applications for societal benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A.; Jayarman, V.; Kondragunta, S.; Kogan, F.; Kuligowski, R.; Maturi, E.

    2006-12-01

    India and the United States of America (U.S.A.) held a joint conference from June 21-25, 2004 in Bangalore, India to strengthen and expand cooperation in the area of space science, applications, and commerce. Following the recommendations in the joint vision statement released at the end of the conference, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Indian Space and Reconnaissance Organization (ISRO) initiated several joint science projects in the area of satellite product development and applications. This is an extraordinary step since it concentrates on improvements in the data and scientific exchange between India and the United States, consistent with a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by the two nations in 1997. With the relationship between both countries strengthening with President Bush's visit in early 2006 and new program announcements between the two countries, there is a renewed commitment at ISRO and other Indian agencies and at NOAA in the U.S. to fulfill the agreements reached on the joint science projects. The collaboration is underway with several science projects that started in 2005 providing initial results. NOAA and ISRO agreed that the projects must promote scientific understanding of the satellite data and lead to a satellite-based decision support systems for disaster and public health warnings. The projects target the following areas: --supporting a drought monitoring system for India --improving precipitation estimates over India from Kalpana-1 --increasing aerosol optical depth measurements and products over India --developing early indicators of malaria and other vector borne diseases via satellite monitoring of environmental conditions and linking them to predictive models --monitoring sea surface temperature (SST) from INSAT-3D to support improved forecasting of regional storms, monsoon onset and cyclones. The research collaborations and results from these projects will be presented and discussed in the

  1. The POLARCAT Model Intercomparison Project (POLMIP): overview and evaluation with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, L. K.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Huijnen, V.; Tilmes, S.; Law, K. S.; Thomas, J. L.; Raut, J.-C.; Bouarar, I.; Turquety, S.; Long, Y.; Duncan, B.; Steenrod, S.; Strode, S.; Flemming, J.; Mao, J.; Langner, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Tarasick, D.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, D. R.; Cohen, R. C.; Dibb, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Fried, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, L. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Nowak, J.; Peischl, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Warneke, C.; Helmig, D.

    2015-06-01

    A model intercomparison activity was inspired by the large suite of observations of atmospheric composition made during the International Polar Year (2008) in the Arctic. Nine global and two regional chemical transport models participated in this intercomparison and performed simulations for 2008 using a common emissions inventory to assess the differences in model chemistry and transport schemes. This paper summarizes the models and compares their simulations of ozone and its precursors and presents an evaluation of the simulations using a variety of surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite observations. Each type of measurement has some limitations in spatial or temporal coverage or in composition, but together they assist in quantifying the limitations of the models in the Arctic and surrounding regions. Despite using the same emissions, large differences are seen among the models. The cloud fields and photolysis rates are shown to vary greatly among the models, indicating one source of the differences in the simulated chemical species. The largest differences among models, and between models and observations, are in NOy partitioning (PAN vs. HNO3) and in oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetaldehyde and acetone. Comparisons to surface site measurements of ethane and propane indicate that the emissions of these species are significantly underestimated. Satellite observations of NO2 from the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) have been used to evaluate the models over source regions, indicating anthropogenic emissions are underestimated in East Asia, but fire emissions are generally overestimated. The emission factors for wildfires in Canada are evaluated using the correlations of VOCs to CO in the model output in comparison to enhancement factors derived from aircraft observations, showing reasonable agreement for methanol and acetaldehyde but underestimate ethanol, propane and acetone, while overestimating ethane emission factors.

  2. The POLARCAT Model Intercomparison Project (POLMIP): overview and evaluation with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, L. K.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Huijnen, V.; Tilmes, S.; Law, K. S.; Thomas, J. L.; Raut, J.-C.; Bouarar, I.; Turquety, S.; Long, Y.; Duncan, B.; Steenrod, S.; Strode, S.; Flemming, J.; Mao, J.; Langner, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Tarasick, D.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, D. R.; Cohen, R. C.; Dibb, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Fried, A.; Hall, S. R.; Huey, L. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Nowak, J.; Peischl, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Warneke, C.; Helmig, D.

    2014-11-01

    A model intercomparison activity was inspired by the large suite of atmospheric chemistry observations made during the International Polar Year (2008) in the Arctic. Nine global and two regional chemical transport models have performed simulations for 2008 using a common emissions inventory to quantify the differences in model chemistry and transport schemes. This paper summarizes the models and compares their simulations of ozone and its precursors, and presents an evaluation of the simulations using a variety of surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite observations. Despite using the same emissions, large differences are seen among the models. Differences in a number of model parameters are identified as contributing to differences in the modelled chemical species, including cloud fields and photolysis rates. The largest differences among models, and between models and observations, are in NOy partitioning (PAN vs. HNO3) and in oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetaldehyde and acetone. Comparisons to surface site measurements of ethane and propane indicate that the emissions of these species are significantly underestimated. While limited in spatial and temporal coverage, the aircraft measurements provide a simultaneous evaluation of many species. Satellite observations of NO2 from OMI have been used to evaluate the models over source regions, indicating anthropogenic emissions are underestimated in East Asia, but fire emissions are generally overestimated. The emission factors for wildfires in Canada are evaluated using the correlations of VOCs to CO in the model output in comparison to enhancement factors derived from aircraft observations, showing reasonable agreement for methanol and acetaldehyde, but underestimate of ethanol, propane and acetone, while overestimating ethane emission factors.

  3. Variability of Forest Change Rates within and among US Geographic Regions as Observed in the North American Forest Dynamics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleeweis, K.; Goward, S. N.; Huang, C.; Thomas, N.

    2009-12-01

    Forest landscape dynamics are a combination of pattern and process, both varying in space and time to produce a complex mosaic, at any time step, of forest stands in various succession phases. The patterns are formed by discrete events that leave fine scale patches overlapping in space or time. The processes that drive discrete events have differing spatio-temporal manifestations which may or may not persist over larger regions and through longer time intervals than the patterns they create. The cumulative outcome of this complex intersection of pattern and process at the landscape scale impacts higher levels of biological organization and ecosystem function. The North American Forest Dynamics Project (NAFD), a core project of the North American Carbon Program, was designed to capture forest dynamics at the spatio-temporal scale at which they occur by combining USFS FIA field measurements and biennial Landsat observations. This work explores NAFD observations within and among geographic regions and across time. This study also places these observations into the context of the patterns of processes that constrain and determine observed forest change. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonaldi, Anna; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS `detection pipeline' photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91 per cent have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power-law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that `flat' spectra result from the superposition of the emissions from different compact regions, self-absorbed up to different frequencies. Most of the objects show a spectral steepening above ≃30 GHz, consistent with synchrotron emission becoming optically thin. Thus, the classical dichotomy between flat-spectrum/compact and steep-spectrum/extended radio sources, well established at cm wavelengths, breaks down at mm wavelengths. The mm-wave spectra do not show indications of the spectral break expected as the effect of `electron ageing', suggesting young source ages.

  5. The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

  6. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  7. Terahertz photometers to observe solar flares from space (SOLAR-T project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre

    The space experiment SOLAR-T designed to observe solar flares at THz frequencies was completed. We present the concept, fabrication and performance of a double THz photometers system. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and the detection of small burst transients at the same time. It is the first detecting system conceived to observe solar flare THz emissions on board of stratospheric balloons. The system has been integrated to data acquisition and telemetry modules for this application. SOLAR-T uses two Golay cell detectors preceded by low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. Its photometers can detect small solar bursts (tens of solar flux units) with sub second time resolution. One artificial Sun setup was developed to simulate actual observations. Tests comprised the whole system performance, on ambient and low pressure and temperature conditions. It is intended to provide data on the still unrevealed spectral shape of the mysterious THz solar flares emissions. The experiment is planned to be on board of two long-duration stratospheric balloon flights over Antarctica and Russia in 2014-2016. The SOLAR-T development, fabrication and tests has been accomplished by engineering and research teams from Mackenzie, Unicamp and Bernard Lyot Solar Observatory; Propertech Ltda.; Neuron Ltda.; and Samsung, Brazil; Tydex LCC, Russia; CONICET, Argentina; the stratospheric balloon missions will be carried in cooperation with teams from University of California, Berkeley, USA (flight over Antarctica), and Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia (flight over Russia).

  8. Inter-annual variations of CO2 observed by commercial airliner in the CONTRAIL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Umezawa, Taku

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005, we have conducted an observation program for greenhouse gases using the passenger aircraft of the Japan Airlines named Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL). Over the past 10 years, successful operation of Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) has delivered more than 6 million in-situ CO2 data from about 12000 flights between Japan and Europe, Australia, North America, or Asia. The large number of CME data enable us to well characterize spatial distributions and seasonal changes of CO2 in wide regions of the globe especially the Asia-Pacific regions. While the mean growth rates for the past 10 years were about 2 ppm/year, large growth rates of about 3 ppm/year were found in the wide latitudinal bands from 30S to 70N from the second half of 2012 to the first half of 2013. The multiyear data sets have the potential to help understand the global/regional CO2 budget. One good example is the significant inter-annual difference in CO2 vertical profiles observed over Singapore between October 2014 and October 2015, which is attributable to the massive biomass burnings in Indonesia in 2015.

  9. Stereo observations of sprites in support of NHK project: The Cosmic Shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Cummer, S. A.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Kudo, T.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    High speed (~10,000 frames per second) stereo observations of sprites were made during a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign June 27 to July 10, 2011. Observations were made from two Gulfstream IV jet aircraft, based at Denver Centennial, and from the ground at Langmuir Laboratory, NM, Yucca Ridge Field Station, CO, and Rapid City, SD. The aircraft were flown at an altitude of 14 km along same track positioned 200-300 km from sprite producing thunderstorms. The aircraft separation was 30-50 km to provide good stereo viewing. The sprite activity during the campaign was good with several very large sprites, so-called jellyfish or super sprites. A number of sprites were recorded from both aircraft, and several from aircraft and one ground site. These recordings will in particular allow us to follow the development and the track of individual sprite streamers. In addition we recorded ground-based electromagnetic signals from the causal lightning strikes. On the last flight we observed a number of blue jets coming from a spatially small area, which may have been associated with local strong precipitation and hail.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  11. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  12. The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by

  13. Observation of seismicity based on DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result from DOMERAPI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Kristyawan, Said; Sembiring, Andry Syaly; Mtaxian, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    DOMERAPI project has involved earth scientists from Indonesia and France to conduct comprehensively a study of the internal structure of Mt. Merapi and its vicinity based on seismic tomographic imaging. The DOMERAPI seismic network was running from October 2013 to April 2015 consisting of 53 broad-band seismometers, covering Mt. Merapi and Mt. Merbabu, and some geological features such as Opak and Dengkeng faults. Earthquake hypocenter determination conducted in this study is an important step before seismic tomographic imaging. The earthquake events were identified and picked manually and carefully. The majority of earthquakes occured outside the DOMERAPI network. The ray paths of seismic waves from these earthquakes passed through the deep part of the study area around Merapi. The joint data of BMKG and DOMERAPI networks can minimize the azimuthal gap, which is often used to obtain an indication of the reliability of the epicentral solution. Our preliminary results show 279 events from October 2013 to mid August 2014. For future work, we will incorporate the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Technology Development of Geological Disaster) data catalogue in order to enrich seismic ray paths. The combined data catalogues will provide information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  14. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  15. The Lockman Hole project: LOFAR observations and spectral index properties of low-frequency radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; van Bemmel, I. M.; Shimwell, T. W.; Brienza, M.; Best, P. N.; Brüggen, M.; Rivera, G. Calistro; de Gasperin, F.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harwood, J. J.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mandal, S.; Miley, G. K.; Retana-Montenegro, E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Tasse, C.; van Velzen, S.; van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; White, G. J.

    2016-09-01

    The Lockman Hole is a well-studied extragalactic field with extensive multi-band ancillary data covering a wide range in frequency, essential for characterising the physical and evolutionary properties of the various source populations detected in deep radio fields (mainly star-forming galaxies and AGNs). In this paper we present new 150-MHz observations carried out with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), allowing us to explore a new spectral window for the faint radio source population. This 150-MHz image covers an area of 34.7 square degrees with a resolution of 18.6×14.7 arcsec and reaches an rms of 160 μJy beam-1 at the centre of the field. As expected for a low-frequency selected sample, the vast majority of sources exhibit steep spectra, with a median spectral index of α _{150}^{1400}=-0.78± 0.015. The median spectral index becomes slightly flatter (increasing from α _{150}^{1400}=-0.84 to α _{150}^{1400}=-0.75) with decreasing flux density down to S150 ˜10 mJy before flattening out and remaining constant below this flux level. For a bright subset of the 150-MHz selected sample we can trace the spectral properties down to lower frequencies using 60-MHz LOFAR observations, finding tentative evidence for sources to become flatter in spectrum between 60 and 150 MHz. Using the deep, multi-frequency data available in the Lockman Hole, we identify a sample of 100 Ultra-steep spectrum (USS) sources and 13 peaked spectrum sources. We estimate that up to 21 per cent of these could have z > 4 and are candidate high-z radio galaxies, but further follow-up observations are required to confirm the physical nature of these objects.

  16. Local - Air Project: Tropospheric Aerosol Monitoring by CALIPSO Lidar Satellite and Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarli, V.; Trippetta, S.; Bitonto, P.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Caggiano, R.; Donvito, A.; Mona, L.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for the detection of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height from CALIPSO space-borne lidar data was developed and the possibility to infer the sub-micrometric aerosol particle (i.e., PM1) concentrations at ground level from CALIPSO observations was also explored. The comparison with ground-based lidar measurements from an EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar Network) station showed the reliability of the developed method for the PBL. Moreover, empirical relationships between integrated backscatter values from CALIPSO and PM1 concentrations were found thanks to the combined use of the retrieved PBL heights, CALIPSO aerosol profiles and typing and PM1 insitu measurements.

  17. Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

    2011-12-01

    From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

  18. Microphysical Observations and Mesoscale Model Simulation of a Warm Fog Case during FRAM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Milbrandt, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this work is to apply a new microphysical parameterization for fog visibility for potential use in numerical weather forecast simulations, and to compare the results with ground-based observations. The observations from the Fog Remote Sensing And Modeling (FRAM) field which took place during the winter of 2005 2006 over southern Ontario, Canada (Phase I) were used in the analysis. The liquid water content (LWC), droplet number concentration (N d ), and temperature (T) were obtained from the fog measuring device (FMD) spectra and Rosemount probe, correspondingly. The visibility (Vis) from a visibility meter, liquid water path from microwave radiometers (MWR), and inferred fog properties such as mean volume diameter, LWC, and N d were also used in the analysis. The results showed that Vis is nonlinearly related to both LWC and N d . Comparisons between newly derived parameterizations and the ones already in use as a function of LWC suggested that if models can predict the total N d and LWC at each time step using a detailed microphysics parameterization, Vis can then be calculated for warm fog conditions. Using outputs from the Canadian Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) model, being tested with a new multi-moment bulk microphysical scheme, the new Vis parameterization resulted in more accurate Vis values where the correction reached up to 20 50%.

  19. Personal Active Dosimeter for Space: the Light Observer for Radiation Environment (LORE) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio

    Long permanence in space outside the protections of the Earth magnetic shield and atmosphere (during long journeys, and on the Moon or/and Mars) requires a careful monitoring of absorbed doses by each astronaut. This is of paramount importance for transient and cumulative effects mostly due to Solar Particle Events. Alarming features and the possibility of monitoring absorbed dose also discriminating the kind of incoming radiation will be needed. Stemming from our large experience in detector building, in modelling, in designing of the supporting electronic, from our payloads flown on satellites, MIR Station and ISS (Nina, Mita, SilEye, SilEye2, Alteino, Pamela, ALTEA) we are developping a personal active dosimeter with alarming and wireless features. The goal is a small object able to measure charged and neutral ionizing radiation (the possibility to insert a miniaturized gamma detector will be investigated) The device will feature portability (cigarette-box dimensions, rechargeable batteries), sensitivity to ions (H to above Fe), to hard X-rays, and possibly to gamma with the ability to detect and count neutrons. Flash memories should contain pre loaded tables and the real Time code to perform the real time operations and risk thresholds so to activate an alarm if/when needed. Whenever in range, the device will connect wirelessly to the main computer and send there the raw and pre-analyzed data for a complete monitoring and possible more sophisticated analyses. The two major novelties and challenges in this project are the miniaturization of the device, including the firmware, and the definition of the transfer function and of its uncertainties, linking measured data with real flux data. This will require the proper balancing among size, radiation discrimination ability and uncertainty minimization.

  20. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During surface remedial action, an estimated 7.0 million tons (6.4 million tonnes) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized on the Falls City site. The ground water protection strategy at the Falls City disposal site for the UMTRA Surface Project (Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) was an application for supplemental standards, based on Class III (limited use) ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This water is not a current or potential source of drinking water. Ground water from the uppermost aquifer (ground water from the Deweesville/Conquista Members and the Dilworth Member) contains widespread ambient contamination resulting from naturally occurring conditions and from the effects of human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). The ground water cannot be effectively cleaned up for drinking or other beneficial purposes using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Texas concurred with the ground water protection strategy for the disposal site in September 1992. Surface remedial action in accord with Subpart A was completed in April 1994. The proposed ground water compliance strategy (Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) at the Falls City site is to perform no remedial action based on application for supplemental standards because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as Class III ground water. Class III ground water includes ground water that is not a current or potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e) (1994)). Although supplemental standards are being applied, the potential use of ground water in the site vicinity will be protected.

  1. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The requirements for ground water compliance for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Tuba City, Arizona, site, are found in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; Subparts B and C of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR 192 (1994)), and the associated proposed 1987 standards (52 FR 36000). During the surface remedial action, an estimated 1,400,000 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (1,100,000 cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized in place in an unlined disposal cell covering 50 acres (20 hectares). The surface remedial action was completed in April 1990. Ground water beneath the Tuba City site was contaminated by subsurface migration of water from uranium ore processing activities. The main source of contaminants was water from the tailings piles that began in 1956 when the mill opened and ended in 1966 when the mill closed. 800,000 tons (725,000 tonnes) of uranium ore were processed onsite over a 10-year period. The wet tailings remaining after processing were placed as a slurry in three piles at the site. Water from these tailings then seeped into the ground and migrated downward to the ground water. The Tuba City site is currently in a post-stabilization, prelicensing status. The site is expected to remain in this status until licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The preliminary ground water compliance strategy at the Tuba City site is active remediation-specific technology to be evaluated is in situ bioremediation. This selection was made because of the potential ability of bioremediation to reduce concentrations to lower levels than a conventional extraction system and to minimize disturbance of the water resource.

  2. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The requirements for ground water compliance for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Tuba City, Arizona, site, are found in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; Subparts B and C of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR 192 (1994)), and the associated proposed 1987 standards (52 FR 36000). During the surface remedial action, an estimated 1,400,000 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (1,100,000 cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized in place in an unlined disposal cell covering 50 acres (20 hectares). The surface remedial action was completed in April 1990. Ground water beneath the Tuba City site was contaminated by subsurface migration of water from uranium ore processing activities. The main source of contaminants was water from the tailings piles that began in 1956 when the mill opened and ended in 1966 when the mill closed. A total of 800,000 tons (725,000 tonnes) of uranium ore were processed onsite over a 10-year period. Two processes were used to refine the ore: an acid leach process and a sodium carbonate alkaline process. Water from these tailings then seeped into the ground and migrated downward to the ground water. The Tuba City site is currently in a post-stabilization, prelicensing status. The preliminary ground water compliance strategy at the Tuba City site is active remediation. The specific technology to be evaluated is in situ bioremediation. This selection was made because of the potential ability of bioremediation to reduce concentrations to lower levels than a conventional extraction system and to minimize disturbance of the water resource.

  3. Arctic aerosol and cloud measurements in the frame of the Ice-Atmosphere-Ocean Observing System (IAOOS) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelon, J.; Mariage, V.; Blouzon, F.; Geyskens, N.; Victori, S.; Amarouche, N.; Drezen, C.; Guillot, A.; Calzas, M.; Garracio, M.; Desautez, A.; Pascal, N.; Raut, J. C.; Sennechael, N.; Provost, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the French IAOOS Equipex project, a new observational network is to be developed for the ocean-ice-atmosphere survey over the Arctic starting in 2015 to better understand interactions and in particular the role of aerosols and clouds in the Arctic. Eye-safe lidar measurements will allow to profile aerosols and clouds for the atmospheric part, with the objective to perform regular measurements and characterize their vertical structure and optical properties complementing satellite observations. Radiation and meteorological parameters will simultaneously be measured at the surface. A first buoy has been prototyped and deployed in April 2014 at the Barneo site set by the Russian teams at the North Pole. Measurements with the first autonomous backscatter lidar ever deployed in the arctic have been taken from April to end of November 2014 before the buoy was lost. A second set of data were acquired during the N-ICE campaign north of Svalbard during winter 2015. Up to four profiles a day (10 mn sequence each) have been performed allowing a good sampling with respect to meteorological analyses. Observations have shown that the occurrence of low level clouds was higher than 90% during summer. New deployments are planned in summer 2015 as the start of the IAOOS network. The project is presented, instruments are described and first results are discussed.

  4. Observational Study Of The Pacific Western Boundary Currents And The Indonesian Throughflow by the CAS Strategic Priority Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, D.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The warm pool in the western Pacific Ocean has significant impact on the evolution of ENSO and the East Asian monsoon. Ocean circulation in the western Pacific Ocean and in Indonesian seas plays an important role in the interannual climate variations and predictability of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. A major observational program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is recently launched to study the western Pacific Ocean circulation and the warm pool to test these scientific hypotheses. The physical oceanography project called the "Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and the Warm Pool Variability" is by far the largest and the most intensive observational program in history in the western Pacific ocean study. In this talk, the background and scientific hypotheses of the project, the observational design in the western Pacific Ocean, Indonesian seas, and the eastern Indian Ocean region, and some preliminary results of the program will be presented. The talk serves to encourage more scientists to collaborate in the studies of the ocean circulation and climate in the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans.

  5. The ESPRI project: astrometric exoplanet search with PRIMA. I. Instrument description and performance of first light observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Henning, T.; Queloz, D.; Quirrenbach, A.; Elias, N. M.; Launhardt, R.; Pepe, F.; Reffert, S.; Ségransan, D.; Setiawan, J.; Abuter, R.; Andolfato, L.; Bizenberger, P.; Baumeister, H.; Chazelas, B.; Delplancke, F.; Dérie, F.; Di Lieto, N.; Duc, T. P.; Fleury, M.; Graser, U.; Kaminski, A.; Köhler, R.; Lévêque, S.; Maire, C.; Mégevand, D.; Mérand, A.; Michellod, Y.; Moresmau, J.-M.; Mohler, M.; Müller, A.; Müllhaupt, P.; Naranjo, V.; Sache, L.; Salvade, Y.; Schmid, C.; Schuhler, N.; Schulze-Hartung, T.; Sosnowska, D.; Tubbs, B.; van Belle, G. T.; Wagner, K.; Weber, L.; Zago, L.; Zimmerman, N.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The ESPRI project relies on the astrometric capabilities offered by the PRIMA facility of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer for discovering and studying planetary systems. Our survey consists of obtaining high-precision astrometry for a large sample of stars over several years to detect their barycentric motions due to orbiting planets. We present the operation's principle, the instrument's implementation, and the results of a first series of test observations. Aims: We give a comprehensive overview of the instrument infrastructure and present the observation strategy for dual-field relative astrometry in the infrared K-band. We describe the differential delay lines, a key component of the PRIMA facility that was delivered by the ESPRI consortium, and discuss their performance within the facility. This paper serves as reference for future ESPRI publications and for the users of the PRIMA facility. Methods: Observations of bright visual binaries were used to test the observation procedures and to establish the instrument's astrometric precision and accuracy. The data reduction strategy for the astrometry and the necessary corrections to the raw data are presented. Adaptive optics observations with NACO were used as an independent verification of PRIMA astrometric observations. Results: The PRIMA facility was used to carry out tests of astrometric observations. The astrometric performance in terms of precision is limited by the atmospheric turbulence at a level close to the theoretical expectations and a precision of 30 μas was achieved. In contrast, the astrometric accuracy is insufficient for the goals of the ESPRI project and is currently limited by systematic errors that originate in the part of the interferometer beamtrain that is not monitored by the internal metrology system. Conclusions: Our observations led to defining corrective actions required to make the facility ready for carrying out the ESPRI search for extrasolar planets. Part of this

  6. Some observations on the cerebellopontine projections in the cat--with a hypothesis to explain species differences.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, N M; Willemse-vd Geest, L; Kornet, M

    1984-01-27

    The projection from the lateral and interposed nuclei of the cerebellum to the pons was investigated by means of autoradiography of anterogradely transported tritiated leucine. Dense termination, in part of axo-somatic nature, was observed in clusters within the central part of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis. Termination in the pontine nuclei proper was found in small clusters directly ventral to the medial lemniscus and in trace-like amounts in the paramedian subnucleus. The results are discussed in relation to ponto-cerebellar circuits and comparative neuroanatomy. PMID:6717854

  7. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (4) Gravity tide observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Miura, S.; Sun, W.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Heavner, M.

    2006-12-01

    The southeastern Alaska shows a large uplift rate as 30 mm/yr at most, which is considered to be closely related to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) including two effects of the past and present-day ice melting (Larsen et al., 2004). So, this area is important to improve our knowledge of the viscoelastic property of the earth and to consider the global changes. Combing the displacement and gravity observations is useful to constrain the model computation results for GIA (Sato et al., 2006). In order to progress the previous work by the group of Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), an observation project by Japan and USA groups was started in 2005 (Miura et al., this meeting). Under this project, June 2006, the continuous GPS measurements started (M. Kufman et al., this meeting) and the absolute gravity (AG) measurements were conducted (W. Sun et al., this meeting). Precise correction for the effect of ocean tide loading is one of the key to increase the observation accuracy of the GPS and gravity observations, especially for the AG measurement. Thanks for the satellite sea surface altimeters such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, the accuracy of global ocean tide models based on these data has been much improved, and its accuracy is estimated at a level better than 1.3 cm as a RMS error of the vector differences of the 8 main tidal waves (Matsumoto et al., 2006). However, on the other hand, it is known that the southeastern Alaska is a place that shows a large discrepancy among the proposed global ocean tide models mainly due to a complex topography and bathymetry of the fjord area. In order to improve the accuracy of the ocean tide correction, we started the gravity tide observation at Juneau from June 2006. Two kinds of gravimeters are used for the observation. Sampling interval of the data is at every 1 min. We analyzed the 1 month data from the beginning of the observation and compared the tidal analysis results with the model tide including both effects of the

  8. Image-domain sampling properties of the Hotelling Observer in CT using filtered back-projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-03-01

    The Hotelling Observer (HO),1 along with its channelized variants,2 has been proposed for image quality evaluation in x-ray CT.3,4 In this work, we investigate HO performance for a detection task in parallel-beam FBP as a function of two image-domain sampling parameters, namely pixel size and field-of-view. These two parameters are of central importance in adapting HO methods to use in CT, since the large number of pixels in a single image makes direct computation of HO performance for a full image infeasible in most cases. Reduction of the number of image pixels and/or restriction of the image to a region-of-interest (ROI) has the potential to make direct computation of HO statistics feasible in CT, provided that the signal and noise properties lead to redundant information in some regions of the image. For small signals, we hypothesize that reduction of image pixel size and enlargement of the image field-of-view are approximately equivalent means of gaining additional information relevant to a detection task. The rationale for this hypothesis is that the backprojection operation in FBP introduces long range correlations so that, for small signals, the reconstructed signal outside of a small ROI is not linearly independent of the signal within the ROI. In this work, we perform a preliminary investigation of this hypothesis by sweeping these two sampling parameters and computing HO performance for a signal detection task.

  9. Extending netCDF and CF conventions to support enhanced Earth Observation Ontology services: the Prod-Trees project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Valentin, Bernard; Koubarakis, Manolis; Nativi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Access to Earth Observation products remains not at all straightforward for end users in most domains. Semantically-enabled search engines, generally accessible through Web portals, have been developed. They allow searching for products by selecting application-specific terms and specifying basic geographical and temporal filtering criteria. Although this mostly suits the needs of the general public, the scientific communities require more advanced and controlled means to find products. Ranges of validity, traceability (e.g. origin, applied algorithms), accuracy, uncertainty, are concepts that are typically taken into account in research activities. The Prod-Trees (Enriching Earth Observation Ontology Services using Product Trees) project will enhance the CF-netCDF product format and vocabulary to allow storing metadata that better describe the products, and in particular EO products. The project will bring a standardized solution that permits annotating EO products in such a manner that official and third-party software libraries and tools will be able to search for products using advanced tags and controlled parameter names. Annotated EO products will be automatically supported by all the compatible software. Because the entire product information will come from the annotations and the standards, there will be no need for integrating extra components and data structures that have not been standardized. In the course of the project, the most important and popular open-source software libraries and tools will be extended to support the proposed extensions of CF-netCDF. The result will be provided back to the respective owners and maintainers for ensuring the best dissemination and adoption of the extended format. The project, funded by ESA, has started in December 2012 and will end in May 2014. It is coordinated by Space Applications Services, and the Consortium includes CNR-IIA and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The first activities included

  10. The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIn SN 2010jl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George G.; Dessart, L.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Milne, P.; Smith, N.; Smith, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. We present results from the multi-epoch spectropolarimetric observations of the SN 2010jl. This type IIn supernova in UGC 5189A remained bright for an unusually long time allowing us to obtain 11 epochs of data over the course of 15 months. We find significant polarization in the continuum and variations in polarization across the Balmer and HeI lines. The measured polarized continuum decreased steadily over the 15 months of observations. This evolution allowed us to make a solid estimate of the interstellar polarization component thereby revealing the intrinsic supernova polarization. The polarization provides us with detailed information about the aspherical morphology of the explosion and the properties of the progenitor’s pre-explosion mass loss.

  11. Retrospective Exposure Estimation and Predicted versus Observed Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid Concentrations for Participants in the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Verónica M.; Ryan, P. Barry; Steenland, Kyle; Bartell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People living or working in eastern Ohio and western West Virginia have been exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) released by DuPont Washington Works facilities. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate historical PFOA exposures and serum concentrations experienced by 45,276 non-occupationally exposed participants in the C8 Health Project who consented to share their residential histories and a 2005–2006 serum PFOA measurement. Methods: We estimated annual PFOA exposure rates for each individual based on predicted calibrated water concentrations and predicted air concentrations using an environmental fate and transport model, individual residential histories, and maps of public water supply networks. We coupled individual exposure estimates with a one-compartment absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) model to estimate time-dependent serum concentrations. Results: For all participants (n = 45,276), predicted and observed median serum concentrations in 2005–2006 are 14.2 and 24.3 ppb, respectively [Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs) = 0.67]. For participants who provided daily public well water consumption rate and who had the same residence and workplace in one of six municipal water districts for 5 years before the serum sample (n = 1,074), predicted and observed median serum concentrations in 2005–2006 are 32.2 and 40.0 ppb, respectively (rs = 0.82). Conclusions: Serum PFOA concentrations predicted by linked exposure and ADME models correlated well with observed 2005–2006 human serum concentrations for C8 Health Project participants. These individualized retrospective exposure and serum estimates are being used in a variety of epidemiologic studies being conducted in this region. PMID:21813367

  12. Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust layers over Athens, Greece in the frame of EARLINET project (2004-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Kazadzis, S.; Pérez, C.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kokkalis, P.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis on the geometrical and optical properties of Saharan dust layers observed over Athens, Greece, in a three-year period from 1 January 2004 up to 31 December 2006. The observations of the vertical aerosol profile were performed by the multi-wavelength (355-532-1064-387-607 nm) Raman lidar system of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) operated in the city of Athens (37°98' N, 23°77' E), Greece, in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET-ASOS) project. The number of dust events was greatest in late spring, summer, and early autumn periods. This was evident also by aerosol observations during dust outbreaks obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In our lidar measurements, multiple aerosol dust layers of variable thickness (680-4800 m) were observed. The center of mass of these layers was located in altitudes between 1600 and 5800 m. However, the mean thickness of the dust layer typically stayed around 2700 m and the corresponding mean center of mass was of the order of 2900 m. The top of the dust layer ranged from 2000 to 8000 m, with a mean value of the order of 4700 m. MODIS observations during dust outbreaks showed that the AOD values at 550 nm ranged between 0.3-0.6, while the corresponding Angström exponent (AE) values were of the order of 0.5-0.65, indicating the presence of rather large particles.

  13. Multi-year Satellite and Surface Observations of AOD in support of Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John

    2012-11-01

    We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interesting features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.

  14. Cognitive Factors that Impact Learning in the Field: Observations from an REU Project on Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Goodwin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Field work requires cognitive processing on many different levels, and constitutes a powerful and important learning environment. To be effective and meaningful, the context of field work must be fully understood in terms of key research questions, earlier published work, regional geology, geologic history, and geologic processes. Scale(s) of observation and sample selection methods and strategies must be defined. Logistical decisions must be made about equipment needed, points of access, and navigation in the field. Professional skills such as field note-taking, measuring structural data, and rock descriptions must be employed, including appropriate use of field tools. Interpretations of geologic features in the field must be interpreted through recall of concepts from the geologic knowledge base (e.g. crystallization history of igneous rocks interpreted through phase diagrams). Field workers need to be able to self-monitor and self-regulate their actions (metacognitively), and make adjustments to daily plans as needed. The results of field work must be accurately and effectively communicated to other geoscientists. Personal and professional ethics and values are brought to bear as decisions are made about whether or not the work has been satisfactorily completed at a field site. And, all of this must be done against a back drop of environmental factors that affect the ability to do this work (e.g. inclement weather, bears, impassable landscapes). The simultaneous relevance of all these factors creates a challenging, but rewarding environment for learning on many different scales. During our REU project to study the Precambrian rocks in the back country of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we considered these cognitive factors in designing our project curriculum. To reduce the "novelty space" of the project a website was developed that described the project goals and expected outcomes, introduced primary literature, and alerted students about the physical demands

  15. Research and Development of External Occultor Technology for the Direct Observation of Extrasolar Planetary Systems : JPL Starshades Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Herbert; Stadeler, Mehnert

    2012-01-01

    Our group conducted work during the Summer of 2012 assembling and developing JPL's Starshades Project under the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions(TDEM) initiative created by NASA, specifically TDEM stage 2. The goal of the work conducted at JPL by our group was to construct four occultor petals, the main optical components of the Starshade, for the analysis of joint deployment characteristics and of mechanical strain. A Starshade is an optical structure measuring approximately 30 meters in diameter that uses the effects of light diffraction off sheer edges, light scattering, and negative interference between waves to negate all on-axis light in a telescope's image, providing very high contrast that allows planets orbiting a target star to be observed. We completed our engineering goals in the time span of 10 weeks, during which the assembly processes of manufacture, alignment, and structural bonding took place. The Starshade technology and construction process is further discussed in the body of this paper.

  16. Trends and projections of temperature, precipitation, and snow cover during snow cover-observed period over southwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.; Dhorde, Anargha A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, tendencies in temperature, precipitation, and snow cover area over the southwestern part of Iran have been assessed. The research mainly focused on snow cover-observed period which included the months of December, January, February, March, and April in the area. This research has been divided into two parts. First part consists of an analysis of the trends in temperature, precipitation, and snow cover area during the above months. Trends in these parameters were tested by linear regression, and significance was determined by t test. Mann-Kendall rank test (MK test) was also employed to confirm the results of linear regression. Sequential Mann-Kendall test (SQ-MK test) was applied for change point detection in the series. For snow cover analysis, remote sensing images from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite with advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor for the period 1987-2007 were used. The second part of the research involved future projections based on four models under B1 and A1B emission scenarios. The models used were centre national de recherches meteorologiques (CNRM), European Center Hamburg model (ECHAM), Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROCH) and United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMOC) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR4. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during February and April. Temperature projections showed that temperature may increase between 1.12 to 7.87 °C by 2100 in the study area. The results of precipitation series indicated that majority of the stations registered insignificant trends during the twentieth century. However, precipitation may decrease according to most of the models under both scenarios, but the decrease may not be large, except according to MIROCH model. The results of trend analysis of snow cover area indicated that no significant trends were detected by any statistical tests

  17. Regional glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica estimated from GRACE, Enivsat/ICESat and GPS observations (ESA-STSE project REGINA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemann, V.; Sasgen, I.; Horwath, M.; Petrie, E. J.; Schoen, N.; Pail, R.; Horvath, A.; Bamber, J. L.; Clarke, P. J.; Konrad, H.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The viscoelastic adjustment of the solid Earth to former glacial loads in Antarctica and the associated gravity-field change and surface displacement is a major uncertainty in determining the mass balance of the ice sheet from satellite gravimetry, and, to a lesser extent, altimetry measurements such as CryoSat-2. On the other hand, measurements of GIA inferred from the geodetic observations provide valuable information on the glacial history and the lithosphere and mantle properties in Antarctica. Here, we present an improved regional GIA estimate based on GRACE, Envisat/ICESat and GPS measurements. Making use of the different sensitivities of the observations to surface-mass and solid Earth processes, we derive an improved GIA field, using an ensemble of viscoelastic response functions to a disc load forcing. The estimated GIA signal is interpreted for recent ice load changes in West Antarctica in the presence of a low-viscous upper mantle, and evaluated for correcting GRACE and CryoSat-2 measurements when determining present-day ice-mass balance in Antarctica. The results are part of the ESA-STSE project REGINA, www.regina-science.eu.

  18. The SunCloud project: worldwide compilation of long-term series of sunshine duration and cloudiness observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Pallé, Enric; Wild, Martin; Calbó, Josep; Brunetti, Michelle; Stanhill, Gerald; Brázdil, Rudolf; Barriendos, Mariano; Pereira, Paulo; Azorin-Molina, César

    2010-05-01

    homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Equally, we plan to calibrate sunshine duration measurements against planetary albedo estimations from the Earthshine measurements and other satellite radiation data. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this abstract we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. In the near future we will create a webpage with the main details of this project.

  19. The VLA Low Band Project: Early Commissioning Results and Vision for a Primary Focus-based Commensal Observing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, T. E.; Hicks, B.; Peters, W. M.; Wilson, T. L.; Cutchin, S.; Owen, F. N.; Perley, R. A.; Durand, S.; Kutz, C.; Harden, P.; Intema, H.; Brisken, W.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Taylor, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on the Jansky Very Large Array Low Band (VLA-LB) project, currently undergoing scientific commissioning and expected to be fully available in 2013. VLA-LB is a joint NRL and NRAO initiative to equip the VLA with broadband low frequency receivers that cover the spectrum between 66 and 470 MHz. The current system can already access the 66 to 86 MHz and 230 to 436 MHz sub-bands by working with existing 74 and 330 MHz feeds, respectively. The bandwidth at 74 MHz will increase by more than an order of magnitude while the 330 MHz bandwidth increases by approximately a factor of 6. The improved bandwidth and system temperature, coupled with the power of the WIDAR correlator, promise significantly enhanced performance compared to past VLA capabilities. Early commissioning results at “P band” (330 MHz) with a handful of antennas accessing the larger bandwidth indicate sensitivity rivaling that of the legacy 27-antenna, narrow-band old VLA capability. New feeds that can exploit a larger fraction of the available receiver bandwidth are being explored. While VLA-LB is useful as a conventional system, we are looking to enhance its power by leveraging the VLA’s capability to detect radiation at its prime and Cassegrain foci simultaneously. The ability to observe with more than one band in parallel is a powerful multiplier of a telescope’s function, and many instruments (e.g. the GMRT, WSRT and VLA) offer this. A variant is being explored for VLA-LB: observing from the prime focus during all normal Cassegrain observations. This proposed VLA-LB commensal system would piggyback normal VLA observing time to survey at low frequencies with relatively large field of views. Shared fields with other multi-beaming, dipole-based arrays that view the same sky with the VLA, e.g. the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), would be possible. The collected data will be assembled into a database of spectra and wide-field images, suitable for studies of

  20. Observation Targeting for the Tehachapi Pass and Mid-Columbia Basin: WindSENSE Phase III Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, D

    2011-10-22

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In Phase III of the project, the focus was on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The typical hub height of a wind turbine is approximately 80-m above ground level (AGL). So it would seem that building meteorological towers in the region upwind of a wind generation facility would provide data necessary to improve the short-term forecasts for the 80-m AGL wind speed. However, this additional meteorological information typically does not significantly improve the accuracy of the 0- to 6-hour ahead wind power forecasts because processes controlling wind variability change from day-to-day and, at times, from hour-to-hour. It is also important to note that some processes causing significant changes in wind power production function principally in the vertical direction. These processes will not be detected by meteorological towers at off-site locations. For these reasons, it is quite challenging to determine the best type of sensors and deployment locations. To address the measurement deployment problem, Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) was applied in the Phase I portion of the WindSENSE project. The ESA approach was initially designed to produce spatial fields that depict the sensitivity of a forecast metric to a set of prior state variables selected by the user. The best combination of variables and locations to improve the forecast was determined using the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA) developed in Phase I. In Zack et al. (2010a), the ESA-MOOA approach was

  1. Roemer Redux: A Virtual Observational Exercise on Jupiter's Moons and the Speed of Light from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Jan Paul; Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    Project CLEA announces a new laboratory exercise which allows students to determine the speed of light by timing eclipses of Jupiter's moon Io. The experiment is similar to Ole Roemer's classic 17th Century work which established, for the first time, that light did not travel through space instantaneously. Students view a simulated telescopic view of Jupiter and its satellites, similar to that used in the CLEA exercise, The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter. After identifying Io, they record the precise time when the moon enters Jupiter's shadow at a date about two months after conjunction. Using the recorded time of this eclipse and the known period of Io, students predict the time of an eclipse near opposition and then record the observed time of that eclipse. The discrepancy between the predicted and observed times, along with the difference in the distance between Earth and Jupiter at the two eclipses yields a value of the speed of light accurate to about 10%. Software provided with the exercise enables students to calculate predicted times and Earth/Jupiter distances, as well as to analyze the time discrepancy and to visualize the logic of the analysis. A student manual, including historical and scientific background of the exercise is provided. Our poster will present examples of the screens and manuals for the exercise and will discuss the limits of accuracy of the method and sources of error. For further information on CLEA exercises, please visit http://www.gettysburg.edu/ marschal/clea/CLEAhome.html This research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Gettysburg College.

  2. The changing role of snowmelt- and rainfall dominated floods in Norway under climate change - observations, projections, and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vormoor, Klaus; Lawrence, Deborah; Bronstert, Axel; Heistermann, Maik; Schlichting, Lena; Wilson, Donna; Kwok Wong, Wai

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is expected to modify the hydrometeorological conditions in Norway. There is increasing evidence for gradually increasing temperatures and recent changes in the intensity and frequency of (heavy) precipitation as well as in the number of days with snow cover in many parts of Norway. Climate projections for the end of the 21st century indicate continuous warming by 2.3-4.6°C, especially during winter and in northern Norway and increasing precipitation by 5-30 % particularly during autumn and winter along the west coast. Many catchments in Norway are characterized by a mixed snowmelt/rainfall regime with prominent peak flows during spring and autumn under current conditions. Changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes will have direct implications for the snow regime in Norway, and thus, most likely also on runoff and flooding via their direct effect on the relative importance of rainfall vs. snowmelt in runoff and flood generation. In this study, we have analyzed: (i) trends in the magnitude and frequency of observed snowmelt- and rainfall driven peak flows in up to 211 catchments in Norway; (ii) projected future changes in the seasonality and generation processes of floods in six Norwegian catchments based on a multi-model/multi-parameter ensemble; (iii) the contribution of the individual ensemble components to overall uncertainty; and (iv) the transferability of calibrated hydrological model parameters under contrasting flood seasonality conditions in five catchments with mixed regimes. The major findings of our analyses are as follows: i. Trends towards increasing flood frequency are more pronounced and spatially more consistent with hydrometeorological drivers than trends in flood magnitude. Regional patterns of positive trends in flood frequency agree with the increasing importance of rainfall driven peak flows, whereas negative trends are found in areas primarily dominated by snowmelt flood generation process. ii. Autumn and early

  3. New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment Through Focused Earth Observation in the MARmara SuperSITE - Project Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral OZel, Nurcan; Necmioǧlu, Öcal; Ergintav, Semih; Ozel, Oǧuz; Favali, Paolo; Bigarre, Pascal; Çakır, Ziyadin; Ozeren, Sinan; Geli, Louis; Douglas, John; Aochi, Hideo; Bossu, Remy; Zülfikar, Can; Şeşetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The MARsite Project, which started in November 2012,funded by the EC/ FP7-ENV.2012 6.4-2 (Grant 308417) identifies the Marmara region as a 'Supersite' within European initiatives to aggregate on-shore, off-shore and space-based observations, comprehensive geophysical monitoring, improved hazard and risk assessments encompassed in an integrated set of activities. MARsite aimed to harmonize geological, geophysical, geodetic and geochemical observations to provide a better view of the post-seismic deformation of the 1999 Izmit earthquake (in addition to the post-seismic signature of previous earthquakes), loading of submarine and inland active fault segments and transient pre-earthquake signals, related to stress loading with different tectonic properties in and around Marmara Sea. This presentation provides an overview of the achievements of MARSite which aimed to coordinate research groups ranging from seismology to gas geochemistry in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Marmara Region based on collection of multidisciplinary data to be shared, interpreted and merged in consistent theoretical and practical models suitable for the implementation of good practices to move the necessary information to the end users in charge of seismic risk management of the region. In addition, processes involved in earthquake generation and the physics of short-term seismic transients, 4D deformations to understand earthquake cycle processes, fluid activity monitoring and seismicity under the sea floor using existing autonomous instrumentation, early warning and development of real-time shake and loss information, real- and quasi-real-time earthquake and tsunami hazard monitoring and earthquake-induced landslide hazard topics are also covered within MARSite. In particular, achievements and progress in the design and building of a multi-parameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, with

  4. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit.

  5. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented.

  6. Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. II. Application to nine Cepheids with HST/FGS parallax measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The distance to pulsating stars is classically estimated using the parallax-of-pulsation (PoP) method, which combines spectroscopic radial velocity (RV) measurements and angular diameter (AD) estimates to derive the distance of the star. A particularly important application of this method is the determination of Cepheid distances in view of the calibration of their distance scale. However, the conversion of radial to pulsational velocities in the PoP method relies on a poorly calibrated parameter, the projection factor (p-factor). Aims: We aim to measure empirically the value of the p-factors of a homogeneous sample of nine bright Galactic Cepheids for which trigonometric parallaxes were measured with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance Sensor. Methods: We use the SPIPS algorithm, a robust implementation of the PoP method that combines photometry, interferometry, and radial velocity measurements in a global modeling of the pulsation of the star. We obtained new interferometric angular diameter measurements using the PIONIER instrument at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), completed by data from the literature. Using the known distance as an input, we derive the value of the p-factor of the nine stars of our sample and study its dependence with the pulsation period. Results: We find the following p-factors: p = 1.20 ± 0.12 for RT Aur, p = 1.48 ± 0.18 for T Vul, p = 1.14 ± 0.10 for FF Aql, p = 1.31 ± 0.19 for Y Sgr, p = 1.39 ± 0.09 for X Sgr, p = 1.35 ± 0.13 for W Sgr, p = 1.36 ± 0.08 for β Dor, p = 1.41 ± 0.10 for ζ Gem, and p = 1.23 ± 0.12 for ℓ Car. Conclusions: The values of the p-factors that we obtain are consistently close to p = 1.324 ± 0.024. We observe some dispersion around this average value, but the observed distribution is statistically consistent with a constant value of the p-factor as a function of the pulsation period (χ2 = 0.669). The error budget of our determination of the p-factor values is

  8. Tower-scale performance of four observation-based evapotranspiration algorithms within the WACMOS-ET project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Dominik; Miralles, Diego; Jimenez, Carlos; Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew F.; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Jung, Martin; Wood, Eric F.; (Bob) Su, Z.; Timmermans, Joris; Chen, Xuelong; Fisher, Joshua B.; Mu, Quiaozen; Fernandez, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Research on climate variations and the development of predictive capabilities largely rely on globally available reference data series of the different components of the energy and water cycles. Several efforts have recently aimed at producing large-scale and long-term reference data sets of these components, e.g. based on in situ observations and remote sensing, in order to allow for diagnostic analyses of the drivers of temporal variations in the climate system. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the energy and water cycle, which cannot be monitored directly on a global scale by remote sensing techniques. In recent years, several global multi-year ET data sets have been derived from remote sensing-based estimates, observation-driven land surface model simulations or atmospheric reanalyses. The LandFlux-EVAL initiative presented an ensemble-evaluation of these data sets over the time periods 1989-1995 and 1989-2005 (Mueller et al. 2013). The WACMOS-ET project (http://wacmoset.estellus.eu) started in the year 2012 and constitutes an ESA contribution to the GEWEX initiative LandFlux. It focuses on advancing the development of ET estimates at global, regional and tower scales. WACMOS-ET aims at developing a Reference Input Data Set exploiting European Earth Observations assets and deriving ET estimates produced by a set of four ET algorithms covering the period 2005-2007. The algorithms used are the SEBS (Su et al., 2002), Penman-Monteith from MODIS (Mu et al., 2011), the Priestley and Taylor JPL model (Fisher et al., 2008) and GLEAM (Miralles et al., 2011). The algorithms are run with Fluxnet tower observations, reanalysis data (ERA-Interim), and satellite forcings. They are cross-compared and validated against in-situ data. In this presentation the performance of the different ET algorithms with respect to different temporal resolutions, hydrological regimes, land cover types (including grassland, cropland, shrubland, vegetation mosaic, savanna

  9. A case study of the Thunderstorm Research International Project. 2. Interrelations among the observable parameters controlling electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, J.S.; Kasha, J.R.; Forbes, G.S. )

    1990-04-20

    In Part 1 of this paper, the data obtained at the time of the Thunderstorm Research International Project storm at the Kennedy Space Center on July 11, 1978, are discussed and analyzed in a model-independent manner. Here the parameters of the electrical system that would be consistent with these observations are discussed. Three-dimensional electrodynamic modeling of the thundercloud electrification allowed estimates to be made of the current moments and electrical power generated continuously throughout the evolution of the two cells of the storm that were studied. The evolution and configuration of the currents were consistent with the separation of an originally neutral ensemble of particles by gravity in the region of 7 km in the region close to the maximum of the updraft velocity. After about 370 s the effect of wind shears would have caused the particles to separate in the convective system of the cells. Rain did not appear to be the dominant charge carrier. The current moments generated were compared with the current moments transferred by intercloud and cloud-to-ground lightning. It is shown that for the southern cell, which produced a charge moment of about 8.4 (MC m), lightning utilized about 84% of the charge moment separated, while for the northern cell, which produced about 1.1 (MC m), this figure was approximately 60%. It was shown that the times of initiation and maximum electrical power generated correspond best with the normalized mass above 7.5 km. It was deduced that the median diameter heavier particles had a fall velocity of about 3 m/s. The generator currents, flash rates, cloud conductivities, and mean charge per flash were used to estimate the volume associated with the lower region of current divergence.

  10. Evolution of the Physicochemical and Activation Properties of Aerosols within Smoke Plumes during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Wang, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Pekour, M. S.; Shilling, J. E.; Fortner, E.; Chand, D.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Senum, G.; Schmid, B.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning from wildfires and controlled agricultural burns are known to be a major source of fine particles and organic aerosols at northern temperate latitudes during the summer months. However, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol during transport and the potential impact of this evolution on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity has rarely been studied for these events. During the DOE-sponsored Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) conducted in the summer and fall of 2013, over 30 research flights sampled biomass burning plumes from wildfires in the Northwestern United States and agricultural burns in the Mid-South region of the United States. A large suite of instruments aboard the DOE G-1 (Gulfstream-1) measured the chemical, physical, and optical properties of biomass burning aerosol with an emphasis on black carbon. A Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS), Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer - Airborne (UHSAS-A), and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP) were used to measure the aerosol size distribution from 15 - 3,000 nm at 1-Hz. A dual column CCN counter measured the CCN number concentration at supersaturations of 0.25% and 0.50% at a time resolution of 1-Hz and the aerosol chemical composition was measured using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, Aerodyne, Inc). The SP-AMS was operated in two modes: (i) as a traditional high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Inc.), which measured chemical composition of non-refractory aerosols and (ii) as the SP-AMS which measured chemical composition of the refractory black carbon-containing (rBC) particle coating and rBC aerosol mass. Utilizing the aforementioned measurements, a CCN closure study is used to investigate the emitted aerosol hygroscopicity, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol, and the potential impacts on cloud microphysics from the different fuel sources.

  11. Highly resolved observations of trace gases in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere from the Spurt project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Franke, H.; Günther, G.; Gurk, C.; Hegglin, M.; Hoor, P.; Königstedt, R.; Krebsbach, M.; Maser, R.; Parchatka, U.; Peter, Th.; Schell, D.; Schiller, C.; Schmidt, U.; Spelten, N.; Szabo, T.; Weers, U.; Wernli, H.; Wetter, Th.; Wirth, V.

    2005-07-01

    During SPURT (Spurenstofftransport in der Tropopausenregion, trace gas transport in the tropopause region) we performed measurements of a wide range of trace gases with different lifetimes and sink/source characteristics in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LMS). A large number of in-situ instruments were deployed on board a Learjet 35A, flying at altitudes up to 13.7 km, at times reaching to nearly 380 K potential temperature. Eight measurement campaigns (consisting of a total of 36 flights), distributed over all seasons and typically covering latitudes between 35° N and 75° N in the European longitude sector (10° W-20° E), were performed. Here we present an overview of the project, describing the instrumentation, the encountered meteorological situations during the campaigns and the data set available from SPURT. Measurements were obtained for N2O, CH4, CO, CO2, CFC12, H2, SF6, NO, NOy, O3 and H2O. We illustrate the strength of this new data set by showing mean distributions of the mixing ratios of selected trace gases, using a potential temperature - equivalent latitude coordinate system. The observations reveal that the LMS is most stratospheric in character during spring, with the highest mixing ratios of O3 and NOy and the lowest mixing ratios of N2O and SF6. The lowest mixing ratios of NOy and O3 are observed during autumn, together with the highest mixing ratios of N2O and SF6 indicating a strong tropospheric influence. For H2O, however, the maximum concentrations in the LMS are found during summer, suggesting unique (temperature- and convection-controlled) conditions for this molecule during transport across the tropopause. The SPURT data set is presently the most accurate and complete data set for many trace species in the LMS, and its main value is the simultaneous measurement of a suite of trace gases having different lifetimes and physical-chemical histories. It is thus very well suited for studies of

  12. Highly resolved observations of trace gases in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere from the Spurt project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Brunner, D.; Fischer, H.; Franke, H.; Günther, G.; Gurk, C.; Hegglin, M.; Hoor, P.; Königstedt, R.; Krebsbach, M.; Maser, R.; Parchatka, U.; Peter, T.; Schell, D.; Schiller, C.; Schmidt, U.; Spelten, N.; Szabo, T.; Weers, U.; Wernli, H.; Wetter, T.; Wirth, V.

    2006-02-01

    During SPURT (Spurenstofftransport in der Tropopausenregion, trace gas transport in the tropopause region) we performed measurements of a wide range of trace gases with different lifetimes and sink/source characteristics in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LMS). A large number of in-situ instruments were deployed on board a Learjet 35A, flying at altitudes up to 13.7 km, at times reaching to nearly 380 K potential temperature. Eight measurement campaigns (consisting of a total of 36 flights), distributed over all seasons and typically covering latitudes between 35° N and 75° N in the European longitude sector (10° W-20° E), were performed. Here we present an overview of the project, describing the instrumentation, the encountered meteorological situations during the campaigns and the data set available from SPURT. Measurements were obtained for N2O, CH4, CO, CO2, CFC12, H2, SF6, NO, NOy, O3 and H2O. We illustrate the strength of this new data set by showing mean distributions of the mixing ratios of selected trace gases, using a potential temperature-equivalent latitude coordinate system. The observations reveal that the LMS is most stratospheric in character during spring, with the highest mixing ratios of O3 and NOy and the lowest mixing ratios of N2O and SF6. The lowest mixing ratios of NOy and O3 are observed during autumn, together with the highest mixing ratios of N2O and SF6 indicating a strong tropospheric influence. For H2O, however, the maximum concentrations in the LMS are found during summer, suggesting unique (temperature- and convection-controlled) conditions for this molecule during transport across the tropopause. The SPURT data set is presently the most accurate and complete data set for many trace species in the LMS, and its main value is the simultaneous measurement of a suite of trace gases having different lifetimes and physical-chemical histories. It is thus very well suited for studies of

  13. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    One problem encountered when establishing the causes of global dimming and brightening is the limited number of long-term solar radiation series with accurate and calibrated measurements. For this reason, the analysis is often supported and extended with the use of other climatic variables such as sunshine duration and cloud cover. Specifically, sunshine duration is defined as the amount of time usually expressed in hours that direct solar radiation exceeds a certain threshold (usually taken at 120 W m-2). Consequently, this variable can be considered as an excellent proxy measure of solar radiation at interannual and decadal time scales, with the advantage that measurements of this variable were initiated in the late 19th century in different, worldwide, main meteorological stations. Nevertheless, detailed and up-to-date analysis of sunshine duration behavior on global or hemispheric scales are still missing. Thus, starting on September 2010 in the framework of different research projects, we will engage a worldwide compilation of the longest daily or monthly sunshine duration series from the late 19th century until present. Several quality control checks and homogenization methods will be applied to the generated sunshine dataset. The relationship between the more precise downward solar radiation series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this presentation we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. The SunCloud Team: M. Wild, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  14. Long-term variations of absolute and superconducting gravity values in Southeast Alaska, observed by the ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, T.; Hideaki, H.; Miura, S.; Kaufman, M.; Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that gravity values have been decreasing in Southeast Alaska, mainly due to glacier mass changes from the end of the Little Ice Age to the present. For example, absolute gravity measurements made by the ISEA1 project (2006-2008) showed a maximum gravity change rate of -5.6 micro-gal/year (Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012a), which was consistent with large uplift rates obtained from GPS data (Larsen et al., 2005). However, the newly-obtained absolute gravity values in 2012 were about 10 micro-gal greater than expected based on the gravity trends of Sun et al. (2010), possibly because of above-average snowfall in the winter of 2011-2012 (Sato et al., 2012b). In order to monitor spatiotemporal gravity changes associated with glacier mass changes, seasonal hydrological gravity changes should be quantified via continuous gravity observations and/or hydrological modeling. We thus installed a superconducting gravimeter iGrav (serial number: 003) at Egan Library, University of Alaska Southeast in June 2012, as part of the ISEA2 project (2011-2015). The mass position (unit: volts) and air pressure have been recorded every second since June 2012, and the gravity value was then calculated from the mass position, using the scale factor of -89.561 micro-gal/V (Sato et al., 2012b). After the removal of tidal gravity changes using the BAYTAP software (Tamura et al., 1991), a gravity change of 4 micro-gal in peak to peak was extracted from the long-term superconducting gravity data from June 2012 to July 2013. Note that this non-tidal gravity change includes the instrumental drift, although the drift rate was very small (less than 1 micro-gal/year) according to the linear regression to the gravity change. We will discuss possible physical mechanisms of the non-tidal gravity change associated with water redistribution, using a hydrological model (e.g., Kazama et al., 2012) and/or long-term weather data. In addition, we also measured absolute gravity values at 6

  15. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  16. Large-scale atmospheric circulation and local particulate matter concentrations in Bavaria - from current observations to future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Weitnauer, Claudia; Brosy, Caroline; Hald, Cornelius; Lochbihler, Kai; Siegmund, Stefan; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) may have distinct adverse effects on human health. Spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations reflect local emission rates, but are as well influenced by the local and synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions. Against this background, it can be furthermore argued that potential future climate change and associated variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation and local meteorological parameters will probably provoke corresponding changes in future PM10 concentration levels. The DFG-funded research project „Particulate matter and climate change in Bavaria" aimed at establishing quantitative relationships between daily and monthly PM10 indices at different Bavarian urban stations and the corresponding large-scale atmospheric circulation as well as local meteorological conditions. To this end, several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed for the period 1980 to 2011. PM10 data from 19 stations from the air quality monitoring network (LÜB) of the Bavarian Environmental Agency (LfU) have been utilized as predictands. Large-scale atmospheric gridded data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data base and local meteorological observational data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) served as predictors. The downscaling approaches encompass the synoptic downscaling of daily PM10 concentrations and several multivariate statistical models for the estimation of daily and monthly PM10, i.e.monthly mean and number of days exceeding a certain PM10 concentration threshold. Both techniques utilize objective circulation type classifications, which have been optimized with respect to their synoptic skill for the target variable PM10. All downscaling approaches have been evaluated via cross validation using varying subintervals of the 1980-2011 period as calibration and validation periods respectively. The most suitable - in terms of model skill determined from cross

  17. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3–8 keV luminosity LX ∼ 1036–1039 erg s‑1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s‑1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}∼ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}∼ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}∼ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s‑1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  18. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. II. Properties of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Brodie, Jean P.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115 using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2σ detection, with 0.3-8 keV luminosity LX ˜ 1036-1039 erg s-1. Other than 13 transient candidates, the sources overall have less long-term variability at higher luminosity, at least at {L}{{X}}≳ 2× {10}37 erg s-1. In order to identify the nature and spectral state of our sources, we compared their collective spectral properties based on single-component models (a simple power law or a multicolor disk) with the spectral evolution seen in representative Galactic LMXBs. We found that in the LX versus photon index {{{Γ }}}{PL} and LX versus disk temperature kTMCD plots, most of our sources fall on a narrow track in which the spectral shape hardens with increasing luminosity below {L}{{X}}˜ 7× {10}37 erg s-1, but is relatively constant ({{{Γ }}}{PL}˜ 1.5 or {{kT}}{MCD}˜ 1.5 keV) above this luminosity, which is similar to the spectral evolution of Galactic neutron star (NS) LMXBs in the soft state in the Chandra bandpass. Therefore, we identified the track as the NS LMXB soft-state track and suggested sources with {L}{{X}}≲ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as atolls in the soft state and those with {L}{{X}}≳ 7× {10}37 erg s-1 as Z sources. Ten other sources (five are transients) displayed significantly softer spectra and are probably black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state. One of them (persistent) is in a metal-poor GC.

  19. Comparison of Channel Methods and Observer Models for the Task-Based Assessment of Multi-Projection Imaging in the Presence of Structured Anatomical Noise.

    PubMed

    Park, Subok; Zhang, George; Myers, Kyle J

    2016-06-01

    Although Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels are often used for the task-based assessment of multi-projection imaging, LG channels may not be the most reliable in providing performance trends as a function of system or object parameters for all situations. Partial least squares (PLS) channels are more flexible in adapting to background and signal data statistics and were shown to be more efficient for detection tasks involving 2D non-Gaussian random backgrounds (Witten , 2010). In this work, we investigate ways of incorporating spatial correlations in the multi-projection data space using 2D LG channels and two implementations of PLS in the channelized version of the 3D projection Hotelling observer (Park , 2010) (3Dp CHO). Our task is to detect spherical and elliptical 3D signals in the angular projections of a structured breast phantom ensemble. The single PLS (sPLS) incorporates the spatial correlation within each projection, whereas the combined PLS (cPLS) incorporates the spatial correlations both within each of and across the projections. The 3Dp CHO-R indirectly incorporates the spatial correlation from the response space (R), whereas the 3Dp CHO-C from the channel space (C). The 3Dp CHO-R-sPLS has potential to be a good surrogate observer when either sample size is small or one training set is used for training both PLS channels and observer. So does the 3Dp CHO-C-cPLS when the sample size is large enough to have a good sized independent set for training PLS channels. Lastly a stack of 2D LG channels used as 3D channels in the CHO-C model showed the capability of incorporating the spatial correlation between the multiple angular projections. PMID:26742128

  20. Back to the Future - Observing the Transit of Venus now and then a student project supporting by Europlanet Outreach Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.

    2013-09-01

    The project had many - sided targets: we tried to focus on both global as well as local aims, such as international co-operation, global and local interaction, innovation and sharing best practice. By implementing the project, we would have liked to popularise the results and impacts of the 1769 Venus expedition performed by János Sajnovics and Miksa Hell. We would have liked to highlight the pioneer work done by the two scientists, and to inspire the young generation to be creative in using modern technology.

  1. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  2. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  3. CEOP/IVE/GDP Compared With CEOP as the First-line Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Adult Patients With PTCL

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma; ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T Cell Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T Cell Lymphoma; Acute Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

  4. Using SMOS observations in the development of the SMAP level 4 surface and root-zone soil moisture project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [1]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. Along with these brightness temperature observations, ESA also disseminates retrievals of surface soil moisture that are derived ...

  5. Dynamic Assessment of Seismic Risk (DASR) by Multi-parametric Observations: Preliminary Results of PRIME experiment within the PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Parrot, M.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Alparlsan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybukia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Romano, G.

    2012-12-01

    The integration of different observations together with the refinement of data analysis methods, is generally expected to improve our present knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and of their possible precursors. This is also the main goal of PRE-EARTHQUAKES (Processing Russian and European EARTH observations for earthQUAKE precursors Studies) the FP7 Project which, to this aim, committed together, different international expertise and observational capabilities, in the last 2 years. In the learning phase of the project, different parameters (e.g. thermal anomalies, total electron content, radon concentration, etc.), measured from ground and satellite systems and analyzed by using different data analysis approaches, have been studied for selected geographic areas and specific seismic events in the past. Since July 2012 the PRIME (PRE-EARTHQUAKES Real-time Integration and Monitoring Experiment) started attempting to perform, on the base of independent observations collected and integrated in real-time through the PEG (PRE-EARTHQUAKES Geo-portal), a Dynamic Assessment of Seismic Risk (DASR) on selected geographic areas of Europe (Italy-Greece-Turkey) and Asia (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Japan). In this paper, results so far achieved as well as the potential and opportunities they open for a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) - as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) - will be presented.

  6. [The results of the multicenter pharmaco-epidemiological observational project on the use of mydocalm in the treatment of pain syndromes with the muscle spasm].

    PubMed

    Skoromets, A A; Gekht, A B; Galanov, D V; Danilenko, O A; Barantsevich, E R; Lebedeva, A V; Belova, A N; Shprakh, V V; Bogdanov, E I; Prokopenko, S V; Khabirov, F A; Spirin, N N; Baliazin, V A; Miakotnykh, V S; Volkova, L I; Gafurov, B G; Mishchenko, T S; Toktomushev, Ch T; Shyralieva, R K; Musaev, S K; Guseinov, S G

    2015-01-01

    The prospective multicenter open noncomparative pharmaco-epidemiological observational project on the use of mydocalm in real clinical practice has been completed in 2013. The project has been performed in 2090 clinical/rehabilitation settings in 284 cities of 13 countries using the results of 35,383 patients. The project aimed to assess the safety of treatment (percentage of patients with adverse-effects) and pain relieving efficacy as well as patient's satisfaction with the treatment. In total, 6603 (19%) adverse-effects were recorded. Their severity was evaluated as mild in 84,48%, no serious adverse-effects were noted. The high efficacy of mydocalm in the treatment of pain syndromes with the muscle spasm has been demonstrated. The high level of tolerability and absence of the clinically significant increase of adverse effects in the combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been confirmed. PMID:26978502

  7. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  8. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Boone, JM; Abbey, CK; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, KK; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Methods Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33 mm, 0.71 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. Results The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p<0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist’s performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92 % correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67 % for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the

  9. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo

  10. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  11. The Göttingen Solar Radial Velocity Project: Sub-m s‑1 Doppler Precision from FTS Observations of the Sun as a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, U.; Reiners, A.

    2016-09-01

    Radial velocity observations of stars are entering the sub-m s‑1 domain revealing fundamental barriers for Doppler precision experiments. Observations of the Sun as a star can easily overcome the m s‑1 photon limit but face other obstacles. We introduce the Göttingen Solar Radial Velocity Project with the goal of obtaining high-precision (cm s‑1) radial velocity measurements of the Sun as a star with a Fourier Transform Spectrograph. In this first paper, we present the project and first results. The photon limit of our 2 minute observations is at the 2 cm s‑1 level but is currently limited by strong instrumental systematics. A drift of a few m s‑1 hr‑1 is visible in all observing days, probably caused by vignetting of the solar disk in our fiber-coupled setup, and imperfections of our guiding system add further offsets in our data. Binning the data into 30 minute groups shows m s‑1 stability after correcting for a daily and linear instrumental trend. Our results show the potential of Sun-as-a-star radial velocity measurements that can possibly be achieved after a substantial upgrade of our spectrograph coupling strategy. Sun-as-a-star observations can provide crucial empirical information about the radial velocity signal of convective motion and stellar activity and on the wavelength dependence of radial velocity signals caused by stellar line profile variations.

  12. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  13. Projected and Observed Aridity and Climate Change in the East Coast of South India under RCP 4.5

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, A.; Praveen, Dhanya; Jaganathan, R.; Palanivelu, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the purview of global warming, the present study attempts to project changes in climate and quantify the changes in aridity of two coastal districts in south India under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. Projected climate change output generated by RegCM 4.4 model, pertaining to 14 grid points located within the study area, was analyzed and processed for this purpose. The meteorological parameters temperature and precipitations were used to create De Martonne Aridity Index, to assess the spatial distribution of aridity. The original index values ranged from 13.7 to 16.4 mm/°C, characterizing this area as a semidry climate. The outcome from the changed scenario analysis under RCP 4.5 showed that, during the end of the 21st century, the aridity may be increased more as the index values tend to reduce. The increasing trend in the drying phenomenon may be attributed to the rising of mean annual temperatures. PMID:26771002

  14. Observing the Sun in hard X-rays using grazing incidence optics: the FOXSI and HEROES projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Solar flares accelerate particles up to high energies through various acceleration mechanisms which are not currently understood. Hard X-rays are the most direct diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. However past and current hard x-ray observation lack the sensitivity and dynamic range necessary to observe the faint signature of accelerated electrons in the acceleration region, the solar corona. These limitations can be easily overcome through the use of HXR focusing optics coupled with solid state pixelated detectors. We present results from the recent flights of two sub-orbital payloads that have applied grazing incidence HXR optics to solar observations. FOXSI, short for Focusing Optics X-Ray Solar Imager, was launched on a sounding rocket in November 2012 from White Sanda and observed a solar flare. HEROES, short for High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, observed the sun for 7 hours from a high altitude balloon on September 21, 2013. We present recent results as well as the capabilities of a possible future satellite mission

  15. Data-Based Decision-Making Teams in Middle School: Observations and Implications from the Middle School Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Deanne A.; Carlson, Sarah E.; Haack, Marcia K.; Kennedy, Patrick C.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank

    2016-01-01

    The use of data-based decision making (DBDM) in schools to drive educational improvement and success has been strongly promoted by educational experts and policymakers, yet very little is documented about the actual DBDM practices used in schools. This study examines DBDM practices in 25 middle schools through 80 standardized observations of data…

  16. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  17. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observation from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Legeais, JeanFrancois; Faugere, Yannice; Benveniste, Jerome; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore; Johannessen, Johnny; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Guinle, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. This program aims at providing long-term satellite-based products for climate (ECV products), that should be used by the climate research community. This program has just completed its first phase (Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2013) and will start in February 2014 the second phase of 3 years. The objective of the second phase are similar: to involve the climate research community to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 18 years climate time series (delivered in Sept. 2012) are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  18. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observations from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, BrunoManuel; Timms, Gary; Johannessen, Johnny; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Scharfennberg, Martin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Guinle, Thierry; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. After a first phase (2011-2013), the program has started in 2014 a second phase of 3 years. The objectives of this second phase are to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. To this extent, the ECV time series has been extended and it now covers the period 1993-2013. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 21 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  19. Two decades of global and regional sea level observations from the ESA climate change initiative sea sevel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme; Legeais, JeanFrancois

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. This program aims at providing long-term satellite-based products for climate (ECV products), that should be used by the climate research community. This program has just completed its first phase (Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2013) and will start in February 2014 the second phase of 3 years. The objective of the second phase are similar: to involve the climate research community to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 18 years climate time series (delivered in Sept. 2012) are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  20. Quantifying the Observability of CO2 Flux Uncertainty in Atmospheric CO2 Records Using Products from Nasa's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Collatz, Jim; Watson, Gregg; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Brix, Holger; Rousseaux, Cecile; Bowman, Kevin; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael; Kawa, Stephan R.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Pilot Project (FPP) was designed to better understand contemporary carbon fluxes by bringing together state-of-the art models with remote sensing datasets. Here we report on simulations using NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) which was used to evaluate the consistency of two different sets of observationally constrained land and ocean fluxes with atmospheric CO2 records. Despite the strong data constraint, the average difference in annual terrestrial biosphere flux between the two land (NASA Ames CASA and CASA-GFED) models is 1.7 Pg C for 2009-2010. Ocean models (NOBM and ECCO2-Darwin) differ by 35 in their global estimates of carbon flux with particularly strong disagreement in high latitudes. Based upon combinations of terrestrial and ocean fluxes, GEOS-5 reasonably simulated the seasonal cycle observed at northern hemisphere surface sites and by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) while the model struggled to simulate the seasonal cycle at southern hemisphere surface locations. Though GEOS-5 was able to reasonably reproduce the patterns of XCO2 observed by GOSAT, it struggled to reproduce these aspects of AIRS observations. Despite large differences between land and ocean flux estimates, resulting differences in atmospheric mixing ratio were small, typically less than 5 ppmv at the surface and 3 ppmv in the XCO2 column. A statistical analysis based on the variability of observations shows that flux differences of these magnitudes are difficult to distinguish from natural variability, regardless of measurement platform.

  1. Earth Observation-Supported Service Platform for the Development and Provision of Thematic Information on the Built Environment - the Tep-Urban Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, T.; Asamer, H.; Boettcher, M.; Brito, F.; Hirner, A.; Marconcini, M.; Mathot, E.; Metz, A.; Permana, H.; Soukop, T.; Stanek, F.; Kuchar, S.; Zeidler, J.; Balhar, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Sentinel fleet will provide a so-far unique coverage with Earth observation data and therewith new opportunities for the implementation of methodologies to generate innovative geo-information products and services. It is here where the TEP Urban project is supposed to initiate a step change by providing an open and participatory platform based on modern ICT technologies and services that enables any interested user to easily exploit Earth observation data pools, in particular those of the Sentinel missions, and derive thematic information on the status and development of the built environment from these data. Key component of TEP Urban project is the implementation of a web-based platform employing distributed high-level computing infrastructures and providing key functionalities for i) high-performance access to satellite imagery and derived thematic data, ii) modular and generic state-of-the art pre-processing, analysis, and visualization techniques, iii) customized development and dissemination of algorithms, products and services, and iv) networking and communication. This contribution introduces the main facts about the TEP Urban project, including a description of the general objectives, the platform systems design and functionalities, and the preliminary portfolio products and services available at the TEP Urban platform.

  2. Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

    2011-12-01

    With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will

  3. The importance of observed gradients of air temperature and precipitation for modelling water supply projections of a glacierised watershed in the Nepalese Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation and temperature vary strongly over short horizontal distances in mountain environments, yet observations are scarce and mostly limited to small numbers of valley stations. The scarcity of meteorological observations at high altitude is particularly problematic in the Himalayas, which play an essential role in the water supply of millions of people downstream. Water supply projections depend on hydrological models, ideally forced by spatial fields of precipitation and air temperature for the accurate simulation of rain and melt runoff. Hydrological models can easily be fitted with seemingly high accuracy to observed runoff, even when meteorological inputs are of poor quality, with detrimental effects, however, on the representation of processes. In this study we use the results of a field campaign conducted during the 2012 monsoon season in the Langtang glacierised catchment in the greater Himalaya of Nepal to illustrate the importance of observations of gradients of air temperature and precipitation in projections of mass balance, seasonal snow and runoff. During the field campaign temperature loggers, tipping buckets and a high altitude pluviometer and snow depth gauge were installed and the data are used to force and recalibrate a high resolution glacio-hydrological model. The results are compared to a model run forced and calibrated using data from a single meteorological station. We show that optimal calibrated parameters vary in response to the quality of input data used, and that internal processes are reproduced differently. It is concluded that short-term campaigns to monitor horizontal and vertical gradients in air temperature and precipitation have the potential to improve the correct process representation in glacio-hydrological models, contribute to an accurate definition of model parameters and subsequently improve the quality of projections of future water supply.

  4. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observations from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Gilles, G.; Cazenave, A. A.; Ablain, M.; Legeais, J. F.; Faugère, Y.; Lucas, B.; Dinardo, S.; Johannessen, J. A.; Stammer, D.; Timms, G.; Knudsen, P.; Cipollini, P.; Roca, M.; Rudenko, S.; Fernandes, J.; Balmaseda, M.; Quartly, G.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Guinle, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program has just completed its first phase (Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2013) and has started in February 2014 the second phase of 3 years. The objectives of the second phase are to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. To this extent, a temporal extension of the ECV will be delivered at the end of 2014 so that the covered period becomes 1993-2013. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 18 years climate time series (delivered in Sept. 2012) are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase

  5. Appropriate Use Criteria in Echocardiography: An Observational Institutional Study with the Perspective of a Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    Rameh, Vanessa; Kossaify, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Appropriate use criteria (AUC) in echocardiography are essential tools for aligning the indications of echocardiography with the best clinical standards, improving clinical outcome, restraining abuse, and preserving health-care resources. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to ascertain the AUC for transthoracic echocardiography in a university hospital and create a quality improvement project (QIP). METHODS The assessment of 501 inpatients who received transthoracic cardiac echo was conducted according to the 2011 AUC report. Indications were classified as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate, and patients not matching any of the abovementioned divisions were grouped in the nonfitting category. RESULTS Of the 501 eligible patients, 374 patients (74.66%) were in the appropriate group, 85 patients (16.96%) in the inappropriate group, 20 patients (3.99%) in the uncertain group, and 22 patients (4.39%) in the nonfitting category. DISCUSSION Interpretation and analysis of the obtained results are presented, along with the results of many comparable studies; moreover, a QIP was set up accordingly. CONCLUSION AUC are useful to assess local practice, preserve health-care resources, and improve clinical outcome. PMID:26917982

  6. CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: EVIDENCE FOR THREE DISTINCT PHOTOMETRIC SUBTYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Cenko, S. Bradley; Becker, Adam B.; Fox, Derek B.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Sand, David J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Kiewe, Michael; Scheps, Raphael; Birenbaum, Gali; Chamudot, Daniel; Zhou, Jonathan

    2012-09-10

    We present R-band light curves of Type II supernovae (SNe) from the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). With the exception of interacting (Type IIn) SNe and rare events with long rise times, we find that most light curve shapes belong to one of three apparently distinct classes: plateau, slowly declining, and rapidly declining events. The last class is composed solely of Type IIb SNe which present similar light curve shapes to those of SNe Ib, suggesting, perhaps, similar progenitor channels. We do not find any intermediate light curves, implying that these subclasses are unlikely to reflect variance of continuous parameters, but rather might result from physically distinct progenitor systems, strengthening the suggestion of a binary origin for at least some stripped SNe. We find a large plateau luminosity range for SNe IIP, while the plateau lengths seem rather uniform at approximately 100 days. As analysis of additional CCCP data goes on and larger samples are collected, demographic studies of core-collapse SNe will likely continue to provide new constraints on progenitor scenarios.

  7. Quantifying the Lack of Consistency between Climate Model Projections and Observations of the Evolution of the Earth's Average Surface Temperature since the Mid-20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, P. J.; Knappenberger, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent climate change literature has been dominated by studies which show that the equilibrium climate sensitivity is better constrained than the latest estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) and that the best estimate of the climate sensitivity is considerably lower than the climate model ensemble average. From the recent literature, the central estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity is ~2°C, while the climate model average is ~3.2°C, or an equilibrium climate sensitivity that is some 40% lower than the model average.To the extent that the recent literature produces a more accurate estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity than does the climate model average, it means that the projections of future climate change given by both the IPCC and NCA are, by default, some 40% too large (too rapid) and the associated (and described) impacts are gross overestimates.A quantitative test of climate model performance can be made by comparing the range of model projections against observations of the evolution of the global average surface temperature since the mid-20th century. Here, we perform such a comparison on a collection of 108 model runs comprising the ensemble used in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report and find that the observed global average temperature evolution for all trend lengths (with one exception) since 1986 is less than 97.5% of the model distribution, meaning that the observed trends are significantly different from the average trend simulated by climate models. For periods approaching 40 years in length, the observed trend lies outside of (below) the range that includes 95% of all climate model simulations.We conclude that at the global scale, this suite of climate models has failed. Treating them as mathematical hypotheses, which they are, means that it is the duty of scientists to, unfortunately, reject their predictions in lieu of those with a lower climate

  8. Review of Recent Results in Global MHD Modeling: ISTP Project Scientist for Theory and Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations have shown a remarkable ability to describe the global dynamics of geospace. The limitations of the physical approximations underlying MHD would seem to limit the effectiveness of these codes, since kinetic and hybrid effects should manifest themselves by cross-scale coupling from microscales to mesoscales to global scales. However three effects appear to allow the codes to operate much more successfully than one would at first believe. They are:(l) the globally self-consistent nature of the codes with very well defined exterior boundary conditions (the solar wind) which allows the proper intercommunication between magnetospheric regions on MHD scales, (2) the control by global dynamics of the boundary layer locations where micro and meso scale processes operate, and (3) the critical role of numerical diffusion and with a sufficiently high resolution grid, the use of an empirical resistivity term, which if set at a level where the major magnetosphere boundaries properly calibrate against their observed locations, appear to well represent the effects of kinetic and hybrid processes on the global dynamics. The effectiveness of the global MHD codes, which have been developed under the ISTP mission, in describing Wind, Polar and Geotail observations, as well as ground-based observations are described. Particular emphasis is placed upon the Polar imaging data which when combined with ground-based data and global MHD-based synthetic aurora and convection patterns provide a powerful tool in understanding the final link in the solar-terrestrial chain: coupling into the atmosphere and ionosphere.

  9. Early-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project - V. Time-variable interstellar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Catherine M.; Smoker, Jonathan V.; Dufton, Philip L.; Smith, Keith T.; Kennedy, Michael B.; Keenan, Francis P.; Lambert, David L.; Welty, Daniel E.; Lauroesch, James T.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and properties of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales, sub-au to 1 pc, are poorly understood. We compare interstellar absorption lines, observed towards a selection of O- and B-type stars at two or more epochs, to search for variations over time caused by the transverse motion of each star combined with changes in the structure in the foreground ISM. Two sets of data were used: 83 VLT/UVES spectra with approximately 6 yr between epochs and 21 McDonald observatory 2.7-m telescope echelle spectra with 6-20 yr between epochs, over a range of scales from ˜0-360 au. The interstellar absorption lines observed at the two epochs were subtracted and searched for any residuals due to changes in the foreground ISM. Of the 104 sightlines investigated with typically five or more components in Na I D, possible temporal variation was identified in five UVES spectra (six components), in Ca II, Ca I and/or Na I absorption lines. The variations detected range from 7 per cent to a factor of 3.6 in column density. No variation was found in any other interstellar species. Most sightlines show no variation, with 3σ upper limits to changes of the order 0.1-0.3 dex in Ca II and Na I. These variations observed imply that fine-scale structure is present in the ISM, but at the resolution available in this study, is not very common at visible wavelengths. A determination of the electron densities and lower limits to the total number density of a sample of the sightlines implies that there is no striking difference between these parameters in sightlines with, and sightlines without, varying components.

  10. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  11. Preliminary results of land subsidence monitoring project in Konya Closed Basin between 2006-2009 by means of GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustun, A.; Tusat, E.; Yalvac, S.

    2010-06-01

    One of the potential dangers that might arise as a result of bringing excessive amounts of groundwater to the surface of the Earth is land subsidence. Such surface deformations - these velocities may vary from a few millimetres to a few metres per year - do the greatest damage to infrastructure facilities and buildings in residential units. Agricultural lands, in which excessive irrigation is performed, and densely populated cities are more likely to suffer from land subsidence. Konya Closed Basin (KCB), where a rapid groundwater withdrawal has been observed during the last 30-40 years, is faced with such a threat. In this study, the possibility of the occurrence of land subsidence, related to groundwater withdrawal for the KCB, is assessed and the geodetic studies conducted up to now, with the intention of identifying land subsidence, are introduced. The vertical displacements of between -12 and -52 mm/year have been detected through GNSS observations collected on the 6-point test network. The land subsidence phenomenon has been developing in the areas where the groundwater is extensively used for irrigation and daily life. The results support the findings derived from the historical leveling records and point out the need of an extended study based on both GNSS and InSAR techniques for spatial and temporal mapping of land subsidence in the KCB.

  12. The NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance Curriculum Development Project at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M. J.; Wylie, M.

    2008-12-01

    During the last three years, geodata-rich undergraduate curricula were developed at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) with major support from the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain") and additional support from Tennessee Space Grant and the NSF StepMT program. These curricula fall into three broad categories: (1) GIS-based curricula, (2) the free on-line textbook "Physical Regions and Features of the United States," and (3) presentation graphics (primarily satellite images) for faculty involved in teaching and research outside the United States. All three incorporate Earth Observing System data as well as data from other public sources. Most data was obtained through the GeoBrain data download website, the USGS Seamless Data Distribution System, or the National Atlas of the United States website. The three categories of curricula exemplify the diverse educational applications of satellite images and other map data. The GIS-based curricula (1) are built around ESRI GIS software and include an asteroid impact activity and a volcano activity. The free on-line textbook (2) provides a broad overview of the physical features of the United States and is intended as a supplement for undergraduate geoscience courses. Presentation graphics (3) have been created for faculty investigating Scottish archeology and historical/cultural issues in Portugal and Morocco. The three categories represent three distinctly different ways to use remotely-sensed data to improve undergraduate instruction.

  13. Prevention of sickle cell disease: observations on females with the sickle cell trait from the Manchester project, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Mason, Karlene; Gibson, Felicea; Gardner, Ruth-Ann; Serjeant, Beryl; Serjeant, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    Screening for haemoglobin genotype was offered to senior school students in Manchester parish in south central Jamaica to test whether this knowledge would influence choice of partner and reduce births with sickle cell disease. Over six academic years, 15,539 students, aged mostly 15-19 years, were screened with voluntary compliance rising from 56 to 92 % over this period. All subjects were given permanent genotype cards and carriers of abnormal genes were offered counselling which explained the reproductive options but avoided recommendations. Prior to screening, all had been offered illustrated lectures on the genetics and clinical features of sickle cell disease. The current study, confined to females with the sickle cell trait, interviewed 763/845 (90.3 %) subjects seeking to assess retention of this knowledge and their response to subsequent boyfriends. Of those interviewed, 42 subjects were excluded (38 emigrated, one died, three received incorrect genotype cards) leaving 721 with complete information. Knowledge of genotype was retained in 95 %, the outcome of future offspring correctly recalled in 91 %, and haemoglobin genotype cards were still possessed by 89 %. A current 'boyfriend' was acknowledged in 403 (56 %) of whom the partner's genotype was known in 88 (74 determined by the project laboratory; 14 by other laboratories) and unknown in 315 (78 %). Offers of free blood tests to all these partners were accepted by only 14 (4 %). Seventeen (2.4 %) were married but the husbands genotype was known in only five (four AA, one AS) of these. Most subjects retain knowledge of their genotype and of its significance for having affected children but the reluctance of partners to be tested was a major obstacle. PMID:26630875

  14. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. Methods and analysis The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three ‘all-comer’ studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. Ethics and dissemination The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and

  15. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 4: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations. Colorado Field Test Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, B. A.; Leaf, C. F.; Danielson, J. A.; Moravec, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.

  16. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

  17. Update of the ISTP Solar Maximum Mission: ISTP Project Scientist for Theory and Ground-Based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Building upon the numerous successes of the pre-solar maximum International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) mission, the ISTP Solar Maximum Mission is expected to produce new insights into global flow of energy, momentum, and mass, from the Sun, through the heliosphere, into the magnetosphere and to their final deposition in the terrestrial upper atmosphere/ionosphere system. Of particular interest is the determination of the geo-effectiveness of solar events, principally Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Given the expected increased frequency and strength of CMEs during the Solar Maximum period, a major advance in our understanding of nature of the coupling of CMEs to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere system is expected. The roles during this time of the various ISTP assets will be discussed. These assets will include the SOHO, Wind, Polar, and Geotail spacecraft, the ground-based observing networks and the theory tools.

  18. The emerging primary care workforce: preliminary observations from the primary care team: learning from effective ambulatory practices project.

    PubMed

    Ladden, Maryjoan D; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Fishman, Nancy W; Flinter, Margaret; Hsu, Clarissa; Parchman, Michael; Wagner, Edward H

    2013-12-01

    Many primary care practices are changing the roles played by the members of their health care teams. The purpose of this article is to describe some of these new roles, using the authors' preliminary observations from 25 site visits to high-performing primary care practices across the United States in 2012-2013. These sites visits, to practices using their workforce creatively, were part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded initiative, The Primary Care Team: Learning From Effective Ambulatory Practices.Examples of these new roles that the authors observed on their site visits include medical assistants reviewing patient records before visits to identify care gaps, ordering and administering immunizations using protocols, making outreach calls to patients, leading team huddles, and coaching patients to set self-management goals. The registered nurse role has evolved from an emphasis on triage to a focus on uncomplicated acute care, chronic care management, and hospital-to-home transitions. Behavioral health providers (licensed clinical social workers, psychologists, or licensed counselors) were colocated and integrated within practices and were readily available for immediate consults and brief interventions. Physicians have shifted from lone to shared responsibility for patient panels, with other team members empowered to provide significant portions of chronic and preventive care.An innovative team-based primary care workforce is emerging. Spreading and sustaining these changes will require training both health professionals and nonprofessionals in new ways. Without clinical experiences that model this new team-based care and role models who practice it, trainees will not be prepared to practice as a team. PMID:24128622

  19. Paraná-Etendeka lithosphere modeling according to GOCE observations and geophysical constraints: improvement of PERLA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-04-01

    One of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth's deep interior, and their relationship to the Earth-surface changes. PERLA project is a part of the challenge of ESA's Living Planet program to investigate the Solid Earth, and in particular the lithosphere of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP). At the present stage the study is focusing on the upper mantle, the source of the magma. The aim is to motivate the asymmetry of the shallow volcanic effusion of the Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, that in Paraná is wide, thick and represented by the basaltic layer of Serra Geral Formation, while in Etendeka it is rare and spanned. Viceversa the alkaline magmatism shows similar effusions along the region with dyke swarms and associated alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite complexes from Early Creataceous to Paleogene age. ESA's Living Planet program offers a suite of scientific satellites, the Earth Explorers, and in this context PERLA adopts the newest GOCE satellite mission products. The Marussi tensor field and especially its vertical component show a positive anomaly along the coastline sector of both the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive anomalies are also related to the deeper Moho under the northern part of Paraná basin, in South America (SAM) and the Etendeka continental part. Here we aim to define the detail of masses between crust and upper mantle by modeling the Marussi Tensor components and the invariants. The invariants are easier to understand because they are independent of the reference system. The forward model uses Tesseroids. The density model is compared with recent seismologic models, and is performed according to the results provided by the physical laws governing rock densities and seismic velocity of lithosphere in function of temperature and pressure combined with laboratory measurements of a great number of

  20. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  1. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    , the CANDAC Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, and OSIRIS instruments as well as the TANSO-FTS instrument on the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This presentation will focus on an overview of the measurements made by the ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite-borne instruments during the recent ACE/OSIRIS Arctic Validation campaigns and highlight how these have been used for satellite validation.

  2. Ground-Based Cloud and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observations for the Project: High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction, HD(CP)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; Ebell, K.; Ulrich, U.; Schween, J. H.; Bohn, B.; Görsdorf, U.; Leinweber, R.; Päschke, E.; Baars, H.; Seifert, P.; Klein Baltink, H.

    2014-12-01

    The German research initiative ''High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction, HD(CP)2'' aims for an improved representation of clouds and precipitation in climate models. Model development and its evaluation require comprehensive observational datasets. A specific work package was established to create uniform and documented observational datasets for the HD(CP)2 data base. Datasets included ground-based remote-sensing (Doppler lidars, ceilometers, microwave radiometers, and cloud radars) and in-situ (meteorological and radiation sensors) measurements. Four supersites (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE), Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory - Richard Assmann Observatory (RAO), and Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) in Germany, and Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (Cesar) in the Netherlands) are finalizing the operational procedures to provide quality controlled (and calibrated if possible) remote-sensing and in-situ observations, retrievals on atmospheric boundary layer state (e.g. winds, mixing layer height, humidity and temperature), and cloud macro and micro physical properties with uncertainty estimations or at least quality flags. During the project new processing and retrieval methods were developed if no commonly agreed or satisfying methods were available. Especially, large progress was made concerning uncertainty estimation and automated quality control. Additionally, the data from JOYCE are used in a radiative closure studies under cloudy conditions to evaluate retrievals of cloud properties. The current status of work progress will be presented.

  3. Development of a Stochastic Inversion Tool To Optimize Agreement Between The Observed And Predicted Seismic Response To CO2 Injection/Migration in the Weyburn-Midale Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A L; Hao, Y; White, D; Carle, S; Dyer, K; Yang, X; Mcnab, W; Foxall, W; Johnson, J

    2009-12-02

    During Phase 1 of the Weyburn Project (2000-2004), 4D reflection seismic data were used to map CO{sub 2} migration within the Midale reservoir, while an extensive fluid sampling program documented the geochemical evolution triggered by CO{sub 2}-brine-oil-mineral interactions. The aim of this task (3b.11) is to exploit these existing seismic and geochemical data sets, augmented by CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O injection and HC/H{sub 2}O production data toward optimizing the reservoir model and thereby improving site characterization and dependent predictions of long-term CO{sub 2} storage in the Weyburn-Midale reservoir. Our initial project activities have concentrated on developing a stochastic inversion method that will identify reservoir models that optimize agreement between the observed and predicted seismic response. This report describes the technical approach we have followed, the data that supports it, and associated implementation activities. The report fulfills deliverable D1 in the project's statement of work. Future deliverables will describe the development of the stochastic inversion tool that uses geochemical data to optimize the reservoir model.

  4. Wavelet-based Time Series Bootstrap Approach for Multidecadal Hydrologic Projections Using Observed and Paleo Data of Climate Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkyihun, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    simulated value for the current year. We applied this simulation approach on the climate indicators and streamflow at Lees Ferry, AZ in the Colorado River Basin, which is a key gauge on the river, using data from observational and paleo period together spanning 1650 - 2005. A suite of distributional statistics such as Probability Density Function (PDF), mean, variance, skew and lag-1 along with higher order and multi-decadal statistics such as spectra, drought and surplus statistics, are computed to check the performance of the flow simulation in capturing the variability of the historic and paleo periods. Our results indicate that this approach is able to generate robustly all of the above mentioned statistical properties. This offers an attractive alternative for near term (interannual to multi-decadal) flow simulation that is critical for water resources planning.

  5. Middle Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (MASH) Global meteor observations system (GLOBMET) Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements (SSIM) Global Observations and Studies of Stratospheric Aerosols (GOSSA): Progress with the MASH project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the MASH project is to study the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere, emphasizing inter-hemispheric differences. Both observational data and data from simulations with numerical models are being used. It is intended that MASH will be complemented by parallel studies on the transport and photochemistry of trace species in the Southern Hemisphere. Impetus for such studies has come from the unexpected finding of a springtime ozone hole over Antarctica. A summary of recent progress with the MASH project is given. Data from polar orbiting satellites are used to discuss the large scale circulation found in the Southern Hemisphere at extratropical latitudes. Comparisons are made with that of the Northern Hemisphere. Particular attention is paid to the springtime final warming, the most spectacular large scale phenomenon in the statosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. The circulation before and after this event has to be taken into account in theories for the formation and subsequent disappearance of the ozone hole.

  6. The megasecond Chandra X-ray visionary project observation of NGC 3115: Witnessing the flow of hot gas within the Bondi radius

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Yukita, Mihoko; Million, Evan T.; Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Observational confirmation of hot accretion model predictions has been hindered by the challenge to resolve spatially the Bondi radii of black holes with X-ray telescopes. Here, we use the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation of the NGC 3115 supermassive black hole to place the first direct observational constraints on the spatially and spectroscopically resolved structures of the X-ray emitting gas inside the Bondi radius of a black hole. We measured temperature and density profiles of the hot gas from a fraction out to tens of the Bondi radius (R{sub B} = 2.''4-4.''8 = 112-224 pc). The projected temperature jumps significantly from ∼0.3 keV beyond 5'' to ∼0.7 keV within ∼4''-5'', but then abruptly drops back to ∼0.3 keV within ∼3''. This is contrary to the expectation that the temperature should rise toward the center for a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. A hotter thermal component of ∼1 keV inside 3'' (∼150 pc) is revealed using a two-component thermal model, with the cooler ∼0.3 keV thermal component dominating the spectra. We argue that the softer emission comes from diffuse gas physically located within ∼150 pc of the black hole. The density profile is broadly consistent with ρ∝r {sup –1} within the Bondi radius for either the single temperature or the two-temperature model. The X-ray data alone with physical reasoning argue against the absence of a black hole, supporting that we are witnessing the onset of the gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole.

  7. Integration of X-SAR observations with data of other remote sensing techniques: preliminary results achieved with Cosmo/SkyMed announcement of opportunity projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespe, Francesco; Baldini, Luca; Notarnicola, Claudia; Prati, Claudio; Zerbini, Susanna; Celidonio, G.

    2011-11-01

    The Italian Space Agency is funding 27 scientific projects in the framework of Cosmo/Skymed program (hereafter CSK) . A subset of them are focusing on the improvements of the quality and quantity of information which can be extracted from X-SAR data if integrated with other independent techniques like GPS or SAR imagery in L and C bands. The GPS observations, namely zenith total delays estimated by means of GPS ground stations, could be helpful to estimate the troposphere bias to remove from IN-SAR imagery. Another contribution of GPS could be the improvements of the orbits of Cosmo/SkyMed satellites. In particular the GPS navigation data of the CSK satellites could serve to improve the atmospheric drag models acting on them. The integration of SAR data in L and C bands on the other hand are helpful to investigate land hydrogeology parameters as well as to improve global precipitation observations. The combined use of L, C and X SAR data with different penetration depth could give profiles of land surface properties, especially in forest and snow/ice-packs. For what concern the use of X-SAR imagery for rain precipitation monitoring, particular attention will be paid to its polarimetric properties that we plan to determine aligning the CSK observations with those obtained with ground L and C radars. Anyway the study goals, the approaches proposed, the test sites identified and the external data selected for the development and validation will be described for each project. Particular attention will be paid to single the advantages that the research activities can benefit from the added potentials of CSK system: the more frequent revisiting time and the higher resolution capabilities.

  8. Exploring recent and projected climate change in a steep monsoonal catchment in the middle Himalaya through innovative synthesis of local observations, gridded datasets and community engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Pritchard, Davis; Tiwari, Prakash; Fowler, Hayley; Kumaun, Bhagwati

    2016-04-01

    Under the auspices of an "Innovation Partnerships" programme research exchange grant jointly funded by the India Department of Science and Technology and the British Council, Kumaun University and Newcastle University have been collaboratively exploring the recorded historical and projected future climate change implications for a case study catchment, the Ramgad river, in the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya (Uttarakhand state, India). This work weaves together diverse research strands with the aim of producing a coherent thorough characterisation of the impacts of recent/on-going and likely climate evolution on local communities. Participatory research activities in multiple villages in the case study catchment have yielded a consistent narrative of changes posed by the increasingly erratic monsoonal rainfall as well as upward displacement and replacement crops in their historical elevation ranges due to temperature change. Multi-decadal climate records from both local observations and global meteorological records reveal a more complex picture with strong seasonal asymmetry of changes in both temperature and precipitation: a) trend analysis shows mild weakening of the early phase (May, July) but strengthen in the later stages (August, September); b) temperature trends show much stronger warming in late winter and early spring (February to April) than the rest of the year with additional asymmetry in both sign and magnitude of change between individual components (Tmax, Tmin) of the diurnal temperature cycle. On-going research seeks to associate this asymmetry with causal mechanisms (cloud radiative effect, atmospheric circulation). Analysis of historical records will provide the basis for validation and assessment of individual regional climate model projections from the CORDEX South Asia domain ensemble. For the terraced agricultural communities of the Kumaon Himalaya, the most directly consequential effects of climate variability and change are impacts on crop yields

  9. Comparison between human and model observer performance in low-contrast detection tasks in CT images: application to images reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Calzado, A; Geleijns, J; Joemai, R M S; Veldkamp, W J H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare low-contrast detectability (LCDet) performance between a model [non–pre-whitening matched filter with an eye filter (NPWE)] and human observers in CT images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative [adaptive iterative dose reduction three-dimensional (AIDR 3D; Toshiba Medical Systems, Zoetermeer, Netherlands)] algorithms. Methods: Images of the Catphan® phantom (Phantom Laboratories, New York, NY) were acquired with Aquilion ONE™ 320-detector row CT (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) at five tube current levels (20–500 mA range) and reconstructed with FBP and AIDR 3D. Samples containing either low-contrast objects (diameters, 2–15 mm) or background were extracted and analysed by the NPWE model and four human observers in a two-alternative forced choice detection task study. Proportion correct (PC) values were obtained for each analysed object and used to compare human and model observer performances. An efficiency factor (η) was calculated to normalize NPWE to human results. Results: Human and NPWE model PC values (normalized by the efficiency, η = 0.44) were highly correlated for the whole dose range. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) between human and NPWE were 0.984 (0.972–0.991) for AIDR 3D and 0.984 (0.971–0.991) for FBP, respectively. Bland–Altman plots based on PC results showed excellent agreement between human and NPWE [mean absolute difference 0.5 ± 0.4%; range of differences (−4.7%, 5.6%)]. Conclusion: The NPWE model observer can predict human performance in LCDet tasks in phantom CT images reconstructed with FBP and AIDR 3D algorithms at different dose levels. Advances in knowledge: Quantitative assessment of LCDet in CT can accurately be performed using software based on a model observer. PMID:24837275

  10. Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Cock, Matthew J. W.; Allard, Gillian B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions. PMID:26464389

  11. A case study of the Thunderstorm Research International Project storm of July 11, 1978. II - Interrelations among the observable parameters controlling electrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nisbet, John S.; Kasha, John R.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses electrical system parameters that would be consistent with observations of the Thunderstorm Research International Project storm at the Kennedy Space Center on July 11, 1978, described by Nisbet et al. (1990). Three-dimensional electrodynamic modeling of the thundercloud electrification made it possible to estimate the current moments and electrical power generated continuously throughout the evolution of the two cells of the storm. The current moments generated were compared with the current moments transferred by intercloud and cloud-to-ground lightning. It is shown that, for the southern cell, which produced a charge moment of about 8.4 MC m, lightning utilized about 84 percent of the charge moment separated; for the northern cell, which produced about 1.1 MC m, lightning utilized about 60 percent of the charge moment separated.

  12. Two Project Methods: Preliminary Observations on the Similarities and Differences between William Heard Kilpatrick's Project Method and John Dewey's Problem-Solving Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutinen, Ari

    2013-01-01

    The project method became a famous teaching method when William Heard Kilpatrick published his article "Project Method" in 1918. The key idea in Kilpatrick's project method is to try to explain how pupils learn things when they work in projects toward different common objects. The same idea of pupils learning by work or action in an…

  13. Joint Solar Dynamics Project data summary (3rd): Solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 18 March 1988 solar eclipse. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Garcia, C.J.; Lundin, W.E.; Yasukawa, E.A.

    1988-11-01

    The general goal of the HAO/University of Hawaii Joint Solar Dynamics Project is to establish the relationships that exist between the solar magnetic field, detected in the photosphere, and the structure and evolution of the corona. The SOLDYN programs of 1982 and 1983 demonstrated the ability to use existing instruments to gather data of value in the pursuit of that goal. The goals for the observations in 1988 are as follows: (1) document the state of the sun, from the photosphere up through the chromosphere and out into the corona for the approximately four-week interval around the total solar eclipse of 18 March 1988, and (2) identify the relationship between the photospheric magnetic fields and the temperature and density structure of the corona. This report contains the reduced observations made during this SOLDYN III period necessary to achieve these goals. They are presented both in the form of daily photographic and photoelectric measurements, and in synoptic format for the period.

  14. Preliminary results of the PreViBOSS project: description of the fog life cycle by ground-based and satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Thierry; Jolivet, Dominique; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Burnet, Frédéric

    2012-11-01

    The instrument set-up designed by the PreViBOSS project for the ParisFog field campaign is suitable to sound microphysical properties of droplets and interstitial aerosols during developed fog in a semi-urban environment. Developed fog is defined as LWC < 7 mg m-3 and the temperature vertical gradient over 30 m, ΔT, smaller than 0.04 K/m. Visibility averaged over November 2011 is 385+/-340 m (with rare values larger than 1000 m), and month average of LWC is 60+/-60 mg m-3. The droplet effective radius decreases from 14 to 4 μm when the number concentration increases from less than 10 to 220 cm-3. Particle extinction coefficient is computed by Mie theory applied on size distribution observed during developed fog in ambient conditions by both PALAS WELAS and DMT FM100. Comparison with particle extinction coefficient directly measured by the Degreanne DF20 visibilimeter demonstrates satisfying agreement, within combined uncertainties. Ratio of computed over measured particle extinction coefficient is 1.15+/-0.35. Visibility smaller than 1000 m at 3 m above ground level is observed not only during developed fog but also during shallow fog, which presents a significant vertical gradient, as ΔT > 0.4 K/m. In this case, LWC is highly variable and may be observed below 7 mg m-3. The consequent month average of LWC is 30+/-80 mg m-3. The optical counters miss large droplets significantly contributing to extinction in shallow fogs. Consequently, it is not possible to reproduce with satisfaction the particle extinction coefficient in shallow fog. Fog type may be distinguished by association of groundbased visibilimeter and MSG/SEVIRI. When clear-sky is given by EUMETSAT/NWCSAF cloud type product while visibility is observed smaller than 1000 m at SIRTA, in 75% cases a shallow fog occurs, and in other cases, horizontal heterogeneity characterises the developed fog within the SIRTA pixel, as during the dissipation phase. Moreover, consistently, low and very low clouds are

  15. Earth-Observation based mapping and monitoring of exposure change in the megacity of Istanbul: open-source tools from the MARSITE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 MARSITE project aims at assessing the "state of the art" of seismic risk evaluation and management at European level, as a starting point to move a "step forward" towards new concepts of risk mitigation and management by long-term monitoring activities carried out both on land and at sea. Spaceborne Earth Observation (EO) is one of the means through which MARSITE is accomplishing this commitment, whose importance is growing as a consequence of the operational unfolding of the Copernicus initiative. Sentinel-2 data, with its open-data policy, represents an unprecedented opportunity to access global spaceborne multispectral data for various purposes including risk monitoring. In the framework of EU FP7 projects MARSITE, RASOR and SENSUM, our group has developed a suite of geospatial software tools to automatically extract risk-related features from EO data, especially on the exposure and vulnerability side of the "risk equation" [1]. These are for example the extension of a built-up area or the distribution of building density. These tools are available open-source as QGIS plug-ins [2] and their source code can be freely downloaded from GitHub [3]. A test case on the risk-prone mega city of Istanbul has been set up, and preliminary results will be presented in this paper. The output of the algorithms can be incorporated into a risk modeling process, whose output is very useful to stakeholders and decision makers who intend to assess and mitigate the risk level across the giant urban agglomerate. Keywords - Remote Sensing, Copernicus, Istanbul megacity, seismic risk, multi-risk, exposure, open-source References [1] Harb, M.M.; De Vecchi, D.; Dell'Acqua, F., "Physical Vulnerability Proxies from Remotes Sensing: Reviewing, Implementing and Disseminating Selected Techniques," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE , vol.3, no.1, pp.20,33, March 2015. doi: 10.1109/MGRS.2015.2398672 [2] SENSUM QGIS plugin, 2016, available online at: https

  16. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  17. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  18. Ocean EcoSystem Modelling Based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ Data: First Results from the OSMOSIS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, M.-H.; Buongiorno-Nardelli, B.; Calmettes, B.; Conchon, A.; Droghei, R.; Guinehut, S.; Larnicol, G.; Lehodey, P.; Matthieu, P. P.; Mulet, S.; Santoleri, R.; Senina, I.; Stum, J.; Verbrugge, N.

    2015-12-01

    Micronekton organisms are both the prey of large ocean predators, and themselves also the predators of eggs and larvae of many species from which most fishes. The micronekton biomass concentration is therefore a key explanatory variable that is usually missing in fish population and ecosystem models to understand individual behaviour and population dynamics of large oceanic predators. In that context, the OSMOSIS (Ocean ecoSystem Modelling based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ data) ESA project aims at demonstrating the feasibility and prototyping an integrated system going from the synergetic use of many different variables measured from space to the modelling of the distribution of micronektonic organisms. In this paper, we present how data from CRYOSAT, GOCE, SMOS, ENVISAT, together with other non-ESA satellites and in-situ data, can be merged to provide the required key variables needed as input of the micronekton model. Also, first results from the optimization of the micronekton model are presented and discussed.

  19. Regional glacial-isostatic adjustment in Antarctica inferred from combining spaceborne geodetic observations (ESA-STSE CryoSat+ Project REGINA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasgen, Ingo; Martin, Alba; Horvath, Alexander; Klemann, Volker; Petrie, Elizabeth; Wouters, Bert; Horwath, Martin; Pail, Roland; Bamber, Jonathan; Clarke, Peter J.; Konrad, Hannes; Drinwater, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A major uncertainty in determining the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet from satellite gravimetry, and to a lesser extent altimetry, measurements is the poorly known correction for the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the solid Earth. Although much progress has been made in consistently modelling ice-sheet evolution and related bedrock deformation, predictions of GIA remain ambiguous due to the sparsity of geodetic and geological constraints. Here, we present an improved geodetic GIA estimate based on GRACE, Envisat/ICESat/CryoSat-2 and GPS measurements. Using viscoelastic response functions of the radial displacement and gravity field change to a disc load forcing, we estimate GIA based on multiple space-geodetic observations, making use of their different sensitivities to surface and solid Earth processes. The approach allows us to consider a laterally varying lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity in Antarctica, and particularly investigate the effect of a low-viscosity asthenosphere and a ductile layer in the elastic lithosphere in West Antarctica. We compare our GIA estimate with published estimates and results from numerical modelling, and evaluate its impact on the determination of ice-mass balance in Antarctica from GRACE and CryoSat-2. The results presented are the final results of the Support To Science Element Project REGINA and its Supplementary Study of the European Space Agency, www.regina-science.eu.

  20. Integrated Multidisciplinary Fault Observation System in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of an EU-FP7 project, titled as MARSITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array consisting of eight broadband sensors as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from these arrays. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. All these sensors are installed in 146m-deep borehole. All the sensor outputs are digitized; total of 11*24 bit-channels and 6*20 bit-channels. Real-time data transmission to the main server of the Marsite Project at Kandilli Observatory in Istanbul is accomplished. The multi-parameter borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events, as the innovative part of the Marsite Project. Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny

  1. Data Integration Support for Data Served in the OPeNDAP and OGC Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth R.; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    NASA is coordinating a technology development project to construct a gateway between system components built upon the Open-source Project for a Network Data AcceSs Protocol (OPeNDAP) and those made available made available via interfaces specified by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). This project is funded though the Advanced Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS) Program and is a NASA contribution to the Committee on Earth Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The motivation for the project is the set of data integration needs that have been expressed by the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP), an international program that is addressing the study of the global water cycle. CEOP is assembling a large collection in situ and satellite data and mode1 results from a wide variety of sources covering 35 sites around the globe. The data are provided by systems based on either the OPeNDAP or OGC protocols but the research community desires access to the full range of data and associated services from a single client. This presentation will discuss the current status of the OPeNDAP/OGC Gateway Project. The project is building upon an early prototype that illustrated the feasibility of such a gateway and which was demonstrated to the CEOP science community. In its first year as an ACCESS project, the effort has been has focused on the design of the catalog and data services that will be provided by the gateway and the mappings between the metadata and services provided in the two environments.

  2. Data Integration Support for Data Served in the OPeNDAP and OGC Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. R.

    2006-12-01

    NASA is coordinating a technology development project to construct a gateway between system components built upon the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) and those made available made available via interfaces specified by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). This project is funded though the Advanced Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS) Program and is a NASA contribution to the Committee on Earth Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The motivation for the project is the set of data integration needs that have been expressed by the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP), an international program that is addressing the study of the global water cycle. CEOP is assembling a large collection in situ and satellite data and model results from a wide variety of sources covering 35 sites around the globe. The data are provided by systems based on either the OPeNDAP or OGC protocols but the research community desires access to the full range of data and associated services from a single client. This presentation will discuss the current status of the OPeNDAP/OGC Gateway Project. The project is building upon an early prototype that illustrated the feasibility of such a gateway and which was demonstrated to the CEOP science community. In its first year as an ACCESS project, the effort has been has focused on the design of the catalog and data services that will be provided by the gateway and the mappings between the metadata and services provided in the two environments.

  3. Observed and Potential Responses of Upland Tundra Ecosystems to a Changing Climate: Results from the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research Project, North Slope, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing biomes on earth. Research at the Toolik Field Station by the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research project provides a perspective on changes that are impacting the upland tussock tundra region of the North Slope of Alaska, a region that is typical of ~15% of the arctic region. The arctic is responding to a combination of long-term, gradual changes (presses) and short-term, event-driven changes (pulses). The most important press, of course, is the persistent rise in average annual air temperature observed in most places (though not at Toolik). Associated with this increase in SAT is a well-documented increase in shallow permafrost temperature (which is observed around Toolik). Our long-term research shows that this trend will favor taller and more productive shrub and grass vegetation. Higher SAT translates to earlier spring breakup and later onset of winter. This change in seasonality is affecting interactions between shrub leaf-out, insect emergence, and bird nesting. Persistent and more frequent droughts are having important impacts on the ability of Arctic grayling - the top consumer is most upland tundra streams - to survive and has the potential to block their ability to migrate to essential overwintering lakes. The interaction between temperature (which is changing) and light (which is not) creates a "seasonal asynchrony" that may be increasing the loading of nutrients - notably nitrate - to upland tundra streams late in the season, with impacts that we do not fully understand yet. The upland tundra environment is also responding to an increasing frequency of pulses, most notably wildfires and the development of thermo-erosional failures (TEFs). Wildfires transfer large quantities of carbon and nitrogen directly to the atmosphere. TEFs may deliver large quantities of sediment and nutrients to streams and lakes. Currently these pulse disturbances seem to be having only limited, local impacts. However, as shallow

  4. Using novel Earth observation products to characterise wetland extend and methand dynamics in the Jules Land surface model: the ESA ALANIS-Methane Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, G.; Clark, D.; Blyth, E.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, C.; Schlaffer, S.; Reschke, J.; Prigent, C.; Aires, F.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Burrows, J.; O'Connor, F.; Gedney, N.

    2012-04-01

    The role of wetlands in the global methane cycle continues to be the subject of much current interest [1-3]. Wetlands are generally accepted as being the largest, but least well quantified, single source of methane (CH4), with emission estimates ranging from 105-278 Tg yr-1 [4]. Although the emissions of methane from the wetlands and lakes of the boreal region are smaller than those from tropical wetlands, the size and remoteness of the boreal region pose a significant challenge to the quantification of both terrestrial ecosystem processes and their feedbacks to regional and global climate. Earth Observation (EO) data have become an important tool for characterizing the main processes and estimating key variables governing the land-atmosphere interface. To that end, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated the Atmosphere-LANd Interactions Study (ALANIS), in collaboration with the Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS). One of the three ALANIS themes is investigating wetland dynamics and methane emissions (denoted ALANIS methane, www.alanis-methane.info). The ALANIS methane project has a focus on the boreal Eurasia region. There are two main goals: to produce a suite of relevant datasets derived from Earth Observation (EO): a regional wetland extent dynamics product characterizing spatial changes of inundated areas over time at low spatial resolution; a local wetland extent dynamics product characterizing spatial changes of lake and wetland surface over time at high/medium spatial resolution; a snowmelt onset/duration/end product suitable for determining when methane emissions from wetlands restart after the winter season; a freeze onset product suitable for determining when lake/wetland methane emissions stop after the summer season; and, atmospheric column CH4 concentrations. to use these (and other) EO products to evaluate and improve the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES, http://www.jchmr.org/jules), a state-of-the-art land

  5. Observer performance for adaptive, image-based denoising and filtered back projection compared to scanner-based iterative reconstruction for lower dose CT enterography

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Joel G.; Hara, Amy K.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Silva, Alvin C.; Barlow, John M.; Carter, Rickey E.; Bartley, Adam; Shiung, Maria; Holmes, David R.; Weber, Nicolas K.; Bruining, David H.; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare observer performance for detection of intestinal inflammation for low-dose CT enterography (LD-CTE) using scanner-based iterative reconstruction (IR) vs. vendor-independent, adaptive image-based noise reduction (ANLM) or filtered back projection (FBP). Methods Sixty-two LD-CTE exams were performed. LD-CTE images were reconstructed using IR, ANLM, and FBP. Three readers, blinded to image type, marked intestinal inflammation directly on patient images using a specialized workstation over three sessions, interpreting one image type/patient/session. Reference standard was created by a gastroenterologist and radiologist, who reviewed all available data including dismissal Gastroenterology records, and who marked all inflamed bowel segments on the same workstation. Reader and reference localizations were then compared. Non-inferiority was tested using Jackknife free-response ROC (JAFROC) figures of merit (FOM) for ANLM and FBP compared to IR. Patient-level analyses for the presence or absence of inflammation were also conducted. Results There were 46 inflamed bowel segments in 24/62 patients (CTDIvol interquartile range 6.9–10.1 mGy). JAFROC FOM for ANLM and FBP were 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.92) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.92), and were statistically non-inferior to IR (FOM 0.84; 95% CI 0.76–0.93). Patient-level pooled confidence intervals for sensitivity widely overlapped, as did specificities. Image quality was rated as better with IR and AMLM compared to FBP (p < 0.0001), with no difference in reading times (p = 0.89). Conclusions Vendor-independent adaptive image-based noise reduction and FBP provided observer performance that was non-inferior to scanner-based IR methods. Adaptive image-based noise reduction maintained or improved upon image quality ratings compared to FBP when performing CTE at lower dose levels. PMID:25725794

  6. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115. III. Luminosity Functions of LMXBs and Dependence on Stellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Jennings, Zachary G.; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-07-01

    We studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ˜1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ˜1036 erg s-1, which is much deeper than that typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL ∝ L-2.2±0.4 above 5.5 × 1037 erg s-1 to dN/dL ∝ L-1.0±0.1 below it, although we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ˜1.6 × 1038 erg s-1. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus, our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrupted GCs in the inner region. The XLF in the outer region is probably the XLF of primordial field LMXBs, exhibiting dN/dL ∝ L-1.2±0.1 up to a break close to the Eddington limit of neutron star LMXBs (˜1.7 × 1038 erg s-1). The break of the GC LMXB XLF is lower, at ˜1.1 × 1037 erg s-1. We also confirm previous findings that the metal-rich/red GCs are more likely to host LMXBs than the metal-poor/blue GCs, which is more significant for more luminous LMXBs, and that more massive GCs are more likely to host LMXBs.

  7. Bringing together hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users through the WebGIS tool SPIDER in the context of the SIRIUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jesús; Osann, Anna; Calera, Alfonso; Moreno-Rivera, Juan Manuel; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Fernández, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Scientific expertise on irrigated agriculture or hydrological modelling has achieved advance models with tested results. However, real connexions between this knowledge and its applications, and water end-users (either water managers on the field, or water policy makers) need a meeting point. According with the main aim of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) in order to provide global, timely and easily accessible information in applications like land and water management, the EU-project SIRIUS (Sustainable Irrigation water management and River-basin governance: Implementing User-driven Services, www.sirius-gmes.es), is linking hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users, through the webGIS tool SPIDER (System of Participatory Information, Decision support and Expert knowledge for River basin water management). The models employed are AQUATOOL (http://www.upv.es/aquatool/) and HidroMORE+® (http://www.hidromore.es/). AQUATOOL is a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of the water resources in a river basin which integrates in a comprehensive way all relevant water elements and its interactions, in order to provide different scenarios that incorporate water offers and demands. On the other hand, HidroMORE+® computes spatially distributed water balance components remote sensing driven, in large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution. Mainly applied to irrigation practices, HidroMORE+® is aimed to monitories the crop evolutions and water demands. Either AQUATOOL products such scenario reports, or HidroMORE+® products such time series of the water balance components can be integrated in SPIDER, which has been designed to display all these types of products. However, a general feature of models is that they often provide too many parameters, which makes it very difficult for non-experts to understand. Then, it is needed to select among the output variables those that provide maximum useful information, according

  8. First direct observation of secondary organic aerosol formation during cloud condensation-evaporation cycles in isoprene photo-oxidation reacting mixtures (CUMULUS project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brégonzio-Rozier, Lola; Siekmann, Frank; Giorio, Chiara; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Pangui, Edouard; Morales, Sébastien; Ravier, Sylvain; Monod, Anne; Doussin, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Several field observations, laboratory and model studies suggest a potentially important role of cloud droplets in forming additional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (Sorooshian et al., 2007; Altieri et al., 2008; Couvidat et al., 2013). While this SOAaq hypothesis seems to be robust and is considered quite established, so far, no direct observations of such a process have been provided. Recently a consortium of five laboratories has joined theirs efforts in a series of experimental simulation experiments to try to bring a direct confirmation of this hypothesis: the CUMULUS project (CloUd MULtiphase chemistry of organic compoUndS in the troposphere). The aim of the present work is to study SOA formation from isoprene photo-oxidation during cloud condensation-evaporation cycles. The chemistry occurring in the gaseous, particulate and aqueous phases, and the exchange between these phases were investigated through an original multiphase approach in a simulation chamber. Experiments were performed in the CESAM chamber (Wang et al., 2011) which was designed to investigate multiphase processes under realistic actinic flux, and accurate control of both temperature and relative humidity. A protocol was designed to generate cloud events in the simulation chamber, it has allowed us to generate clouds lasting for ca. 10 minutes in the presence of light and many clouds could be generated in a single experiment. Connected to the chamber, a large panel of instruments was used to monitor the gas-phase and the particulate phase during experiments. Gas-phase composition was analyzed in-situ via a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as well as NOx and O3 analyzers. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measured dried SOA size distributions and total concentrations inside the chamber. An Aerodyne High Resolution Time-Of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) was also used to investigate aerosol

  9. Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  10. Joint solar dynamics project data summary (2nd): solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Fisher, R.R.; Garcia, C.J.; Najita, J.R.; Rock, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Also included are photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5, by the Mees observatory Stokes photo-polarimeter. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps have been constructed for this interval.

  11. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  12. Validation of LAIC model within the framework of ISSI project "Multi-instrument space-borne observations and validation of the physical model of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Laic Team

    2015-04-01

    A new international project to study the complex chain of interactions of different layers of atmosphere and near-Earth space plasma in presence of ionization sources and atmosphere loading by aerosol and dust, was initiated with the support of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern. The Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) concept initially created to understand the pre-earthquake phenomena in atmosphere and ionosphere, demonstrated its universality and ability to explain other natural phenomena involving atmosphere-ionosphere coupling from below such as tropical cyclones, thunderstorm activity, dust storms, volcano eruptions etc. The project aim, defined within the frame of the ISSI projects, can advance the Multi-instrument space-borne observations for studying the Earth Geospace environment. The currently project development utilizes multi-instrument ground and space-born observations collected all over the world to explore the variety of natural phenomena. First results show, that our planet environment could be regarded as an open complex system where interactions between different layers of atmosphere play important role in its thermodynamics and electrodynamics. Holistic approach to the geospheres interaction gives the new insight of our near-planet environment.

  13. Brokering access to massive climate and landscape data via web services: observations and lessons learned after five years of the Geo Data Portal project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Walker, J. I.; Read, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS Geo Data Portal (GDP) project started in 2010 with the goal of providing climate and landscape model output data to hydrology and ecology modelers in model-ready form. The system takes a user-specified collection of polygons and a gridded time series dataset and returns a time series of spatial statistics for each polygon. The GDP is designed for scalability and is generalized such that any data, hosted anywhere on the Internet adhering to the NetCDF-CF conventions, can be processed. Five years into the project, over 600 unique users from more than 200 organizations have used the system's web user interface and some datasets have been accessed thousands of times. In addition to the web interface, python and R client libraries have seen steady usage growth and several third-party web applications have been developed to use the GDP for easy data access. Here, we will present lessons learned and improvements made after five years of operation of the system's user interfaces, processing server, and data holdings. A vision for the future availability and processing of massive climate and landscape data will be outlined.

  14. Coaligned observations of solar magnetic fields at different heights: MSFC Center director's discretionary fund final report (Project No. 88-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Gary, G. A.; Smith, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to develop the capability for and coaligned observations of the structure and evolution of the Sun's magnetic field at two different heights in the solar atmosphere: the photosphere, which is the lowest region observable with optical telescopes; and the chromosphere, which lies just above the photosphere and is the region where the magnetic field dominates the gas motion so that a well-ordered structure governed by the field is observed. By obtaining this three-dimensional picture of the solar magnetic field, a better understanding can be developed of the magnetic forces that produce and control the dynamic, high-energy phenomena occurring in the solar atmosphere that can affect the entire heliosphere, including the terrestrial environment.

  15. Observation of ozone and aerosols in the Antarctic ozone hole of 1991 under the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) Project. Preliminary result

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Murata, Isao; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Kondo, Yutaka; Kanzawa, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the PPB (Polar Patrol Balloon) experiment. The balloon was launched at 07:55 UT on 23 September and dropped at 21 UT on 28 September 1991. During the period, ozone and aerosol concentrations were measured correspondingly along the track. During the Lagrangian type observation, drastic change of ozone concentration in 'same air mass' and positive correlation between ozone concentration and sulfate aerosol amount were obtained at the level within 80-78 hPa. During the descent motion at 80 deg S active PSC's (type-1 and -2) were observed from 200 hPa to 80 hPa.

  16. Changes of reference evapotranspiration in the Haihe River Basin: Present observations and future projection from climatic variables through multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wanqiu; Wang, Weiguang; Shao, Quanxi; Peng, Shizhang; Yu, Zhongbo; Yong, Bin; Taylor, John

    2014-04-01

    As the most excellent indicator for hydrological cycle and a central link to water-balance calculations, the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is of increasing importance in assessing the potential impacts of climate change on hydrology and water resources systems since the climate change has been becoming more pronounced. In this study, we conduct an investigation on the spatial and temporal changes in ET0 of the Haihe River Basin in present and future stages. The ET0 in the past five decades (1961-2010) are calculated by the Penman-Monteith method with historical climatic variables in 40 sites while the ET0 estimation for the future period of 2011-2099 is based on the related climatic variables projected by Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM) multimodel ensemble projections in Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) using the Bayesian Model Average (BMA) approach. Results can be summarized for the present and future as follows. (1) No coherent spatial patterns in ET0 changes are seen in the whole basin. Half of the stations distributed mainly in the eastern and southeastern plain regions present significant negative trends, while only 3 stations in the western mountainous and plateau basin show significant positive trends. Radiation is mainly responsible for the ET0 change in the southern and eastern basin, whereas relative humidity and wind speed are the leading factors in the eastern coastal and north parts. (2) BMA ensemble method is competent to produce lower bias in comparison with other common methods in this basin. Future spatiotemporal ET0 pattern analysis by means of the BMA method based on the ensembles of four CGCMs suggested that although the spatial patterns under three scenarios are different in the forthcoming two decades, generally increasing trends can be found in the 21st century, which is mainly attributed to the significant increasing temperature. In addition, the implication of future ET0 change in agriculture and

  17. Intercomparison of modeled and observed marine surface climate variation over the pre-anthropogenic last millennium: First-order results from the PAGES/Ocean2k project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    We have synthesized reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from sediment-derived paleodata (Mg/Ca, alkenones, TEX86, and faunal assemblages) for the interval 0-1800 C.E. at 200-year resolution. We observe a statistically-significant cooling trend, which is apparently not sensitive to quality of chronological control, chronological resolution, seasonality of response, water depth of the sediment core, or type of measurement, but is likely biased toward observations from the North Atlantic basin margins. The cooling trend is qualitatively consistent with a cooling trend observed from a synthesis of terrestrial paleodata and other marine paleodata syntheses, but the mechanisms underlying the cooling are still unknown. We assess the extent to which a multimodel superensemble of paleoclimate model simulations driven with realistic external forcing is consistent with the cooling trend observed in the paleoreconstruction synthesis for the common period 850-1850 CE. Within the context of the uncertainty in the paleoreconstruction synthesis and the simulations, we find that a global cooling trend is not simulated with only orbital forcing, but is consistent with the combined effects of volcanic and solar forcing. Assessment of the robustness of this result, and diagnostic understanding of the underlying mechanisms, is the subject of further work to be presented in this contribution.

  18. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

  19. The Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP): Using a Comprehensive Synthesis of Aerosol Observations and Statistical Modelling to Constrain Model Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, C.; Lee, L.; Carslaw, K. S.; Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Pringle, K.; Stier, P.; Partridge, D.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past few decades there has been enormous investment in atmospheric aerosol measurements across the globe. However, ultimately only a small fraction of these measurements are used to test and improve models. GASSP aims to bring together as much aerosol measurement data as possible in combination with a novel application of statistical methods to test and improve atmospheric model processes and improve our understanding of global aerosol and climate. Presently, we have synthesised a vast array of diverse aerosol measurements from aircraft, ground stations and ships, combining campaign and long-term measurements conducted over the past two decades. These data include in-situ measurements of cloud condensation nuclei and aerosol particle number concentrations, sizes and chemical composition. By combining different aerosol measurements we can ensure that the model skill is consistent across a range of aerosol properties in a range of environments. We will present spatial maps and time series of these data, identifying key regions where gaps currently exist in the dataset and where future contribution from the measurement community will be most crucial. We have also performed a sensitivity analysis of the output from a global aerosol model, which has identified the important sources of parameter uncertainty in all model grid cells throughout a single year. Cluster analysis of this data shows which model uncertainties can be constrained by observations in any particular global region during the year. Similarities and distinctions between clusters allows us to identify how observations made around the globe have the potential to constrain the global aerosol model and identify which model uncertainties will remain irreducible with the current suite of observations. As a first step we have used synthetic observations to constrain the model uncertainties and quantify the potential of real observations for model constraint. We then use these results to target real

  20. The ACS LCID Project. XI. On the Early Time Resolution of SFHs of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies: Comparing the Effects of Reionization in Models with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations, is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between 1.3× {10}6 and 7.2× {10}6 {M}ȯ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs peak as much as 1.25 Gyr earlier than the optimal solutions. Thus, this effect is important for a proper comparison of model and observed SFHs. It is also shown that none of the analyzed galaxies can be considered a true fossil of the pre-reionization era, although it is possible that the outer regions of Cetus and Tucana are consistent with quenching by reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #10505.

  1. THE HARPS-TERRA PROJECT. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHMS, PERFORMANCE, AND NEW MEASUREMENTS ON A FEW REMARKABLE STARS OBSERVED BY HARPS

    SciTech Connect

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul

    2012-06-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs.

  2. ASCA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

  3. H I scaling relations of galaxies in the environment of H I-rich and control galaxies observed by the Bluedisk project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enci; Wang, Jing; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Li, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Our work is based on the `Bluedisk' project, a programme to map the neutral gas in a sample of 25 H I-rich spirals and a similar number of control galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). In this paper, we focus on the H I properties of the galaxies in the environment of our targeted galaxies. In total, we extract 65 galaxies from the WSRT cubes with stellar masses between 108 and 1011 M⊙. Most of these galaxies are located on the same H I mass-size relation and `H I-plane' as normal spiral galaxies. We find that companions around H I-rich galaxies tend to be H I-rich as well and to have larger R_{90,H I}/R_{50,H I}. This suggests a scenario of `H I conformity', similar to the colour conformity found by Weinmann et al.: galaxies tend to adopt the H I properties of their neighbours. We visually inspect the outliers from the H I mass-size relation and galaxies which are offset from the H I plane and find that they show morphological and kinematical signatures of recent interactions with their environment. We speculate that these outliers have been disturbed by tidal or ram-pressure stripping processes, or in a few cases, by accretion events.

  4. Understanding in-situ ozone production in the summertime through radical observations and modelling studies during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Sharp, Thomas; Garraway, Shani; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl; Hopkins, James; Holmes, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqui; Lee, James; Laufs, Sebastian; Kleffmann, Jörg; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-05-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, partially speciated RO2 (distinguishing smaller alkane related RO2 from larger alkane/alkene/aromatic related RO2), ClNO2 and OH reactivity measurements taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 tested our ability to reproduce radical levels, and enabled detailed radical budgets to be determined, highlighting for example the important role of the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) and carbonyl species as radical sources. Speciation of RO2 enabled the break-down of ozone production from different classes of VOCs to be calculated directly and compared with model calculations. Summertime observations of radicals have helped to identify that increases in photolytic sources of radicals on warm, sunny days can significantly increase local ozone concentrations leading to exceedances of EU air quality recommendations of 60 ppbV. The photolytic breakdown of ClNO2 to Cl atoms can more than double radical concentrations in the early morning; although the integrated increase in radical concentrations over a 24 hr period in model runs when ClNO2 photolysis is included is more modest. On average we calculate just under a 1 ppb increase in ozone due to the presence of ClNO2 in London air. OH reactivity was found to be greatest during morning and evening rush hours. Good agreement between the modelled OH reactivity and observations could be achieved when reactivity associated with model generated photo

  5. Comprehensive Study on Small and Low Cost Satellite Technology for Earth Observation with Case Study for Indonesia: Projection for 2002-2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djojodihardjo, Harijono

    and economic progress, while facing global competitiveness locally as opportunities and challenges. Of particular importance is the utilization and development of earth observation capabilities for environmental natural resources imperatives to this end is quite significant. On one hand there may appear challenges to achieve unique and high quality requirements on many of the elements of social and economic progress, i.e. natural resources, human resources, market opportunities and geographical advantage; on the other hand one may face constraints in the financial system, cultural inertia and paradigm, and the need to carry forward large momentum that may pull back technological and economic progress that may be characterized by a "roller coaster" dynamics. Satellite Technology for Earth Observation, its Utilization and Development is carried out with Indonesian Development Interest in mind. Space System Services and Players are identified. Mission objectives associated with Urban and Rural Areas as well as Satellite-Based Multimedia Technology Applications For Promoting Rural Development will be identified. System design analysis and synthesis will be elaborated and some alternatives will be presented following a unified system outlook. Ground Segment and Space Segment Architecture will be elaborated by carrying out Architecture Optimization.

  6. LLAMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  7. Developing a model for understanding patient collection of observations of daily living: A qualitative meta-synthesis of the Project HealthDesign Program

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Keller, Sara R.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Dorr, David A.; Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-synthesis of five different studies that developed, tested, and implemented new technologies for the purpose of collecting Observations of Daily Living (ODL). From this synthesis, we developed a model to explain user motivation as it relates to ODL collection. We describe this model that includes six factors that motivate patients’ collection of ODL data: usability, illness experience, relevance of ODLs, information technology infrastructure, degree of burden, and emotional activation. We show how these factors can act as barriers or facilitators to the collection of ODL data and how interacting with care professionals and sharing ODL data may also influence ODL collection, health-related awareness, and behavior change. The model we developed and used to explain ODL collection can be helpful to researchers and designers who study and develop new, personal health technologies to empower people to improve their health. PMID:26949381

  8. Seasonal Differences in Aerosol Chemical Properties at a Site Along the Eastern Seaboard: Observations from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Comstock, J. M.; Chand, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; Jefferson, A.; Kassianov, E.; Mei, F.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Schmid, B.; Shilling, J.; Springston, S. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Watson, T. B.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    There have been relatively few studies that have quantified the seasonal variability of aerosol chemical and optical properties, as well as cloud-aerosol interactions, over a large portion of the atmospheric column. The Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supported study, was designed to address this shortcoming with a combination of both ground-based and airborne measurements. The TCAP measurement strategy focused on the aerosol and cloud properties in two columns, one over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and one several hundred kilometers to the east. TCAP included the year-long deployment of the DOE Atmospheric Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility and two individual month-long deployments of the ARM Aerial Facility, in July 2012 and in February 2013. Our work highlights a number of important differences between the summer and winter study periods, including differences in atmospheric flow patterns, the mass loading and chemical composition of the aerosol. The median mass loading of organic aerosol measured at the surface was much larger during July (2.3 μg m-3) than February (0.88 μg m-3). These differences are likely the result of the small amount of biogenic emissions during the winter as well as the reduction in the amount of sunlight available for photochemistry. The amount of sulfate loading was approximately a factor of two larger during February, with a median value of 0.66 μg m-3 compared to only 0.30 μg m-3 measured during July. The median mass loading of nitrate and ammonium did not vary with season, but these two components make up a much larger fraction of the total aerosol mass loading in the winter. Interestingly, the difference in median refractory black carbon (rBC) measured at the surface did not change much between winter and summer (63 ng m-3 during February compared to 70 ng m-3 in July), but the 75th percentile of rBC mass loading is much larger, 127 ng m-3, during July compared to only 95 ng m-3 during

  9. Radical chemistry at night: comparisons between observed and modelled HOx, NO3 and N2O5 during the RONOCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D.; Evans, M. J.; Walker, H.; Ingham, T.; Vaughan, S.; Ouyang, B.; Kennedy, O. J.; McLeod, M. W.; Jones, R. L.; Hopkins, J.; Punjabi, S.; Lidster, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Carpenter, L. J.; Forster, G.; Oram, D. E.; Reeves, C. E.; Bauguitte, S.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Aruffo, E.; Dari-Salisburgo, C.; Giammaria, F.; Di Carlo, P.; Heard, D. E.

    2014-02-01

    The RONOCO (ROle of Nighttime chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the AtmOsphere) aircraft campaign during July 2010 and January 2011 made observations of OH, HO2, NO3, N2O5 and a number of supporting measurements at night over the UK, and reflects the first simultaneous airborne measurements of these species. We compare the observed concentrations of these short-lived species with those calculated by a box model constrained by the concentrations of the longer lived species using a detailed chemical scheme. OH concentrations were below the limit of detection, consistent with model predictions. The model systematically underpredicts HO2 by ~200% and overpredicts NO3 and N2O5 by around 80 and 50%, respectively. Cycling between NO3 and N2O5 is fast and thus we define the NO3x (NO3x=NO3+N2O5) family. Production of NO3x is overwhelmingly dominated by the reaction of NO2 with O3, whereas its loss is dominated by aerosol uptake of N2O5, with NO3+VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and NO3+RO2 playing smaller roles. The production of HOx and ROx radicals is mainly due to the reaction of NO3 with VOCs. The loss of these radicals occurs through a combination of HO2+RO2 reactions, heterogeneous processes and production of HNO3 from OH+NO2, with radical propagation primarily achieved through reactions of NO3 with peroxy radicals. Thus NO3 at night plays a similar role to both OH and NO during the day in that it both initiates ROx radical production and acts to propagate the tropospheric oxidation chain. Model sensitivity to the N2O5 aerosol uptake coefficient (γN2O5) is discussed and we find that a value of γN2O5=0.05 improves model simulations for NO3 and N2O5, but that these improvements are at the expense of model success for HO2. Improvements to model simulations for HO2, NO3 and N2O5 can be realised simultaneously on inclusion of additional unsaturated volatile organic compounds, however the nature of these compounds is extremely uncertain.

  10. Radical chemistry at night: comparisons between observed and modelled HOx, NO3 and N2O5 during the RONOCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D.; Evans, M. J.; Walker, H. M.; Ingham, T.; Vaughan, S.; Ouyang, B.; Kennedy, O. J.; McLeod, M. W.; Jones, R. L.; Hopkins, J.; Punjabi, S.; Lidster, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Carpenter, L. J.; Forster, G.; Oram, D. E.; Reeves, C. E.; Bauguitte, S.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Aruffo, E.; Dari-Salisburgo, C.; Giammaria, F.; Di Carlo, P.; Heard, D. E.

    2013-04-01

    The RONOCO aircraft campaign during July 2010 and January 2011 made observations of OH, HO2, NO3, N2O5 and a number of supporting measurements at night over the UK, and reflects the first simultaneous airborne measurement of these species. We compare the observed concentrations of these short-lived species with those calculated by a box model, constrained by the concentrations of the longer lived species, using a detailed chemical scheme. OH concentrations were below the limit of detection, consistent with the model predictions. The model systematically underpredicts HO2 by a factor of ~2 and overpredicts NO3 and N2O5 by factors of around 75% and 50%, respectively. Cycling between NO3 and N2O5 is fast and thus we define the NO3x (NO3x = NO3 + N2O5) family. Production of NO3x is overwhelmingly dominated by the reaction of NO2 with O3, whereas its loss is dominated by aerosol uptake of N2O5, with NO3 + VOCs and NO3 + RO2 playing smaller roles. The production of HOx and ROx radicals is mainly due to the reaction of NO3 with VOCs. The loss of these radicals occurs through a combination of HO2 + RO2 reactions, heterogeneous processes and production of HNO3 from OH + NO2, with radical propagation primarily achieved through reactions of NO3 with peroxy radicals. Thus NO3 at night plays a similar role to both OH and NO during the day in that it both initiates ROx radical production and acts to propagate the oxidation chain. Model sensitivity to the N2O5 aerosol uptake coefficient (γN2O5) is discussed, and we find that a value of γN2O5 = 0.05 improves model simulations for NO3 and N2O5, but that these improvements are at the expense of model success for HO2. Improvements to model simulations for HO2, NO3 and N2O5 can be realised simultaneously on inclusion of additional unsaturated volatile organic compounds, however the nature of these compounds is extremely uncertain.

  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B. M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G. A.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Horne, Keith; Korista, K. T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Brewer, B. J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K. D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P. A.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J. M.; Goad, M. R.; Grier, C. J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P. B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Nousek, J. A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J. S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-06-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from ˜30% to a factor of two in the emission lines and a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He ii λ 1640 lagging behind the continuum by ˜2.5 days and Lyα λ 1215, C iv λ 1550, and Si iv λ 1400 lagging by ˜5-6 days. The relationship between the continuum and emission lines is complex. In particular, during the second half of the campaign, all emission-line lags increased by a factor of 1.3-2 and differences appear in the detailed structure of the continuum and emission-line light curves. Velocity-resolved cross-correlation analysis shows coherent structure in lag versus line of sight velocity for the emission lines; the high-velocity wings of C iv respond to continuum variations more rapidly than the line core, probably indicating higher velocity broad-line region clouds at smaller distances from the central engine. The velocity-dependent response of Lyα, however, is more complex and will require further analysis.

  12. GOCE observations and geophysical constraints to better understand the lithosphere and geodynamical processes under the Paraná-Etendeka region: preliminary results of PERLA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the considerable progress made by the modern geodetic satellite mission GOCE, one of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth deep interior, and their relationship to Earth-surface changes. In this context we propose a study that aims to understand the two pieces of lithosphere underlying the Paraná-Etendeka conjugate margins (Brazil, and Angola-Namibia). It is essential to collect the geological and geophysical information about the thickness and the density of sedimentary layers, crustal thickness and mantle inhomogeneities. Our methodology integrates the geophysical database with the GOCE data, product of the innovative gravity satellite mission, that was concluded November 2013. Crustal thickness was obtained from all available seismological datasets. The density-depth relation of the shallow layers is modeled by geophysical data collected from literature and from the on-shore and off-shore drilling programs. Several compaction laws are used to estimate the density of each layer. This information is necessary to reduce the observations considering the gravity effect of all intracrustal known layers, to resolve the deep crustal structures (e.g. Moho and intracrustal bodies). A positive gravity anomaly is expected due to the magmatic activity of the Paraná-Etendeka province. The smaller-scale and shallow gravity anomaly should be due to the occurrence of the volcanic activity close to the alkaline-carbonatite complexes, while the large-scale anomaly is expected from the underplating of a wide denser body at the depth of the crustal mantle boundary. In the present work some preliminary results of the inversion of the residual gravity anomaly in terms of densities in the middle and shallow lithosphere under the Paraná-Etendeka region will be presented and interpreted.

  13. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on combined temperature and precipitation winter modes in the Mediterranean mountains: Observed relationships and projections for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Lorenzo-Lacruz, J.; Kenawy, A.; Beniston, M.

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has identified the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) as one of the dominant atmospheric patterns on the temporal evolution of precipitation and temperature in the Mediterranean area. The NAO is seen to markedly affect snowpack variability and water resource availability in many mountain areas. This study investigated the influence of the NAO on winter precipitation and temperature variability, and on the occurrence of four winter climate modes defined on the basis of combined precipitation and temperature quantiles: warm and wet (WW), warm and dry (WD), cold and wet (CW) and cold and dry (CD). It is known that the occurrence of different winter modes is closely related to snow accumulation in mountains. The present study focused on 15 mountain areas in Mediterranean Europe, Morocco, Turkey and Lebanon. Global circulation models (GCMs) have been used to simulate the relationships between the NAO and winter modes for the next century under a moderate (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions scenario. The results show that for the majority of the mountain areas in the Mediterranean region, the occurrence of different winter modes was closely related to the NAO state, although the relationships were weaker in the easternmost part of the Mediterranean basin. GCMs have accurately simulated the observed relationships, and indicate that the NAO will continue to influence the occurrence of combined precipitation and temperature modes in coming decades. The GCMs also suggest enhanced winter NAOs in the future, which could lead to an increase in the frequency of dry modes. Moreover, as the simulations indicate a steady increase in temperature, winters classified as "cold" in the 21st century will be noticeably rarer compared with recent decades. The relationships between the NAO and snowpack may also change substantially in the future, especially in low altitude areas.

  14. Establishment of borehole observation system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, A.; Yalcinkaya, E.; Guralp, C. M.; Tunc, S.; Meral Ozel, N.

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system will be composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station will use the latest update technologies and design ideas to record 'Earth tides' signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major rupture initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 rupture was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the main shock

  15. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  16. U.S. Forest Disturbance Evaluated using Landsat Observations and FIA Measurements: Initial Results and Ongoing Research in the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Huang, C.; Kennedy, R. E.; Healey, S. P.; Powell, S. L.; Schleeweis, K.; Hinds, A.; Rishmawi, K.

    2009-12-01

    The importance of forests as carbon sources or sinks depends, in part, upon stand age, which in turn is generally dependent on time since last disturbance. Uncertainties in North American carbon fluxes originate from poor understanding of forest dynamics, specifically disturbance and regeneration. The North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, which supports North American Carbon Program (NACP) science goals, is improving understanding of North American forest dynamics through integration of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) field observations and biennial Landsat imagery to evaluate disturbance and regrowth patterns over the last ~ 35 years. NAFD Phase I (2005-2008) detailed forest disturbance history from Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) for 23 sample locations across the United States. Results of Phase I NAFD disturbance mapping reveal generally high rates of forest disturbance (0.5 - 3.0% per year across the U.S). These rates vary both spatially and temporally. Ongoing Phase II (2008-2011) work is refining the Phase I approach. Additional sample locations in the conterminous U.S are being added to reduce error in nationwide disturbance estimates. Detection of partial disturbances is being improved by moving toward annual rather then biennial LTSS. This is being accomplished with cloud clearing through image merging to provide within-growing season clear surface views. Additional elements of the NAFD Phase II work include partnering with Canada and Mexico to better understand North American continent-wide forest dynamics. We are also extending our effort to consider regrowth dynamics using the FIA data to support both radiative transfer modeling and synthesis of FIA and the remote sensing data to estimate biomass accumulation trends. We are also collaborating with other NACP- investigators where the NAFD products inform their alternate approaches (modeling and/ or accounting) for carbon assessment

  17. The HST quasar absorption line key project. 4: HST faint-object spectrograph and ground-based observations of the unusual low-redshift broad absorption-line quasi-stellar object PG 0043+039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Espey, Brian R.; Kopko, Michael, Jr.; Rauch, Michael; Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Boksenberg, Alec; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST FOS) observations have shown that the spectrum of the low-redshift (z(sub em) approximately equal to 0.384) QSO PG 0043+039 exhibits weak broad absorption lines (BALs). The BALs were discovered during the course of UV spectrophotometry made for the HST Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. The HST data are analyzed along with ground-based optical and IUE spectrophotometry. The object is found to have a number of atypical properties relative to normal non-BAL QSOs. The observed continuum is atypical in the sense that it is much weaker than that of a normal optically selected QSO at rest wavelengths approximately less than 2200 A. Intrinsic reddening of E(B-V) approximately equal to 0.11 mag by dust similar to that found in the SMC at the redshift of PG 0043+039 conservatively accounts for the observed continuum shape moderately well. These observed characteristics are typical of low-ionization BAL QSOs, but convincing evidence for BALs due to low-ionization transitions of Mg II, Al III, Al II, or C II does not exist. Therefore, this object may be a misaligned BAL QSO having many of the characteristics of low-ionization BAL QSOs with the sight line passing through a putative dusty region, but evidently missing clouds of high enough column density to produce observable low-ionization BALs. If the intrinsic dust-extinction model is correct, the observations suggest that the dust is not confined to the presumably higher density, low-ionization BAL clouds, but that it has drifted to nearby high-ionization BAL regions. We also consider other possible mechanisms for producing the shape of the continuous energy distribution which cannot be ruled out. We compare the Fe II emission in PG 0043+039 with that in another Key Project QSO, NGC 2841-UB 3, which has optical Fe II emission comparable in strength to that in PG 0043+039, but has anomalously weak UV Fe II emission. In addition, from an analysis of UV and optical

  18. The Eggen Card Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) Olin Eggen, noted astronomer (1919-1998), left to us all his raw observation records recorded on 3x5 cards. This project is to make all this data available as an online resource. History and progress of the project will be presented. Project details available at: https://sites.google.com/site/eggencards/home.

  19. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  20. DBMS as a Tool for Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, H.

    1984-01-01

    Scientific objectives of crustal dynamics are listed as well as the contents of the centralized data information system for the crustal dynamics project. The system provides for project observation schedules, gives project configuration control information and project site information.

  1. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  2. Project Ozma: The Birth of Observational SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    It was an idea whose time had come, but nobody dared admit that out loud. Frank Drake, in particular, was keeping silent. Like many of his generation, he had long speculated about the existence of extraterrestrial life, and pondered how we humans might probe for direct evidence of our cosmic companions. Now, in 1959, the young astronomer was finally in a position to do more than ponder. At 29, he had just completed graduate school, the ink on his Harvard diploma as wet as he was behind the ears. As the new kid on the block at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, he had access to the tools necessary to mount a credible search for radio evidence of distant technological civilizations. Drake knew enough to tread lightly; a publicly announced hunt for Little Green Men would be tantamount to professional suicide, so he approached his superior with understandable trepidation.

  3. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  4. A tract-tracing study of the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus, teleostei), with some observations on the descending trigeminal tract.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Alvarez-Otero, R; Rodicio, M C; Anadón, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (MesV) in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus), after application of horseradish peroxidase or fluorescein dextran amine into the eye orbit. A small number (1 to 13) of large mesencephalic trigeminal neurons were solid labeled in the ipsilateral rostral mesencephalon. At the level of the trigeminal nerve entrance, the united process of each mesencephalic trigeminal cell bifurcates, giving rise to a peripheral branch that exits in the trigeminal nerve and a descending branch that runs caudally in a medial bundle separated from the descending trigeminal tract. This bundle passes close to the visceromotor nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Descending processes give rise to short collaterals to the descending nucleus of the trigeminus and the ventrolateral reticular area. Most MesV descending fibres terminate in this ventrolateral field at the transition of the medulla to the spinal cord, but one or two fibres could be followed to the C6 level, where they give rise to collaterals to the dorsal funicular nucleus. No collaterals directed to the trigeminal motor nucleus, the cerebellum, or the mesencephalic tegmentum were observed. These projections were also compared with those of the descending trigeminal tract. PMID:8971415

  5. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  6. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived from ground-based MAX-DOAS system in Guangzhou, China and comparison with satellite observations: First results within the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkis; Zyrichidou, Irene; Li, Shu; Balis, Dimitris; Huang, Zhonghui

    2016-04-01

    A miniature MAX-DOAS system, Phaethon, has been developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, for ground-based monitoring of column densities of atmospheric gases. Simultaneous measurements with two Phaethon systems at the city centre of Thessaloniki and at a rural location about 30 km away have shown that Phaethon provides NO2 and HCHO tropospheric column measurements of acceptable accuracy under both low and high air-pollution levels. Currently three systems have been deployed in areas with different pollution patterns to support air quality and satellite validation studies. In the framework of the EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo project, one of the Phaethon systems has been installed since April 2015 in the Guangzhou region in China. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived at Guangzhou during the first 10 months of operation are compared with corresponding retrievals from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A and /Metop-B satellite sensors. The area is characterized by humid subtropical monsoon climate and cloud-free conditions are rather rare from early March to mid-October. Despite this limitation and the short period of operation of Phaethon in Guangzhou, the agreement between ground-based and satellite observations is generally good for both NO2 and HCHO. It appears that GOME-2 sensors seem to underestimate the tropospheric NO2, possibly due to their large pixel size, whereas the comparison with OMI data is better, especially when a small cloud fraction (< 0.2) is used for cloud screening.

  7. Natural and Anthropogenic Geohazards in Greater London Observed from Geological and ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT Persistent Scatterers Ground Motion Data: Results from the EC FP7-SPACE PanGeo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Hannah; Bateson, Luke; McCormack, Harry; Roberts, Claire

    2015-11-01

    We combine geological data and ground motion estimates from satellite ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) to delineate areas of observed natural and anthropogenic geohazards in the administrative area of Greater London (United Kingdom). This analysis was performed within the framework of the EC FP7-SPACE PanGeo project, and by conforming to the interpretation and geohazard mapping methodology extensively described in the Production Manual (cf. http://www.pangeoproject.eu). We discuss the results of the generation of the PanGeo digital geohazard mapping product for Greater London, and analyse the potential of PSI, geological data and the PanGeo methodology to identify areas of observed geohazards. Based on the analysis of PSI ground motion data sets for the years 1992-2000 and 2002-2010 and geology field campaigns, we identify 25 geohazard polygons, covering a total of ~650 km2. These include not only natural processes such as compaction of deposits on the River Thames flood plain and slope instability, but also anthropogenic instability due to groundwater management and changes in the Chalk aquifer, recent engineering works such as those for the Jubilee Line Extension project and electricity tunnelling in proximity to the River Thames, and the presence of made ground. In many instances, natural and anthropogenic observed geohazards overlap, therefore indicating interaction of different processes over the same areas. In terms of ground area covered, the dominant geohazard is anthropogenic land subsidence caused by groundwater abstraction for a total of ~300 km2, followed by natural compression of River Thames sediments over ~105 km2. Observed ground motions along the satellite line-of-sight are as high as +29.5 and -25.3 mm/year, and indicate a combination of land surface processes comprising ground subsidence and uplift, as well as downslope movements. Across the areas of observed geohazards, urban land cover types from the Copernicus

  8. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  9. Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory-A (STEREO-A) and PRoject for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) Quadrature Observations of Reflections of Three EUV Waves from a Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Veronig, A. M.; Berghmans, D.; De Groof, A.; Temmer, M.; Vršnak, B.; Seaton, D. B.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the interaction of three consecutive large-scale coronal waves with a polar coronal hole, simultaneously observed on-disk by the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)-A spacecraft and on the limb by the PRoject for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) spacecraft on 27 January 2011. All three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves originate from the same active region, NOAA 11149, positioned at N30E15 in the STEREO-A field of view and on the limb in PROBA2. For the three primary EUV waves, we derive starting velocities in the range of ≈ 310 km s-1 for the weakest up to ≈ 500 km s-1 for the strongest event. Each large-scale wave is reflected at the border of the extended coronal hole at the southern polar region. The average velocities of the reflected waves are found to be smaller than the mean velocities of their associated direct waves. However, the kinematical study also reveals that in each case the ending velocity of the primary wave matches the initial velocity of the reflected wave. In all three events, the primary and reflected waves obey the Huygens-Fresnel principle, as the incident angle with ≈ 10° to the normal is of the same magnitude as the angle of reflection. The correlation between the speed and the strength of the primary EUV waves, the homologous appearance of both the primary and the reflected waves, and in particular the EUV wave reflections themselves suggest that the observed EUV transients are indeed nonlinear large-amplitude MHD waves.

  10. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  11. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  12. Application of in situ observations, high frequency radars, and ocean color, to study suspended matter, particulate carbon, and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in coastal waters of the Barents Sea - the NORDFLUX project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Yngve Børsheim, Knut; Białogrodzka, Jagoda; Cieszyńska, Agata; Ficek, Dariusz; Wereszka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    There is still a limited knowledge about suspended and dissolved matter fluxes transported from coastal regions into the open sea regions in the Arctic. The land/sea interface is environmentally important and sensitive to climate change. Important biogeochemical material entering the oceans (including carbon) passes through this interface, but too little is known about the efficiency of this transport. Our goal in the NORDFLUX program is to improve quantitative understanding of the environmental feedbacks involved in these processes through an interdisciplinary study with innovative in situ observations. Completed work includes two in situ experiments in the Norwegian fiord (Porsangerfjorden) in the summers of 2014 and 2015. Experiments used research boat for collection of water samples and in situ bio-optical data, an autonomous glider, mooring with T S sensors, and a high frequency radar system. We have used these data to derive spatial maps of water temperature, salinity, surface currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, and inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the water. The interpretation of these data in terms of suspended matter concentration and composition is possible by in situ 'calibrations' using water samples from discrete hydrographic stations. Total suspended matter (TSM), particulate carbon (POC and PIC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations together with measured water currents will allow us to estimate reservoirs and fluxes. Concentrations and fluxes will be related to physical conditions and meteorological data. An important aspect of this project is the work on regional ocean color algorithms. Global ocean color (OC) algorithms currently used by NASA do not perform sufficiently well in coastal Case 2 waters. Our data sets will allow us to derive such local algorithms. We will then use these algorithms for interpretation of OC data in terms of TSM concentrations and composition and DOC. After

  13. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  14. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  15. Psychoanalytic observation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J H; Balter, L

    1990-01-01

    The recent focus on empathy as the essential activity in psychoanalytic data gathering has underemphasized the complexity of psychoanalytic observation and has failed to identify what truly makes it unique among modes of psychological investigation. It is a process that includes introspection and empathy. However, it also includes the analyst's observation of the patient's behavior, and particularly verbal behavior, in a way that is not necessarily empathic. The psychoanalytic use of introspection and behavioral observation together, as they are modified by the analysand's free association and the analyst's evenly hovering attention, provides a unique method of data gathering. The transient, mutually related regressions of analyst and analysand which partly constitute the analyzing instrument modify the field of observation available to both, providing better access to derivatives of the analysand's unconscious mental functioning. This more complex concept of psychoanalytic observation, as opposed to that in which empathy is predominant, has important implications for psychoanalytic training, clinical work, and theory. PMID:2193975

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  17. Shop Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob

    Vocational agriculture teachers in Oklahoma prepared the shop project drawings which comprise the document. Seventy-one projects, with lists of required materials, diagrams, and measurements, are included. Construction projects fall into six categories (number of projects in parentheses): Trailers (5), racks (3), livestock production projects…

  18. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  19. Whipple Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trangsrud, A.

    2015-12-01

    The solar system that we know today was shaped dramatically by events in its dynamic formative years. These events left their signatures at the distant frontier of the solar system, in the small planetesimal relics that populate the vast Oort Cloud, the Scattered Disk, and the Kuiper Belt. To peer in to the history and evolution of our solar system, the Whipple mission will survey small bodies in the large volume that begins beyond the orbit of Neptune and extends out to thousands of AU. Whipple detects these objects when they occult distant stars. The distance and size of the occulting object is reconstructed from well-understood diffraction effects in the object's shadow. Whipple will observe tens of thousands of stars simultaneously with high observing efficiency, accumulating roughly a billion "star-hours" of observations over its mission life. Here we describe the Whipple observing strategy, including target selection and scheduling.

  20. Orion Project Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiewing, Albert; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.

    2015-05-01

    Originally started in 2012 as the Betelgeuse Project, interest in the other bright stars of Orion soon expanded the Project stars to include a total of six of the brightest stars in Orion. The name was then changed to the Orion Project. Orion is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination along the celestial equator is such that it is visible from most of northern and southern hemispheres. In addition, the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. The Orion Project now includes the stars Betelgeuse, Rigel, Saiph and the three stars of Orion's belt, Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak. The projects objectives are both to help the observer produce quality photometric and spectroscopic data and to produce archival quality photometric (BVRIJH bands) and spectroscopy (low, mid and high-resolution) data. This paper is a summary of the Orion Project status.

  1. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  2. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  3. Characterization of PM2.5 aerosols dominated by local pollution and Asian dust observed at an urban site in Korea during aerosol characterization experiments (ACE)--Asia Project.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Young J; Cho, Sung Yong; Kim, Seung Jai

    2007-04-01

    Daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected at Gwangju, Korea, during the Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE)-Asia Project to determine the chemical properties of PM2.5 originating from local pollution and Asian dust (AD) storms. During the study period, two significant events occurred on April 10-13 and 24-25, 2001, and a minor event occurred on April 19, 2001. Based on air mass transport pathways identified by back-trajectory calculation, the PM2.5 dataset was classified into three types of aerosol populations: local pollution and two AD aerosol types. The two AD types were transported along different pathways. One originated from Gobi desert area in Mongolia, passing through Hunshandake desert in Northern Inner Mongolia, urban and polluted regions of China (AD1), and the other originated in sandy deserts located in the Northeast Inner Mongolia Plateau and then flowed southward through the Korean peninsula (AD2). During the AD2 event, a smoke plume that originated in North Korea was transported to our study site. Mass balance closures show that crustal materials were the most significant species during both AD events, contributing -48% to the PM2.5 mass; sulfate aerosols (19.1%) and organic matter (OM; 24.6%) were the second greatest contributors during the AD1 and AD2 periods, respectively, indicating that aerosol properties were dependent on the transport pathway. The sulfate concentration constituted only 6.4% (4.5 microg/m3) of the AD2 PM2.5 mass. OM was the major chemical species in the local pollution-dominated PM2.5 aerosols, accounting for 28.7% of the measured PM2.5 mass, followed by sulfate (21.4%), nitrate (15%), ammonium (12.8%), elemental carbon (8.9%), and crustal material (6.5%). Together with substantial enhancement of the crustal elements (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Ce), higher concentrations of pollution elements (S, V, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were observed during AD1 and AD2 than during the local

  4. Babylonian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    Cuneiform tablets from Babylonia record lunar and solar eclipses, the presence and movement of comets, meteors and meteor showers. These have provided historical astronomers with much valuable data, but caution must be exercised when using such records, for accuracy of observation often ceded to astrological intent. In the future, texts from Assyria may also provide useful data for historical astronomers.

  5. Arab observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoohi, L. J.

    There are two main medieval Arab sources of astronomical observations: chronicles and astronomical treatises. Medieval Arabs produced numerous chronicles many of which reported astronomical events that the chroniclers themselves observed or were witnessed by others. Astronomical phenomena that were recorded by chroniclers include solar and lunar eclipses, cometary apparitions, meteors, and meteor showers. Muslim astronomers produced many astronomical treatises known as zijes. Zijes include records of mainly predictable phenomena, such as eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Unlike chronicles, zijes usually ignore irregular phenomena such as the apparitions of comets and meteors, and meteor showers. Some zijes include astronomical observations, especially of eclipses. Not unexpectedly, records in zijes are in general more accurate than their counterparts in chronicles. However, research has shown that medieval Arab chronicles and zijes both contain some valuable astronomical observational data. Unfortunately, much of the heritage of medieval Arab chroniclers and astronomers is still in manuscript form. Moreover, most of the huge numbers of Arabic manuscripts that exist in various libraries, especially in Arab countries, are still uncatalogued. Until now there is only one catalogue of zijes which was compiled in the fifties and which includes brief comments on 200 zijes. There is a real need for systematic investigation of medieval Arab historical and astronomical manuscripts which exist in many libraries all over the world.

  6. Babylonian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.

    Very few cuneiform records survive from Mesopotamia of datable astronomical observations made prior to the mid-eighth century BC. Those that do record occasional eclipses, and in one isolated case the dates of the heliacal rising and setting of Venus over a few years sometime in the first half of the second millennium BC. After the mid-eighth century BC the situation changes dramatically. Incomplete records of daily observations of astronomical and meteorological events are preserved from c. 747 BC until the Christian Period. These records are without accompanying ominous interpretation, although it is highly probable that they were compiled by diviners for astrological purposes. They include numerous observations of use to historical astronomers, such as the times of eclipses and occultations, and the dates of comet appearances and meteor showers. The question arises as to why such records do not survive from earlier times; celestial divination was employed as far back as the third millenium BC. It is surely not without importance that the earliest known accurate astronomical predictions accompany the later records, and that the mid-eighth century BC ushered in a period of centralised Assyrian control of Mesopotamia and the concomitant employment by the Assyrian ruler of large numbers of professional celestial diviners. The programme of daily observations evidently began when a high premium was first set on the accurate astronomical prediction of ominous events. It is in this light that we must approach this valuable source material for historical astronomy.

  7. Influence on Numerical Model Application by Changing Surface Parameters in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhong, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Land Surface Parameters (LSPs) are important boundary conditions for land surface fluxes, climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The numerical model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) has provided us to do the LSPs sensitive experiments for land surface heat flux for understanding the water and energy cycles during the Asian monsoon period. A series of LSPs sensitivity experiments based on the WRF model and in-situ data has been used over the heterogeneous land surface. The LSPs experiments were simulated over the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau (CEOP-CAMP/Tibet), located on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. The main LSPs are soil moisture and vegetation parameter. The simulation period from July to August 2007 was selected for the summer monsoon conditions. To validate the simulation results, in-situ data was compared to the simulated values. The simulation results are in agreement with the land surface observations over the study area.

  8. Oceanic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, merchant ships and the naval fleets of various countries have been the major source of data over and in the open ocean. Oceanographic research experiments and process studies in the field have also contributed to the climatological data bases for the global ocean, but, for the most part, these have been limited in duration and extent. However, over the last 10 years under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program and the International Geosphere Biosphere Program the role of the oceans in global and climate change has taken on increased significance. This has created a need for a considerably improved understanding of the seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time-scale variability of the physical and biogeochemical attributes of the global ocean. As a result, over the past 10 years several major international field programs have been implemented and have had a tremendous impact on the number of in situ observations obtained for the global ocean. The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) were designed with observational, modelling, and process study components aimed at analyzing different aspects of the ocean's role in the coupled climate system. In parallel with the field programs, continuous space-based observations of sea surface temperature, sea surface topography, and sea surface winds spanning nearly a decade or longer have become a reality. During this same time period, numerical ocean models and computational power have advanced to the point where the oceanographic observations, both in situ and remotely sensed, can be assimilated into numerical ocean models in order to provide a four-dimensional (x-y-z-t) depiction of the evolving state of the global ocean.

  9. Observational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic uncertainties in the observations and their interpretation. Given the curious composition of the Universe inherent in the emerging cosmological model, I stress the value of searching for inconsistencies rather than concordance, and suggest that the prevailing mood of triumphalism in cosmology is premature.

  10. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  11. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.

    2006-07-01

    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  12. Observational exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere absorbs partially or completely many ultraviolet, infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Atmospheric seeing distorts small images, imposing a limit on the achievable angular resolution at optical and infrared wavelengths that is much poorer than the intrinsic capability of telescope optics. The atomic and molecular species of the atmosphere confuse or prevent the spectral studies of similar compounds outside of the terrestrial environment. Telescopes placed in orbit above the atmosphere avoid these problems and enjoy a unique view of the universe. There are many complex questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of the biogenic elements and compounds and the existence of terrestrial types of planets elsewhere that can be only tackled from orbiting facilities. The detailed nature of the spacecraft, platforms and instrumentation most likely to be launched by the United States and Europe in the near future in an attempt to determine what observational programs would be tractable and which areas of interest to exobiology required hardware capabilities beyond those currently envisioned are considered.

  13. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  14. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  15. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  16. Project EASIER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, David J.; Tack, Leland R.; Dallam, Jerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of Project EASIER, a collaborative electronic-data interchange for networking Iowa local school districts, education agencies, community colleges, universities, and the Department of Education. The primary goal of this project is to develop and implement a system for collection of student information for state and federal…

  17. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  18. Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

  19. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  20. Earth observation Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Dorigo, W.; Fernández-Prieto, D.; van Helvoirt, M.; Hungershoefer, K.; de Jeu, R.; Parinussa, R.; Timmermans, J.; Roebeling, R.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; van der Tol, C.; Stammes, P.; Wagner, W.; Wang, L.; Wang, P.; Wolters, E.

    2010-10-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution over time from global to basin scales. In the coming years an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA), in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), launched the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project in 2009. The project aims at developing and validating a novel set of geo-information products relevant to the water cycle covering the following thematic areas: evapotranspiration, soil moisture, cloud characterization and water vapour. The generation of these products is based on a number of innovative techniques and methods aiming at exploiting the synergies of different types of Earth observation data available today to the science community. This paper provides an overview of the major findings of the project with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the potential of innovative multi-mission based strategies to improve current observations by maximizing the synergistic use of the different types of information provided by the currently available observation systems.

  1. Evaluation of microfinance projects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    1999-08-01

    This paper criticizes the quick system proposed by Henk Moll for evaluating microfinance projects in the article ¿How to Pre-Evaluate Credit Projects in Ten Minutes¿. The author contended that there is a need to emphasize the objectives of the project. The procedure used by Moll, he contended, is applicable only to projects that have only two key objectives, such as credit operations, and the provision of services. Arguments are presented on the three specific questions proposed by Moll, ranging from the availability of externally audited financial reports, the performance of interest rate on loans vis-a-vis the inflation rate, and the provision of loans according to the individual requirements of the borrowers. Lastly, the author emphasizes that the overall approach is not useful and suggests that careful considerations should be observed in the use or abuse of a simple scoring system or checklist such as the one proposed by Moll. PMID:12349295

  2. Geodynamics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Charles L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes activities of Geodynamics Project of the Federal Council on Science and Technology, such as the application of multichannel seismic-reflection techniques to study the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle. (MLH)

  3. Project Soar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Marion

    1982-01-01

    Project Soar, a Saturday enrichment program for gifted students (6-14 years old), allows students to work intensively in a single area of interest. Examples are cited of students' work in crewel embroidery, creative writing, and biochemistry. (CL)

  4. Project Reptile!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  5. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  6. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Observer Performance of Clustered Microcalcification Detection on Breast Phantom Images Acquired with an Experimental System Using Variable Scan Angles, Angular Increments, and Number of Projection Views

    PubMed Central

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Schmitz, Andrea; Noroozian, Mitra; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Nees, Alexis V.; Neal, Colleen H.; Carson, Paul; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the dependence of microcalcification cluster detectability on tomographic scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views acquired at digital breast tomosynthesis (DBTdigital breast tomosynthesis). Materials and Methods A prototype DBTdigital breast tomosynthesis system operated in step-and-shoot mode was used to image breast phantoms. Four 5-cm-thick phantoms embedded with 81 simulated microcalcification clusters of three speck sizes (subtle, medium, and obvious) were imaged by using a rhodium target and rhodium filter with 29 kV, 50 mAs, and seven acquisition protocols. Fixed angular increments were used in four protocols (denoted as scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views, respectively: 16°, 1°, and 17; 24°, 3°, and nine; 30°, 3°, and 11; and 60°, 3°, and 21), and variable increments were used in three (40°, variable, and 13; 40°, variable, and 15; and 60°, variable, and 21). The reconstructed DBTdigital breast tomosynthesis images were interpreted by six radiologists who located the microcalcification clusters and rated their conspicuity. Results The mean sensitivity for detection of subtle clusters ranged from 80% (22.5 of 28) to 96% (26.8 of 28) for the seven DBTdigital breast tomosynthesis protocols; the highest sensitivity was achieved with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol (96%), but the difference was significant only for the 60°, 3°, and 21 protocol (80%, P < .002) and did not reach significance for the other five protocols (P = .01–.15). The mean sensitivity for detection of medium and obvious clusters ranged from 97% (28.2 of 29) to 100% (24 of 24), but the differences fell short of significance (P = .08 to >.99). The conspicuity of subtle and medium clusters with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol was rated higher than those with other protocols; the differences were significant for subtle clusters with the 24°, 3°, and nine protocol and for medium clusters with 24°, 3°, and nine

  7. The Transeurope Footrace Project: longitudinal data acquisition in a cluster randomized mobile MRI observational cohort study on 44 endurance runners at a 64-stage 4,486km transcontinental ultramarathon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The TransEurope FootRace 2009 (TEFR09) was one of the longest transcontinental ultramarathons with an extreme endurance physical load of running nearly 4,500 km in 64 days. The aim of this study was to assess the wide spectrum of adaptive responses in humans regarding the different tissues, organs and functional systems being exposed to such chronic physical endurance load with limited time for regeneration and resulting negative energy balance. A detailed description of the TEFR project and its implemented measuring methods in relation to the hypotheses are presented. Methods The most important research tool was a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner mounted on a mobile unit following the ultra runners from stage to stage each day. Forty-four study volunteers (67% of the participants) were cluster randomized into two groups for MRI measurements (22 subjects each) according to the project protocol with its different research modules: musculoskeletal system, brain and pain perception, cardiovascular system, body composition, and oxidative stress and inflammation. Complementary to the diverse daily mobile MR-measurements on different topics (muscle and joint MRI, T2*-mapping of cartilage, MR-spectroscopy of muscles, functional MRI of the brain, cardiac and vascular cine MRI, whole body MRI) other methods were also used: ice-water pain test, psychometric questionnaires, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold thickness and limb circumference measurements, daily urine samples, periodic blood samples and electrocardiograms (ECG). Results Thirty volunteers (68%) reached the finish line at North Cape. The mean total race speed was 8.35 km/hour. Finishers invested 552 hours in total. The completion rate for planned MRI investigations was more than 95%: 741 MR-examinations with 2,637 MRI sequences (more than 200,000 picture data), 5,720 urine samples, 244 blood samples, 205 ECG, 1,018 BIA, 539 anthropological measurements and 150

  8. Observations to information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations provide the fundamental constraint on natural science interpretations. Earth science observations originate in many contexts, including in-situ field observations and monitoring, various modes of remote sensing and geophysics, sampling for ex-situ (laboratory) analysis, as well as numerical modelling and simulation which also provide estimates of parameter values. Most investigations require a combination of these, often sourced from multiple initiatives and archives, so data discovery and re-organization can be a significant project burden. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) information model was developed to provide a common vocabulary that can be applied to all these cases, and thus provide a basis for cross-initiative and cross-domain interoperability. O&M was designed in the context of the standards for geographic information from OGC and ISO. It provides a complementary viewpoint to the well-known feature (object oriented) and coverage (property field) views, but prioritizes the property determination process. Nevertheless, use of O&M implies the existence of well defined feature types. In disciplines such as geology and ecosystem sciences the primary complexity is in their model of the world, for which the description of each item requires access to diverse observation sets. On the other hand, geophysics and earth observations work with simpler underlying information items, but in larger quantities over multiple spatio-temporal dimensions, acquired using complex sensor systems. Multiple transformations between the three viewpoints are involved in the data flows in most investigations, from collection through analysis to information and story. The O&M model classifies observations: - from a provider viewpoint: in terms of the sensor or procedure involved; - from a consumer viewpoint: in terms of the property being reported, and the feature with which it is associated. These concerns carry different weights in different applications

  9. The PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, Idir; Wang, Xuemei

    2014-05-01

    The PANDA project Even though air quality in many urbanized and industrialized areas of the world has improved as a result of mitigation actions, it has declined in other regions. This is specifically the case in many emerging countries where emissions have been increasing as a result of rapidly expanding motor vehicle fleets, growing industrial and power generation activities, and domestic and biomass burning. The situation is particularly acute in China and the Western Pacific Region with rapid industrialization and urbanization, where, in spite of efforts to reduce surface emissions of reactive gases, 360,000 people die prematurely from air pollution each year, according to the World Health Organization. The EU-funded PANDA project will offer scientific knowledge that will help China and other nations to use space and in-situ observations together with a modelling system to address improve air quality and human heath at the regional and global scales. Through the proposed cooperation between Europe and China, the following objectives will be reached before the completion of the Project: 1. Improvement of methods for monitoring air quality from combined space and in-situ observations 2. Elaboration of indicators for air quality, in support of European and Chinese policies 3. Development of toolboxes for air quality and emissions monitoring 4. Dissemination of information and educational activities, specifically in China. We would like to introduce the EU-funded project PANDA, and present the first results obtained through the project.

  10. Computers and Educators: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Kim T.

    Four observations about computers and education are offered. 1) By 1972, development of new computer systems had fallen off, and several systems developed in the mid-1960's had been terminated. The decline was particularly intense in computer-based vocational guidance systems and in computer-assisted instruction projects. The only area showing…

  11. Observing Children Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raban, Bridie; And Others

    This paper reports a technique for classroom observation of children's activities considered relevant to the acquisition of reading. It is part of a larger study conducted by the University of Bristol called the "Children Learning to Read" Project, an attempt to study the learning experiences of individual children as they occur in a variety of…

  12. Projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  13. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hogan, Robin

    2008-01-15

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  14. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  15. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  16. Project CLASS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Susan L.; And Others

    Project CLASS (Competency-Based Live-Ability Skills) uses a series of 60 modules to teach life survival skills to adults with low-level reading ability--especially Adult Basic Education/English as a Second Language students. Two versions of the modules have been developed: one for use with teacher-directed instruction and another for independent…

  17. Limnological Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambler, David J.; Dixon, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes collection of quantitative samples of microorganisms and accumulation of physical data from a pond over a year. Provides examples of how final-year degree students have used materials and data for ecological projects (involving mainly algae), including their results/conclusions. Also describes apparatus and reagents used in the student…

  18. Project Schoolflight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Ben

    1975-01-01

    Describes "Project School Flight" which is an idea originated by the Experimental Aircraft Association to provide the opportunity for young people to construct a light aircraft in the schools as part of a normal class. Address included of Experimental Aircraft Association for interested persons. (BR)

  19. Project Boomerang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experimental project on boomerangs designed for an undergraduate course in classical mechanics. The students designed and made their own boomerangs, devised their own procedures, and carried out suitable measurements. Presents some of their data and a simple analysis for the two-bladed boomerang. (Author/MLH)

  20. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  1. Project Documerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has started a project to actually picture the environmental movement in the United States. This is an attempt to make the public aware of the air pollution in their area or state and to acquaint them with the effects of air cleaning efforts. (PS)

  2. Tedese Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buforn, E.; Davila, J. Martin; Bock, G.; Pazos, A.; Udias, A.; Hanka, W.

    The TEDESE (Terremotos y Deformacion Cortical en el Sur de España) project is a joint project of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando, Cadiz (ROA) supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia with the participation of the GeoforschungZen- trum, Potsdam (GFZ). The aim is to carry out a study of the characteristics of the oc- currence and mechanism of earthquakes together with measurements of crustal struc- ture and deformations in order to obtain an integrated evaluation of seismic risk in southern Spain from. As part of this project a temporal network of 10 broad-band seismological stations, which will complete those already existing in the zone, have been installed in southern Spain and northern Africa for one year beginning in October 2001. The objectives of the project are the study in detail of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes in this area, of structural in crust and upper mantle, of seismic anisotropy in crust and mantle as indicator for tectonic deformation processed and the measure- ments of crustal deformations using techniques with permanent GPS and SLR stations and temporary GPS surveys. From these studies, seismotectonic models and maps will be elaborated and seismic risk in the zone will be evaluated.

  3. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  4. Projected Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the idea behind Projected Identities, an art activity wherein students fuse art-making processes and digital image manipulations in a series of exploratory artistic self-examinations. At some point in every person's life they've been told something hard to forget. Students might, for example, translate phrases like, "Good…

  5. Thanksgiving Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Pauline

    1976-01-01

    A teacher describes a Thanksgiving project in which 40 educable mentally retarded students (6-13 years old) made and served their own dinner of stew, butter, bread, ice cream, and pie, and in the process learned about social studies, cooking, and proper meal behavior. (CL)

  6. PROJECT RESPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project RESPECT was a national study evaluating the efficacy of HIV prevention counseling in changing high risk sexual behaviors and preventing new sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. The trial enrolled men and women who came for diagnosis and treatment of an STD to one...

  7. Project Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghayan, Carol; Schellhaas, Andree; Wayne, Angela; Burts, Diane C.; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Benedict, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a spontaneous project that emerged from a group of 3- and 4-year-old children in Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina. The article describes how the teachers adapted the classroom and curriculum to meet the diverse needs of children who were evacuees, as well as those children who were affected in other ways by the…

  8. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed and described are student A-level biology projects in the following areas: Angiosperm studies (e.g., factors affecting growth of various plants), 7; Bacterial studies, 1; Insect studies, 2; Fish studies, 1; Mammal studies, 1; Human studies, 1; Synecology studies, 2; Environmental studies, 2; and Enzyme studies, 1. (CS)

  9. Project Narrative

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mary C.

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  10. Project Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Listed are 32 biology A-level projects, categorized by organisms studied as follows: algae (1), bryophytes (1), angiosperms (14), fungi (1), flatworms (1), annelids (2), molluscs (1), crustaceans (2), insects (4), fish (2), mammals (1), humans (1); and one synecological study. (CS)

  11. Project Paiute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearmin, Evalyn Titus

    1977-01-01

    Working with the Humboldt County School District, the Fort McDermitt Indian Education Committee, and four Paiute Teacher aides, the University of Nevada developed a three-component project: a bilingual/bicultural reading text for K-4 Paiutes; an in-service training program in Native American education; and a pilot bilingual curriculum. (JC)

  12. Project Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, John

    Project Succeed is a program for helping failure- and dropout-oriented pupils to improve their school achievement. Attendance and assignment completion are the key behaviors for enhancing achievement. Behavior modification and communications procedures are used to bring about the desired changes. Treatment procedures include current assessment…

  13. Project SUCCEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarger, Sam; Klingner, Janette

    This paper describes Project SUCCEED (School University Community Coalition for Excellence in Education). The coalition includes the University of Miami School of Education, the University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, and the Miami Museum of Science. The goal is to provide a comprehensive approach to…

  14. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  15. Algorithms + Observations = VStar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, D.

    2012-05-01

    VStar is a multi-platform, free, open source application for visualizing and analyzing time-series data. It is primarily intended for use with variable star observations, permitting light curves and phase plots to be created, viewed in tabular form, and filtered. Period search and model creation are supported. Wavelet-based time-frequency analysis permits change in period over time to be investigated. Data can be loaded from the AAVSO International Database or files of various formats. vstar's feature set can be expanded via plug-ins, for example, to read Kepler mission data. This article explores vstar's beginnings from a conversation with Arne Henden in 2008 to its development since 2009 in the context of the AAVSO's Citizen Sky Project. Science examples are provided and anticipated future directions are outlined.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  17. Optoelectronic fringe projection operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Mario; Rabal, Hector J.; Aguirre, E.

    1990-07-01

    We present a simple optoelectronical fringe projection method for topographic or deformation study of objects. Programmed positioning and repositioning can also be performed. 1. DESCRIPTION An incoherent method for fringe projection operations was recently reported'' using photographic procedures. It is extended now to real time operation using an LCD video projector and a CCD camera. Fringes consisting in Rbnchitype rulings are generated in a personal computer and projected onto an object by using a Kodak LCD colour video projector. Its image is then read by a SVHS-CCD Panasonic camera and electronically memorized. This fringe pattern contains information concerning the position and topography of the object stored as fringe phase modulation. A standard state of the object can be frozen in the screen of a monitor and its evolution deformation or misspositioning followed through the Moire between current and stored fringes. Topography of the object expressed as a mathemati cal functi on h ( x y) and its time evolution can alsO be determined from the memorized data. . Besides a conjugated grid can be generated so that when the latter is projected onto the object the observed fringes are corrected to straight lines resembling the original Ronchi rul ings i. e. distortion produced by object topography is cancelled out. Deformations with respect to this state are straightforwardly interpreted by an observer both in magnitude and sign. The system can be made

  18. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Neil

    1986-01-01

    In June of 1985 the Project Initiation Agreement was signed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project (SIR). The thrust of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project is to continue the evolution of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology developed during SEASAT, SIR-A and SIR-B missions to meet the needs of the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the mid 1990's. As originally formulated, the Project plans were for a reflight of the SIR-B in 1987, the development of a new SAR, SIR-C, for missions in mid 1989 and early 1990, and the upgrade of SIR-C to EOS configuration with a qualification flight aboard the shuttle in the 1993 time frame (SIR-D). However, the loss of the shuttle Challenger has delayed the first manifest for SIR to early 1990. This delay prompted the decision to drop SIR-B reflight plans and move ahead with SIR-C to more effectively utilize this first mission opportunity. The planning for this project is discussed.

  19. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  20. Cognitive Education Project. Summary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert; And Others

    The Cognitive Education Project conducted a 3-year longitudinal evaluation of two cognitive education programs that were aimed at teaching thinking skills. The critical difference between the two experimental programs was that one, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) method, was taught out of curricular content, while the other, the…

  1. Geospace Exploration: ERG project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Hirahara, Masafumi; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Takashima, Takeshi; Seki, Kanako; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Asamura, Kazushi; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Ono, DTakayuki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2012-07-01

    The ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace) is a geospace exploration mission in Japan for the solar maximum and subsequent declining phase of solar cycle 24. The mission is especially focusing on the relativistic electron acceleration mechanism in the context of the cross-energy coupling via wave-particle interactions as well as the dynamics of space storms. The interplay among different plasma/particle populations of the inner magnetosphere; plasmasphere, ring current/plasma sheet, and radiation belts is a key to understand the energetic particle accelerations. The cross-regional coupling such as magnetosphere-ionosphere via FAC and the potential electric fields causes the spontaneous variations of the ambient fields. The ERG project consists of the satellite observation team, the ground-based observation team, and integrated-data analysis/simulation team, as well as the science working team and the project science team. The SPRINT-B/ERG satellite of ISAS/JAXA will be launched into inner magnetosphere in FY2014-2015. The comprehensive instruments for plasma/particles, field and waves are installed in the SPRING-B/ERG satellite to elucidate the electron acceleration processes. The newly developed system will directly measure the flow of the Poynting flux between particles and waves in the wave-particle interactions. The Japanese ground-network teams including magnetometer, SuperDARN radar, optical imager, VLF, etc. join the ERG project, which are very powerful tool for geospace remote sensing. The integrated data analysis and simulation team is now developing the simulation tools which can be compared directly with the observations. In this talk, we will present the current status of the ERG project and possible collaborations with other geospace satellite missions such as THEMIS, RBSP and RESONANCE etc. as well as the ground-based observations and simulation studies.

  2. Project Prometheus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  3. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRAI) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  4. Project summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lunar base projects, including a reconfigurable lunar cargo launcher, a thermal and micrometeorite protection system, a versatile lifting machine with robotic capabilities, a cargo transport system, the design of a road construction system for a lunar base, and the design of a device for removing lunar dust from material surfaces, are discussed. The emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico project was on the development of a computer simulation model for predicting vessel station keeping requirements. An existing code, used in predicting station keeping requirements for oil drilling platforms operating in North Shore (Alaska) waters was used as a basis for the computer simulation. Modifications were made to the existing code. The input into the model consists of satellite altimeter readings and water velocity readings from buoys stationed in the Gulf of Mexico. The satellite data consists of altimeter readings (wave height) taken during the spring of 1989. The simulation model predicts water velocity and direction, and wind velocity.

  5. Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  6. Project MEDSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the winter term of 1991, two design courses at the University of Michigan worked on a joint project, MEDSAT. The two design teams consisted of the Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Spacite System Design and Aerospace Engineering 483 (Aero 483) Aerospace System Design. In collaboration, they worked to produce MEDSAT, a satellite and scientific payload whose purpose was to monitor environmental conditions over Chiapas, Mexico. Information gained from the sensing, combined with regional data, would be used to determine the potential for malaria occurrence in that area. The responsibilities of AOSS 605 consisted of determining the remote sensing techniques, the data processing, and the method to translate the information into a usable output. Aero 483 developed the satellite configuration and the subsystems required for the satellite to accomplish its task. The MEDSAT project is an outgrowth of work already being accomplished by NASA's Biospheric and Disease Monitoring Program and Ames Research Center. NASA's work has been to develop remote sensing techniques to determine the abundance of disease carriers and now this project will place the techniques aboard a satellite. MEDSAT will be unique in its use of both a Synthetic Aperture Radar and visual/IR sensor to obtain comprehensive monitoring of the site. In order to create a highly feasible system, low cost was a high priority. To obtain this goal, a light satellite configuration launched by the Pegasus launch vehicle was used.

  7. Project MEDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During the winter term of 1991, two design courses at the University of Michigan worked on a joint project, MEDSAT. The two design teams consisted of the Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Spacite System Design and Aerospace Engineering 483 (Aero 483) Aerospace System Design. In collaboration, they worked to produce MEDSAT, a satellite and scientific payload whose purpose was to monitor environmental conditions over Chiapas, Mexico. Information gained from the sensing, combined with regional data, would be used to determine the potential for malaria occurrence in that area. The responsibilities of AOSS 605 consisted of determining the remote sensing techniques, the data processing, and the method to translate the information into a usable output. Aero 483 developed the satellite configuration and the subsystems required for the satellite to accomplish its task. The MEDSAT project is an outgrowth of work already being accomplished by NASA's Biospheric and Disease Monitoring Program and Ames Research Center. NASA's work has been to develop remote sensing techniques to determine the abundance of disease carriers and now this project will place the techniques aboard a satellite. MEDSAT will be unique in its use of both a Synthetic Aperture Radar and visual/IR sensor to obtain comprehensive monitoring of the site. In order to create a highly feasible system, low cost was a high priority. To obtain this goal, a light satellite configuration launched by the Pegasus launch vehicle was used.

  8. Burnet Project

    PubMed Central

    Masellis, A.; Atiyeh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The BurNet project, a pilot project of the Eumedis initiative, has become true. The Eumedis (EUro MEDiterranean Information Society) initiative is part of the MEDA programme of the EU to develop the Information Society in the Mediterranean area. In the health care sector, the objective of Eumedis is: the deployment of network-based solutions to interconnect - using userfriendly and affordable solutions - the actors at all levels of the "health care system" of the Euro-Mediterranean region. The Bur Net project interconnects 17 Burn Centres (BC) in the Mediterranean Area through an information network both to standardize courses of action in the field of prevention, treatment, and functional and psychological rehabilitation of burn patients and to coordinate interactions between BC and emergency rooms in peripheral hospitals using training/information activities and telemedicine to optimize first aid provided to burn patients before referral to a BC. Shared procedure protocols for prevention and the care and rehabilitation of patients, both at individual and mass level, will help to create an international specialized database and a Webbased teleconsultation system. PMID:21991176

  9. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  10. Observer Use of Standardized Observation Protocols in Consequential Observation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney A.; Yi, Qi; Jones, Nathan D.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; McLeod, Monica; Liu, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a handful of large-scale studies suggests that although observers can be trained to score reliably using observation protocols, there are concerns related to initial training and calibration activities designed to keep observers scoring accurately over time (e.g., Bell, et al, 2012; BMGF, 2012). Studies offer little insight into how…

  11. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  12. The Yohkoh Galileo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, A. R.; Acton, L. W.

    2002-05-01

    The Japan/US/UK Yohkoh mission was launched on 29 August 1991 and ceased acquiring solar observations on 14 December 2001. Over the decade the mission returned a record of energetic solar coronal and activity phenomena of high quality and enduring value. In order to assure the usability of Yohkoh data for generations of future scientists we plan to create a durable and readily accessible archive of Yohkoh data products and descriptive and explanatory documentation. We call the effort to preserve and document the Yohkoh data archive the YOHKOH GALILEO PROJECT in honor of Galileo Galilei, whose 17th-century sunspot observations are still scientifically useful today. The ten years of observations by Yohkoh provide a unique, high-quality, record of the evolution high-energy solar phenomena over an entire sunspot cycle. These data will be mined for decades, if not centuries, for studies of solar activity, its control of space weather and the sun-earth connection, and properties of magnetically active astrophysical objects. The Galileo Project is being undertaken by the same team of U.S., Japanese, and U.K. scientists who cooperatively conducted the observational phase of the mission and the GSFC Solar Data Analysis Center where the primary public archive of Yohkoh data are located.

  13. Galileo NIMS Observations of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Ocampo, A. C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2000-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft began its tour of the Jovian system in December, 1995. The Galileo Millenium Mission (GMM) is scheduled to end in January, 2003. The opportunities to observe Europa in the remaining orbits are severely limited. Thus the catalog of NIMS observations of Europa is virtually complete. We summarize and describe this extraordinary dataset, which consists of 77 observations. The observations may be grouped in three categories, based on the scale of the data (km/pixel). The highest-resolution observations, with projected scales of 1-9 km/pixel, comprise one important subset of the catalog. These 29 observations sample both leading and trailing hemispheres at low and high latitudes. They have been employed in studies exploring the chemical composition of the non-ice surface materials on Europa (McCord et al., 1999, JGR 104, 11,827; Carlson et al., 1999, Science 286, 97). A second category consists of regional observations at moderate resolution. These 15 observations image Europa's surface at scales of 15-50 km/pixel, appropriate for construction of regional and global mosaics. A gap in coverage for longitudes 270-359 W may be partially filled during the 34th orbit of GMM. The final category consists of 33 global observations with scales ranging upward from 150 km/pixel. The noise levels are typically much reduced in comparison to observations taken deep within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Distant observations obtained during the 11th orbit revealed the presence of hydrogen peroxide on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 1999b, Science 283, 2062). NIMS observations are archived in ISIS-format "cubes," which are available to researchers through the Planetary Data System (http://www-pdsimage.jpl.nasa.gov/PDS/Public/Atlas/Atlas.html). Detailed guides to every NIMS observation may be downloaded from the NIMS web site (http://jumpy.igpp.ucla.edu/ nims/).

  14. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRA) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project. The SIMBIOS Science Team Principal Investigators' (PIs) original contributions to this report are in chapters four and above. The purpose of these contributions is to describe the current research status of the SIMBIOS-NRA-96 funded research. The contributions are published as submitted, with the exception of minor edits to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  15. PORTNUS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Loyal, Rebecca E.

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  16. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  17. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Rodney (Compiler); Dillon, Jennifer (Compiler); Grewe, George (Compiler); Mcmorrow, Jim (Compiler); Melton, Craig (Compiler); Rainey, Gerald (Compiler); Rinko, John (Compiler); Singh, David (Compiler); Yen, Tzu-Liang (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    A design for a manned Mars mission, PROJECT EXODUS is presented. PROJECT EXODUS incorporates the design of a hypersonic waverider, cargo ship and NIMF (nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel) shuttle lander to safely carry out a three to five month mission on the surface of Mars. The cargo ship transports return fuel, return engine, surface life support, NIMF shuttle, and the Mars base to low Mars orbit (LMO). The cargo ship is powered by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system which allows the cargo ship to execute a spiral trajectory to Mars. The waverider transports ten astronauts to Mars and back. It is launched from the Space Station with propulsion provided by a chemical engine and a delta velocity of 9 km/sec. The waverider performs an aero-gravity assist maneuver through the atmosphere of Venus to obtain a deflection angle and increase in delta velocity. Once the waverider and cargo ship have docked the astronauts will detach the landing cargo capsules and nuclear electric power plant and remotely pilot them to the surface. They will then descend to the surface aboard the NIMF shuttle. A dome base will be quickly constructed on the surface and the astronauts will conduct an exploratory mission for three to five months. They will return to Earth and dock with the Space Station using the waverider.

  18. Satellite Observations in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin, T. J.; Whittaker, T. M.; Ackerman, S. A.; Howles, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite Observations in Science Education (SOSE) is a five year project funded by the NASA REASoN (Research, Education, Applications Solutions Network) mission. The goal is to develop an Internet-based education environment which provides interactive learning activities teaching remote sensing principles and exploratory data analysis. A toolkit of Reusable Content Objects will allow scientists and educators from many disciplines to easily assemble learning modules accessible from any Java-enabled web browser.

  19. A review of tornado observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.; Golden, Joseph H.

    During the past 15 years following Tornado Symposium II, our understanding of the basic morphology of tornadoes and their parent storms has advanced significantly. The fragmentary observations obtained by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)-organized Tornado Intercept Project [Golden and Morgan, 1972; Davies-Jones, 1988] have evolved to a three-dimensional, time-variant conceptual model. There has been a synthesis of more sophisticated (i.e., well trained) eyewitness and storm-chaser observations, including mobile soundings and various new portable instrumentation with fixed Doppler radar data.

  20. Handling observation proposals for SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettlage, Christian; Buckley, David A. H.; Charles, Anne C.; Cordiner, Martin; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Romero Colmenero, Encarni; Still, Martin D.

    2010-07-01

    SALT uses the Principal Investigator Proposal Tool (PIPT) for generating, checking, submitting and editing proposals. The PIPT maps XML into Java classes with immediate error and consistency checking, and thus prevents non-feasible observation requests. Various tools allow the user to simulate SALT observations. These include standard source spectra (e.g. black body, power law, Kurucz model atmospheres), and allow users to add their own library spectra. The PIPT is complemented by the Web Manager for administering submitted proposals. It is discussed how the code of these tools can easily be extended for future instruments and used for other projects.

  1. Orion Project: A Photometry and Spectroscopy Project for Small Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.

    2014-05-01

    Orion, the hunter, is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination is such that it is visible from most of the civilized world. In addition, most of the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. Originally this Project was called the Betelgeuse Campaign, but four more stars were added so the name was changed to the Orion Project. The Project now includes Betelgeuse, Rigel and the three stars of Orion's belt, Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak. Both photometry and spectroscopy provide data for the Project. The Project has several goals. First is to help beginners with photometry and spectroscopy. The second goal is the actual observations and data. Because these stars are very bright, they are seldom observed in detail. Their brightness also posses a problem for most professional observatories. It is hoped that by having observations over a long time, interesting changes can be seen that will warrant closer investigation. The AAVSO has an excellent archive of photometric data, but is still lacking a means of handling spectroscopic data. As a third goal it is hoped that the procedures refined in this Project for spectroscopic data may help promote a similar system for the AAVSO.

  2. Astronomy Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Kadooka, M.-A.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    ``Extrasolar Planet Transit", ``Lightcurve of a Variable Star", and ``Retrograde Motion of Mars" are some of the titles of high school students' projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teachers who participated in the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy summer outreach program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech mentored their students. After attending the 3-week National Science Foundation Institute for several summers since 1999, these teachers in the summer of 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain images from telescopes, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software ``Astrometrica" to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year. These students made observing plans for images from the 31inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and/or from the 2.2m University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. Learning about filters, exposure time, magnitude, frequency of taking CCD images, and ephemeris required many iterations between students, teachers, and astronomers and graduate students who were assisting. Poor weather conditions and other frustrations exposed the students to the realities of research. However, they were rewarded with projects that impressed the judges and that will be described.

  3. The Serendip piggyback SETI project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, Michael; Bowyer, Stuart; Werthimer, Dan; Donnelly, Charles; Herrick, Walter

    1988-01-01

    The Serendip project, an ongoing SETI program of monitoring and processing broadband radio signals acquired by existing radio astronomy observatories, are summarized. Serendip operates in a piggyback mode, making use of whatever observing plan is under way at its host observatory. The Serendip system at NRAO and the signature detection and identification techniques used by the project are described. The method used to reject terrestrial interference is discussed.

  4. Project Grandmaster

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-16

    The purpose of the Project Grandmaster Application is to allow individuals to opt-in and give the application access to data sources about their activities on social media sites. The application will cross-reference these data sources to build up a picture of each individual activities they discuss, either at present or in the past, and place this picture in reference to groups of all participants. The goal is to allow an individual to place themselves inmore » the collective and to understand how their behavior patterns fit with the group and potentially find changes to make, such as activities they weren’t already aware of or different groups of interest they might want to follow.« less

  5. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    From Spaceflight Revolution: 'Top NASA officials listen to a LOPO briefing at Langley in December 1966. Sitting to the far right with his hand on his chin is Floyd Thompson. To the left sits Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. On the wall is a diagram of the sites selected for the 'concentrated mission.' 'The most fundamental issue in the pre-mission planning for Lunar Orbiter was how the moon was to be photographed. Would the photography be 'concentrated' on a predetermined single target, or would it be 'distributed' over several selected targets across the moon's surface? On the answer to this basic question depended the successful integration of the entire mission plan for Lunar Orbiter.' The Lunar Orbiter Project made systematic photographic maps of the lunar landing sites. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 337.

  6. Project Grandmaster

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-09-16

    The purpose of the Project Grandmaster Application is to allow individuals to opt-in and give the application access to data sources about their activities on social media sites. The application will cross-reference these data sources to build up a picture of each individual activities they discuss, either at present or in the past, and place this picture in reference to groups of all participants. The goal is to allow an individual to place themselves in the collective and to understand how their behavior patterns fit with the group and potentially find changes to make, such as activities they weren’t already aware of or different groups of interest they might want to follow.

  7. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  8. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  9. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Track, Model 2 and Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  10. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  11. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  12. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  13. VIPER project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The VIPER project has so far produced a formal specification of a 32 bit RISC microprocessor, an implementation of that chip in radiation-hard SOS technology, a partial proof of correctness of the implementation which is still being extended, and a large body of supporting software. The time has now come to consider what has been achieved and what directions should be pursued in the future. The most obvious lesson from the VIPER project was the time and effort needed to use formal methods properly. Most of the problems arose in the interfaces between different formalisms, e.g., between the (informal) English description and the HOL spec, between the block-level spec in HOL and the equivalent in ELLA needed by the low-level CAD tools. These interfaces need to be made rigorous or (better) eliminated. VIPER 1A (the latest chip) is designed to operate in pairs, to give protection against breakdowns in service as well as design faults. We have come to regard redundancy and formal design methods as complementary, the one to guard against normal component failures and the other to provide insurance against the risk of the common-cause failures which bedevil reliability predictions. Any future VIPER chips will certainly need improved performance to keep up with increasingly demanding applications. We have a prototype design (not yet specified formally) which includes 32 and 64 bit multiply, instruction pre-fetch, more efficient interface timing, and a new instruction to allow a quick response to peripheral requests. Work is under way to specify this device in MIRANDA, and then to refine the spec into a block-level design by top-down transformations. When the refinement is complete, a relatively simple proof checker should be able to demonstrate its correctness. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Small, R. Justin; Bryan, Frank; Tribbia, Joseph; Park, Sungsu; Dennis, John; Saravanan, R.; Schneider, Niklas; Kwon, Young-Oh

    2015-06-01

    Most climate models are currently run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean boundary currents and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. This project was only possible due to the highly scalable aspect of the CAM Spectral Element dynamical core, and the significant resources allocated at Yellowstone and NERSC for which we are grateful.

  15. Hypertext Literacy: Observations from the ElectroText Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of "ElectroText," a program to develop electronically enhanced versions of short stories for use in middle school language arts programs for at-risk students. Describes the setting and instructional context, the strategies used to gather information about what students did when they read in a hypertext environment, and the…

  16. New mechanisms for international coordination of large observing projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes

    2009-03-01

    Progress on many fronts in the study of the Milky Way requires major new imaging and/or spectroscopic surveys as well as coordinated ground-based programmes in support of space missions. The present uncoordinated planning and operation of the 2-4m (and some of the larger) telescopes across the world are an impediment to the efficient conduct of such programmes and the overall cost-effectiveness of the investments in astronomy. We briefly report on recent initiatives to improve the situation, notably the part played by the ASTRONET consortium in setting up a comprehensive long-term plan for the development of European astronomy.

  17. UMTRA Project Site Observational Work Plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Surface cleanup activities at the Mexican Hat UMTRA processing site are nearing completion. Ground Water contamination at the Mexican Hat site is a result of uranium milling operations. The extent of residual process water has been identified, and it is limited to the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the site. Deeper aquifers are not affected because of an upward hydraulic gradient and the presence of a confining unit (the deeper aquifers are protected by hydrogeologic isolation). The uppermost unit is returning to its pre-milling, mainly unsaturated state. The unit that contains the contaminated water is not a ground water resource because it qualifies as Class III (limited use) based on limited yield. Ground water in the uppermost unit is currently not used and is not anticipated to be used as a ground water resource. The nearby San Juan River and a converted oil exploration well provide all of the water needs for the area. There are no current threats to human health or livestock; and, because the zone of contamination does not represent a ground water resource, none are anticipated in the future. There are, however, seeps where contaminated water is exposed at land surface. The seeps create potential exposure pathways for plants and wildlife. It is not known at this time if there is a risk to the environment. Additional investigations are needed and are described in this document to confirm the presence or absence of potential environmental risks. Additional hydrogeologic investigations are not required. The proposed ground water compliance strategy for the site is no remediation, because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer (which is also the zone of contamination) qualifies for supplemental standards based on Class III, limited yield, and because there are no threats to human health. Domestic and agricultural water is pumped from a deeper aquifer that is isolated from the contaminated zone.

  18. ASPRO 2: Astronomical Software to PRepare Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgès, Laurent; Mella, Guillaume; Lafrasse, Sylvain; Duvert, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    ASPRO 2 (Astronomical Software to PRepare Observations) is an observation preparation tool for interferometric observations with the VLTI or other interferometers such as CHARA and SUSI. It is a Java standalone program that provides a dynamic graphical interface to simulate the projected baseline evolution during observations (super-synthesis) and derive visibilities for targets (i.e., single star, binaries, user defined FITS image). It offers other useful functions such as the ability to load and save your observation settings and generate Observing Blocks.

  19. Climate Projections from the NARCliM Project: Bayesian Model Averaging of Maximum Temperature Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Evans, J. P.; Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    NARCliM (NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling Project) is a regional climate project for Australia and the surrounding region. It dynamically downscales 4 General Circulation Models (GCMs) using three Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to provide climate projections for the CORDEX-AustralAsia region at 50 km resolution, and for south-east Australia at 10 km resolution. The project differs from previous work in the level of sophistication of model selection. Specifically, the selection process for GCMs included (i) conducting literature review to evaluate model performance, (ii) analysing model independence, and (iii) selecting models that span future temperature and precipitation change space. RCMs for downscaling the GCMs were chosen based on their performance for several precipitation events over South-East Australia, and on model independence.Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) provides a statistically consistent framework for weighing the models based on their likelihood given the available observations. These weights are used to provide probability distribution functions (pdfs) for model projections. We develop a BMA framework for constructing probabilistic climate projections for spatially-averaged variables from the NARCliM project. The first step in the procedure is smoothing model output in order to exclude the influence of internal climate variability. Our statistical model for model-observations residuals is a homoskedastic iid process. Comparing RCMs with Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP) observations is used to determine model weights through Monte Carlo integration. Posterior pdfs of statistical parameters of model-data residuals are obtained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The uncertainty in the properties of the model-data residuals is fully accounted for when constructing the projections. We present the preliminary results of the BMA analysis for yearly maximum temperature for New South Wales state planning regions for the period 2060-2079.

  20. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

  1. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  2. Shape Reconstruction from Generalized Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, Matti

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop methods for recovering the three-dimensional shape of an object from generalized projections. We particularly focus on the problems encountered when data are presented as discrete image fields. We demonstrate the usefulness of the Fourier transform in transferring the image data and shape model projections to a domain more suitable for gradient based optimization. To substantiate the general applicability of our methods to observational astronomy, we reconstruct shape models for several asteroids observed with adaptive optics, thermal infrared interferometry, or range-Doppler radar. The reconstructions are carried out with the ADAM software package that we have designed for general use.

  3. Project Longshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. Curtis; Chamberlain, Sally A.; Stevens, Robert; Pagan, Neftali

    1989-01-01

    Project Longshot is an unmanned probe to our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light years away. The Centauri system is a trinary system consisting of two central stars (A and B) orbiting a barycenter, and a third (Proxima Centauri) orbiting the two. The system is a declination of -67 degrees. The goal is to reach the Centauri system in 50 years. This time space was chosen because any shorter time would be impossible of the relativistic velocities involved, and any greater time would be impossible because of the difficulty of creating a spacecraft with such a long lifetime. Therefore, the following mission profile is proposed: (1) spacecraft is assembled in Earth orbit; (2) spacecraft escapes Earth and Sun in the ecliptic with a single impulse maneuver; (3) spacecraft changed declination to point toward Centauri system; (4) spacecraft accelerates to 0.1c; (5) spacecraft coasts at 0.1c for 41 years; (6) spacecraft decelerates upon reaching Centauri system; and (7) spacecraft orbits Centauri system, conducts investigations, and relays data to Earth. The total time to reach the Centauri system, taking into consideration acceleration and deceleration, will be approximately 50 years.

  4. Project LASER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  5. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  6. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  7. The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  8. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  9. Project Spectrum: Early Learning Activities. Project Zero Frameworks for Early Childhood Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie-Qi, Ed.; Isberg, Emily, Ed.; Krechevsky, Mara, Ed.

    Project Spectrum is a collaborative research and development project that offers an alternative approach to assessment and curriculum development for preschool and early primary years. The project, based on Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory and David Henry Feldman's nonuniversal development theory, emphasizes observing children…

  10. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  11. Observer's Interface for JWST Observation Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Miranda; Douglas, Robert; Moriarty, Christopher; Roman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In support of the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, various teams at STScI (the Space Telescope Science Institute) have collaborated on how to re-structure the view of a an observing program within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) to accommodate for the differences between HST and JWST. For HST APT programs, the structure is visit-dominant, and there is one generic form for entering observing information that spans all instruments with their required fields and options. This can result in sometimes showing irrelevant fields to the user for a given observing goal. Also, the generation of mosaicked observations in HST requires the user to manually calculate the position of each tile within the mosaic, accounting for positional offsets and the roll of the telescope, which is a time consuming process. Now, for JWST programs in APT, the description of the observations has been segregated by instrument and mode into discrete observing templates. Each template's form allows instrument specific choices and displays of relevant information. APT will manually manage the number of visits needed to perform the observation. This is particularly useful for mosaics and dithering with JWST. For example, users will select how they would like a mosaic to be tiled at the observation level, and the visits are automatically created. In this, visits have been re-structured to be purely informational; all editing is done at the observation level. These options and concepts are illustrated to future users via the corresponding poster.

  12. Robust design of dynamic observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    The two (identity) observer realizations z = Mz + Ky and z = transpose of Az + transpose of K(y - transpose of Cz), respectively called the open loop and closed loop realizations, for the linear system x = Ax, y = Cx are analyzed with respect to the requirement of robustness; i.e., the requirement that the observer continue to regulate the error x - z satisfactorily despite small variations in the observer parameters from the projected design values. The results show that the open loop realization is never robust, that robustness requires a closed loop implementation, and that the closed loop realization is robust with respect to small perturbations in the gains transpose of K if and only if the observer can be built to contain an exact replica of the unstable and underdamped dynamics of the system being observed. These results clarify the stringent accuracy requirements on both models and hardware that must be met before an observer can be considered for use in a control system.

  13. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft

  14. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  15. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  16. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  17. Camcorders in Space Shuttle earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A project to evaluate the use of commercially available camcorder systems during Shuttle flights is discussed, focusing on the use of an 8-mm camcorder for earth observations during the STS-30 mission in May, 1989. The camcorder with a 2/3-inch CCD is described, noting the modifications to prepare the camcorder for use on the Shuttle. The results of the camcorder project are summarized, listing the types of earth-viewing video images that were aquired with the camcorder.

  18. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  19. Integrated Project Management System description. [UMTRAP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is a Department of Energy (DOE) designated Major System Acquisition (MSA). To execute and manage the Project mission successfully and to comply with the MSA requirements, the UMTRA Project Office ( Project Office'') has implemented and operates an Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). The Project Office is assisted by the Technical Assistance Contractor's (TAC) Project Integration and Control (PIC) Group in system operation. Each participant, in turn, provides critical input to system operation and reporting requirements. The IPMS provides a uniform structured approach for integrating the work of Project participants. It serves as a tool for planning and control, workload management, performance measurement, and specialized reporting within a standardized format. This system description presents the guidance for its operation. Appendices 1 and 2 contain definitions of commonly used terms and abbreviations and acronyms, respectively. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The Hairy Head Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barbara

    A class of 3- to 6-year-old children in a Midwestern child care center chose to study hair and hairstyling salons as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teacher's reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project are included. (Author)

  1. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  2. Project CREST, Gainesville, Florida. An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Stewart, Carolyn

    This manual describes Project CREST (Clinical Regional Support Teams), a community project established in Gainesville, Florida, to supplement State probation services by providing professional counseling to delinquent youth. The project uses a dual treatment approach in which, on the one hand, probation officers impose restrictions, while on the…

  3. Managing Projects for Change: Contextualised Project Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; Adlington, Rachael; Stewart, Cherry; Vale, Deborah; Sims, Rod; Shanahan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper will detail three projects which focussed on enhancing online learning at a large Australian distance education University within a School of Business, School of Health and School of Education. Each project had special funding and took quite distinctive project management approaches, which reflect the desire to embed innovation and…

  4. Project Panama: An International Service Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydlett, Lydia; Randolph, Mickey; Wells, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Participation in service learning projects is a growing phenomenon at universities and colleges. Research indicates service projects are beneficial for college students and adults. There is little data investigating developmental differences in how younger versus older participants perceive the service learning process. In this project, older…

  5. International program for Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990 summer session of the International Space University, graduate students of many different countries and with various academic backgrounds carried out a design project that focused on how to meet the most pressing environmental information requirements of the 1990's. The International Program for Earth Observations (IPEO) is the result of the students labor. The IPEO report examines the legal and institutional, scientific, engineering and systems, financial and economic, and market development approaches needed to improve international earth observations and information systems to deal with environmental issues of global importance. The IPEO scenario is based on the production of a group of lightweight satellites to be used in global remote sensing programs. The design and function of the satellite is described in detail.

  6. Solar System Observations with JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  7. Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars Pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations. These models are central to the navigation and mission design functions, but they are also used in other aspects of the project such as science observation planning and data reduction.

  8. Competency model for the project managers of technical projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, William R.

    1992-05-01

    Traditional job description techniques were developed to support compensation decisions for hourly wage earners in a manufacturing environment. Their resultant focus on activities performed on the job works well in this environment where the ability to perform the activity adequately is objectively verifiable by testing and observation. Although many organizations have adapted these techniques for salaried employees and service environments, the focus on activities performed has never been satisfactory. For example, stating that a project manager `prepares regular project status reports' tells us little about what to look for in a potential project manager or how to determine if a practicing project manager is ready for additional responsibilities. The concept of a `competency model' has been developed within the last decade to address this shortcoming. Competency models focus on what skills are needed to perform the tasks defined by the job description. For example, a project manager must be able to communicate well both orally and in writing in order to `prepare regular project status reports.'

  9. A Week of Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colasacco, Jenne

    2011-01-01

    Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

  10. Female Project Managers' Workplace Problems: a Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin

    This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.

  11. Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of site information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This document represents a catalogue of site information for the Crustal Dynamics Project. It contains information and descriptions of those sites used by the Project as observing stations for making the precise geodetic measurements useful for studies of the Earth's crustal movements and deformation.

  12. Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of site information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This document represents a catalog of site information for the Crustal Dynamics Project. It contains information on and descriptions of those sites used by the Project as observing stations for making the precise geodetic measurements necessary for studies of the Earth's crustal movements and deformation.

  13. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  14. Elementary School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Highlights elementary school construction projects that have won the Learning By Design Awards for 2001. Projects covered involve new school construction; and renovation, additions, and restoration. (GR)

  15. The Ashra Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Browder, T.; Chonan, T.; Dye, S.; Eguchi, M.; Fox, R.; Guillian, G.; Hamilton, J.; Kimura, T.; Kohta, N.; Kuze, H.; Learned, J.; Masuda, M.; Matsuno, S.; Morimoto, Y.; Noda, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okumura, A.; Olsen, S.; Shibuya, H.; Shinomiya, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yasuda, M.; Varner, G.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y.

    Ashra (All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower detector) is a project to build an unconventional optical telescope complex that images very wide field of view, covering 80% of the sky, yet with the angle pixel resolution of 1.2 arcsin, sensitive to the blue to UV light with the use of image intensifier and CMOS technology. The project primarily aims to observe Cherenkov and fluorescence lights from the lateral and longitudinal developments of very-high energy cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It can also be used to monitor optical transients in the wide field of sky. In 2004 we built prototype telescopes to verify and develop techniques at Haleakala in Hawaii, needed for the development of the full-scale telescopes. Construction of the main detector station has begun at Mauna Loa on the Hawaii Island in the summer of 2005. The pilot observation data have been taken. We will present the project status, and expected scientific impacts on the observational objectives such as optical transients, unidentified TeV gamma- ray and PeV neutrino sources, and the propagation of EeV cosmic rays. The Ashra Collaboration: (a) ICRR, Univ. Tokyo (b) Univ. Hawaii Manoa (c) Univ. Hawaii Hilo (d)Ibaraki Univ. (e) Toho Univ. (f) Chiba Univ. (g) Tokyo Inst. Tech. (h) Nagoya Univ. Y. Aita.^a, T. Aoki^a, Y. Asaoka^a, T. Browder^b, T. Chonan^a, S. Dye^b, M. Eguchi^a, R. Fox^c, G. Guillian^b, J. Hamilton^c, T. Kimura^d, N. Kohta^e, H. Kuze^f, J. Learned^b, M. Masuda^g, S. Matsuno^b, Y. Morimoto^e, K. Noda^a, S. Ogawa^e, A. Okumura^a, S. Olsen^b, M. Sasaki^a, H. Shibuya^e, K. Shinomiya^f, N. Sugiyama^h, Y. Yamaguchi^f, M. Yasuda^g, G. Varner^b, Y. Watanabe^g, Y. Watanabe^e

  16. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  17. Interball substorm observations: Christmas for space scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandahl, Ingrid; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Budnik, Elena Yu.; Dubinin, Edouard M.; Eklund, Ulrik; Hughes, Terence J.; Kokubun, Susumu; Koskinen, Hannu; Kudela, Karel; Lepping, Ronald P.; Lin, Robert P.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Lutsenko, Volt; Mostroem, Arne; Nozdrachev, Michail; Pissarenko, Novomir, F.; Prokhorenko, Victoria; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Yermolaev, Yuri I.; Zakharov, Alexander V.

    1996-01-01

    Observational results from the Interball Tail Probe spacecraft are presented. One of the main objectives of the Interball project is to study the dynamic processes in the magnetosphere. Three events observed by the spacecraft's instruments are investigated: a pseudobreakup during which earthward streaming ions were observed in the vicinity of a thin current sheet; a substorm in which the magnetic signatures in the lobe and on the ground were preceeded by northward re-orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component; and a magnetic storm at the beginning of which extreme deformation of the magnetotail was observed.

  18. Retinofugal Projections in t